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deccan

deccan

deccan Sentence Examples

  • At the comparatively remote epoch when the Deccan was a forest tract, they were probably also met with there, but the swamps of the Bengal Sundarbans appear unsuited to their habits.

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  • The imprudent conduct of the Madras authorities had irritated beyond endurance the two greatest Mussulman powers in the peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder Ali, the usurper of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the Mahrattas.

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  • From these it is clear that the country fell in turn under the sway of the various dynasties that ruled in the Deccan, memorials of the Chalukyan dynasty, whether temples or inscriptions, being especially abundant.

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  • That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.

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  • Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that" the Deccan tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races."

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  • Pandharpur is the most popular place of pilgrimage in the Deccan, its celebrated temple being dedicated to Vithoba, a form of Vishnu.

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  • Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.

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  • Deccan >>

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  • In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.

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  • This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.

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  • They are notably divided into two sections: the Konkanast, coming from the Konkan or littoral tract on the west coast below the Western Ghat mountains; and the Deshast, coming from the uplands or Deccan, on the east of the mountains.

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  • It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657.

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  • The nizam of the Deccan established himself at Hyderabad, comparatively near the headquarters of the peshwa.

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  • Owing to these events the British government became possessed of the Konkan and of the greater part of the Deccan.

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  • It was then included in the dominions of Nizam-ul-mulk, the nominal viceroy of the great Mogul in the Deccan, from whom again it was subsequently conquered by Hyder Ali of Mysore.

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  • As is shown by its name the province is situated in the centre of the Indian peninsula, comprising a large proportion of the broad belt of hill and plateau country which separates the plains of Hindustan from the Deccan.

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  • The climate of Berar differs very little from that of the Deccan generally, except that in the Payanghat valley the hot weather may be exceptionally severe.

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  • The Mussulman invaders of the Deccan passed it by, not caring to enter its mountain fastnesses and impenetrable forests; though occasional inscriptions show that parts of it had fallen from time to time under the dominion of one or other of the great kingdoms of the north, e.g.

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  • The chief events of his reign were the destruction of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar (1636), the loss of Kandahar to the Persians (1653), and a second war against the Deccan princes (1655).

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  • It is traditionally regarded as the boundary between Hindustan proper and the Deccan.

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  • AUNDH, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, ranking as one of the Satara Jagirs.

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  • The death of the emperor Aurangzeb brought a temporary lull: the guru assisted Aurangzeb's successor, Bahadur Shah, and was himself not long after assassinated at Nander in the Deccan.

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  • In this campaign he was not completely successful, and soon after was transferred to the army engaged in the Deccan.

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  • For the last twenty-six years of his life Aurangzeb was engaged in wars in the Deccan, and never set foot in his own capital.

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  • RASHTRAKUTA, an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from about A.D.

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  • 750, when Dantidurga overthrew the Chalukya dynasty and made himself ruler of the Deccan.

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  • Bhandarkar, Early History of the Deccan (Bombay, 1884).

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  • A good deal of bloodstone comes from India, where it occurs in the Deccan traps, and is cut and polished at Cambay.

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  • Nine years later the raja rebelled, but although with the help of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan he managed for a time to assert his independence, he was finally subdued and deprived of his territories.

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  • The origin of the name Berar is not known, but may perhaps be a corruption of Vidarbha, the name of a kingdom in the Deccan of which, in the period of the Mahabharata, Berar probably formed part.

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  • The history of Berar belongs generally to that of the Deccan, the country falling in turn under the sway of the various dynasties which successively ruled in southern India, the first authentic records showing it to have been part of the Andhra or Satavahana empire.

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  • On the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan (1348) Berar was constituted one of the four provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army.

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  • CHALUKYA, the name of an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from A.D.

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  • The Chalukyas themselves claimed to be Rajputs from the north who imposed their rule on the Dravidian inhabitants of the Deccan tableland, and there is some evidence for connecting them with the Chapas, a branch of the foreign Gurjaras.

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  • He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and Kerala kings, and by 630 was beyond dispute the most powerful sovereign in the Deccan.

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  • Abul Fazl died by the hand of an assassin, while returning from a mission to the Deccan in 1602.

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  • This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.

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  • Many Sikhs are also to be found in the native regiments of east and central Africa and of Hyderabad in the Deccan, and they compose a great part of the police force in the treaty ports of China.

