How to use Decomposed in a sentence

decomposed
  • It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.

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  • It is decomposed by the influence of strong light or when strongly heated.

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  • It is decomposed by water with explosive violence.

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  • It is a colourless, oily, fuming liquid which is decomposed by water into sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.

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  • It is decomposed readily into sulphur trioxide and oxygen when heated.

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  • It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.

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  • It forms red crusts, is insoluble in cold water, but is decomposed by boiling water.

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  • The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.

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  • So long as food is supplied the living substance is the seat of transformations which are continually proceeding, being partially decomposed and again constructed, the new food being incorporated into it.

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  • They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.

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  • The most suitable soil is a light, sandy loam enriched with well decomposed manure, in a rather moist situation.

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  • It is a yellow, microcrystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol and chloroform, and forming readily decomposed salts with acids.

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  • It is decomposed by the halogens, with liberation of sulphur.

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  • It is readily decomposed by water with formation of sulphurous, sulphuric and thiosulphuric acids, with simultaneous liberation of sulphur.

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  • The picrate so formed is then decomposed by ammonia.

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  • Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.

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  • It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).

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  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.

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  • It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.

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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.

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  • In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.

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  • Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.

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  • The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.

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  • It is a brown powder which is readily decomposed by boiling water.

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  • Again, when tungsten hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged.

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  • If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by the equation BiC1 3 -fOH, = BiOCI -F2HC1, Bismuth chloride.

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  • In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon; but he failed to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium zirconium fluoride with potassium.

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  • Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.

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  • These compounds are both decomposed by water, the former giving dichloraceto-trichlorcrotonic acid (4), which on boiling with water gives dichlormethylvinyl-a-diketone (5).

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  • Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals.

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  • Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystallization or decomposed hydrates.

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  • Now in both cases one gramme-molecule of oxygen is decomposed, and the two oxygen atoms thus formed are combined with two carbon valencies.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • The 0-form is obtained by the direct action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on mesityl oxide, the hydrochloride so formed being decomposed by sodium carbonate.

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  • The a-oxime, on long continued boiling with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali, is partially decomposed with formation of some acetone and acetoxime (C. Harries, Ber., 1898, 31, pp. 1381, 1808; 18 99, 32, p. 1 33 1).

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  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

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  • It is decomposed by sulphuric acid, with evolution of nitrous oxide.

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  • It is readily decomposed by water and alkaline hydroxides, yielding a mixture of nitrite and chloride.

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  • Yttria is an exceedingly complex mixture, which has been decomposed, yielding as an intermediate product terbia.

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  • By a dilute acid haemoglobin is decomposed into globin, and " haematin," a ferri-pyrrol derivative of the probable formula C34H34N4FeOs; under certain conditions the iron-free " haematoporphyrin " is obtained.

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  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

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  • Berzelius stated that neutral salt solutions could be decomposed by electricity, the acid appearing at one pole and the metal at the other.

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  • In 1807 he decomposed potash and soda, previously considered to be elements, by passing the current from a powerful battery through the moistened solids, and thus isolated the metals potassium and sodium.

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  • If the ions move at equal rates, the salt which is decomposed to supply the ions liberated must be taken equally from the neighbourhood of the two electrodes.

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  • Determinations have been made with calcium oxalate, CaC 2 04+H 2 0, which is easily decomposed by acids, oxalic acid and a soluble calcium salt being formed.

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  • In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.

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  • The aldehyde group also reacts with phenyl hydrazine to form two phenylhydrazones; under certain conditions a hydroxyl group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidized and glucosazone is produced; this glucosazone is decomposed by hydrochloric acid into phenyl hydrazine and the keto-aldehyde glucosone.

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  • The ammonium salt is then converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate and the lead salt decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • It is decomposed, on dry distillation, into carbon dioxide and pyromellitic acid, C i oH 6 0 8 i when distilled with lime it gives carbon dioxide and benzene.

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  • It is decomposed by acids into a mixture of lead monoxide and dioxide, and may thus be regarded as lead metaplumbate, PbPbO 3.

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  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.

