2 The laws of thought, the truths of number, are the decrees of God.
ratified all the decrees coming from Basel, or that he made a definite submission to the supremacy of the council.
He encouraged the cities, and not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees.
The decrees against the emigrants and the non-juring clergy still remained under the veto of the king.
In 1551 the tsar submitted to a synod of prelates a hundred questions as to the best mode of remedying existing evils, for which reason the decrees of this synod are generally called stoglav or centuria.
The resolutions of the Lambeth Conferences have never been regarded as synodical decrees, but their weight has increased with each conference.
In default of legislation the necessary measures are taken by decree of the head of the state; these decrees having the force of law.
The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.
The Council of Trent had recently brought its long labours to a close (December 4, 1563), and Philip resolved to enforce its decrees throughout his dominions.
When Leo the Isaurian published his decrees against the worship of images in 726, Gregory II.
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed, and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the decrees of general councils.
A system begins to be formed, and the secular arm supports empire the decrees of the Church.
The dogmatic decrees of Nicaea I.
But the secular arm, from the time of Nicaea I., was in the habit of aiding spiritual decrees, as by banishing deposed bishops, and gradually by other ways, even with laymen.
sought to revoke it; but both parlements and states-general refused to recognize the revoking decrees.
Out of respect for the pope this appeal was not brought against his decrees but against their execution (Diet.
out their decrees by their own apparitors who could levy pecuniary penalties on a defendant's goods (Van Espen, pars iii.
Leo I., although he recognized the council as ecumenical and confirmed its doctrinal decrees, rejected canon xxviii.
The emperor Marcian approved the doctrinal decrees of the council and enjoined silence in regard to theological questions.
The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision, the council of Sardica endeavoured to settle the procedure of ecclesiastical appeals.
The most celebrated among the many reform decrees issued by Gregory was the constitution determining for the first time the form of conclave at papal elections, which in large measure has remained ever since the law of the church.
Most of them had power to impose schedules of maximum rates; practically all of them had authority to prescribe rates upon complaint of shippers; and they could all seek the aid of the courts to enforce their decrees.
Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
The high commissioner is irresponsible, but his decrees, except in certain specified cases, must be countersigned by a member of his council.
When the taking of the Bastille had assured the success of the Revolution, he warned the Assembly of the futility of passing fine-sounding decrees and urged the necessity for acting.
These decrees were not, indeed, at once universally enforced; but the convulsions of the Revolutionary epoch and the religious reorganization that followed completed the work.
Opinion there was in an excited state, the priests and the populace being inflamed against the anti-clerical decrees of the National Assembly of France.
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
It was his habit to issue important decrees from the capitals of his enemies; and on the 17th of May 1809 he signed at Vienna an edict abolishing the temporal power of the pope and annexing the Papal States, which the French troops had occupied early in the previous year.
Neither Louis Bonaparte nor German douaniers could be trusted to carry out in all their stringency the decrees for the entire exclusion of British commerce from those important regions.
In the next months Napoleon promulgated a series of decrees for effecting the ruin of British commerce, and in December 1810 he decreed the annexation of the northwest coast of Germany, as also of Canton Valais, to the French empire.
But that struggle may more reasonably be ascribed to the rigidity with which he carried out his commercial decrees and his diplomacy.
in the decrees of the council of Sens (1485) - non caputia, sed almucia vel bireta tenentes in capite.
The treasury contained the moneys and accounts of the state, and also the standards of the legions; the public laws engraved on brass, the decrees of the senate and other papers and registers of importance.
This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.
By other decrees the jurisdiction of the court of Rome was much limited, and rules were even made for the election of popes and the constitution of the Sacred College.
Every decision made by three of these "deputations" - and in each of them the lower clergy formed the majority - was ratified for the sake of form in general congregation, and if necessary led to decrees promulgated in session.
Eugenius IV., however much he may have wished to keep on good terms with the fathers of Basel, was neither able nor willing to accept or observe all their decrees.
All the old codes of the Peninsula, as well as the laws of the Indies and special royal decrees and schedules, were in force in the colony.
He can annul or suspend the maire's decrees and he has also considerable control over public institutions, charitable and otherwise.
This court passes on the constitutionality of all laws, decrees and regulations.
Spain paid increasing attention to the island, and in harmony with the policy of the Laws of the Indies many decrees intended to stimulate agriculture and commerce were issued by the crown, first in the form of monopolies, then with increased freedom and with bounties.
Sigismund declared war on the duke of Austria, and the fathers, determined to have their will carried out, drew up in their 4th and 5th sessions (30th of March and 6th of April 1415) a set of decrees with the intention of justifying their attitude and putting the fugitive pope at their mercy.
Interpreted in the most general sense, these decrees, which enacted that the council of Constance derived its power immediately from Jesus Christ, and that every one, even the pope, was bound to obey it and every legitimately assembled general council in all that concerned faith, reform, union, &c., were tantamount to the overturning of the constitution of the church by establishing the superiority of the council over the pope.
