Decomposition Sentence Examples
This investigator held that the decomposition of the sugar molecules takes place outside the cell wall.
Adding moisture speeds up decomposition.
The digestion of fat or oil has not been adequately investigated, but its decomposition in germinating seeds has been found to be due to an enzyme, which has been called lipase.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
It was discovered in 1838 by Piria as a decomposition product of salicin.Advertisement
Potassium permanganate in acid solution oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water; the manganese sulphate formed has a catalytic accelerating effect on the decomposition.
The intermediate summits occurring in the freezing-point curves of alloys are usually rounded; this feature is believed to be due to the partial decomposition of the compound which takes place when it melts.
Pliny shows that for this purpose the gold was placed on the fire in an earthen vessel with treble its weight of salt, and that it was afterwards again exposed to the fire with two parts of salt and one of argillaceous rock, which, in the presence of moisture, effected the decomposition of the salt; by this means the silver became converted into chloride.
It owes its value to the decomposition described above, by means of which a powerful antiseptic action is safely and continuously exerted.
Its advantages rest on its high density and mobility; its main disadvantages are its liability to decomposition, the originally colourless liquid becoming dark owing to the separation of iodine, and its high coefficient of expansion.Advertisement
Sir John Murray finds the source of the phosphoric acid to be the decomposition of large quantities of animal matter, and he illustrates this by the well-known circumstance of the death of vast shoals of fish when warm Gulf-Stream water displaces the cold current which usually extends to the American coast.
As well as the finest of terrigenous clay there is present in sea-water far from land a different clay derived from the decomposition of volcanic material.
It is, however, a curious question how, considering the increase of carbonic acid by the decomposition of organic bodies and possible submarine exhalations of volcanic origin, the water has not in some places become saturated and a precipitate of amorphous calcium carbonate formed in the deepest water.
Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.
Continuing these experiments, they found that in acetylene gas under ordinary pressures the decomposition brought about in one portion of the gas, either by heat or the firing in it of a small detonator, did not spread far beyond the point at which the decomposition started, while if the acetylene was compressed to a pressure of more than 30 lb on the square inch, the decomposition travelled throughout the mass and became in reality detonation.Advertisement
It has since been shown, however, that unless the gas is at a pressure of more than two atmospheres this wave soon dies out, and the decomposition is only propagated a few inches from the detonator.
The purity of the carbide entirely depends on the purity of the material used in its manufacture, and before this fact had been fully grasped by manufacturers, and only the purest material obtainable employed, it contained notable quantities of compounds which during its decomposition by water yielded a somewhat high pro portion of impurities in the acetylene generated from it.
On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed.
Sulphuretted hydrogen, which is invariably present in commercial acetylene, is formed by the decomposition of aluminium sulphide.
Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.Advertisement
The decomposition of the carbide by water may be brought about either by bringing the water slowly into contact with an excess of carbide, or by dropping the carbide into an excess of water, and these two main operations again may be varied by innumerable ingenious devices by which the rapidity of the contact may be modified or even eventually stopped.
The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation.
Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
At a red heat ammonia is easily decomposed into its constituent elements, a similar decomposition being brought about by the passage of electric sparks through the gas.Advertisement
It gradually turns yellow on standing in moist air, owing to decomposition with liberation of iodine.
It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.
The aqueous solutions of all the carbonates when boiled undergo decomposition with liberation of ammonia and of carbon dioxide.
Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is prepared by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
Fluorides can be readily detected by their power of etching glass when warmed with sulphuric acid; or by warming them in a glass tube with concentrated sulphuric acid and holding a moistened glass rod in the mouth of the tube, the water apparently gelatinizes owing to the decomposition of the silicon fluoride formed.
The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.
Lavoisier (1781-1788) first proved it to be an oxide of carbon by burning carbon in the oxygen obtained from the decomposition of mercuric oxide.
It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite, malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite, witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates with mineral acids, M2C03+2HC1=2MCl-FH 2 O+CO 2.
If wet it oxidizes the products of decomposition.
Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Besides these, other double cyanides are known which do not suffer such decomposition, the heavy metal present being combined with the cyanogen radical in the form of a complexion.
They are mostly colourless liquids which boil without decomposition, or solids of low melting point.