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  • It is decomposed by heat into oxide, nitrogen peroxide and oxygen; and is used for the manufacture of fusees and other deflagrating compounds, and also for preparing mordants in the dyeing and calico-printing industries.

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  • But the most delicate precipitant for lead is sulphuretted hydrogen, which produces a black precipitate of lead sulphide, insoluble in cold dilute nitric acid, less so in cold hydrochloric, and easily decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with formation of the characteristic chloride.

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  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.

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  • When heated with water and mineral acids, the nitrolic acids are completely decomposed, yielding fatty acids and nitrous oxide.

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  • These salts generally resemble the bichromates; they are yellow in colour, insoluble in water, soluble in acids, and decomposed by heat.

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  • The crystals are very soluble in cold water, and if the salt is really pure a small proportion of water forms a clear solution; but on adding much water most of the salt is decomposed, with the formation of a precipitate of oxychloride, 2Sn(OH)Cl H20.

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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.

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  • It may be separated by shaking out with dilute sulphuric acid, and then precipitating the sulphuric acid solution with potassium bichromate, the resulting acridine bichromate being decomposed by ammonia.

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  • The materials are generally used in the form either of oxides (lead, zinc, silica, &c.) or of salts readily decomposed by heat, such as the nitrates or carbonates.

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  • It is decomposed with great violence when heated in contact with either sodium or potassium.

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  • It is decomposed by cold water with the formation of silicoformic anhydride, H2S1203.

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  • It is decomposed by chlorine.

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  • It is soluble in carbon bisulphide, and is decomposed by water and also by heat, in the latter case yielding the tetraiodide and the di-iodide, Si 2 I 4, an orange-coloured solid which is not soluble in carbon bisulphide.

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  • The former is completely decomposed when fused with caustic potash and the latter by a prolonged boiling with nitric acid.

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  • The carbonates are decomposed by mineral acids, with formation of the corresponding salt of the acid, and liberation of carbon dioxide.

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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

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  • The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

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  • The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.

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  • This salt is decomposed by water with the formation of a solution of alkali free of titanium, and a residue of an acid titanate, which is insoluble in water but soluble in cold 'aqueous mineral acids.

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  • It is used in the extraction of sugar from molasses, since it combines with the sugar to form a soluble saccharate, which is removed and then decomposed by carbon dioxide.

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  • It is readily decomposed by water, with liberation of ammonia.

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  • With high current-density, heating the solution tended to increase the proportion of chlorate to hypochlorite, but as the proportion of water decomposed is then higher, the amount of chlorine produced must be less and the total chlorine efficiency lower.

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  • In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.

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  • The oxalates are.readily decomposed onheating, leaving a residue of carbonate, or oxide of the metal.

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  • Potassium ferric oxalate, FeK3(C204)3, is used in the preparation of platinotypes, owing to the fact that its solution is rapidly decomposed by sunlight, 2FeK3(0204) 3 = 2FeK2(C204) 2+ K2C204+2C02.

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  • The auric chloride is, however, decomposed at the elevated temperature into finely divided metallic gold, which is then readily attacked by the chlorine gas.

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  • Bismuth disulphide is a grey metallic substance, which is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the separation of metallic bismuth and the formation of bismuth trichloride.

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  • Tellurous acid, H 2 TeO 3, is obtained when the tetrachloride is decomposed by water, or on dissolving tellurium in nitric acid and pouring the solution into water.

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  • Acetylene is readily decomposed by heat, polymerizing under its influence to form an enormous number of organic of compounds; indeed the gas, which can itself be directly prepared from its constituents, carbon and hydrogen, under the influence of the electric arc, can be made the startingpoint for the construction of an enormous number of different organic compounds of a complex character.

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  • In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.

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  • This on being washed and decomposed with hydrochloric acid yielded a stream of acetylene gas.

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  • Edmund Davy first made acetylene in 1836 from a compound produced during the manufacture of potassium from potassium tartrate and charcoal, which under certain conditions yielded a black compound decomposed by water with considerable violence and the evolution of acetylene.

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  • Wohler first made calcium carbide, and found that water decomposed it into lime and acetylene.

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  • Acted upon by water it is at once decomposed, yielding acetylene and calcium hydrate.