The general reform on which the council had failed to come to an understanding had to be adjourned, and the council contented itself with promulgating, on the 9th of October 1417, the only reforming decrees on which an agreement could be reached.
The moment news of their activity reached him, whilst still in pursuit of Sir John Moore, he despatched letters to all the members of the Confederation warning them that their contingents might soon be required, and at the same time issued a series of decrees to General Clarke, his war minister, authorizing him to call up the contingent of 1810 in advance, and directing him in detail to proceed with the formation of 4th and 5th battalions for all the regiments across the Rhine.
The Melchites therefore are those who accept the decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon as distinguished from the Nestorians and Jacobite Church (qq.v.).
The Biblical Commission, soon enlarged so as to swamp the original critical members, and which had become the simple mouthpiece of its presiding cardinals, issued two decrees.
And on the 21st of November 1907 a papal motu proprio declared all the decisions of the Biblical Commission, past and future, to be as binding upon the conscience as decrees of the Roman Congregations.
From 1881 to 1884 his activity in Tunisia so raised the prestige of France that it drew from Gambetta the celebrated declaration, L'Anticldricalisme n'est pas un article d'exportation, and led to the e .?mption of Algeria from the application of the decrees concerning the religious orders.
The president sanctions and promulgates, or vetoes, or ignores the laws and resolutions voted by congress, and issues decrees and regulations for their execution.
This is especially clear from clause xvi., which decrees that the title and estates of the lords-lieutenant of counties should not be hereditary, thus attacking feudalism at its very roots, while clause xiv.
The dissolution of the standing army, including the Black Brigade, was the immediate result of these decrees.
The diet itself had become as much a nullity as the king, and its decrees were systematically disregarded.
died on the r3th of March 1516, two years after the " Savage Diet," the ferocity of whose decrees he had feebly endeavoured to mitigate, leaving his two Subjection kingdoms to his son Louis, a child of ten, who was by the pronounced of age in order that his foreignguardians, Turks.
Their privileges were overridden, their petitions were disregarded, their diets were degraded into mere registries of the royal decrees.
His successor, Kalman Szell, obtained an immense but artificial Szell, majority by a fresh fusion of parties, and the minority pledged itself to grant an indemnity for the extra parliamentary financial decrees rendered necessary by Hungary's understanding with Austria, as well as to cease from obstruction.
It appears, moreover, that up to that date public business was transacted in period, Hungarian, for the decrees of King Coloman the Learned (1095-1114) were translated from that language into Latin.
30 Skerlecz was made Ban, the illegal decrees of Cuvaj revoked, and general elections ordered - the fifth since 1906.
This outrage, which was traced to the Communists, provided fresh proof that the Democratic leader Draskovic, as Minister of the Interior, was justified in his charges of widespread terrorist conspiracy and even in the much debated Decrees (Obznane) by which he sought to combat them.
Now began a period of hasty measures and reckless decrees.
Rome is indeed to be honoured as the mother of the churches; nor would Gerbert oppose her judgments except in two cases - (I) where she enjoins something that is contrary to the decrees of a universal council, such as that of Nice, or (2) where, after having been once appealed to in a matter of ecclesiastical discipline and having refused to give a plain and speedy decision, she should, at a later date, attempt to call in question the provisions of the metropolitan synod called to remedy the effects of her negligence.
was represented at St Basle by his legate Seguin, archbishop of Sens, and that, owing to this, the decrees of the latter council had received the papal sanction.
With the letters may be grouped the papal decrees of Gerbert when Silvester II.
(b) The Ada concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum, a detailed account of the proceedings and discourses at the great council of St Basle; a shorter account of his apologetic speeches at the councils of Mouzon and Causey; and drafts of the decrees of two or three other councils or imperial constitutions promulgated when he was archbishop of Ravenna or pope.
He became a member of the Committee of Public Instruction early in 1793, and after carrying many useful decrees on the preservation of national monuments, on the military schools, on the reorganization of the Museum of Natural History and other matters, he brought forward on the 26th of June his Projet d'education nationale (printed at the Imprimerie Nationale), which proposed to lay the burden or primary education on the public funds, but to leave secondary education to private enterprise.
As the laws and procedure are uniform throughout the republic and all decrees and findings have legal effect everywhere, the state judicial organizations may be considered as taking the place of district federal courts, although the constitution does not declare them so.
The state contributes to the support of the Church, builds its churches and provides for the salaries of its clergy, and at the same time it has the right to approve or reject all ecclesiastical appointments and to permit or forbid the execution of all decrees of the Roman See relating to Venezuela.
The seventy decrees of the council begin with a confession of faith directed against the Cathari and Waldenses, which is significant if only for the mention of a transubstantiation of the elements in the Lord's Supper.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
Thus led to confront the questions of necessity and free will, his own views became unsettled, and the further he pursued his inquiries the more he was inclined to assert the freedom of man and limit the range of the unconditional decrees of God.