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  • The Pindaris were surrounded on all sides by a great army, consisting of 120,000 men and 300 guns, which converged upon them from Bengal, the Deccan and Gujarat under the supreme command of Lord Hastings in person.

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  • The steam of water in which the fresh plant is immersed is in the Deccan resorted to by the Portuguese for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea.

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  • While he was still a child his father was summoned away from his native country into Hindostan, where he held high office in the Deccan; and by his influence the young Ferishta received court promotion.

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  • A derivative word, Maruti or Maroti, is the popular name throughout the Deccan for Hanuman.

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  • in thickness, and contain pebbles of quartzite, jasper, sandstone, slate, &c. The mines fall into five groups situated on the eastern side of the Deccan plateau about the following places (beginning from the south), the first three being in Madras.

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  • Polish millet is P. sanguinale; P. frumentaceum, shamalo, a Deccan grass, is probably a native of tropical Africa; P. decompositum is the Australian millet, its grains being made into cakes by the aborigines.

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  • DECCAN (Sans.

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  • Assigning it the more extended of these limits, it comprehends the whole of the Indian peninsula, and in this view the mountainous system, consisting of the Eastern and Western Ghats, constitutes the most striking feature of the Deccan.

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  • The detailed and authentic history of the Deccan only begins with the 13th century A.D.

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  • In addition to this, modern study of monuments and inscriptions has recovered the names, and to a certain extent the records, of a succession of dynasties ruling in the Deccan; of these the most conspicuous are the Cholas, the Andhras or Satavahanas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas of Devagiri (Deogiri).

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  • With this event the continuous history of the Deccan begins.

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  • In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.

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  • The rule of the Delhi emperors in the Deccan did not, however, long survive..

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  • Mysore formed one of their earliest conquests in the Deccan.

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  • Gribble, History of the Deccan (1896); Prof. Bhandarkar, "Early History of the Dekkan" (Bombay Gazetteer); Vincent A.

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  • "The Kingdoms of the Deccan."

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  • It formed the chief seat of the government of the Deccan provinces of the Mogul empire till Shah Jahan removed the capital to Aurangabad in 1635.

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  • In 1739 the Mahommedans finally yielded to the demand of the Mahrattas for a fourth of the revenue, and in 1760 the Nizam of the Deccan ceded Burhanpur to the peshwa, who in 1778 transferred it to Sindhia.

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  • Elsewhere in the Bombay presidency, in the Deccan and Gujarat, there are fewer facilities for irrigation than in other parts of India.

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  • Up to the end of1896-1897the capital spent on the irrigation works of the Deccan and Gujarat was -ax.

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  • It was found that although some irrigation works (especially in the Bombay Deccan) would never yield a direct return of or 5%, still in a famine year they might be the means of producing a crop which would go far to do away with the necessity for spending enormous sums on famine relief.

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  • Ireland, the Faroe Isles and Iceland: it is common in the traps of the Deccan in India, and in volcanic rocks in Uruguay and Brazil.

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  • Nizam-ul-Mulk (_ "administrator of the kingdom") was the title of Asaf Jah, the founder of the dynasty, a very able soldier and minister of the court of Aurangzeb, who was appointed governor of the Deccan in 1713, and established his independence before his death in 1748.

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  • His descendant in 1505, Singhan Deo, having distinguished himself in an expedition against the freebooters of the Deccan, was rewarded by the sovereignty of the small territory of Gohad, with the title of rana.

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  • This tract, known in ancient times as the Northern table- Deccan (Dakshin), literally " the right hand or south,".

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  • The enormous mass of basaltic rock known as the Deccan Trap is of great importance in the geological structure of the Indian Peninsula.

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  • The peninsula south of the Satpura range consists chiefly of the triangular plateau of the Deccan, terminating abruptly on the west in the Sahyadri range (Western Ghats), and shelving to the east (Eastern Ghats).

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  • The greater part of the Deccan and the Central Provinces are included within the hottest area, though in May the highest temperatures are found in Upper Sind, north-west Rajputana, and south-west Punjab.

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  • in width in the western Deccan parallel with the Ghats, and it is this part of the Deccan, together with the Mysore table-land and the Carnatic, that is most subject to drought.

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  • This animal appears to be a native only of the Deccan, where it is trained for hunting the antelope.

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  • In southern India the majority are known as Deccani Mussulmans, being descendants of the armies led by the kings and nawabs of the Deccan.

