Deduction sentence example

deduction
  • More important is his deduction of equivalent weights, i.e.
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  • This deduction is not in fact true.
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  • During the last two centuries deduction has gone steadily out, and psychology come in.
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  • For a Frenchman that deduction was indubitable.
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  • An instantaneous deduction from the relation w= 2 n0 is that forms of uneven orders possess only invariants of even degree in the coefficients.
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  • Thus in the Rechtslehre and Sittenlehre, the multiplicity of egos is deduced, and with this deduction the first form of the Wissenschaftslehre appeared to end.
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  • But there is another species of deduction which, as Cliffe Leslie has shown, seriously tainted the philosophy of Smith - in which the premises are not facts ascertained by observation, but the a priori assumptions which we found in the physiocrats.
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  • A frequent deduction from the theory of the indivisibility of sovereignty is that there cannot be double allegiance; in other words, no one can be the subject of two states.
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  • The deduction of the formula tab, where a and b are numbers, should be regarded as a later step.
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  • As a rule the basis of calculation was 100 rupees from every ten houses, with a To% deduction for those exempted by custom.
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  • The " Logic " of Hegel is merely the continuation of Kant's " Deduction " of the categories and ideas of the reason which has generally been recognized as the soberest of attempts to set forth the presuppositions which underlie all experience.
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  • A further deduction from the principle of continuity follows by considering the intersections of concentric circles.
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  • Another deduction from the same proposition is that any corporation or private body which appears to exercise sovereign powers together with the state does so only by delegation.
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  • It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
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  • See how good I am at deduction now that I'm married to an ex-detective?
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  • As the amount of ash varies very considerably in different coals, and stands in no relation to the proportion of the other constituents, it is necessary in forming a chemical classification to compute the results of analysis after deduction of the ash and hygroscopic water.
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  • He heard what they said, but did not understand the meaning of the words and made no kind of deduction from or application of them.
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  • Generally, we may say that algebraic reasoning in reference to equations consists in the alteration of the form of a statement rather than in the deduction of a new statement; i.e.
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  • on the gross products of mines of vein formation, and from Io% to 20% on those of mines of deposit formation; the percentages are calculated on the value of the mineral after deduction of freight, &c. to Europe and of treatment.
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  • And it is in guaranteeing the veracity of our clear and distinct conceptions that the value of his deduction of God seems in his own estimate to rest.
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  • Thus a universal science of matter and motion was derived, by an unbroken sequence of deduction, from one radical principle; and analytical mechanics assumed the clear and complete form of logical perfection which it now wears.
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  • Only in the sphere of practical reason, where the intelligible nature prescribed to itself its own laws, was there the possibility of systematic deduction from a single principle.
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  • This theological deduction from his doctrine drew upon Roscellinus the polemic of his most celebrated opponent, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109).
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  • That Smith does, however, largely employ the deductive method is certain; and that method is legitimate when the premises from which the deduction sets out are known universal facts of human nature and properties of external objects.
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  • The middle element alone contributes without deduction; the effect of every other must be found by introduction of a resolving factor, equal to cos 0, if 0 represent the difference of phase between this element and the resultant.
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  • We have seen how its utilization in the " structure theory " permitted great clarification, and attempts were not wanting for the deduction of analogies or a periodicity between elements.
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  • The foregoing account of the nature of mathematics necessitates a strict deduction of the general properties ' The first unqualified explicit statement of part of this definition seems to be by B.
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  • Four-fifths of the net product of the revenues, after deduction of the first charge of £T590,000, was to be applied.to the service of the interest on the new reduced debt, and provided that the four-fifths were sufficient to allow the distribution of 1% interest, one-fifth was to be devoted to sinking fund; but this latter fifth was to be reduced, if necessary, by an amount sufficient to maintain the rate of interest at i %.
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  • But on the assumption that "mathematics" is to denote a science well marked out by its subject matter and its methods from other topics of thought, and that at least it is to include all topics habitually assigned to it, there is now no option but to employ "mathematics" in the general sense' of the "science concerned with the logical deduction of consequences from the general premisses of all reasoning."
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  • This deduction harmonized the observations of Andrews and of Hess previously alluded to, and also accounted satisfactorily for the Law of Thermoneutrality.
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  • Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.
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  • Amongst the brilliant group of mathematicians whose magnanimous rivalry contributed to accomplish the task of generalization and deduction reserved for the 18th century, Lagrange occupies an eminent place.
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  • The formula is a deduction from a general formula, considered later (§ 58), and may be verified in various ways.
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  • This something was a most subtle spiritual deduction from a conversation with Karataev the day before.
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  • To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
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  • When, however, he had succeeded in extracting from the sources a general idea that seemed to him clear and simple, he attached himself to it as if to the truth itself, employing dialectic of the most penetrating, subtle and even paradoxical character in his deduction of the logical consequences.
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  • per standard ounce troy, no deduction being made for wastage, seigniorage, the purchase of alloy metal, or the expense of manufacture.
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  • The susceptibility is therefore constant and independent of the field, while its negative sign indicates that the substance is diamagnetic. There being no resistance, the induced current will continue to circulate 1 This deduction from Ewing's theory appears to have been first suggested by J.
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  • The parts of the Critique of Pure Reason, more particularly the " Deduction of the Categories " in which this theory is worked out, may be said to have laid the foundation of modern idealism - " articulum stantis aut cadentis dectrinae."
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  • The conclusion that each element had a definite atomic weight, peculiar to it, was the new idea that made his speculations fruitful, because it allowed of quantitative deduction and verification.