In this reaction a glycerol ester is formed as an intermediate product, and undergoes decomposition by the water which is also produced at the same time.
In 1835, in a paper on "The Prismatic Decomposition of Electrical Light," he proved that sparks from different metals give distinctive spectra, which afforded a ready means of discriminating between them.
In the Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Mountains Regions the surface soil is generally sandy, but in considerable areas the subsoil is a red clay derived largely from the decomposition of hornblende.
Benzene-azoethane, C 6 H 5 N 2 C 2 H 5, is a yellow oil which boils at about 180 C. with more or less decomposition.
The disease is characterized by the decomposition of the blood; in fact it is really a form of dropsy.
Such spectra seem to be characteristic of complex molecular structure, as they appear when compounds are raised to incandescence without decomposition, or when we examine the absorption spectra of vapours such as iodine and bromine and other cases where we know that the molecule consists of more than one atom.
It occurs free in bitter almonds, being formed by an enzyme decomposition of amygdalin.
The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high degree of acidity.
A treatise on the analysis of thought (Sur la decomposition de la pensee), although sent to press, was never printed.
It may also be obtained by the decomposition of boracite with hot hydrochloric acid.
Further he prepared a large number of substances, including the chlorides and other salts of lead, tin, iron, zinc, copper, antimony and arsenic, and he even noted some of the phenomena of double decomposition.
Should now try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax, glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which by decomposition is destroyed, i.e.
On the other hand, solution of mineral acids and salts conduct the current with chemical decomposition - they are called electrolytes.
Alumina itself is so refractory that it cannot be melted save by the oxyhydrogen blowpipe or the electric arc, and except in the molten state it is not susceptible of decomposition by any chemical reagent.
Rose also carried out experiments on the decomposition of cryolite, and expressed an opinion that it was the best of all compounds for reduction; but, finding the yield of metal to be low, receiving a report of the difficulties experienced in mining the ore, and fearing to cripple his new industry by basing it upon the employment of a mineral of such uncertain supply, Deville decided to keep to his chlorides.
Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.
The charge was reduced by means of a 50-volt current from a Soo-kilowatt dynamo, which was passed through the furnace for 12 hours till decomposition was complete.
That this process did not depend upon electrolysis, but was simply an instance of electrical smelting or the decomposition of an oxide by means of carbon at the temperature of the electric arc, is shown by the fact that the Cowles furnace would work with an alternating current.
Natural soils consist of substances derived from the decomposition of various kinds of rocks, the bulk consisting of clay, silica and lime, in various proportions.
The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water.
It is, indeed, probable that it is formed in the intestine, as a result of some decomposition as yet unknown.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
It may be prepared by the electrolysis of acidulated water, by the decomposition of water by various metals or metallic hydrides, and by the action of many metals on acids or on bases.
Other authors have sought the origin of the diamond in the action of the hydrated magnesian silicates on hydrocarbons derived from bituminous schists, or in the decomposition of metallic carbides.
Before its fall the leaf has become dry owing to loss of water and the removal of the protoplasm and food substances to the stem for use next season; the red and yellow colouring matters are products of decomposition of the chlorophyll.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
Chalcedony occurs as a secondary mineral in volcanic rocks, representing usually the silica set free by the decomposition of various silicates, and deposited in cracks, forming veins, or in vesicular hollows, forming amygdales.
The brown tints often seen in glazed objects are almost always the result of the decomposition of green glazes containing iron.
It is not surprising that the chemical substances produced in it by the decomposition of its living material should not be of a nature indifferent for muscular life.
At times sodium sulphate is added to the brine, producing sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate by double decomposition with the magnesium chloride.
Thallous sulphate, T1 2 SO 4, forms rhombic prisms, soluble in water, which melt at a red heat with decomposition, sulphur dioxide being evolved.
Considerations of weight had long prevented Lavoisier from accepting this doctrine, but he was now able to explain the process fully, showing that the hydrogen evolved did not come from the metal itself, but was one product of the decomposition of the water of the dilute acid, the other product, oxygen, combining with the metal to form an oxide which in turn united with the acid.
The principles of the condensation, that is of converting the gaseous hydrochloric acid given off during the decomposition of common salt into a strong solution of this gas in water, can be summarized in a few words.
On a small scale it is possible to push the decomposition as far as 90% of the hydrochloric acid, but on the large scale only at most 60% is reached.