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  • On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed.

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  • Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.

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  • The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.

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  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

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  • To obtain it perfectly pure the crude alcohol is combined with oxalic, benzoic or acetic acid, and the resulting ester separated, purified, and finally decomposed with potash.

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  • Potassium osmiate, K 2 0sO 4 2H 2 0, formed when an alkaline solution of the tetroxide is decomposed by alcohol, or by potassium nitrite, crystallizes in red octahedra.

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  • The double fluoride is decomposed with hot concentrated sulphuric acid; the mixed sulphate is dissolved in water; and the zirconia is precipitated with ammonia in the cold.

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  • The soluble trimetallic salts are decomposed by carbonic acid into a dimetallic salt and an acid carbonate.

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  • The soil, of decomposed basalt, is wonderfully fertile.

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  • On the Columbia plateau the soil is principally volcanic ash and decomposed lava; it is almost wholly volcanic ash in the more arid sections, but elsewhere more decomposed lava or other igneous rocks, and some vegetable loam is mixed with the ash.

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  • At a red heat ammonia is easily decomposed into its constituent elements, a similar decomposition being brought about by the passage of electric sparks through the gas.

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  • The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.

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  • On gentle heating, it is decomposed into water and nitrous oxide.

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  • This method was followed by that proposed by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, who decomposed molten caustic soda with red-hot iron; and this in turn was succeeded by Brunner's process of igniting sodium carbonate with charcoal.

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  • It burns when heated in dry air, and ignites in moist air; it is decomposed by water, giving caustic soda and hydrogen.

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  • Dry carbon dioxide is decomposed by it, free carbon being produced; moist carbon dioxide, on the other hand, gives sodium formate.

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  • West of Parr's Ridge in the Piedmont, the principal soils are those the character of which is determined either by decomposed red sandstone or by decomposed limestone.

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  • It Is A Colourless, Odourless Gas, Which Burns With A Blue Flame And Is Decomposed By Heat.

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  • When heated to redness the amide is decomposed into ammonia and potassium nitride, NK 3, which is an almost black solid.

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  • Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.

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  • The gas is readily decomposed by heat into its constituent elements.

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  • The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.

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  • They are decomposed on heating, with liberation of oxygen, in some cases leaving a residue of iodide and in others a residue of oxide of the metal, with liberation of iodine as well as of oxygen.

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  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

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  • The cyanides of other metals are decomposed by heat, frequently with liberation of cyanogen.

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  • The double cyanides formed by the solution of the cyanide of a heavy metal in a solution of potassium cyanide are decomposed by mineral acids with liberation of hydrocyanic acid and formation of the cyanide of the heavy metal.

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  • It is insoluble in water and is not decomposed by acids.

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  • Hydroferricyanic acid, H 3 Fe(NC)s, obtained by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium ferricyanide, crystallizes in brown needles, and is easily decomposed.

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  • As an alternative test the cyanide may be decomposed by dilute hydrochloric acid, and the liberated hydrocyanic acid absorbed in a little yellow ammonium sulphide.

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  • With these exceptions, the simple cyanides are readily decomposed even by carbonic acid, free prussic acid being liberated.

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  • The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon dioxide.

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  • In the Cumberland Plateau and Great Valley Regions are a red or brown loam, rich in decomposed limestone and calcareous shales, and sandy or gravelly loaTns.

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  • The precipitate so obtained is a brown amorphous solid which readily oxidizes on exposure, and is decomposed by heat with liberation of hydrogen and formation of the sesquioxide.

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  • The hydrated fluoride, CrF3.9H20, obtained by adding ammonium fluoride to cold chromic sulphate solution, is sparingly soluble in water, and is decomposed by heat.

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  • It dissolves iodine and absorbs chlorine, and is decomposed by water with formation of chromic and hydrochloric acids; it takes fire in contact with sulphur, ammonia, alcohol, &c., and explodes in contact with phosphorus; it also acts as a powerful oxidizing agent.

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  • It may be condensed to a dark red liquid which is decomposed by moist air into chromic acid and chromic fluoride.

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  • It crystallizes in orange-red needles and is decomposed by water.