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  • The transcendental deduction, or proof from the possibility of experience in general, which forms the vital centre of the Kantian scheme, is wanting in Reid; or, at all events, if the spirit of the proof is occasionally present, it is nowhere adequately developed.
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  • In exchange for your donation, you will be given a tax deduction.
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  • You can also go online and complete a donation form, arrange a pickup time and apply for a tax deduction.
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  • Modern theory accepts the deduction, but ascribes the momentum to the revolving ions in the molecules of matter traversed by the light; for the magneto-optic effect is present only in material media.
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  • This generalization was of great value inasmuch as it permitted the deduction of the atomic weight of a non-gasifiable element from a study of the densities of its gasifiable compounds.
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  • all units of thought) are (1) analysable only by abstraction, and (2) are compound of deduction and induction, i.e.
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  • The revenue was about 3,600,000; after deduction of taxes, interest on debts, expenses of management, &c., 2,080,000.
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  • Induction thus is the source of deduction, of its truth, of its probability, of its moral certainty; and induction, combined with identification, is the origin of the necessary principles of demonstration or deduction to necessary conclusions.
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  • But neither use of induction is the same as the deduction itself: the former precedes, the latter follows it.
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  • Income tax, for instance, is calculated on income, and is in the nature of a deduction from the income; but local rates are calculated in proportion to certain other payments, actual or potential, and could without absurdity exceed 20s.
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  • Some charities and other "do gooder" groups cannot help you get a tax deduction.
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  • Beware of these if you're hoping to get a deduction as your main reason for giving.
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  • Political campaigns cannot issue proof for a tax deduction, and neither can for-profit educational institutions or medical facilities.
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  • If you are eligible to provide a charity tax deduction, be sure to tell your readers this fact.
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  • This is required in order for the donation to be used as a tax deduction.
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  • Without this, you cannot issue a tax deduction to any of your benefactors.
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  • A tax deduction is a huge motivation for people to loosen their purse strings.
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  • You'll need one if you want to qualify for a tax deduction in the future, and it can help you reverse a charge if necessary.Use common sense.
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  • This is a good way to help those less fortunate and in return you will be able to get a tax deduction.
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  • Receiving a tax deduction is a benefit of donating a vehicle to charity.
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  • The IRS allows you to claim a tax deduction of up to $500 or for however much the vehicle is sold for at auction or sale.
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  • It is best to check with your tax specialist to determine the amount of your deduction.
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  • If the organizaiton your working with gives flat fees regardless of the car value, you may not be able to claim a deduction.
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  • Either way, you may be able to get a handsome tax deduction out of the deal.
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  • Most times, the donor will use this receipt, often in conjunction with a canceled check, to prove the Internal Revenue Service that the donation was legitimate and qualifies him or her for a tax deduction.
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  • This means that you can take a deduction on your federal income tax return for the donation of your vehicle.
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  • If you hope to get a tax break or deduction from your charity gift, it is important be aware of current regulations.
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  • You will need to have proof of this type of donation to take your tax deduction.
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  • You cannot list a charitable donation if you claim the standard deduction on your taxes.
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  • Speak to your tax professional to find out if you should use the standard deduction or itemize your deductions to get the best tax advantage.
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  • By donating excess or unwanted materials used in construction of homes and buildings, you can support a charitable organization as well as get a tax deduction.
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  • Both new and surplus materials are accepted and those donating the items will receive a receipt that can be used for a tax deduction.
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  • The charitable donations of goods may help you to qualify for a tax deduction.
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  • To get this tax deduction, the items donated must be in good or better condition.
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  • Those who donate receive a tax deduction for doing so.
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  • The donor may receive an income tax deduction, though writing off a car donation is more complicated than with other types of charitable gifts.
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  • It is important to visit the IRS's website to make sure that you know the right way to take a tax deduction for a vehicle donation.
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  • If you donate used cars, you can avoid the hassle of finding the right buyer and possibly enjoy the benefits of a tax deduction.
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  • The tax benefits of donating a car can mean a significant tax deduction and money savings just when you need it.
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  • This means that you may not know how much of a tax deduction you can take for quite some time after making the donation.
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  • The charity is not obligated to provide you with the deduction amount prior to your donation of the car.
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  • To take the deduction, you will have have to wait for the paperwork before completing your tax filing.
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  • The process is simple, but there are some requirements you must fulfill if you plan to take a tax deduction for your charitable gift.
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  • If receiving a tax deduction for your vehicle is your main reason for the donation, it is important to check the IRS guidelines to make sure you have fulfilled their requirements.
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  • You must itemize on a tax return to take this deduction.
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  • Fair market value is the maximum deduction amount.
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  • Their use of your donation determines the dollar amount of your tax deduction.
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  • Verify with your tax advisor that you will qualify to take a tax deduction for your charitable contribution.
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  • However, you will want to consult a qualified accountant for specifics on how to prepare your return with this deduction.
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  • Automatic Deductions: Setting up an automatic deduction is an easy way to save money.
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  • Keep receipts from items you purchase for work, document how you use those items, and even track mileage if possible for that easy deduction.
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  • Section 179 limit deduction increases to $108,000 for qualified section 179 property, reduced by amounts exceeding $430,000 when the 179 property was placed in service during the tax year.
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  • Standard mileage deduction for business operations of your car, van, pickup, or panel truck is 44.5 cents a mile for all business miles driven.
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  • Nothing will catch the eye of an employee faster than a deduction in his or her weekly paycheck for not adhering to the rules you set.
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  • Other tax deduction regulation related to small business expenses do exist.