The bleaching-powder casks must be kept in a dry place, as cool as possible, and never exposed to the direct rays of the sun, in order to prevent a decomposition which now and then has even led to explosions.
Phosphorus pentachloride converts them into alkyl chlorides, a similar decomposition taking place when they are heated with the haloid acids.
It has usually been formed by the decomposition in situ of the rock on which it rests, but it is often broken up and re-deposited elsewhere.
The reason why two levels are employed is that sometimes crystals are formed by the decomposition of the glass which cause the bubble to stick at different points and so give false readings.
Nickel sesquioxide, N1203, is formed when the nitrate is decomposed by heat at the lowest possible temperature, by a similar decomposition of the chlorate, or by fusing the chloride with potassium chlorate.
When perfectly pure, the hexachloride is stable even in moist air, but the presence of an oxychloride brings about energetic decomposition; similarly water has no action on the pure compound, but a trace of the oxychloride occasions sudden decomposition into a greenish oxide and hydrochloric acid.
It is unaffected by moist air or cold water, and even when boiled with water the decomposition is incomplete.
Decomposition takes place and the issuing gas contains 18-20% of chlorine.
The solution of chlorine in water, when freshly prepared, possesses a yellow colour, but on keeping becomes colourless, on account of its decomposition into hydrochloric acid and oxygen.
The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water.
Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon compounds, and the alkali metals react violently with the gas, taking fire with explosive decomposition.
Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.
The acid is only known in aqueous solution, and only dilute solutions can be distilled without decomposition.
Further concentration leads to decomposition, with evolution of oxygen and formation of perchloric acid.
They may be prepared by dissolving or suspending a metallic oxide or hydroxide in water and saturating the solution with chlorine; by double decomposition; or by neutralizing a solution of chloric acid by a metallic oxide, hydroxide or carbonate.
The modern process consists in the electrolysis of a hot solution of potassium chloride, or, preferably, the formation of sodium chlorate by the electrolytic method and its subsequent decomposition by potassium chloride.
A very gentle heating gives decomposition approximating to the equation of 22KC103=14KC10 4 +8KC1+50 2, whilst on a more rapid heating the quantities correspond more nearly to loKC10 3 = 6KC104+4KC1+ 302.
The decomposition is rendered more easy and regular by mixing the salt with powdered manganese dioxide.
Its remarkable efficacy in healing ulcers of the mouth - for which it is the specific - has been ascribed to a decomposition effected by the carbonic acid which is given off from these ulcers.
In 1806 Davy communicated to the Royal Society of London a celebrated paper on some " Chemical Agencies of Electricity," and after providing himself at the Royal Institution of London with a battery of several hundred cells, he announced in 1807 his great discovery of the electrolytic decomposition of the alkalis, potash and soda, obtaining therefrom the metals potassium and sodium.
The sodium ammonium salt is not capable of decomposition into its optical antipodes, as is sodium ammonium racemate.
In the stomach we aid the vomiting by which microbes or the products of decomposition of food are usually eliminated by giving to the patient repeated draughts of hot water so as to wash the stomach clean.
The food thus reaches the stomach in large lumps which cannot be readily digested, and either remain there till they decompose and give rise to irritation in the stomach itself, or pass on to the intestine, where digestion is likewise incomplete, and the food is ejected without the proper amount of nourishment having been extracted from it; while at the same time the products of its decomposition may have been absorbed and acted as poisons, giving rise to lassitude, discomfort, headache, or perhaps even to irritability and sleeplessness.
Flatulent distension in the stomach or bowels is partly due to air which has been swallowed and partly to gas which has been formed by the decomposition of food.
Amongst the loose tissue of the leaf numerous transparent threads are shown; these are the mycelial threads or spawn of the fungus; wherever they touch the leaf-cells they pierce or break down the tissue, and so set up decomposition, as indicated by the darker shading.
Antimonyl chloride, SbOC1, is produced by the decomposition of one part of the trichloride with four parts of water.
He concluded that the gases are due to the decomposition of an organic colouring matter, which has, however, no connexion with the fluorescence or thermo-luminescence of the mineral.
Moissan, contains only a trifling amount of morphia, and the effect produced by it is apparently due, not to that alkaloid, but to such decomposition products as pyrrol, acetone and pyridine and hydropyridine bases.