Elected pope on the 29th of May 1724, he attempted to reform clerical morals; but neither the decrees of the Latin council (1725) nor his personal precepts had much effect.
The result was a deadlock; and, even before the promulgation of the Carlsbad decrees in October 1819 the grand-duke had prorogued the chambers, after three months of sterile debate.
Flavian II., who had accepted the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon and was patriarch of Antioch from 49 8 to 512.
They contain the decrees of Theodoric and his successors Amalasuntha, Theodahad and Witigis; the regulations of the chief offices of state; the edicts published by Cassiodorus himself when praefectus praetorio.
It would appear that the old suspicion of the allies was now thoroughly awakened, and we find Athens making great efforts to conciliate Mytilene by honorific decrees (Hicks and Hill, 109).
In 1875 he published a reply to Gladstone's attack on the Vatican decrees; and on the 15th of March in that year he was created cardinal, with the title of SS.
There is a striking contrast between the crudeness of much and widely accepted medieval theology and the decrees of the council of Trent.
In this respect catechisms of modern times, from Luther's down to the recent Evangelical catechism of the Free Churches, and including from their respective points of view both the catechism of the Church of England and the catechism of the council of Trent, are markedly superior to articles and synodical decrees.
These confessions teach the root idea of Calvin's theology, the immeasurable awfulness of God, His eternity, and the immutability of His decrees.
"The Decrees of God are His eternal Purpose according to the Counsel of His Will, whereby for His Own Glory He hath foreordained whatsoever comes to pass."
- For our present purpose the distinctive features of Roman Catholicism may be said to be summed up in the decrees of the council of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius IV.
The council sat at intervals from 1545-1563, but there was a marked divergence between the opinions advocated by prominent members of the council and its final decrees.
- The confession of Dositheus, or the eighteen decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, appeared in 1676 at Paris as Synodus 1 Patriarch of Jerusalem (1669-1707), who presided over the synod.
(text after Hardouin and Kimmel, with Latin translation); The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem translated from the Greek, with notes, by J.
The Holy See, jealous of the growing power of the house of Luxemburg, attempted to set aside the decrees of the congress of Visegred, by urging Casimir to take up arms against the knights once more; but Casimir prudently refrained from hostilities, and ultimately compensated himself in the southeast for his losses in the north.
Before his arrival, however, he issued simultaneously three separate decrees - one granting a general amnesty, another convoking a national convention at Ocana, and a third for establishing constitutional order throughout Colombia.
His brief statement of the papal powers as he decrees."
The bishop of Rome, who enjoys a unique title, that of " pope," may annul the decrees of all other powers, since he judges all but is judged by none.
Thomas Aquinas was the first theologian to describe the Church as a divinely organized absolute monarchy, whose head concentrated in his person the entire authority of the Church, and was the source of all the ecclesiastical law (conditor juris), issuing the decrees of general councils in his own name, and claiming the right to revoke or modify the decrees of former councils - indeed, to make exceptions or to set aside altogether anything which did not rest upon the dictates of divine or natural law.
The German diet of Regensburg (1439) ratified in the main the decrees of the council of Basel, which clearly gratified the electors, princes and prelates; and Germany for the first time joined the ranks of the countries which subjected the decrees of the highest ecclesiastical instance to the placet or approval of the civil authorities.
This gave the princes an excuse for the theory that the decrees of Constance and Basel were still in force, limiting the papal prerogatives in all respects not noticed in the concordat.
It was clear from the first that the decisions of the council would be uncompromising in character, and that the Protestants would certainly refuse to be bound by its decrees.
On the other hand, the impartial historical student cannot compare the Thirty-nine Articles with the contemporaneous canons and decrees of the council of Trent without being impressed by striking contrasts between the two sets of dogmas.
In the matter of the pope's supremacy, the council followed the canon law and Thomas Aquinas, not the decrees of the council of Constance.
Their council acquired, too, in conjunction with the assembly, with or without the cooperation of the Five Hundred (or Six Hundred), the right to pass decrees and to represent their city in foreign relations (C.I.A.
Fitful attempts were made elsewhere to carry out the decrees, and in 1336 Benedict XII.
It does not happen, however, that the papal definition of 1854 employs the word " dogma "; that honour was withheld from the word until the Vatican decrees of 1870 affirmed the personal infallibility of the pope as divinitus revelatum dogma.
The same council defines not indeed dogma but faith - inseparable from dogma - as4 (1) revealed, (a) in Scripture or (b) in unwritten tradition, and (2) taught by the church, (a) in formulated decrees, or (b) in her ordinary magisterium.
These divisions and subdivisions are not numbered in the Decrees, as for clearness they have been numbered above.
Also Roman Catholic writers could accept the definition in so far as 5 Three zones apparently (1) the church's formal decrees, (2) the church's general teaching, (3) points of revelation which the church may not yet have overtaken.
The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.