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  • Bottom-line: If you have a separate room absent of non-work related items, such as a bed and TV, and live alone, the home office deduction is rather straightforward.
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  • Claiming a home office deduction is not a pre-requisite for other business-related tax deductions.
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  • The limitation to this is that one can not claim both state and local tax deduction and the deduction for sales tax, it is an either/or situation.
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  • Sales tax deduction claims can be made even without all of your receipts.
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  • To find out how you would fare in sales tax deductions, see the IRS Sales Tax Deduction Calculator.
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  • Any office supplies that you purchase and use specifically for business purposes can be a business tax deduction.
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  • Different categories of equipment, such as computers and furniture, have different depreciation schedules; check with a tax professional or the IRS to be certain that you are applying this type of deduction properly.
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  • In other words, if a business deduction seems absurd, it probably is.
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  • To check your eligibility and learn how to calculate your adjusted gross income, visit the IRS and read or download a Schedule L form (Standard Deduction for Certain Filers).
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  • Leasing is great if you can find a good value and use it to change cars frequently or as a company car tax deduction.
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  • This part of the program is available without charge to anyone who has paid Medicare taxes through payroll deduction or whose spouse has paid this tax for at least 40 quarters.
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  • An automatic salary deduction that allows you to pay health premiums using pre-tax dollars.
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  • The fashion accessories you purchase can be a tax deduction.
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  • However, a taxpayer receives a refund for any amount of a deduction that establishes a negative liability.
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  • His deduction is logical; but he has forgotten to prove the assumption, and now confuses sensory operation with sensible object.
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  • Especially, induction to universals is the warrant and measure of deduction from universals.
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  • Now, as an inductive combination of premises does not necessarily involve the inductive conclusion, induction normally leads, not to a necessary, but to a probable conclusion; and whenever its probable conclusions become deductive premises, the deduction only involves a probable conclusion.
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  • In order to answer this question we must remember that there are many degrees of probability, and that induction, and therefore deduction, draw conclusions more or less probable, and rise to the point at which probability becomes moral certainty, or that high degree of probability which is sufficient to guide our lives, and even condemn murderers to death.
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  • Some noOlogists suppose a mental power of forming necessary principles of deduction a priori; but fail to show how we can apply principles of mind to things beyond mind.
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  • Bacon, like Aristotle, was anticipated in this or that point; but, as Aristotle was the first to construct a system of deduction in the syllogism and its three figures, so Bacon was the first to construct a system of induction in three ministrations, in which the requisites of induction, hitherto recognized only in sporadic hints, were combined for the first time in one logic of induction.
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  • Deduction is analysis when it is regressive from consequence to real ground, as when we start from the proposition that the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles and deduce analytically that therefore (i) they are equal to equal angles made by a straight line standing on another straight line, and (2) such equal angles are two right angles.
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  • After identifying whether you will claim the standard deduction or itemize your deductions, it calculates the total amount of tax you will owe for the year.
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  • However, the choice of category is decided by the taxpayer, and is usually selected based on which one provides them with the largest deduction.
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  • The standard deduction is a set amount of money that almost every taxpayer can claim on their return.
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  • In 2010, the standard deduction was $5,700 for single persons and married couples filing separately, $8,400 for heads of households and $11,400 for married couples filing jointly and qualified widows and widowers.
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  • The deduction, however, is not available to all taxpayers.
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  • A deduction is an amount of money which is subtracted from a taxpayer's annual gross income.
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  • As an example, the IRS allows taxpayers to claim a maximum of 50 percent of their income in charitable clothing donations, but does not prohibit the payer from claiming another type of deduction for the remaining half.
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  • The specific rules for tax deductions are contained in IRS Tax Topic 500, titled "Itemized Deductions," and Tax Topic 551, titled "Standard Deduction."
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  • The IRS gives every taxpayer a "standard deduction," which is an amount of money they can claim against their income.
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  • Taxpayers usually choose whichever type of deduction is the largest.
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  • The amount of the standard deduction varies depending on the taxpayer's marital and filing status.
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  • In 2010, single taxpayers could claim a standard deduction of $5,700, and married couples filing jointly $11,400.
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  • Single taxpayers with an income less than $65,000, or married taxpayers filing jointly with an income less than $130,000 can take as much as a $4,000 deduction for any costs associated with higher education expenses.
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  • There is no income limitation or maximum amount applicable to this deduction.
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  • There is no income limit or maximum amount for this deduction.
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  • Subsequently, research them to determine if you satisfy any rules regarding the deduction's use and that you claim only the allowable amount.
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  • This section is also where you claim either the standard deduction or itemize your deductions.
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  • A deduction is an amount of money that you subtract from your taxable income, thereby reducing the amount that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) taxes.
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  • Because you usually pay interest on your real estate property and home equity line mortgages, they are easily categorized within the previously paid tax deduction category.
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  • Other than for improvements performed to accommodate an ill or injured resident, there is no specific tax deduction for costs associated with home improvements on your main residence.
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  • The only deduction the IRS offers for home improvements are those made for medical reasons.
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  • Individuals can also take care of free web page designing for a non-profit, and they are also eligible for the tax deduction.
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  • Keep track of all of your hours, so that when tax time comes, you will have a reasonable estimate for the hours your spent working on the site, and what you tax deduction should be.
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  • In this case, analogical inference has led to induction, as induction to deduction.
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  • 24) we owe the triple distinction into inference from particular to particular (irapf16ecy i ug, example, or what we call " analogy "), inference from particular to universal (i raywy17, induction), and inference from universal to particular (ouXXoyco-Os, syllogism, or deduction).