In order to facilitate the decomposition of the silver-mineral, salt and magistral, i.e.
The decomposition of salt is expressed by 2NaC1+2S0 3 = Na2S04+S02+C12.
He also sketched a theory of chemical affinity on the facts he had discovered, and concluded by suggesting that the electric decomposition of neutral salts might in some cases admit of economical applications and lead to the isolation of the true elements of bodies.
It is a decomposition product of various alkaloids (nicotine, sparteine, cinchonine, &c.), being formed when they are strongly heated either alone or with zinc dust.
Its salts, the selenates, are obtained by the oxidation of the selenites, and the free acid may be obtained by the decomposition of the lead or barium salt.
This product is largely derived from the nuclei of the leucocytes, which contain large quantities of the nucleo-proteids, of which uric acid is a decomposition product.
It is manufactured from the magnesium bromide contained in "bittern" (the mother liquor of the salt industry), by two processes, the continuous and the periodic. The continuous process depends upon the decomposition of the bromide by chlorine, which is generated in special stills.
The solution is of an orange-red colour, and is quite permanent in the dark, but on exposure to light, gradually becomes colourless, owing to decomposition into hydrobromic acid and oxygen.
By passing the products of the decomposition of calcium phosphide with water over granular calcium chloride, the P 2 H 4 gives a new hydride, P1.2H6 and phosphine, the former being an odourless, canary-yellow, amorphous powder.
Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. 972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
With dilute alkalis phosphites are slowly formed, but with concentrated solutions the decomposition follows the same course as with hot water.
The aqueous solution may be boiled without decomposition, but on concentration it yields phosphorous and phosphoric acids.
Numerous derivatives of isoquinoline are obtained in the decomposition of various vegetable alkaloids.
The re-formed nitrous acid, although not stable, any more than is its anhydride, N203, is nevertheless the j` oxygen carrier" in question, as the products of its spontaneous decomposition, when meeting with other compounds, always react like nitrous acid itself and thus may transfer an indefinite quantity of oxygen to the corresponding quantities of SO 2 and H 2 O, with the corresponding formation of H2S04.
Hence we find that the tar is formed of two distinct sets of products, the first due to incomplete decomposition and the second to secondary reactions due to the products of the decomposition being kept too long in the zone of heat.
In carburetting such a gas by injecting mineral oil into the retort, many of the products of the decomposition of the oil being vapours, it would be wasteful to do so for the first two hours, as a rich gas is being given off which has not the power of carrying in suspension a much larger quantity of hydrocarbon vapours without being supersaturated with them.
Undoubtedly the best process which has been proposed for the production of oil gas to be used in the enrichment of coal gas is the" Young "or" Peebles "process, which depends on the principle of washing the oil gas retorted at a moderate temperature by means of oil which is afterwards to undergo decomposition, because in this way it is freed from all condensible vapours, and only permanent gases are allowed to escape to the purifiers.
The decomposition of steam by passing it through a red-hot gunbarrel, resulting in the liberation of hydrogen and the production of magnetic iron oxide, Fe 3 0 4, is a familiar laboratory method for preparing hydrogen (q.v.).
Observe that for a determinant of the n-th order, taking the decomposition to be r + (n - I), we fall back upon the equations given at the commencement, in order to show the genesis of a determinant.
The pentoxide, V205, is obtained when ammonium metavanadate is strongly heated, on calcining the sulphide, or by the decomposition of vanadyl trichloride with water.
He also proved that the process of liquid diffusion causes partial decomposition of certain chemical compounds, the potassium sulphate, for instance, being separated from the aluminium sulphate in alum by the higher diffusibility of the former salt.
The remains then change to buff colour, afterwards turning brown, when decomposition sets in, and as the bacilli present in the dead larvae increase and the nutrient matter is consumed, the mass in some cases becomes sticky and ropy in character, making its removal impossible by the bees.
Gattermann (Berichte, 1890, 23, 1226) has also prepared it by the decomposition of a solution of phenyldiazonium sulphate with alcohol and copper powder.
At the same time other substances are produced as decomposition goes on.
These clays are produced by the decomposition of the granite by acid vapours, which are discharged after the igneous rock has solidified ("fumarole or pneumatolytic action").