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  • The spiked millet, known as bajra or cumbu, which yields a poorer food, is grown on dry sandy soil in the Deccan and the Punjab.

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  • In the Bombay Deccan districts they cover generally upwards of 60% of the grain area, or an even larger proportion in years of drought.

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  • The principal cotton-growing tracts are the plains of Gujarat and Kathiawar, whence Indian cotton has received in the Liverpool market the historic name of " Surat "; the highlands of the Deccan, and the valleys of the Central Provinces and Berar.

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  • The name of Golconda has passed into literature; but that city, once the Mussulman capital of the Deccan, was rather the home of diamond-cutters than the source of supply.

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  • In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.

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  • In his campaigns he was almost uniformly successful; but in his attempt to conquer the Deccan he was repulsed (620) by the Chalukya king, Pulikesin II., who successfully prevented him from forcing the passes of the Nerbudda.

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  • 3 In the Deccan the middle of the 6th century saw the rise of the Chalukya dynasty, founded by Pulikesin I.

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  • The Yadava kings of Deogiri were descendants of feudatory nobles of the Chalukya kingdom, but they, like the Hoysalas, were overthrown by Malik Kafur, and Ramachandra, the last of the line, was the last independent Hindu sovereign of the Deccan.

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  • The Deccan.

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  • At the head of a small ban of horsemen, he had ridden as far south as Deogiri (Daulatabad) in the Deccan (q.v.), and plundered the Yadava capital.

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  • Ala-ud-din died in 1316, having subjected to Islam the Deccan and Gujarat.

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  • When Hindustan was thus suffering from his misgovernment, he conceived the project of transferring the seat of empire to the Deccan, and compelled the inhabitants of Delhi to remove a distance of 700 m.

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  • The commencement of the reign of Ala-ud-din, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan, is assigned to 1347.

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  • For at least two centuries its sway over the south was undisputed, and its rajas waged wars and concluded treaties of peace with the sultans of the Deccan on equal terms.

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  • The earliest of the Mahommedan dynasties in the Deccan was that founded by Ala-ud-din in 1347, which has received the name of the Bahmani dynasty.

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  • Towards the close of the 14th century the Bahmani empire fell to pieces, and five independent kingdoms divided the Deccan among them.

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  • Despite frequent internal strife, the sultans of the Deccan retained their independence until conquered by the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb in the latter half of the 17th century.

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  • At last he turned his arms against the Mahommedan kings of the Deccan, and wrested from them Berar; but the permanent conquest of the south was reserved for Aurangzeb.

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  • He was the first to conquer the independent sultans of the Deccan, and to extend his authority to the extreme south.

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  • the Deccan, of Oudh, and of Bengal raised themselves to practical independence.

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  • During the reign of his father Shah Jahan he had been viceroy of the Deccan or rather of the northern portion only, which had been annexed to the Mogul empire since the reign of Akbar.

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  • The rising Mahratta power was thus for a time checked, and the Mogul armies were set free to operate in the eastern Deccan.

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  • In 1682 he set out with his army on his victorious march into the Deccan, and from that time until his death in 1707 he never again returned to Delhi.

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  • His independence at Hyderabad in the Deccan dates from 1712.

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  • Ahmedabad in Gujarat, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Ellichpur in the Deccan were each the capital of an independent Mahommedan kingdom; while the Hindu raja of Vijayanagar was recognized as paramount over the entire south.

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  • In the Deccan proper, the Nizam-ul-Mulk founded an independent dynasty, with Hyderabad for its capital, which exercised a nominal sovereignty over the entire south.

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  • But the French were no less supreme in the Deccan, whence they were able to take possession of the coast tract called " the Northern Circars."

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  • The second Mysore War of 1790-92 is noteworthy on two accounts: Lord Cornwallis, the governor-general, led the British army in person, with a pomp and lavishness of supplies that recalled the campaigns of Aurangzeb; y and the two great native powers, the nizam of the Wa Deccan and the Mahratta confederacy, co-operated as allies of the British.

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  • The reckless conduct of the Madras government had roused the hostility both of Hyder Ali of Mysore and of the nizam of the Deccan, the two strongest Mussulman powers in India, who attempted to draw the Mahrattas into an alliance against the British.

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  • Wellesley operated in the Deccan, where, in a few short months, he won the decisive victories of Assaye and Argaum.

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  • The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca); khirki-dar (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of great men); latudar (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the cloth twisted into rope shape) (Plate I.