On the 24th of February 1848 he was chosen by the Republicans as a member of the provisional government, and as minister of justice he secured the decrees abolishing the death penalty for political offences, and making the office of judge immovable.
As a member of the committee he signed its decrees and was thus at least technically responsible for the acts of the Reign of Terror.
He always made it clear that the ideal philosophy was Christocentric: he said that Reformed theology must "`Christologize ' predestination and decrees, regeneration and sanctification, the doctrine of the Church, and the whole of the Eschatology."
in Saxony, and accompanied him to Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle; to Reims he also summoned a meeting of the higher clergy, by which several important reforming decrees were passed.
In his Nobel address he said: "In any community of any size the authority of the courts rests upon actual potential force; on the existence of a police or on the knowledge that the able-bodied men of the country are both ready and willing to see that the decrees of judicial and legislative bodies are put into effect;" and he expressed the opinion that until a recognized international supreme court was firmly established, every nation must be prepared to defend itself, and when it was established all the nations must be prepared to maintain its decrees against any recalcitrant nation.
In the 9th and 10th century it was even made obligatory, by the decrees of the synods of Mainz (813) and Tribur (895), on priests throughout the Frank Empire to wear it at all times, especially when travelling.
So far as Spain is concerned there is evidence for it in the decrees of the 4th council of Toledo (633),(633), and for Rome that of the 8th century Ordo of Mabillon.
In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).
The situation was often such that Parliament would not work, and the Government was faced with the alternative of stopping the machine of State or availing itself of emergency decrees.
The Reichsrat's right of control was secured after the event by the fact that the Government was bound, the next time it assembled, to lay the emergency decrees before it within four weeks; and that it could refuse its ratification.
It was only in 1917 that the emergency decrees promulgated by the Stargkh Ministry at the beginning of the war failed to receive ratification, in retaliation for the suppression of trial by jury by a military trial and the extension over civilians of the j urisdiction of the military courts.
Neither Liberius nor Felix took part in the council of Rimini (359) After the death of the emperor Constantius in 361, Liberius annulled the decrees of that assembly, but, with the concurrence of SS.
This was done for the first time, in 1870, at the Vatican Council, whose decrees, recognizing the universal episcopate and the infallibility of the pope, marked the triumph of that ultramontane doctrine by which they had been long anticipated.
On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a charter of rights, known as "the Great Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state.
The Nestorian Church, following its leader, formally recognizes the Letter of Leo to Flavian and the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon.
It survived, however, in spite of royal decrees, but in an altered sense.
Maurice was promised some rights over the archbishopric of Magdeburg and the bishopric of Halberstadt; immunity, in part at least, for his subjects from the Tridentine decrees; and the question of transferring the electoral dignity was discussed.
The term apella does not occur in extant Spartan inscriptions, though two decrees of Gythium belonging to the Roman period refer to the p€y&Xac 67r4XXac (Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique, ii., Nos.
The first sejm to legislate for the whole of Poland was the diet of Piotrkow (1493), summoned by John Albert to grant him subsidies; but the mandates of its deputies were limited to twelve months, and its decrees were to have force for only three years.
He headed a protest by forty-four professors in the university of Munich, and gathered together a congress at Nuremberg, which met in August 1870 and issued a declaration adverse to theVatican decrees.
Instead of submitting, Dollinger, on the 28th of March 1871, addressed a memorable letter to the archbishop, refusing to subscribe the decrees.
They were, he said, opposed to Holy Scripture, to the traditions of the Church for the first loco years, to historical evidence, to the decrees of the general councils, and to the existing relations of the Roman Catholic Church to the state in every country in the world.
The momentous question was discussed at a meeting of the opponents of the Vatican decrees, and it was resolved to elect a bishop and ask the Dutch bishops to consecrate him.
This was the critical moment in the history of the resistance to the decrees.
trans., 1876); First Age of Christianity (1860); Lectures on the Reunion of the Churches; The Vatican Decrees; Studies in European History (tr.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
The French chambers alone possess the legislative power, though in the absence of express legislation decrees of the head of the state have the force of law.
This assimilative policy attained its culminating point in the so-called decrees of rattachement (1881), in pursuance of which each ministerial department in France was made responsible for Algerine affairs which came by their nature within its jurisdiction.
Unless countersigned by the juntas the decrees of Cortes and Spanish legislation or royal orders had no force in the Provinces.
The doctrines we are to believe (1) concerning the nature of God, (2) concerning the decrees of God and their execution - (a) in creation and providence, (b) in the covenant of works, (c) in the covenant of grace; II.
He increased the number of senators to goo and introduced provincials into that body; but instead of making it into a grand council of the empire, representative of its various races and nationalities, he treated it with studied contempt, and Cicero writes that his own name had been set down as the proposer of decrees of which he knew nothing, conferring the title of king on potentates of whom he had never heard.