This substance can be washed without decomposition.
The project for producing alkali by the decomposition of salt posed a serious threat to the industry.
The singular value decomposition is given by where the columns of are orthonormal and is a diagonal square-root matrix.
The presence of water appearing thus to prevent any decomposition, I used potash in igneous fusion.
Abstract Fourier decomposition is a well-established technique used in the study of stellar pulsation.
With dry summers, exposure of the litter can stop decomposition completely.
Berglund (Berichte, 18 74, 7, p. 469), in aqueous solution, by dissolving ammonium cobaltocobaltisulphite (NH4)2C02 [(S03) 6 'C02] 14H 2 O in dilute hydrochloric or nitric acids, or by decomposition of its silver salt with hydrochloric acid.
Against the first kind of argument, as formulated by Moses Mendelssohn, Kant advances the objection that, although we may deny the soul extensive quantity, division into parts, yet we cannot refuse to it intensive quantity, degrees of reality; and consequently its existence may be terminated not by decomposition, but by gradual diminution of its powers (or to use the term he coined for the purpose, by elanguescence).
The secretion wets an insect very rapidly, but, so far as is known, seems to be completely destitute of digestive power - indeed, rather to accelerate decomposition.
He who thus obeys it will attain tranquillity of mind; nothing can irritate him, for everything is according to nature, and death itself "is such as generation is, a mystery of nature, a composition out of the same elements, and a decomposition into the same, and altogether not a thing of which any man should be ashamed, for it is not contrary to the nature of a reasonable animal, and not contrary to the reason of our constitution."
Whenever complex bodies are built up from simple ones we have an absorption of energy in some form and its conversion into potential energy; whenever decomposition of complex bodies into simpler ones takes place we have the liberation of some or all of the energy that was used in their construction.
It is covered with a thick sheet of black earth, a kind of loess, mixed with 5 to 15% of humus, due to the decomposition of an herbaceous vegetation, which developed luxuriantly during the Lacustrine period on a continent relatively dry even at that epoch.
Substances with positive heats of formation are termed exothermic; those with negative heats of formation are termed endothermic. The latter, which are not very numerous, give out heat on decomposition into their elements, and are more or less unstable.
Glycerin acts as a preservative against decomposition, owing to its antiseptic qualities, which also led to its being employed to preserve untanned leather (especially during transit when exported, the hides being, moreover, kept soft and supple); to make solutions of gelatin, albumen, gum, paste, cements, &c. which will keep without decomposition; to preserve meat and other edibles; to mount anatomical preparations; to preserve vaccine lymph unchanged; and for many similar purposes.
The hydrocarbon C20H42, for example, might be resolved into C5H12+C15H30, or CEH14+C14H28, or C7H16 +C13H26, &c., the general equation of the decomposition being C„1-1 27, ± 2 (paraffin) =G_rH2(, - P)+2 (paraffin)+C P H 2 n (olefine).
During the earliest investigation of the subject it was thought that, since hydrogen and oxygen were usually evolved, the electrolysis of solutions of acids and alkalis was to be regarded as a direct decomposition of water.
Chlorophyll is not soluble in water, nor in acids or alkalies without decomposition.
The material and the energy go together, the decomposition of the one in the cell setting free the other, which is used at once in the vital processes of the cell, being in fact largely employed in constructing protoplasm or storing various products.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.
In the case of separation from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the form obtained.
The addition of a little of the acid to glue renders it more tenacious; skins to be used for making leather do not undergo decomposition if steeped in a dilute solution; butter containing a small quantity of it may be kept sweet for months even in the hottest weather.
Sodium salicylate circulates in the blood unchanged, decomposition occurring in the kidney, and probably in tissues suffering from the Diplococcus rheumaticus of Poynton and Paine.
When the body was exhibited to the people the next day it was in a shocking state of decomposition, which of course strengthened the suspicion of poison.
He also investigated the diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties of substances; and was keenly interested in the phenomena of electrochemical decomposition, accumulating much evidence in favour of Faraday's law and proposing a modified statement of it which was intended to cover certain apparent exceptions.