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  • - Deccan Brahman wearing pagri, dhoti or pitamber, anga and dopatta.

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  • On his return to India in 1817 he was appointed by Lord Moira his political agent in the Deccan, with eligibility for military command; as brigadier-general under Sir T.

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  • On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.

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  • The greater part of the population of Central India is of the Hindu religion, but a few Mahommedan groups still exist, either traces of the days when the Mogul emperors extended their sway from the Punjab to the Deccan, or else the descendants of those northern adventurers who hired out their services to the great Mahratta generals.

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  • With this object he formed a national party among the Hindus of the Deccan, and opposed in turn the vassal power of Bijapur and the imperial armies of the Mogul of Delhi.

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  • Aurangzeb, who erected here a mausoleum to his wife which has been compared to the Taj at Agra, made the city the seat of his government during his viceroyalty of the Deccan, and gave it the name of Aurangabad.

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  • But in the upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary, especially in north-western Baluchistan, there is an extensive development of volcanic tuffs and conglomerates, which are probably contemporaneous with the Deccan Traps of India.

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  • During the critical period in which their empire was being established (c. 1505-1550) the Portuguese were fortunate in escaping conflict with any Oriental power of the first rank except Egypt and Turkey; for the Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan had been already disintegrated before 1498, and the Mughals and Mahrattas were still far off.

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  • The Bhor Ghat, on the northern border of the state, has always been the main pass over the Western Ghats, or means of communication between the seacoast and the Deccan.

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  • Through this arch Sikandar Adil Shah, the last king of Bijapur, was brought bound with silver chains, while on a raised platform sat Aurangzeb, the Mogul emperor, who had left Delhi three years previously to conquer the Deccan.

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  • He went to India, where he took service under the Bahmani king of the Deccan, and ultimately became a person of great importance at the court of Mahmud II.

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  • The city and territory of Bijapur remained annexed to Delhi till 1724, when the nizam established his independence in the Deccan, and included Bijapur within his dominions.

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  • The East Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway traverses the district from north to south.

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  • AKALKOT, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, ranking as one of the Satara Jagirs, situated between the British district of Sholapur and the nizam's dominions.

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  • It forms part of the Deccan table-land, and has a cool and agreeable climate.

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  • The first town built on Bombay Island was Mahikavati (Mahim),founded byKing Bhima, probably a member of the house of the Yadavas of Deogiri, as a result of Ala-ud-din Khilji's raid into the Deccan in 1294.

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  • This was still further increased by the famine of 1803, which drove large numbers of people from Konkan and the Deccan to seek employment in Bombay.

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  • The British victory over the Mahrattas and the annexation of the Deccan opened a new period of unrestricted development for Bombay.

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  • MIRAJ, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, forming part of the southern Mahratta Jagirs.

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  • The four divisions are the northern or Gujarat, the central or Deccan, the southern or Carnatic, and Sind.

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  • The chief groups of states are North Gujarat, comprising Cutch, Kathiawar agency, Palanpur agency, Mahi Kantha agency, Rewa Kantha agency and Cambay; South Gujarat, comprising Dharampur, Bansda and Sachin; North Konkan, Nasik and Khandesh, comprising Khandesh political agency, Surgana and Jawhar; South Konkan and Dharwar, comprising Janjira, Sawantwari and Savanur; the Deccan Satara Jagirs, comprising Akalkot, Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Jath and Daphlapur; the southern Mahratta states, comprising Kolhapur and other states, and Khairpur in Sind.

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  • The landward slope is in many places very gentle, the crest of the range being sometimes but slightly raised above the level of the plateau of the Deccan.

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  • In the neighbourhood of the Sahyadri hills, particularly towards the northern extremity of the range, the country is rugged and broken, containing isolated peaks, masses of rock and spurs, which, running eastward, form watersheds for the great rivers of the Deccan.

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  • The more level parts of Bombay consist of five well-demarcated tracts - Sind, Gujarat, the Konkan, the Deccan, and the Carnatic. Sind, or the lower valley of the Indus, is very flat, with but scanty vegetation, and depending for productive ness entirely on irrigation.

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  • The plains of the Deccan and Khandesh are watered by large rivers, but as the rainfall is uncertain, they are generally, during the greater part of the year, bleak and devoid of vegetation.

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  • These rivers collect countless tributary streams, some of them of considerable size, and drain the entire plain of the Deccan as they pass eastward towards the Bay of Bengal.