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  • On the other hand, the demonstrations of mathematical sciences of his time, and the logical forms of deduction evinced in Plato's dialogues, provided him with admirable examples of deduction, which is also the inference most capable of analysis.
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  • But he laid too much stress on reasoning as syllogism or deduction, and on deductive science; and he laid too much stress on the linguistic analysis of rational discourse into proposition and terms. These two defects remain ingrained in technical logic to this day.
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  • 19); a sensation of each of the five senses is always true of its proper object; without sense there is no science; sense is the origin of induction, which is the origin of deduction and science.
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  • On the other hand, as Aristotle over-emphasized deduction so Bacon over-emphasized induction by contending that it is the only process of discovering universals (axiomata), which deduction only applies to particulars.
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  • Mill in his Logic pointed out this defect, and without departing from Baconian principles remedied it by quoting scientific examples, in which deduction, starting from inductive principles, applies more general to less general universals, e.g.
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  • It teaches us that scientific method is sometimes induction, sometimes deduction, and sometimes the consilience of both, either by the inductive verification of previous deductions, or by the deductive explanation of previous inductions.
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  • The founder of logic anticipated the latest logic of science, when he recognized, not only the deduction of mathematics, but also the experience of facts followed by deductive explanations of their causes in physics.
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  • Aristotle's was a logic which steered, as Trendelenburg has shown, between Kantian formalism and Hegelian metaphysics; it was a logic which in the Analytics investigated the syllogism as a means to understanding knowledge and science: it was a logic which, starting from the psychological foundations of sense, memory and experience, built up the logical structure of induction and deduction on the profoundly Aristotelian principle that " there is no process from universals without induction, and none by induction without sense."
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  • Analytic and Synthetic Deduction.
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  • After every deduction it remains true that no contemporary showed equal genius as a colonial statesman, or in this 'department rendered equal service to his country.
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  • In the East, mysticism is not so much a specific phenomenon as a natural deduction from the dominant philosophic systems, and the normal expression of religious feeling in the lands in which it appears.
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  • In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
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  • If therefore we choose a quantity e such that log e I o X X= I, log i oe = X, which gives (by more accurate calculation) e=2.71828..., we shall have lim(loge(I+0))}/0=I, and conversely 'lim' {ex+0 - e x } 143= The deduction of the expansions log e (' +x) = x - Zx 2 + 3x 3 - ..., e x = I +.x+x2/2!+x3/3!-}-..., is then more simply obtained by the differential calculus than by ordinary algebraic methods.
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  • A small deduction should be made from this apparent increase to allow for a changed system of classification.
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  • Money, "the great wheel of circulation," is altogether different from the goods which are circulated by means of it; it is a costly instrument by means of which all that each individual receives is distributed to him; and the expenditure required, first to provide it, and afterwards to maintain it, is a deduction from the net revenue of the society.
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  • The resemblance, however, is not sufficiently close to warrant the deduction that either the Gospel of the Egyptians or the Gospel from which the citation in 2 Clement is taken (if these two are distinct) is the source from which our fragment is derived.
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  • 1, Ioo b 21-23); and in that it is not like science a deduction from true and primary principles of a definite subject to true consequences, but a deduction from opinion to opinion, which may be true or false.
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  • The discovery of this law is due to Dalton; it is a direct deduction from his atomic theory.
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  • When once the fixed conditions which any hypothetical group of entities are to satisfy have been precisely formulated, the deduction of the further propositions, which also will hold respecting them, can proceed in complete independence of the question as to whether or no any such group of entities can be found in the world of phenomena.
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  • We may generalize these statements in the following theorem, which is an important deduction from a wider theorem due to G.
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  • " The distinction seems to be that if the destruction be permanent, though partial, the failure of the subject let will give relief by entitling the tenant to renounce the lease, unless a deduction shall be allowed, but that if it be merely temporary or occasional, it will not entitle the tenant to relief " (Bell's Prin.
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  • The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.
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  • In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
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  • The Letters are brilliantly written - full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduction.
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  • His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction.
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  • Strange as this point is, it is still stranger that not one of these internal evidences is brought into relation with induction and deduction.
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  • It is probable also that the " extraneous discourses " (Oi i wTEpLKoi Aoyoc) sometimes mentioned in them here mean dialectical discussions of a subject from opinions extraneous to its nature, as opposed to scientific deduction from its appropriate principles.
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  • As to the known world, Kant's position was the logical deduction that from such phenomena of experience all we can know by logical reason is similar phenomena of actual or possible experience; and therefore that the known world, whether bodily or mental, is not a Cartesian world of bodies and souls, nor a Spinozistic world of one substance, nor a Leibnitzian world of monadic substances [[[Metaphysical Idealism]] created by God, but a world of sensations, such as Hume supposed, only combined, not by association, but by synthetic understanding into phenomenal objects of experience, which are phenomenal substances and causes - a world of phenomena not noumena.
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  • They saw also the logic of Kant's deduction, that all we can know from such mental data and mental categories must also be mental.
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  • Starting from Fichte's " Wissenschaftslehre," Schelling accepted the whole process of mental construction, and the deduction that noumena are knowable products of universal reason, the Absolute Ego.
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  • But this modification made no difference to the Kantian and Neo-Kantian deduction from the epistemological to the metaphysical.
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  • Having, however, made a deduction, which is at all events consistent, that on Kantian assumptions all we know is mental phenomena, Lange proceeded to reduce the rest of Kantism to consistency.
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  • His metaphysical deduction from this psychological view is that all we know is mental phenomena, " the whole outer world exists for us only in our ideas," and all that our reason can logically do beyond these phenomena is to frame transcendent " ideals."