But the Peckhams' careful observations and experiments show that, with the American wasps, the victims stored in the nests are quite as often dead as alive; that those which are only paralysed live for a varying number of days, some more, some less; that wasp larvae thrive just as well on dead victims, sometimes dried up, sometimes undergoing decomposition, as on living and paralysed prey; that the nerve-centres are not stung with the supposed uniformity; and that in some cases paralysis, in others death, follows when the victims are stung in parts far removed from any nerve-centre.
They are either colourless liquids, which boil without decomposition, or crystalline solids; and are both basic and acidic in character.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
Animals cannot make use of these decomposition products, but the plants can.
The general trend of these researches lies in the study of the decomposition or " breaking down " products of the albumin molecules; once these are accurately determined, the synthesis of an albumin is but a matter of time.
Already we have proceeded far in our knowledge of the decomposition products, and certain simple proteids have been synthesized.
By further decomposition peptones yield peptides, a certain number of which have been synthesized by Emil Fischer and his collaborators.
The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature.
The volume of the hydrogen was about double that of the oxygen, and, since this is the ratio in which these elements are combined in water, it was concluded that the process con sisted essentially in the decomposition of water.
This observation showed that nascent hydrogen was not, as had been supposed, the primary cause of the separation of metals from their solutions, but that the action consisted in a direct decomposition into metal and acid.
He had shown previously that decomposition of water could be effected although the two poles were placed in separate vessels connected by moistened threads.
Acting on this view, Faraday set himself to examine the relation between the flow of electricity round the circuit and the amount of chemical decomposition.
A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.
In aqueous solutions, for instance, a few hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) ions derived from the water are always present, and will be liberated if the other ions require a higher decomposition voltage and the current be kept so small that hydrogen and hydroxyl ions can be formed fast enough to carry all the current across the junction between solution and electrode.
At the electrodes, however, the small quantity of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions from the water are liberated first in cases where the ions of the salt have a higher decomposition voltage.
The obvious phenomena to be explained by any theory of electrolysis are the liberation of the products of chemical decomposition at the two electrodes while the intervening liquid is unaltered.
If two solutions containing the salts AB and CD be mixed, double decomposition is found to occur, the salts AD and CB being formed till a certain part of the first pair of substances is transformed into an equivalent amount of the second pair.
The tests for a salt, potassium nitrate, for example, are the tests not for KNO 3, but for its ions K and NO 3, and in cases of double decomposition it is always these ions that are exchanged for those of other substances.
If an aqueous solution of methyl acetate be allowed to stand, a slow decomposition goes on.
If we connect together in series a single Daniell's cell, a galvanometer, and two platinum electrodes dipping into acidulated water, no visible chemical decomposition ensues.
This current is accompanied by chemical decomposition.
Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.
If the plates be covered with a deposit of platinum black, in which the gases are absorbed as fast as they are produced, the minimum decomposition point is 1.07 volt, and the process is reversible.
If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.
In order to prevent decomposition of any proteid impurity which may remain incorporated with the rubber, the freshly coagulated rubber is sometimes cured in the smoke of burning wood or a small quantity of an antiseptic such as creosote is added during coagulation.
As the carbon content of the molecule increases, they become less soluble in water, and their smell becomes less marked with the increase in boiling point, the highest members of the series being odourless solids, which can only be distilled without decomposition invacuo.
In France, by the 10th century, the process of decomposition of the old organization had gone far, and in the 11th century titles of nobility were still very loosely applied.
The nitro compounds are colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling liquids, which distil without decomposition and possess boiling points much higher than those of the isomeric nitrous esters.
The mono-nitro compounds are stable and distil without decomposition; they have a pale yellow colour and possess an agreeable odour.
A process of waste resulting from the decomposition of the molecules of the protoplasm, in virtue of which they break up into more highly oxidated products, which cease to form any part of the living body, is a constant concomitant of life.
Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.
The idea is that any traces of acid not washed away by the washing process or produced later by a slow decomposition of the substance will be thereby neutralized and rendered harmless.
This is done at definite time intervals so that the rate of decomposition can be followed.
When the solution in the strong acid is allowed to stand, some nitric acid is first evolved, and as the temperature rises this is followed by a general decomposition of the substance, though not necessarily an explosive one.
Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.
Nitroglycerin shaken up with warm very dilute alkaline solutions, as sodium carbonate, for a few minutes only, always yields sufficient nitrite to give the diazoreaction; and, as stated, strong alkaline solutions always produce some nitrite as one of the decomposition products.