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  • South of Gujarat nearly the whole of Bombay is covered by the horizontal lava flows of the Deccan Trap series, and these flows spread over the greater part of the Kathiawar peninsula and extend into Cutch.

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  • The table-land of the Deccan above the Ghats, on the contrary, has an agreeable climate except in the hot months, as has also the southern Mahratta country; and in the hills of Mahabaleshwar, Singarh, and other detached heights, Europeans may go out at all hours with impunity.

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  • The Deccan is the home of the Mahrattas, who constitute 30% of the population.

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  • The staple crops are as follows: - Joar (Sorghum vulgare) and bajra (Holcus spicatus) are the staple food grains in the Deccan and Khandesh.

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  • Of fibres the most important are cotton, Deccan hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), and sunn or tag (Crotalaria juncea).

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  • In Kathiawar a chief named Bhatarka, probably of foreign origin, had established himself at Valabhi (Wala) on the ruins of the Gupta power (c. 500), and founded a dynasty which lasted until it was overthrown by Arab invaders from Sind in 77 0.1 The northern Konkan was held by the Mauryas of Puri near Bombay, the southerly coast by the Kadambas of Vanavasi, while in the southern Deccan Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas struggled for the mastery.

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  • But in the 10th century the Rashtrakuta power began to break up; in 961 Mularaja Solanki (Chalukya) conquered the kingdom of Anhilvada (Anhilvara) in Gujarat, where his dynasty reigned till 1242; and twelve years later the Chalukyas once more overthrew the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan, establishing their capital at Kalyani, while a branch line was set up in southern Gujarat.

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  • From 1143 onward the power of the latter had been overshadowed by that of the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka, and during the same period the Deccan had been rapidly lapsing into absolute anarchy, amid which rival chiefs struggled for the supreme power.

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  • In 1294 the emperor Ala-ud-din first invaded the Deccan, and in 1297 he conquered Gujarat.

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  • In the middle of the 14th century the weakness of the Delhi sovereigns tempted the governors of provinces to revolt against their distant master, and to form independent kingdoms. In this way the Bahmani kingdom was established in the Deccan, and embraced a part of the Bombay presidency.

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  • The failure of the monsoon of 1896 caused widespread distress throughout the Deccan, over an area of 46,000 sq.

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  • In 1899 the monsoon again failed in Gujarat, where famine hitherto had been almost unknown; and the winter rains failed in the Deccan, so that distress gradually spread over almost the entire presidency.

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  • The West Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway runs through the district from north to south.

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  • At the close of the Karroo period there was a remarkable manifestation of volcanic activity which again has its parallel in the Deccan traps of India.

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  • At the Deccan College, Poona, he graduated in arts with honours in 1876, and took the LL.B.

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  • All these, however, are often classed under the above general name, and so are the following: - Deccan or Ambari hemp, Hibiscus cannabinus, an Indian and East Indian malvaceous plant, the fibre from which is often known as brown hemp or Bombay hemp; Pite hemp, which is obtained from the American aloe, Agave americana; and Moorva or bowstring-hemp, Sansevieria zeylanica, which is obtained from an aloe-like plant, and is a native of India and Ceylon.

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  • Behind its lush coastline rise the thickly forested western ghats which level off on to the Deccan Plateau, south India's vast heartland.

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  • At the comparatively remote epoch when the Deccan was a forest tract, they were probably also met with there, but the swamps of the Bengal Sundarbans appear unsuited to their habits.

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  • The imprudent conduct of the Madras authorities had irritated beyond endurance the two greatest Mussulman powers in the peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder Ali, the usurper of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the Mahrattas.

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  • From these it is clear that the country fell in turn under the sway of the various dynasties that ruled in the Deccan, memorials of the Chalukyan dynasty, whether temples or inscriptions, being especially abundant.

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  • That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.

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  • Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that" the Deccan tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races."

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  • When in addition to all this it is found that physically the Dravidians resemble the Australians; that the boomerang is known among the wild tribes of the Deccan alone (with the doubtful exception of ancient Egypt) of all parts of the world except Australia, and that the Australian canoes are like those of the Dravidian coast tribes, it seems reasonable enough to assume that the Australian natives are Dravidians, exiled in remote times from Hindustan, though when their migration took place and how they traversed the Indian Ocean must remain questions to which, by their very nature, there can be no satisfactory answer.