The council of Trent, in its first period, seemed to increase the reputation of the Society; for the pope chose Laynez, Faber and Salmeron to act as his theologians in that assembly, and in this capacity they had no little influence in framing its decrees.
How, with this pope's support throughout his long reign, the gradual filling of nearly all the sees of Latin Christendom with bishops of their own selection, and their practical capture, directly or indirectly, of the education of the clergy in seminaries, they contrived to stamp out the last remains of independence everywhere, and to crown the Ultramontane triumph with the Vatican Decrees, is matter of familiar knowledge.
This was the principal outcome of Mason's persistent efforts to establish his rights to the land; for although he succeeded in procuring the appointment of officers who supported his claims, and although decrees were issued in his favour, the tenants, who contended that they had profited nothing from what his grandfather had done or that they were on lands which Wheelwright had bought from the Indians, resisted the enforcement of those decrees.
This was one of the acts brought up against him by the senatus-consulte of the 3rd of April 1814, which pronounced his fall "considering that he has violated the constitutional laws by the decrees on the state prisons."
Mayer, on the other hand, denies that the Constitutum can have been forged before the news of the iconoclastic decrees of the council of Constantinople of 754 had reached Rome.
albus, white), in ancient Rome, a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees, edicts and other public notices were inscribed in black.
He declares in one of his decrees that the generosity of a king should be limitless, and he acted up to this principle throughout his reign.
In 517 the council of Epaone in Burgundy forbade any but stone pillars to be consecrated with chrism; but of course the decrees of this provincial council would not necessarily be received throughout the church.
cipal objects of his activity, and this important side of his work received decisive sanction by the promulgation of the decrees of the fourth Lateran Council (1215).
Supreme in Europe, the papacy gathered into a body of doctrine of the decisions given in virtue of its enormous de facto power, and promulgated its collected decrees and oracula to form the immutable law of the Christian world.
employed their jurists to collect the most important of their rulings, and Gregory's decrees became the definitive repository of the canon law.
By these decrees - which created as the supreme authority within the Church a power which had not been appointed as such by Christ 1 - the members of the council of Constance sought to give their position a theoretical basis before proceeding to independent action against the pope.
The decrees enacted by that body made deep inroads on the rights of the Holy See; and the conflict increased in violence.
put into execution the reformatory decrees of Trent.
nature, he followed unswervingly in the path of his predecessors by consecrating his energies to the translation of the reformatory decrees into practice.
Constantine, while strongly disposed at first to enforce the Nicene decrees, was gradually won to a more conciliatory policy by the influence especially of Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his death-bed.
a number of cardinals whose duty it is to interpret the disciplinary Council decrees of the council of Trent, was instituted by Pius IV.
in 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes arising out of them.
The other commission, formerly charged with the revision of the decrees of provincial councils, was merged in the Congregation itself.
But later on, about 480, and throughout the following centuries, the Armenians rejected the decrees of Chalcedon and held that the assertion of two natures in Christ was a relapse into the heresy of Nestor.
The constitution of the order now rests on the decrees of the 16th of March and 24th of November 1852, the law of the 25th of July 1873, the decree of the 29th of December 1892, and the laws of the 16th of April 1895 and the 28th of January 1897, and a decree of the 26th of June 1goo.
They kept the keys of the treasury and had charge of its contents, including not only coin and bullion but also the military standards and a large number of public documents, which in later times comprised all the laws as well as the decrees of the senate.
He suspended (March 1903) the constitution for half an hour, time enough to publish the decrees by which the old senators and councillors of state were dismissed and replaced by new ones.
Early in his reign Albert made some concessions to the reformers, who were still strong in Bavaria; but about 1563 he changed his attitude, favoured the decrees of the council of Trent, and pressed forward the work of 1308, died in 1312, leaving a son, Henry III.
The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.
The burgomaster has the power to suspend any of the council's decrees for 30 days.
The decrees of councils would have no binding force "without the authority and consent of the apostolic see": appeals might be made to Rome against the decisions even of the patriarch of Constantinople: all bishops, including the patriarchs, if guilty of heresy or uncanonical proceedings, were subject to correction by the pope.
There were also Commentarii of the priestly colleges: (a) Pontificum, collections of their decrees and responses for future reference, to be distinguished from their Annales, which were historical records, and from their Acta, minutes of their meetings; (b) Augurum, similar collections of augural decrees and responses; (c) Decemvirorum; (d) Fratrum Arvalium.
Mention should also be made of the Commentarii Regum, containing decrees concerning the functions and privileges of the kings, and forming a record of the acts of the king in his capacity of priest.
They were drawn up in historical times like the so-called leges regiae (jus Papirianum), supposed to contain the decrees and decisions of the Roman kings.
Matters came to a climax at the council of Vienne in 1311 under Pope Clement V., where the "sect of Beguines and Beghards" were accused of being the main instruments of the spread of heresy, and decrees were passed suppressing their organization and demanding their severe punishment.
In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.