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  • Wundt is confined by his starting-point to his deduction that what we know is mental phenomena, ideas regarded as objects and subjects of experience.
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  • In his Rede Lecture on Mind and Motion (1885), he said that Clifford's deduction, that the G..1.
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  • The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led him to the law of combination in multiple proportions, and the comparison with experiment brilliantly confirmed the truth of his deduction" (A New View, &c., pp. 50, 51).
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  • Commissioners (now the board of agriculture) are appointed to execute the acts; a rent charge on all lands liable to tithes at the time of the passing of the first act is substituted for those tithes, of which the gross amount is ascertained either by voluntary parochial agreement, or, failing that, by compulsory award confirmed by the commissioners; and the value of the tithes is fixed in the latter case by their average value in the particular parish during the seven years preceding Christmas 1835, without deduction for parochial or county and other rates, charges and assessments falling on tithes, the rent charge being liable to all the charges to which tithes were liable.
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  • Until 1897 Austria contributed 70%, and Hungary 30% of the joint expenditure, remaining after deduction of the common revenue.
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  • Formerly the commercial legislation of Denmark was to such a degree restrictive that imported manufactures had to be delivered to the customs, where they were sold by public auction, the proceeds of which the importer received from the custom-houses after a deduction was made for the duty.
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  • It is plain that whilst the existence of variation can be demon strated and the occurrence of evolution established by induction and deduction, the part played by selection must remain largely theoretical.
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  • But he adds, " To sustain the deduction it is not necessary that they should " (Ancient Society, p. 408).
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  • Moreover, the calcined matter resembling white sand which covers its sides below the snow-line, extensive beds of lava, and the issue of streams of hot water from its northern side, seem to confirm the deduction that Chimborazo is an extinct volcano.
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  • Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.
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  • Induction and deduction differ still more, and are in fact opposed, as one makes a particular premise the evidence of a universal conclusion, the other makes a universal premise evidence of a particular conclusion.
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  • Hence we may redivide inference into particular inference by analogy and universal inference by induction and deduction.
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  • Universal inference is what we call reasoning; and its two species are very closely connected, because universal conclusions of induction become universal premises of deduction.
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  • Analogical inference requires that one particular is similar to another, induction that a whole number or class is similar to its particular instances, deduction that each particular is similar to the whole number or class.
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  • But deduction, starting from a premise about all the members of a class, compels a conclusion about every and each of necessity.
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  • Deduction or syllogism is superior to analogy and induction in combining premises so as to involve or contain the conclusion.
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  • Inference in general is a combination of premises to cause a conclusion; deduction is such a combination as to compel a conclusion involved in the combination, and following from the premises of necessity.
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  • Nevertheless, deduction or syllogism is not independent of the other processes of inference.
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  • To eliminate this " if " ultimately requires other inferences before deduction.
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  • Deduction is synthesis when it is progressive from real ground to consequence, as when we start from these two results of analysis as principles and deduce synthetically the proposition that therefore the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles, in the order familiar to the student of Euclid.
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  • Much of the Principia consists of synthetical deductions from definitions and axioms. But the discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun is an analytic deduction from the facts of their motion discovered by Kepler to their real ground, and is so stated by Newton in the first regressive order of Aristotle - P-M, S-P, S-M.
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  • This done, as the major is convertible, the analytic order - P-M, S-P, S-M - was easily inverted into the synthetic order - M-P, S-M, S-P; and in this progressive order the deduction as now taught begins with the centripetal force of the sun as real ground, and deduces the facts of planetary motion as consequences.
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  • Worse still, Jevons proceeded to confuse analytic deduction from consequence to ground with hypothetical deduction from ground to conseguence under the common term "inverse deduction."
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  • But his account of the first is imperfect, because in ancient analysis the more general propositions, with which it concludes, are not mere consequences, but the real grounds of the given proposition; while his addition of the second reduces the nature of analysis to the utmost confusion, because hypothetical deduction is progressive from hypothesis to consequent facts whereas analysis is regressive from consequent facts to real ground.
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  • But in the sense in which deductive analysis is opposed to deductive synthesis, analysis is deduction from real consequence as logical ground principiatum as principium) cognoscendi) to real ground (principium essendi), e.g.
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  • Hence Sigwart is undoubtedly right in distinguishing analysis from hypothetical deduction, for which he proposes the name " reduction.
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  • Jevons supposed induction to be inverse deduction, distinguished from direct deduction as analysis from synthesis, e.g.
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  • as division from multiplication; but he really meant that it is a deduction from a hypothesis of the law of a cause to particular effects which, being true, verify the hypothesis.
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  • Sigwart declares himself in agreement with Jevons; except that, being aware of the difference between hypothetical deduction and mathematical analysis, and seeing that, whereas analysis (e.g.
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  • in division) leads to certain conclusions, hypothetical deduction is not certain of the hypothesis, he arrives at the more definite view that induction is not analysis proper but hypothetical deduction, or " reduction," as he proposes to call it.
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  • Lastly, Wundt's view is an interesting piece of eclecticism, for he supposes that induction begins in the form of Aristotle's inductive syllogism, S-P, S-M, M-P, and becomes an inductive method in the form of Jevons's inverse deduction, or hypothetical deduction, or analysis, M-P, S-M, S-P. In detail, he supposes that, while an " inference by comparison," which he erroneously calls an affirmative syllogism in the second figure, is preliminary to induction, a second " inference by connexion," which he erroneously calls a syllogism in the third figure with an indeterminate conclusion, is the inductive syllogism itself.