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  • In some places along the coast there is a narrow strip of decomposed coral limestone; often, too, a coral reef has served to catch the sediment washed down the mountain side until a deep sedimentary soil has been deposited.

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  • It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.

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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

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  • With this pile he decomposed sulphate of magnesia (first letter to Abbott, July 12, 1812).

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  • They are all decomposed when heated to a sufficiently high temperature, with evolution for the most part of oxygen and nitrogen peroxide, leaving a residue of oxide of the metal.

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  • Indeed, no Portland cement is free from the liability to be decomposed by sea-water, and on a moderate scale this action is always going on more or less.

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  • It forms a yellow fusible mass, which is decomposed by water into alumina and sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • Horse dung is generally the principal ingredient in all hot bed manure; and, in its partially decomposed state, as afforded by exhausted hot beds, it is well adapted for garden use.

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  • Bedding plants thrive best in a light loam, liberally manured with thoroughly rotten dung from an old hotbed or thoroughly decomposed cow droppings and leaf-mould.

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  • In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is ..rst oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed.

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  • These of course are the oldest of our ores, and from deposits of like age, especially those of the more readily decomposed silicates, has come the iron which now exists in the siderites and red and brown haematites of the later geological formations.

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  • It is decomposed by boiling water and yields fumaric ester.

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  • The esters of the higher fatty acids, when distilled under atmospheric pressure, are decomposed, and yield an olefine and a fatty acid.

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  • The ester is separated from the solution by means of its barium salt, and the salt decomposed by the addition of the calculated amount of sulphuric acid.

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  • The yellow ground is merely decomposed blue ground.

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  • Chaper found diamond with corundum in a decomposed red pegmatite vein in gneiss.

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  • At Sao Joao da Chapada, in Minas Geraes, diamonds occur in a clay interstratified with the itacolumite, and are accompanied by sharp crystals of rutile and haematite in the neighbourhood of decomposed quartz veins which intersect the itacolumite.

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  • It is decomposed by water, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • Like aluminium carbide it is slowly decomposed by water with the production of methane.

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  • Certain flat oval nodules from a decomposed lava (augite-andesite) in Uruguay present a cavity lined with quartz crystals and enclosing liquid (a weak saline solution), with a movable air-bubble, whence they are called "enhydros" or water-stones.

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  • By continued boiling of its aqueous solution it is decomposed into carbon dioxide and glyoxylic acid, C2H404.

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  • Celite is little affected by water, and has but small influence on the setting; alite is decomposed and hydrated, this action constituting the main part of the setting of Portland cement.

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  • In either case the two hydrocarbons are finally separated by fractional crystallization of their picrates, which are then decomposed by ammonia.

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  • The precipitate is dissolved in boiling water, decolorized by potassium permanganate and decomposed by barium carbonate.

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  • It is also decomposed by warm aqueous solutions of caustic alkalis, with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide.

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  • When heated with water it is decomposed into carbon dioxide, ammonia, methylamine and acetic acid.

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  • Allophanic acid, NH 2 C0 NH CO 2 H, is not known in the free state, as when liberated from its salts, it is decomposed into urea and carbon dioxide.

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  • They are readily decomposed by alkalis, yielding cyanuric acid and ammonia.

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  • When heated strongly it is decomposed into ammonia and cyanuric acid.

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  • It is made commercially by boiling benzotrichloride (obtained from toluene) with milk of lime, the calcium benzoate so obtained being then decomposed by hydrochloric acid 2C 6 H 5 CC1 3 +4Ca(OH) 2 = (C6H6000)2Ca-1-3CaC12+4H20.

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  • They are readily decomposed by mineral acids with the production of benzoic acid, and on addition of ferric chloride to their neutral solutions give a reddish-brown precipitate of ferric benzoate.

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  • Schonbein (loc. cit.) assumed that the ordinary oxygen molecule is decomposed into two parts which carry electrical charges of opposite kinds, the one with the positive charge being called "antozone" and the other carrying the negative charge being called "ozone," one variety being preferentially used up by the oxidizing compound or element and the other for the secondary reaction.

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  • The manganites are amorphous brown solids, insoluble in water, and decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the evolution of chlorine.