Martin published the decrees of his Lateran synod in an encyclical, and Constans replied by enjoining his exarch to seize the pope and send him prisoner to Constantinople.
Peter, who was present, adopted the view that Gentile Christians were free from the obligation of the law, and this view was put into the form of the so-called Apostolic decrees by James (Acts xv.
In modern practice, as definitively settled by the decrees of Pope Urban VIII.
Canonization is the solemn and definitive act by which the pope decrees the plenitude of public honours.
All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchies of Wurttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskammergeric/it, which the league again repudiated.
Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the church from within, and before he died in July 1564 the CounterRef ormation, fortified by, the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany and by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had begun.
Catholics urged the enforcement of the decrees of the council of Trent the serious differences among the Protestants received fresh proof from the attempt made to exclude the Calvinist prince Frederick III., elector palatine of the Rhine, from the benefits of the peace of Augsburg.
Henceforth its sole effective function was to endorse and promulgate the decrees of the government of Vienna.
In October, after a preliminary meeting between Metternich and Hardenberg, in the course of which the latter signed a convention pledging Prussia to Austrias system, a meeting of German ministers was held at Carlsbad, the discussion of which issued in the famous Carlsbad Decrees (October 17, 1819).
The Carlsbad Decrees, hurried through the diet under Austrian pressure, excited considerable opposition among the lesser sovereigns, who resented the claim of the diet to interfere in the internal concerns of their states, and whose protests at Frankfort had been expunged from the records.
So long as the repressive machinery instituted by the Carlsbad Decrees worked smoothly, Germany was not likely to be troubled by revolutions.
of the German problem; with his accustomed calculated bluntness he had more than once openly asserted that this problem could only be settled by Austria ceasing to influence the German courts and transferring her centre of gravity towards Budapest; with equal bluntness he told the committee on the budget, on the 30th of September 1862, that the problem could not be solved by parliamentary decrees, but only by blood and iron.
The latent opposition was aroused by the Vatican decrees.
During 1870 and 1871 meetings were held by the Gustavus Adolphus Verein, and a great Protestant conference was called, at which resolutions were passed demanding the expulsion of the Jesuits and condemning the Vatican decrees.
There was no great following among the people; it was only in isolated places that priests and congregation together asserted their rights to refuse to accept the decrees of the Church.
The archbishop of Munich had published the Vatican decrees without the Regium placetum, which was re~iuired by the constitution, and the government continued to treat Old Catholics as members of the Church.
The larger political reasons which had brought about the conflict were also no longer valid; the fears to which the Vatican decrees had given.
In conformity with the decrees of the council of Trent, he cleared the cathedral of its gorgeous tombs, rich ornaments, banners, arms, sparing not even the monuments of his own relatives.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
Meanwhile the old system of provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in Tirol and Vorarlberg, 1817 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond registering the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and dealing with matters of local police.
that the grant of a popular constitution would be fatal to the Prussian monarchy, this was through no love of Prussia; the Carlsbad Decrees and the Vienna Final Act were designed to keep Germany quiet, lest the sleep of Austria should be disturbed; the lofty claims of the Troppau Protocol were but to cover an Austrian aggression directed to purely Austrian ends; and in the Eastern Question, the moral support given to the " legitimate " authority of the sultan over the " rebel " Greeks was dictated solely by the interest of Austria in maintaining the integrity of Turkey.
Decrees having the force of law are issued by the imperial chancellor on the advice of the governor.
The circumstances of this decree (or decrees) are not material to the present argument (see Grote, History of Greece, ed.
Ultimately, however, he was induced to assent to and confirm the decrees of the council, and was allowed after an enforced absence of seven years to set out for Rome.
Even the Carian town of Mylasa now shows the forms of a Greek city and records its public decrees in Greek (C.I.G.
A list is given (fragmentary) of other Greek cities in Babylonia and beyond from which similar decrees had come.
The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.
While the patient fellah, resigned to the decrees Of the Almighty, saw the ruling Egyptian class hurry away from Cairo, he saw also those of his comrades who were stricken tenderly nursed, soothed in deaths struggles, and in many cases actually washed, laid out and interred by their new self-sacrificing and determined masters.
Affairs were decided in accordance with the code of the country, rijs xd-,pac vjsot, the Greek code, Ii-oXtnKOi vbuoi, modelled, it would seem, on Athenian law or royal decrees, ~rpoisrhyuara.
quarried largely, and left a series of great granite decrees along his Suez canal; he also built the great temple in the oasis of Kharga.
This council did little more than register the decrees of the French commander, who continued to exercise dictatorial power.
The whole question of the provisional financial decrees was ultimately regularized by a special resolution of the Rigsdag; and the retirement of the Estrup ministry in August 1894 was the immediate result of the compromise.
He distinguished himself at the council of Ferrara-Florence, and in 1 444 was made bishop of Bologna by Pope Eugenius IV., who soon afterwards named him as one of the legates charged to negotiate at the convention of Frankfort an understanding between the Holy See and the Empire with regard to the reforming decrees of the council of Basel.