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  • He agrees with Jevons in calling this second syllogism analytical deduction, and with Jevons and Sigwart in calling it hypothetical deduction.
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  • It is noticeable that Wundt quotes Newton's discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun as an instance of this supposed hypothetical, analytic, inductive method; as if Newton's analysis were a hypothesis of the centripetal force to the sun, a deduction of the given facts of planetary motion, and a verification of the hypothesis by the given facts, and as if such a process of hypothetical deduction could be identical with either analysis or induction.
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  • The abuse of this instance of Newtonian analysis betrays the whole origin of the current confusion of induction with deduction.
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  • Mill confused Newton's analytical deduction with hypothetical deduction; and thereupon Jevons confused induction with both.
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  • But we can easily extricate ourselves from these confusions by comparing induction with different kinds of deduction.
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  • For the same reason induction cannot be reduced to analytical deduction of the second kind in the form, S-P, M-S,.
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  • Still less can induction be reduced to analytical deduction of the first kind in the form - P-M, S-P,.
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  • Hence it is that Jevons, followed by Sigwart and Wundt, reduces it to deduction from a hypothesis in the form "Let every M be P, S is M,.
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  • There is a superficial resemblance between induction and this hypothetical deduction.
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  • particular magnets attracing iron are the origin of an inference that all do; in hypothetical deduction, the universal is the evidence by which we explain the given particulars, as when we suppose undulating aether to explain the facts of heat and light.
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  • Or rather, there are two uses of induction: inductive discovery before deduction, and inductive verification after deduction.
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  • Induction, in fact, is no species of deduction; they are opposite processes, as Aristotle regarded them except in the one passage where he was reducing the former to the latter, and as Bacon always regarded them.
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  • But it is easy to confuse them by mistaking examples of deduction for inductions.
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  • For example, the inference from the similarity between solar spectra and the spectra of various gases on the earth to the existence of similar gases in the sun, is called by him an induction; but it really is an analytical deduction from effect to cause, thus: Such and such spectra are effects of various gases.
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  • A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.
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  • Really, we first experience that particular causes have particular effects; then induce that causes similar to those have effects similar to these; finally, deduce that when a particular cause of the kind occurs it has a particular effect of the kind by synthetic deduction, and that when a particular effect of the kind occurs it has a particular cause of the kind by analytic deduction with a convertible premise, as when Newton from planetary motions, like terrestrial motions, analytically deduced a centripetal force to the sun like centripetal forces to the earth.
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  • Not, however, that all induction is causal; but where it is not, there is still less reason for making it a deduction from hypothesis.
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  • It is not syllogism in the form of Aristotle's or Wundt's inductive syllogism, because, though starting only from some particulars, it concludes with a universal; it is not syllogism in the form called inverse deduction by Jevons, reduction by Sigwart, inductive method by Wundt, because it often uses particular facts of causation to infer universal laws of causation; it is not syllogism in the form of Mill's syllogism from a belief in uniformity of nature, because few men have believed in uniformity, but all have induced from particulars to universals.
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  • This view makes inference easy: induction is all over before it begins; for, according to Bradley, " every one of the instances is already a universal proposition; and it is not a particular fact or phenomenon at all," so that the moment you observe that this magnet attracts iron, you ipso facto know that every magnet does so, and all that remains for deduction is to identify a second magnet as the same with the first, and conclude that it attracts iron.
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  • But it is not mere induction, with its " unanalysed concretes taken as ultimate " that is set up as the substitute for deduction.
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  • Lastly we have deduction the determination of the most complex phenomena by a continuous synthesis or combination of the simple elements.
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  • In transcendental analytic on the other hand we concern ourselves only with the transcendental " deduction " or vindication of the conditions of experience, and we have a logic of cognition in which we may establish our epistemological categories with complete validity.
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  • Lotze on the one hand held the Hegelian " deduction " to be untenable, and classed himself with those who in his own phrase.
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  • The distinction is analogous to that between analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction (but there may be a synthesis of a priori judgments, cf.
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  • In order to allow for the finite stiffness and strength of materials, the least distance of the centre of resistance inward from the nearest edge of the joint is made to bear a definite proportion to the depth of the joint measured in the same direction, which proportion is fixed, sometimes empirically, sometimes by theoretical deduction from the laws of the strength of materials.
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  • No deduction to be made in respect of old material which is repaired without being replaced by new, and provisions and stores which have not been in use.
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  • Between and 3 years Between 3 and 6 years Between 6 and oyears Between Io & 15 years Over 15 years Generally In the case of wooden or composite ships: When a ship is under one year old from date of original register, at the time of accident, no deduction "new for old" shall be made.
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  • After that period a deduction of one-third shall be made, with the following exceptions: Anchors shall be allowed in full.
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  • Chain cables shall be subject to a deduction of one-sixth only.
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  • No deduction shall be made in respect of provisions and stores which had not been in use.
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  • Nails, felt and labour metalling are subject to a deduction of onethird.
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  • for property sacrificed; deduction being made from the shipowner's freight and passagemoney at risk, of such port charges and crew's wages as would not have been incurred had the ship and cargo been totally lost at the date of the G.A.
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  • act or sacrifice, and have not been allowed as G.A.; deduction being also made from the value of the property of all charges incurred in respect thereof subsequently to the G.A.
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  • An immediate deduction from Maxwell's theory was that in transparent dielectrics, the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity should be numerically equal to the square of the refractive index for very long electric waves.