The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.
The cornmercial product (which is known in Germany as "Kalkstickstof") contains from 14 to 22% of nitrogen, which is liberated as ammonia when the substance is treated with water; to this decomposition it owes its agricultural value.
These bubbles arise partly from the air enclosed between the particles of raw materials and partly from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials themselves.
When pure, it is a colourless gas which is not spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperature and pressure, but a slight increase of temperature or decrease of pressure sets up decomposition.
The alkaline carbonates undergo only a very slight decomposition, even at a very bright red heat.
The chlorides MgC1 21 A1C13, CrC1 3, FeC1 3, suffer a similar decomposition when evaporated with water in the heat.
Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.
Lime also assists in the decomposition of the organic matter or humus in the soil and promotes nitrification; hence it is of great value after green manuring or where the land contains much humus from the addition of bulky manures such as farm-yard dung.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
While the population of Nejef is estimated at from 20,000 to 30,000, there is in addition a very large floating population of pilgrims, who are constantly arriving, bringing corpses in all stages of decomposition and accompanied at times by sick and aged persons, who have come to Nejef to die.
It is also a decomposition product of many alkaloids.
Aromatic Amines.-The aromatic amines in some respects resemble the aliphatic amines, since they form salts with acids, and double salts with platinum chloride, and they also distil without decomposition.
They crystallize in plates, and for the most part distil without decomposition.
For efficiency the operation must be conducted with small quantities; caking may be prevented by mixing the substance with sand or powdered pumice, or, better, with iron filings, which also renders the decomposition more regular by increasing the conductivity of the mass.
The barium carbonate used in the process acts as a contact substance, since the temperature at which the operation is carried out is always above the decomposition point of barium acetate.
Such endothermic bodies are nearly always found to show considerable violence in their decomposition, as the heat of formation stored up within them is then liberated as sensible heat, and it is undoubtedly this property of acetylene gas which leads to its easy detonation by either heat or a shock from an explosion of fulminating mercury when in contact with it under pressure.
It is now prepared from the calcium ferrocyanide formed in gas purifiers (see above) by decomposition with ferrous' sulphate.
Chem., 1866, 9 8, p. 340); by the action of chlorine on steam at a bright red heat; by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, potassium ferricyanide in alkaline solution, or potassium permanganate in acid solution; by heating barium peroxide with an aqueous solution of potassium ferricyanide (G.
Bamberger, Ber., 1893.26, p. 49 6); by the oxidation of nitrosobenzene (below) with atmospheric oxygen; or by the decomposition of benzene diazonium nitrate mercury nitrite, Hg(NO 2) 2.2C 6 H 5 N 2 NO 3, with copper powder (A.
It may be prepared by the direct union of its constituents (see Burgess and Chapman, J.C.S., 1906, 8 9, p. 1 399), but on the large scale and also for the preparation of small quantities it is made by the decomposition of salt by means of concentrated sulphuric acid, NaC1-j-H 2 SO 4 =NaHSO 4 +HC1.
If, however, one of the para positions in the hydrazo compound is substituted, then either diphenyl derivatives or azo compounds are formed, or what is known as the semidine change takes place (P. Jacobson, Berichte, 1892, 2 5, p. 99 2; 1893, 26, p. 681; 1896, 29, p. 2680; Annalen, 1895, 287, p. 97; 1898, 3 0 3, p. 290) A para mono substituted hydrazo compound in the presence of a hydrochloric acid solution of stannous chloride gives either a para diphenyl derivative (the substituent group being eliminated), an ortho-semidine, a para-semidine, or a diphenyl base, whilst a decomposition with the formation of amines may also take place.
Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.
Further more if the matter is not dried then decomposition sets in quickly and renders the feedstock unusable.
The singular value decomposition is a very useful tool in this chapter.
This report suggests a solution to this problem based on the steerable wavelet decomposition.
Therefore, it can take several hundred years for the decomposition of disposables to take place, with some of the plastic material never decomposing.
Their are a number of gels, liquids and granules on the market to assist with the decomposition and passage of hairballs.
Too much moisture can slow decomposition of the composting materials and produce unpleasant odors.
Your compost should be turned once a week to ensure even decomposition and good air flow and keep the pile from becoming compacted.