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  • This form of the sulphide is readily oxidized when exposed in the moist condition, and is easily decomposed by dilute mineral acids.

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  • It is readily decomposed by dilute acids.

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  • Manganic Fluoride, MnF3, a solid obtained by the action of fluorine on manganous chloride, is decomposed by heat into manganous fluoride and fluorine.

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  • The simple nature of the alkalies Lavoisier considered so doubtful that he did not class them as elements, which he conceived as substances which could not be further decomposed by any known process of analysis - les molecules simples et indivisibles qui composent les corps.

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  • It is a red infusible mass of specific gravity 5.1, and is slowly decomposed by warm water.

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  • The melt is dissolved in water and the dyestuff is liberated from the sodium salt by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, or is converted into the calcium salt by digestion with hot milk of lime, then filtered and the calcium salt decomposed by acid.

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  • Nickel sesquioxide, N1203, is formed when the nitrate is decomposed by heat at the lowest possible temperature, by a similar decomposition of the chlorate, or by fusing the chloride with potassium chlorate.

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  • Hamilton at once found that the Law of the Norms holds, - not being aware that Euler had long before decomposed the product of two sums of four squares into this very set of four squares.

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  • Chalcopyrite is decomposed by nitric acid with separation of sulphur and formation of a green solution; ammonia added in excess to this solution changes the green colour to deep blue and precipitates red ferric hydroxide.

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  • It is more hygroscopic than the tetrachloride; and when treated with much water the bulk is at once decomposed into the blue oxide and hydrochloric acid, but an olive-green solution is also produced.

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  • It slowly evolves bromine on standing, and is at once decomposed by water into the blue oxide and hydrobromic acid.

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  • Contemporaneous lavas, highly decomposed, are intercalated with this division on the north side of North Glen Sannox where the band is highly faulted.

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  • All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat.

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  • On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.

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  • Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame.

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  • Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.

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  • All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water.

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  • Precipitated calcium carbonate may be used in place of the mercuric oxide, or a hypochlorite may be decomposed by a dilute mineral acid and the resulting solution distilled.

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  • The solution has a pale yellow colour, and is a strong oxidizing and bleaching agent; it is readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with evolution of oxygen.

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  • Aqueous solutions of the acid are decomposed in sunlight by uranium salts, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of propionic acid.

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  • The main result of plastering is that the soluble tartrates in the wine are decomposed, forming insoluble tartrate of lime and soluble sulphate of potash.

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  • They are all decomposed on heating, with evolution of oxygen; and in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid with liberation of chlorine peroxide.

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  • For the preparation of the acid the crude argol is boiled with hydrochloric acid and afterwards precipitated as calcium tartrate by boiling with milk of lime, the calcium salt being afterwards decomposed by sulphuric acid.

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  • This sulphide is then heated in a current of moist carbon dioxide, barium carbonate being formed, BaS+H 2 O+CO 2 =BaCO 3 +H 2 S, and finally the carbonate is decomposed by a current of superheated steam, BaC03+H20 = Ba(OH) 2 + C02, leavingaresidue of the hydroxide.

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  • It is a grey coloured powder which is readily decomposed by dilute acids with the production of hydrogen peroxide.

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  • It is a white powder which is readily decomposed by water with the formation of the hydroxide and hydrosulphide.

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  • It is decomposed by heat, and is largely used in pyrotechny for the preparation of green fire.

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  • The antimonious compounds are decomposed on addition of water, with formation of basic salts.

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  • In its general behaviour it resembles arsine, burning with a violet flame and being decomposed by heat into its constituent elements.

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  • It is decomposed by the halogen elements and also by sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • It is decomposed by a hot solution of potassium bitartrate.

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  • The majority of these halide compounds are decomposed by water, with the formation of basic salts.

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  • It forms an amorphous gummy mass, which is decomposed by heat.

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  • This method is modified in practice by the character of the ores, carbonates and silicates free from sulphides being decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with the addition of a little nitric acid.

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  • In the electrolytic method from o 5 to 5 grammes of ore are treated in a flask or beaker, with a mixture of io cc. of nitric and ro cc. of sulphuric acid, until thoroughly decomposed.