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  • 12 a and developed the view that induction is simply an inverse employment of deduction; he treated in a luminous manner the general theory of probability, and the relation between probability and induction; and his knowledge of the various natural sciences enabled him throughout to relieve the abstract character of logical doctrine by concrete scientific illustrations, often worked out in great detail.
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  • He first introduced into economics on a great scale the method of deduction from a priori assumptions.
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  • All advances were lodged by him in the Bank of England until required, and all subsidies were paid over without deduction, even though it was pressed upon him, so that he did not draw a shilling from his office beyond the salary legally attaching to it.
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  • Above all, he broke with the prevalent view which regarded theology as essentially intellectual in its appeal and demonstrable by processes of exact logical deduction.
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  • It certainly obliges us to make a large deduction from our estimate of his character and of the beneficial influence which he has exerted.
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  • Where they are heavy, as, for instance, with the French registration duties on the transfer of property, there appears to be little doubt that they constitute a deduction from the price which a seller receives, and thus they are direct enough.
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  • As the loss by evaporation is a deduction lying between a constant figure and a direct proportional to the rainfall, we should err on the safe side in assuming the flow in the second driest year to be increased proportionally to the rainfall, or by the difference between 63 and 87 equal to 24% of the mean of 50 years.
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  • Her main ideas on the subject are contained in a posthumous volume of her essays (Induction and Deduction, 1890), edited by Dr Lewins.
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  • Thus, though he offers a list of first principles, by deduction from which these common opinions may be confirmed, he does not present it with any claim to completeness.
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  • This Gate- deduction is the most original part of Kant's doctrine.
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  • That Christ had but one will was declared to be the only orthodox doctrine, and all the faithful were enjoined to hold and teach it without addition or deduction.
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  • In this deduction of the categories, as Kant calls it, there appears for the first time an endeavour to connect together into one organic whole the several elements entering into experience.
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  • brag book to show off the ultimate tax deduction.
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  • The Buyer shall make all payments due without deduction, whether by way of set-off counterclaim, discount or otherwise.
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  • The way that repayments of such loans are treated in calculating a deduction depends on the date that the CTAEO was made.
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  • CSA then imposed a deduction from earnings order which secured payment of child support maintenance.
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  • See the section called ' Are there any cases where no non-dependant deduction is made?
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  • He said: " The only skill involved in sudoku is logical deduction.
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  • deduction theorem.
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  • Saving is possible through by coming into the office or a service point, through payroll deduction, or standing order.
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  • Bill the title for example many labor laws recently the home-office deduction.
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  • An alternative method to salary deduction was set up to allow partners to make a pledge.
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  • Coverage rather they at least once a percent deduction health services research.
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  • deduction of tax; often a key benefit to seniors.
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  • deduction of wages for those working on a commission basis Fairness at Work White Paper: family friendly policies Casual about employe status?
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  • deduction of reasonable expenses.
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  • deduction from wages.
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  • deduction from salary.
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  • A fixed deduction is made from the claimant's entitlement to Housing Benefit (see box below ).
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  • generalized deduction theorem.
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  • Sensitively intelligent, there was no escaping the significance of the only possible deduction.
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  • It relies heavily on the use of symbolic representations and deduction to apply quantum mechanics to a variety of situations.
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  • They wrongly imposed a deduction from earnings order, overcharged him maintenance and generally mishandled his case.
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  • payroll deduction system will work.
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  • most respondents were in favor of applying a flat rate deduction.
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  • No case is too tricky for the world's most famous sleuth and his incredible powers of deduction.
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  • Here deduction comes into play to show the dependence of one term upon the others; and, in the case of a long chain of intervening links, the ' Geometrie, OEuvres, xi.
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  • (Ed.) confiscations, his grants, all that he did, was a logical deduction from one or two legal principles, arbitrary certainly in their conception, but strictly carried out to their results.
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  • He also says that not a sheet had been seen by any other eyes than those of author and printer, a statement indeed which must be taken with a small deduction; or rather we must suppose that a few chapters had been submitted, if not to the " eyes," to the " ears " of others; for he elsewhere tells us that he was " soon disgusted with the modest practice of reading the manuscript to his friends."
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  • In the development of the atomic theory and the deduction of the atomic weights of elements and the formulae of compounds, Dalton's arbitrary rules failed to find complete acceptance.
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  • Special attention was called by the minister to the fact that the system of contributions of officials to the pension funds has been modified, the deduction from salaries being now To °A instead of 5%, and the contributions to the funds being made as to one-third by the treasury, and two-thirds by the officials, instead of the reverse as formerly: the economy effected is about £T30o,000.
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  • In this way he rises like Plato to the absolute Goodness, Justice and Truth, and then proceeds in Neoplatonic fashion to a deduction of the Trinity as involved in the idea of the divine Word (see further Anselm).
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  • The five processes of deduction then reduce to four, which may be described as (i.) subtraction, (ii.) division, (iii.) (a) taking a root, (iii.) (b) taking logarithms. It will be found that these (and particularly the first three) cover practically all the processes legitimately adopted in the elementary theory of the solution of equations; other processes being sometimes liable to introduce roots which do not satisfy the original equation.
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  • it is for purposes of illustration and suggestion rather than for purposes of deduction and exact calculation.
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  • By his indefatigable activity he amassed a fortune of X300,000, the bulk of which he bequeathed to his daughter, with the deduction of considerable sums for the endowment of the anatomical chair in the Ecole de Medecine, and the establishment of a benevolent institution for distressed medical men.
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  • The method which Fichte first adopted for stating these axioms is not calculated to throw full light upon them, and tends to exaggerate the apparent airiness and unsubstantiality of his deduction.