This basic tumbler can be rolled around after new compost has been added and every few days to increase the decomposition rate.
After adding composting materials or after several days, add some water to add in the decomposition.
A barrel that is too full will inhibit the quick rate of decomposition for which tumblers are prized.
The decomposition process releases nutrients that can greatly improve the quality of your soil.
Some scientists are trying to figure out a good way to use the methane created from cow manure and decomposition at landfills to power electrical plants.
This litter poses harmful environmental impacts with the added complication that plastic bags are resistant to decomposition and may persist for decades.
Biodegradable bags are made with materials that speed up the decomposition process, but they can still take up to six months to fully degrade, depending on environmental conditions.
On the other hand, biodegradable bags offer a partial solution to municipal solid waste with a much shorter decomposition period.
During anaerobic decomposition, organic matter is broken down by bacteria in an environment where there is no oxygen.
All solid organic fertilizers should be applied in the mid to late winter to allow adequate decomposition.
If your compost pile is mostly browns, decomposition will be slow.
If your pile is mostly greens, anaerobic decomposition is likely to take place, and a strong, unpleasant smell will result.
If there is too much carbon, the decomposition process will slow down.
Ammonia is an intermediary in the decomposition of organic matter, and can damage the fine structures of the roots.
Home compost can be as simple as a worm-bin under the kitchen sink, or as elaborate as a multi-bin system that houses compost in various stages of decomposition.
This speeds up the decomposition process.
Heat is produced during the natural process of decomposition and temperatures can get as high as 160 degrees.
A few will give you pause for thought, while others are clearly various deceased animals that only look odd due to their state of decomposition.
Brown and Morris in 1892 advanced strong reasons for thinking that cane-sugar, Ci2H22O11, is the first carbohydrate synthesized, and that the hexoses found in the plant result from the decomposition of this.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
This is the absorption of elaborated compounds from their environment, by whose decomposition the potential energy expended in their construction can be liberated.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
The rationale of this treatment is not fully understood, but the action appears to consist in the separation or decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty and other acids, phenols, tarry bodies, &c., which lower the quality of the oil, the sulphuric acid removing some, while the caustic soda takes out the remainder, and neutralizes the acid which has been left in the oil.
As another instance of this kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be cited.
Nitrogen oxides, recognized by their odour and brown-red colour, result from the decomposition of nitrates.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the term fermentation has now a much wider significance than when it was applied to such changes as the decomposition of must or wort with the production of carbon dioxide and alcohol.
This comes in almost all such cases from the decomposition of sugar, which is split up by the protoplasm into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The decomposition of the complex molecule of the sugar liberates a certain amount of energy, as can be seen from the study of the fermentation set tig by yeast, which is a process of this kind, in that it is intensified by the absence of oxygen.
A solution of the free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution in vacuo until it attains a density of about 1.35 (approximately), further concentration leading to its decomposition into sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid.
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
Throughout much of the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions the decomposition of felspar and of other aluminous minerals has resulted in a deep soil of clay with which more or less sand is mixed.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
It gives rise to various decomposition products such as pyridine, picoline, &c., when its vapour is passed through a red-hot tube.
It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.
The formation of living substance is a process of building up from simple or relatively simple materials; the construction of its cellulose framework and supporting substance is done by the living substance after its own formation is completed, and is attended by a partial decomposition of such living substance.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
Chemical change which merely involves simple decomposition is thus seen to be influenced by the masses of the reacting substances and the presence of the products of decomposition; in other words the system of reacting substances and resultants form a mixture in which chemical action has apparently ceased, or the system is in equilibrium.
Oxygen, recognized by its power of igniting a glowing splinter, results from the decomposition of oxides of the noble metals, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates and other highly oxygenized salts.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.
Certain compounds withstand ring decomposition much more strongly than others; for instance,.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
All around lay the flesh of different animals--from men to horses--in various stages of decomposition; and as the wolves were kept off by the passing men the dog could eat all it wanted.
Zincke; and his researches have led to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding openchain or aliphatic compounds.
This is evident from the consideration that the growth of the cells is attended by the growth in surface of the cell wall, and as the latter is a secretion from the protoplasm, such a decomposition cannot readily take place unless oxygen is admitted to it.
The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.