With the German king, Frederick III., he made the Concordat of Vienna, or Aschaffenburg (February 17, 1448), by which the decrees of the council of Basel against papal annates and reservations were abrogated so far as Germany was concerned; and in the following year he secured a still greater triumph when the resignation of the anti-pope Felix V.
The first of these comprised: (i.) all such of the statutes (leges) passed under the republic and early empire as had not become obsolete; (ii.) the decrees of the senate (senatus consulta) passed at the end of the republic and during the first two centuries of the empire; (iii.) the writings of the jurists of the later republic and of the empire, and more particularly of those jurists to whom the right of declaring the law with authority (jus respondendi) had been committed by the emperors.
The Monophysites sometimes alleged that they could not accept the decrees of the council of Chalcedon because that council had not condemned, but (as they argued) virtually approved, three writers tainted with Nestorian principles, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret, and Ibas, bishop of Edessa.
Its decrees were received in the East but long contested in the Western Church, where a schism arose that lasted for seventy years.
Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist Kotzebue, Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of " the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples," as formulated in the Carlsbad decrees, 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support " a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power."
In the first edition of the Loci (1521) he held, to the length of fatalism, the Augustinian doctrine of irresistible grace, working according to God's immutable decrees, and denied freedom of will in matters civil and religious alike.
He was absent from the important sitting of the 18th of June 1870, and did not send in his submission to the decrees until 1871, when he explained in a pastoral letter that the dogma "referred only to doctrine given forth ex cathedra, and therein to the definitions proper duly, but not to its proofs or explanations."
The last four volumes of the second edition of his History of the Councils have been described as skilfully adapted to the new situation created by the Vatican decrees.
Opposed to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time.
The jus episcopale which Luther afterwards claimed for the secular authorities had been practically exercised in Saxony and Brandenburg; cities and districts had framed police regulations which set aside ecclesiastical decrees about holidays and begging; the supervision of charity was passing from the hands of the church into those of laymen; and religious confraternities which did not take their guidance from the clergy were increasing.
The ephors summoned and presided over meetings of the Gerousia and Apella, and formed the executive committee responsible for carrying out decrees.
He appears to have followed his master to Constantinople, and to have taken part in the Three Chapters controversy; in 553, at all events, he signed the "constitutum" of Vigilius in favour of these, and for refusing, with him, to accept the decrees of the fifth general council (the 2nd of Constantinople, 553) shared his exile.
While refraining from making any pronouncement as to the validity of the decrees of the fourth and fifth sessions, which had seemed to proclaim the superiority of the council over the pope, Martin V.
He displayed similar wisdom and liberality in political affairs by appointing a commission to prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial decrees, which should form the authoritative code for his Roman subjects.
Hairdressers were made into alcaldes, and sailors were transformed into gobernadors by the miraculous grace of royal decrees.
The more advanced Filipinos desired the fulfilment of the decrees of the Council of Trent whereby the incumbencies in Christianized towns and villages should be held by regular clergy and not by friars.
While the authority of Augustine received lip-homage, the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church became more Pelagian, and in the Tridentine decrees and still more in the ethics of the Jesuits, in spite of the opposition of Jansenism, Pelagianism at last triumphed.
He was condemned at Rome, and in a letter to The Times (loth of September 1884) declares that it was on account of his disobedience to the decrees of the Roman Congregation: "I am a dutiful son of the Church who hesitates to obey an order of his mother because he does not see clear enough the maternal authority in it."
Finally he accepted the decrees against him and retracted "all that he said contrary to the faith, morals and discipline of the Church."
In the older and larger towns it soon went beyond what the bishops thought proper to tolerate; conflicts ensued; and in the 13th century several bishops obtained decrees in the imperial court, either to suppress the Rat altogether, or to make it subject to their nomination, and more particularly to abolish the Ungeld, as detrimental to episcopal finances.
But when it came to carrying into effect these Roncaglian decrees, a general rising resulted.
Its principal products are cotton, wheat and opium - the anti-opium decrees of 1906 had little effect on the province up to 1910 - and these it exchanges with the neighbouring provinces for coal, iron, salt, &c. Kao-liang, pulse, millet, maize, groundnut, barley, beans, pease, lucerne, and rape seed are also grown.
Again the Roman Church unhesitatingly reaffirms the ancient principles in their extreme form (Syllabus, paragraphs 8-9-13; Decrees of the Vatican Council, chapter 4, note especially canon 4-2).
The Monophysites, who like the Greeks knew themselves simply as the Orthodox, were grievously persecuted by the emperor Justinian and the graecizing patriarchs of Antioch, because they rejected the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, in which they - not without good reason - saw nothing but a thinly veiled relapse into those opinions of Nestorius which the previous council of Ephesus had condemned.
He soon deserted his antiInfallibilist colleagues, and submitted to the decrees in August 1870.