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  • It is impossible to enter here on the steps by which the theoretical ego is shown to develop into the complete system of cognitive categories, or to trace the deduction of the processes (productive imagination, intuition, sensation, understanding, judgment, reason) by which the quite indefinite non-ego comes to assume the appearance of definite objects in the forms of time and space.
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  • Sophistry appeared to him to be like it, except that it is a fallacious deduction either from merely apparent probabilities in its matter or itself merely apparently syllogistic in its form (cf.
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  • Nobody, not even Plato, had discovered that the process of deduction is a combination of premisses (o vXXo-yevµos) to produce a new conclusion.
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  • He borrows from Kant's "rationalism " the hypothesis of a spontaneous activity of the subject with the deduction that knowledge begins from sense, but arises from understanding; and he accepts from Kant's metaphysical idealism the consequence that everything we perceive, experience and know about physical nature, and the bodies of which it consists, is phenomena, and not bodily things in themselves.
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  • The orthocentre of a triangle circumscribing a parabola is on the directrix; a deduction from this theorem is that the centre of the circumcircle of a self-conjugate triangle is on the directrix ("Steiner's Theorem").
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  • Bacon taught men to labour in inferring from particular to universal, to lay as much stress on induction as on deduction, and to think and speak of inductive reasoning, inductive science, inductive logic. Moreover, while Aristotle had the merit of discerning the triplicity of inference, to Bacon we owe the merit of distinguishing the three processes without reduction: - I.
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  • Thereupon the Newtonian analysis which preceded this synthesis, became forgotten; until at last Mill in his Logic, neglecting the Principia, had the temerity to distort Newton's discovery, which was really a pure example of analytic deduction, into a mere hypothetical deduction; as if the author of the saying " Hypotheses non lingo" started from the hypothesis of a centripetal force to the sun, and thence deductively explained the facts of planetary motion, which reciprocally verified the hypothesis.
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  • The clumsiness of the relation renders it practically useless, and the two separate relations in terms of a single parameter 0 suffice for the deduction of most of the properties of the curve.
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  • Most respondents were in favor of applying a flat rate deduction.
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  • No case is too tricky for the world 's most famous sleuth and his incredible powers of deduction.
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  • The success of the scheme depends on getting a deduction for the debt in the estate of the transferee spouse.
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  • Classic Detective - is identified as an investigator who solved mysteries through observation and logical deduction.
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  • Transitional Detective - used violence instead of logical deduction to solve crime.
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  • The IRS arranges for automatic withdrawal from a taxpayer's bank account or payroll deduction.
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  • In addition, if both child support and alimony payments are ordered, a deduction will be made from the gross income used in the second support calculation to reflect the amount of maintenance already scheduled to be paid.
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  • The payer and recipient cannot file a joint income tax return for any year where a deduction for alimony payments is being claimed.
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  • Typically, tax credits offer more benefits for the tax payer than a deduction.
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  • To make your investment go even further, donate the item back after your event, get a receipt for your donation, and take any possible tax deduction when you file your next tax return.
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  • Along with providing for your future, a 401K offers additional benefits such as an immediate tax deduction, tax-deferred growth on your savings and, in many cases, a matching contribution from the company you work for.
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  • If you're looking for a fun mystery game that requires thinking and careful deduction and are a fan of Lemony Snicket's books, then you'll love A Series of Unfortunate Events.
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  • If you're looking for a fun mystery game that requires thinking and careful deduction, then you'll love Inspector Parker.
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  • If they pay points, the full amount may not be eligible for deduction.
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  • If your escrow account in the past also paid for your homeowners insurance you should contact your insurer and find out if you can have an automatic deduction from your bank account for the policy.
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  • An escrow company sets up the mortgage payments, including interest, and the escrow company also issues an annual mortgage interest statement to the buyer to utilize as a tax deduction.
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  • Interest - If you enter into a lease-to-purchase or land contract where the seller doesn't charge interest, you will receive no mortgage interest statement to utilize as a tax deduction.
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  • The answer depends on a few factors, but many people are pleased to find that they do qualify for a tax deduction resulting from this type of second mortgage product.
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  • If you do not qualify for a full tax deduction, you may qualify for a partial deduction.
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  • The type of home you own can be a deciding factor as to whether you can claim interest paid as a tax deduction or not.
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  • Speak to your tax advisor or contact an IRS representative to find out if you can claim this deduction.
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  • Donating toys and other play items oftentimes provides you a tax deduction, so you can receive a financial break for the goods you give away.
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  • Whether you are searching for Mr. Buddy's murderer or the killer of Mr. Burns, whether the crime occurred in the study or somewhere in the town of Springfield, the game still employs the skills of logic and deduction.
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  • Clue: This mystery board game teaches classic problem solving, deduction, and reasoning skills as players strive to solve a gruesome murder.
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  • This board game for boys is good because it teaches memory and deduction.
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  • One interesting strategy is called "Max Line Deduction".
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  • Feel good, get a tax deduction, and clear out some space all at the same time.
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  • No matter what the car is used for, when you donate a car, California charities will almost always issue you a tax deduction for your donation.
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  • Unlike many thrift stores, Goodwill donors are allowed to claim their donation as a tax deduction.
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  • To receive a tax deduction, you must value your items.
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  • Your deduction won't make you rich at tax time, but it is a nice reward for your thought out generosity.
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  • From couches to kitchen tables, many charities across the nation will accept your gift in exchange for a receipt you may use for a tax deduction.
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  • However, not everyone is able to make a deduction, and you'll have to itemize to be certain of what counts and what does not.
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