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  • Browne finds that after smoking " chandoo," containing 8.98% of morphine, 7.63% was left in the dross, so that only 1.35% of morphia was carried over in the smoke or decomposed by the heat.

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  • Sulphuretted hydrogen is decomposed with the formation of a black coating of silver sulphide; this is the explanation of the black tarnish seen when silver is exposed to the fumes of coal gas, and other sulphuretted compounds, such as occur in eggs.

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  • It permits coarser crushing of the ore, the cost of plant is lower, the power required is nominal, the cost of chemicals is lower than that of quicksilver, less water is necessary, and the extraction is often higher, as silver arsenate and antimoniate are readily soluble, while they are not decomposed in amalgamation.

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  • It is not decomposed by sunlight.

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  • It is decomposed by heat, burns with a blue flame, and behaves as a reducing agent.

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  • It dissociates when heated, and is decomposed by water with production of selenious acid.

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  • It combines with titanium and tin bichlorides and with antimony trichloride, and it is decomposed by water.

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  • It is decomposed by hydriodic acid with liberation of selenium and iodine, and by ammonia with formation of selenium and nitrogen.

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  • It is readily decomposed by acids with liberation of sulphur dioxide and selenium.

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  • It crystallizes in needles, possesses an alkaline reaction, and is readily decomposed by acids with liberation of selenium.

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  • Homoquinine is decomposed on treatment with caustic soda into quinine and a new alkaloid, cupreine, in the proportion of 2 to 3.

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  • They are decomposed by chlorine, with liberation of bromine and formation of metallic chlorides; concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes them, with formation of a metallic sulphate and liberation of bromine and sulphur dioxide.

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  • The non-metallic bromides are usually liquids, which are readily decomposed by water.

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  • Its salts are known as bromates, and are as a general rule difficultly soluble in water, and decomposed by heat, with evolution of oxygen.

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  • It is also decomposed when heated with sulphur or with most metals, in the latter case with the liberation of hydrogen and formation of phosphide of the metal.

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  • It is very unstable, being readily decomposed by heat or light.

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  • It is also decomposed by carbonyl chloride (Besson, loc. cit.).

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  • The primary phosphines are very weak bases, their salts with acids being readily decomposed by water.

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  • It slowly reacts with cold water to form phosphorous acid; but with hot water it is energetically decomposed, giving much red phosphorus or the suboxide being formed with an explosive evolution of spontaneously inflammable phosphoretted hydrogen; phosphoric acid is also formed.

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  • Phosphorous acid, P(OH) 3, discovered by Davy in 1812, may be ' obtained by dissolving its anhydride, P 4 0 61 in cold water; by immersing sticks of phosphorus in a solution of copper sulphate contained in a well-closed flask, filtering from the copper sulphide and precipitating the sulphuric acid simultaneously formed by baryta water, and concentrating the solution in vacuo; or by passing chlorine into melted phosphorus covered with water, the first formed phosphorus trichloride being decomposed by the water into phosphorous and hydrochloric acids.

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  • It is slowly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphorous acids, or, in addition, fluorphosphorous acid, HPF4.

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  • It fumes in moist air and is quickly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphoric xxi.

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  • It is slowly decomposed by water giving phosphoric and hydrochloric acids, with sulphuretted hydrogen; alkalis form a thiophosphate, e.g.

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  • All thiophosphates are decomposed by acids giving sulphuretted hydrogen and sometimes free sulphur.

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  • The diamide, PO (NH 2) (NH), results when the pentachloride is saturated with ammonia gas and the first formed chlorophosphamide, PC1 3 (NH 2) 2, is decomposed by water.

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  • This Missouri tripoli is a finely decomposed light rock, about 98% silica, and is used for filter stones and as an abrasive.

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  • It is decomposed by chlorine in the presence of sunlight, with explosive violence.

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  • It contains, as its principal constituents, ammonia, partly combined with carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen to form compounds which are decomposed on boiling, with evolution of ammonia gas, and partly combined with stronger acids to form compounds which require to be acted upon by a strong alkali before the ammonia contained in them can be liberated.