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  • Pandharpur is the most popular place of pilgrimage in the Deccan, its celebrated temple being dedicated to Vithoba, a form of Vishnu.

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  • Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.

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  • In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.

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  • This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.

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  • They are notably divided into two sections: the Konkanast, coming from the Konkan or littoral tract on the west coast below the Western Ghat mountains; and the Deshast, coming from the uplands or Deccan, on the east of the mountains.

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  • It was against the Mahommedan king of Bijapur in the Deccan that Sivaji, the hero of Mahratta history, first rebelled in 1657.

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  • The nizam of the Deccan established himself at Hyderabad, comparatively near the headquarters of the peshwa.

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  • Owing to these events the British government became possessed of the Konkan and of the greater part of the Deccan.

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  • It was then included in the dominions of Nizam-ul-mulk, the nominal viceroy of the great Mogul in the Deccan, from whom again it was subsequently conquered by Hyder Ali of Mysore.

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  • As is shown by its name the province is situated in the centre of the Indian peninsula, comprising a large proportion of the broad belt of hill and plateau country which separates the plains of Hindustan from the Deccan.

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  • The climate of Berar differs very little from that of the Deccan generally, except that in the Payanghat valley the hot weather may be exceptionally severe.

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  • The Mussulman invaders of the Deccan passed it by, not caring to enter its mountain fastnesses and impenetrable forests; though occasional inscriptions show that parts of it had fallen from time to time under the dominion of one or other of the great kingdoms of the north, e.g.

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  • Two other distinguished chiefs of the house were Karan Singh (1631-1669), who in the struggle of the sons of Shah Jahan for the throne threw in his lot with Aurangzeb, and his eldest son, Anup Singh (1669-1698), who fought with distinction in the Deccan, was conspicuous in the capture of Golconda, and earned the title of maharaja.

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  • The chief events of his reign were the destruction of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar (1636), the loss of Kandahar to the Persians (1653), and a second war against the Deccan princes (1655).

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  • It is traditionally regarded as the boundary between Hindustan proper and the Deccan.

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  • AUNDH, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, ranking as one of the Satara Jagirs.

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  • The death of the emperor Aurangzeb brought a temporary lull: the guru assisted Aurangzeb's successor, Bahadur Shah, and was himself not long after assassinated at Nander in the Deccan.

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  • In this campaign he was not completely successful, and soon after was transferred to the army engaged in the Deccan.

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  • For the last twenty-six years of his life Aurangzeb was engaged in wars in the Deccan, and never set foot in his own capital.

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  • RASHTRAKUTA, an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from about A.D.

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  • 750, when Dantidurga overthrew the Chalukya dynasty and made himself ruler of the Deccan.

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  • Bhandarkar, Early History of the Deccan (Bombay, 1884).

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  • A good deal of bloodstone comes from India, where it occurs in the Deccan traps, and is cut and polished at Cambay.

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  • Nine years later the raja rebelled, but although with the help of the Bahmani kings of the Deccan he managed for a time to assert his independence, he was finally subdued and deprived of his territories.

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  • The origin of the name Berar is not known, but may perhaps be a corruption of Vidarbha, the name of a kingdom in the Deccan of which, in the period of the Mahabharata, Berar probably formed part.

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  • The history of Berar belongs generally to that of the Deccan, the country falling in turn under the sway of the various dynasties which successively ruled in southern India, the first authentic records showing it to have been part of the Andhra or Satavahana empire.

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  • On the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan (1348) Berar was constituted one of the four provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army.

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  • Murad, founding the city of Shahpur, fixed his seat at Berar, and after his death in 1598, and the conquest of the Deccan by Akbar, the province was united with Ahmednagar and Khandesh under the emperor's fifth son, Daniyal (d.

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  • CHALUKYA, the name of an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from A.D.

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  • The Chalukyas themselves claimed to be Rajputs from the north who imposed their rule on the Dravidian inhabitants of the Deccan tableland, and there is some evidence for connecting them with the Chapas, a branch of the foreign Gurjaras.

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  • He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and Kerala kings, and by 630 was beyond dispute the most powerful sovereign in the Deccan.

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  • Bhandarker, "Early History of the Deccan," in the Bombay Gazetteer (1896), vol.

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  • Abul Fazl died by the hand of an assassin, while returning from a mission to the Deccan in 1602.

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  • This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.

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  • Many Sikhs are also to be found in the native regiments of east and central Africa and of Hyderabad in the Deccan, and they compose a great part of the police force in the treaty ports of China.