When old-fashioned theologians talked about the canons and councils of antiquity, Laynez answered that the Church was not more infallible at one time than another; the Holy Ghost spoke through the decrees of Trent quite as plainly and directly as through the primitive Fathers.
While the council was still sitting the Bavarian minister, Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, suggested to Bismarck that the 'Powers would do well to bring its deliberations to an end; and immediately after the publication of its decrees Austria notified the pope that so vast an extension of the Church's claims would necessitate a revision of the concordat.
Of these last three have taken place - their decrees, when approved at Rome, are binding on all Catholics in the United States.
Not only do the cases, so far as they are known, support Bacon's plea of innocence, but it is remarkable that no attempt at a reversal of any of his numerous decrees appears to have been successful.
Had his decrees been wilful perversions of justice, it is scarcely conceivable that some of them should not have been overturned.
For the next three or four centuries there is little to note but the continual evidence of open or secret resistance to these decrees, and the parallel frequency and stringency of ecclesiastical legislation, which by its very monotony bears witness to its own want of success.
Dr Lea is probably right in suggesting that it was a confused recollection of these decrees which prompted one of Cranmer's judges to assure him that "his children were bondmen to the see of Canterbury."
He advocated that dogmatic decrees should go together with those on reform as affording the only stable foundation.
He endeavoured to please both parties by steering a middle course in reference to the Chalcedon decrees, but was induced after great hesitation to agree to the request of Anastasius that he should accept the Henoticon, or decree of union, issued by the emperor Zeno.
to do little more than register the royal decrees; but nevertheless it continued to exist as an essential part of the machinery of government.
In addition to the prerogatives commonly invested in his office, the president is authorized to supervise the judiciary, to nominate candidates for the higher ecclesiastical offices, to intervene in the enforcement of ecclesiastical decrees, papal bulls, &c., to exercise supervisory police powers, and to appoint the intendants of provinces and the governors of departments, who in turn appoint the sub-delegates and inspectors of subordinate political divisions.
7 At ordinations they were used, as is shown by the 6th canon of the council of Carthage (398), which decrees that the acolyte is to hand to the newly ordained deacon ceroferarium cum cereo.
This was simply the old Roman jurisprudence embodied in the legislation of Justinian, modified by custom and legislative decrees during the course of the centuries which witnessed the growth of civilization in Europe; and it is to all intents and purposes the jurisprudence which was the foundation of the Code Napoleon.
Still it is impossible to say with certainty what decrees were actually passed at Vienne.
The constitution empowered the sovereign to veto any bill, to dissolve or prorogue the cortes, and to govern by means of ministerial decrees.
town where it desires to be represented, and unsalaried, the consular body proper was, by the decrees of July 10, 1880, and April 27, 1883, practically constituted a branch of the diplomatic service.
Accordingly in June 1654 he set sail for Lisbon to plead the cause of the Indians, and in April 1655 he obtained from the king a series of decrees which placed the missions under the Company of Jesus, with himself as their superior, and prohibited the enslavement of the natives, except in certain specified cases.
They finally stated " that they would defend the law of our Lord Jesus Christ and its pious, humble and steadfast preachers at the cost of their blood, scorning all fear and all human decrees that might be contrary to them.
Though he published new decrees against the Bohemian Brethren, he generally refused to sanction any measures against the Protestants, in spite of the advice of the Jesuits, who were gradually obtaining great influence in Bohemia.
After a brief interval he was succeeded by Count Thun and then by Count Clary, whose government repealed the decrees that had to a certain extent granted equal rights to the Bohemian language.
His dominant ideas were horror of bloodshed and the determination to accept unresistingly all, even unjust, decrees of the worldly authorities.
It consists of (a) those churches which have accepted all the decrees of the first seven general councils, and have remained in full communion with one another, (b) such churches as have derived their origin from these by missionary activity, or by abscission without loss of communion.
All the churches of the East, schismatic as well as orthodox, accept unreservedly the decrees of the first two councils.
The Nestorians accept the decisions of the first two councils, and reject the decrees of all the rest as unwarranted alterations of the creed of Nicaea.
Hence the Nestorians, who insisted upon the duality of the natures to such a degree as to lose sight of the unity of the person, and who rejected the term Theotokos, repudiated the decrees both of Ephesus and of Chalcedon, and upon the promulgation of the decrees of Chalcedon formally separated from the church.
The Orthodox Greek Church adopts the doctrinal decisions of the seven oecumenical councils, together with the canons of the Concilium Quinisextum or second Trullan council (692); and they further hold that all these definitions and canons are simply explanations and enforcements of the Nicaeo-Constantinopolitan creed and the decrees of the first council of Nicaea.
The sixth declared against Monothelitism; the seventh sanctioned the worship (30vXda, not etXnOt y) Aarpdia) of images; the council held in the Trullus (a saloon in the palace at Constantinople) supplemented by canons of discipline the doctrinal decrees of the fifth and sixth councils.
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