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  • To do this, saturated ammoniacal liquor is decomposed by lime in the presence of steam, and the freed ammonia is passed into strong sulphuric acid, the saturated solution of ammonium sulphate being carefully crystallized.

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  • Consequently, to make it carry any further quantity in a condition not easily deposited, the oil would have to be completely decomposed into permanent gases, and the temperature necessary to do this would seriously affect the quality of the gas given off by the coal.

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  • In practical work about 4 lb of steam is decomposed for each pound of anthracite consumed, and no more than 5% of carbon dioxide is found in the resulting gas.

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  • The terpenes all possess a characteristic odour and are fairly stable to alkalis, but are easily decomposed by acids or by heating to a sufficiently high temperature.

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  • It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.

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  • If, however, a second molecule of a zinc alkyl be allowed to react, a compound is formed which gives a tertiary alcohol when decomposed with water.

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  • Pyrovanadic acid is deposited as a dark brown unstable powder when an acid vanadate is decomposed by nitric acid.

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  • Soils.-The prevailing type of soil is a deep dark-red loam, sometimes (especially in the east central part of the state) made up of a decomposed sandstone, and again (in the north central part) made up of shales and decomposed limestone.

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  • Almost the whole of this region is covered by a red soil, often of great thickness, which resembles and is often described as " clay," but is really decomposed rock, chiefly gneiss, reddened with oxidized magnetite.

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  • The arsenic solution is decomposed at the cathode, and the element precipitated there.

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  • As the arseniuretted hydrogen passes over the heated portion it is decomposed and a black deposit formed.

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  • It easily burns, forming arsenious oxide if the combustion proceeds in an excess of air, or arsenic if the supply of air is limited; it is also decomposed into its constituent elements when heated.

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  • The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.

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  • The thioarsenites and thioarsenates of the alkali metals are easily soluble in water, and are readily decomposed by the action of mineral acids.

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  • It is decomposed by the addition of caustic alkalis, forming silver oxide and an alkaline chromate.

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  • They are readily decomposed by heat, leaving a residue of the normal chromate and chromium sesquioxide, and liberating oxygen; ammonium bichromate, however, is completely decomposed into chromium sesquioxide, water and nitrogen.

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  • They form rhombic crystals of a red or brown red colour and are readily decomposed by warm water, with formation of the bichromate.

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  • The monoand dichlorides are decomposed by water with the formation of the trichloride, and separation of metallic indium.

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  • In addition to the reddish or brownish argillaceous matrix it contains fresh or decomposed crystals of volcanic minerals, such as felspar, augite, hornblende, olivine and pumiceous or palagonitic rocks.

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  • Larger rounded lumps of pumice, found in the clay, have probably floated to their present situations, and sank when decomposed, all their cavities becoming filled with sea water.

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  • It has been suggested that the admixture of large quantities of decomposed freshwater algae among the original mud is the origin of the paraffins.

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  • This compound is then decomposed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol.

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  • We have suggested that a process of cell fate assignation can be decomposed into two steps.

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  • Report by Andy Horton Old Fort 12 February 2001 Two badly decomposed Dolphins were washed up on Shoreham Beach, Sussex.

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  • Coal is formed from partially decomposed plants that lived millions of years ago you can read more about how coal is formed.

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  • Peat, in the simplest terms, is an accumulation of partly decomposed plant material.

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  • The " missing " mass, which is not eaten by consumers, becomes detritus and is decomposed.

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  • The area was covered with decomposed granite making it a natural site for a small airport.

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  • This category includes the 13-atom icosahedron, which can be decomposed into twenty tetrahedra sharing a common vertex.

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  • When the bottle was poured a partly decomposed snail floated out.

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  • Halothane contains thymol as a stabilizing agent and is stored in dark bottles as it is decomposed by ultraviolet light.

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  • Worms consume huge amounts of decomposed organic material deposited on the soil, helping convert it into rich, fertile topsoil.

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  • Since the specimens have become dry, it is rather more easy to distinguish the decomposed igneous rocks from the sedimentary tuffs.