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  • The Pindaris were surrounded on all sides by a great army, consisting of 120,000 men and 300 guns, which converged upon them from Bengal, the Deccan and Gujarat under the supreme command of Lord Hastings in person.

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  • The steam of water in which the fresh plant is immersed is in the Deccan resorted to by the Portuguese for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea.

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  • While he was still a child his father was summoned away from his native country into Hindostan, where he held high office in the Deccan; and by his influence the young Ferishta received court promotion.

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  • A derivative word, Maruti or Maroti, is the popular name throughout the Deccan for Hanuman.

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  • in thickness, and contain pebbles of quartzite, jasper, sandstone, slate, &c. The mines fall into five groups situated on the eastern side of the Deccan plateau about the following places (beginning from the south), the first three being in Madras.

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  • Polish millet is P. sanguinale; P. frumentaceum, shamalo, a Deccan grass, is probably a native of tropical Africa; P. decompositum is the Australian millet, its grains being made into cakes by the aborigines.

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  • DECCAN (Sans.

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  • Assigning it the more extended of these limits, it comprehends the whole of the Indian peninsula, and in this view the mountainous system, consisting of the Eastern and Western Ghats, constitutes the most striking feature of the Deccan.

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  • The detailed and authentic history of the Deccan only begins with the 13th century A.D.

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  • In addition to this, modern study of monuments and inscriptions has recovered the names, and to a certain extent the records, of a succession of dynasties ruling in the Deccan; of these the most conspicuous are the Cholas, the Andhras or Satavahanas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas of Devagiri (Deogiri).

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  • (See India: History; Bombay Presidency: History; Inscriptions: Indian.) In 12 94 Ala-ud-Din Khilji, emperor of Delhi, invaded the Deccan, stormed Devagiri, and reduced the Yadava rajas of Maharashtra to the position of tributary princes (see Daulatabad), then proceeding southward overran Telingana and Carnata (1294-1300).

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  • With this event the continuous history of the Deccan begins.

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  • In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.

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  • The rule of the Delhi emperors in the Deccan did not, however, long survive..

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  • Mysore formed one of their earliest conquests in the Deccan.

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  • Gribble, History of the Deccan (1896); Prof. Bhandarkar, "Early History of the Dekkan" (Bombay Gazetteer); Vincent A.

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  • "The Kingdoms of the Deccan."

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  • It formed the chief seat of the government of the Deccan provinces of the Mogul empire till Shah Jahan removed the capital to Aurangabad in 1635.

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  • In 1739 the Mahommedans finally yielded to the demand of the Mahrattas for a fourth of the revenue, and in 1760 the Nizam of the Deccan ceded Burhanpur to the peshwa, who in 1778 transferred it to Sindhia.

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  • Elsewhere in the Bombay presidency, in the Deccan and Gujarat, there are fewer facilities for irrigation than in other parts of India.

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  • Up to the end of1896-1897the capital spent on the irrigation works of the Deccan and Gujarat was -ax.

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  • It was found that although some irrigation works (especially in the Bombay Deccan) would never yield a direct return of or 5%, still in a famine year they might be the means of producing a crop which would go far to do away with the necessity for spending enormous sums on famine relief.

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  • Ireland, the Faroe Isles and Iceland: it is common in the traps of the Deccan in India, and in volcanic rocks in Uruguay and Brazil.

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  • Nizam-ul-Mulk (_ "administrator of the kingdom") was the title of Asaf Jah, the founder of the dynasty, a very able soldier and minister of the court of Aurangzeb, who was appointed governor of the Deccan in 1713, and established his independence before his death in 1748.

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  • His descendant in 1505, Singhan Deo, having distinguished himself in an expedition against the freebooters of the Deccan, was rewarded by the sovereignty of the small territory of Gohad, with the title of rana.

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  • This tract, known in ancient times as the Northern table- Deccan (Dakshin), literally " the right hand or south,".

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  • The enormous mass of basaltic rock known as the Deccan Trap is of great importance in the geological structure of the Indian Peninsula.

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  • The peninsula south of the Satpura range consists chiefly of the triangular plateau of the Deccan, terminating abruptly on the west in the Sahyadri range (Western Ghats), and shelving to the east (Eastern Ghats).

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  • The greater part of the Deccan and the Central Provinces are included within the hottest area, though in May the highest temperatures are found in Upper Sind, north-west Rajputana, and south-west Punjab.