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  • Thus, Pasteur showed that Penicillium glaucum, when grown in an aqueous solution of ammonium racemate, decomposed the dextro-tartrate, leaving the laevotartrate, and the solution which was originally inactive to polarized light became dextro-rotatory.

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  • Hillebrand, who had noticed, in examining the mineral uraninite, that an inert gas was evolved when the mineral was decomposed with acid.

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  • Kiihne (D.R.P. 147,871) described a process in which external heating is not necessary, a mixture of aluminium turnings, sulphur and boric acid being ignited by a hot iron rod, the resulting aluminium sulphide, formed as a by-product, being decomposed by water.

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  • Resorcin (1.3 or meta dioxybenzene) (1) is decomposed in a somewhat similar manner.

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  • Nitric acid (up to 50%) is formed in the first tower, and weaker acids in the successive ones; the last tower contains milk of lime which combines with the gases to form calcium nitrite and nitrate (this product, being unsuitable as a manure, is decomposed with the acid, and the evolved gases sent back).

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  • The mother-liquor from the 70% chloride is evaporated, the common salt which separates out in the heat removed as it appears, and the sufficiently concentrated liquor allowed to crystallize, when almost pure carnallite separates out, which is easily decomposed into its components '(see' infra).

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  • They crystallize well and are readily decomposed.

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  • They are crystalline solids, usually of a yellow colour, which do not unite with acids; they are readily converted into amino-azo compounds (see above) and are decomposed by the concentrated halogen acids, yielding haloid benzenes, nitrogen and an amine.

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  • If any individual blow proves to be too hot, it may be cooled by throwing cold " scrap " steel such as the waste ends of rails and other pieces, into the converter, or by injecting with the blast a little steam, which is decomposed by the iron by the endothermic reaction H20+Fe=2H+Fe0.

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  • Phosphorus pentachloride converts it into picryl chloride, C 6 H 2 C1(NO 2) 3, which is a true acid chloride, being decomposed by water with the regeneration of picric acid and the formation of hydrochloric acid; with ammonia it yields picramide, C 6 H 2 NH 2 (NO 2) 3.

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  • Potassium bichromate, K 2 Cr 2 0 7, is obtained by fusing chrome ironstone with soda ash and lime (see above), the calcium chromate formed in the process being decomposed by a hot solution of potassium sulphate.

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  • Coal is created by decomposed prehistoric plants.

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  • Empty the first container of the fully decomposed compost for use around the yard and cycle through the rest of the containers in a similar fashion, filling the emptied containers with the new waste.

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  • When it has all decomposed, the remaining compost can be used as a soil enhancer.

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  • Compost, on the other hand, is decomposed organic material.

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  • Oxygen-demanding wastes are decomposed by bacteria that require oxygen to function.

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  • The bulbs should be planted in this, and as soon as growth commences in spring, should be mulched with decomposed manure or short grass.

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  • If the garden soil be fairly good, it need only be well stirred and manured, but the manure should be thoroughly decomposed.

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  • Where soil is prepared for the choicer varieties, any good loam with a free addition of sand, well-rotted leaf-mould, and decomposed cow manure will form an admirable compost.

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  • Compost is natural fertilizer made from decomposed organic waste material.

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  • Pus-A thick, yellowish or greenish fluid composed of the remains of dead white blood cells, pathogens, and decomposed cellular debris.

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  • Dean was hoping to find it or at least telltale signs that a body had decomposed on this spot, but no such evidence was apparent.

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  • The acid, when distilled slowly, is decomposed and yields a and 0-angelica lactones.

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  • They form compounds with hydrochloric acid when this gas is passed into their ethereal solution; these compounds, however, are very unstable, being readily decomposed by water.

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  • Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition; on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride Mg 3 B 2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and boron hydride, is obtained.

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  • It forms slightly coloured small crystals possessing a strong disagreeable smell, and is rapidly decomposed by water with the formation of boric acid and sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.

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  • The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.

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  • Alum and blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) are manufactured from decomposed schists at Khetri in Shaikhawati.

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  • Its power depends on the fact that it is slowly decomposed by the tissues, and free iodine given off.

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  • It is decomposed by water into hydrofluoric and sulphurous acids.

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  • The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.

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