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  • in width in the western Deccan parallel with the Ghats, and it is this part of the Deccan, together with the Mysore table-land and the Carnatic, that is most subject to drought.

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  • This animal appears to be a native only of the Deccan, where it is trained for hunting the antelope.

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  • In southern India the majority are known as Deccani Mussulmans, being descendants of the armies led by the kings and nawabs of the Deccan.

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  • For inexhaustible fertility, and for retentiveness of moisture in a dry year, no soil in the world can surpass the " black cotton-soil " of the Deccan.

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  • The spiked millet, known as bajra or cumbu, which yields a poorer food, is grown on dry sandy soil in the Deccan and the Punjab.

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  • In the Bombay Deccan districts they cover generally upwards of 60% of the grain area, or an even larger proportion in years of drought.

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  • The principal cotton-growing tracts are the plains of Gujarat and Kathiawar, whence Indian cotton has received in the Liverpool market the historic name of " Surat "; the highlands of the Deccan, and the valleys of the Central Provinces and Berar.

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  • The name of Golconda has passed into literature; but that city, once the Mussulman capital of the Deccan, was rather the home of diamond-cutters than the source of supply.

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  • In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.

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  • In his campaigns he was almost uniformly successful; but in his attempt to conquer the Deccan he was repulsed (620) by the Chalukya king, Pulikesin II., who successfully prevented him from forcing the passes of the Nerbudda.

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  • 3 In the Deccan the middle of the 6th century saw the rise of the Chalukya dynasty, founded by Pulikesin I.

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  • The Yadava kings of Deogiri were descendants of feudatory nobles of the Chalukya kingdom, but they, like the Hoysalas, were overthrown by Malik Kafur, and Ramachandra, the last of the line, was the last independent Hindu sovereign of the Deccan.

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  • The Deccan.

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  • At the head of a small ban of horsemen, he had ridden as far south as Deogiri (Daulatabad) in the Deccan (q.v.), and plundered the Yadava capital.

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  • Ala-ud-din died in 1316, having subjected to Islam the Deccan and Gujarat.

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  • When Hindustan was thus suffering from his misgovernment, he conceived the project of transferring the seat of empire to the Deccan, and compelled the inhabitants of Delhi to remove a distance of 700 m.

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  • The commencement of the reign of Ala-ud-din, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan, is assigned to 1347.

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  • For at least two centuries its sway over the south was undisputed, and its rajas waged wars and concluded treaties of peace with the sultans of the Deccan on equal terms.

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  • The earliest of the Mahommedan dynasties in the Deccan was that founded by Ala-ud-din in 1347, which has received the name of the Bahmani dynasty.

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  • Towards the close of the 14th century the Bahmani empire fell to pieces, and five independent kingdoms divided the Deccan among them.

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  • Despite frequent internal strife, the sultans of the Deccan retained their independence until conquered by the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb in the latter half of the 17th century.

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  • At last he turned his arms against the Mahommedan kings of the Deccan, and wrested from them Berar; but the permanent conquest of the south was reserved for Aurangzeb.

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  • He was the first to conquer the independent sultans of the Deccan, and to extend his authority to the extreme south.

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  • the Deccan, of Oudh, and of Bengal raised themselves to practical independence.

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  • During the reign of his father Shah Jahan he had been viceroy of the Deccan or rather of the northern portion only, which had been annexed to the Mogul empire since the reign of Akbar.

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  • The rising Mahratta power was thus for a time checked, and the Mogul armies were set free to operate in the eastern Deccan.

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  • In 1682 he set out with his army on his victorious march into the Deccan, and from that time until his death in 1707 he never again returned to Delhi.

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  • His independence at Hyderabad in the Deccan dates from 1712.

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  • Ahmedabad in Gujarat, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Ellichpur in the Deccan were each the capital of an independent Mahommedan kingdom; while the Hindu raja of Vijayanagar was recognized as paramount over the entire south.

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  • In the Deccan proper, the Nizam-ul-Mulk founded an independent dynasty, with Hyderabad for its capital, which exercised a nominal sovereignty over the entire south.

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  • But the French were no less supreme in the Deccan, whence they were able to take possession of the coast tract called " the Northern Circars."

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  • The second Mysore War of 1790-92 is noteworthy on two accounts: Lord Cornwallis, the governor-general, led the British army in person, with a pomp and lavishness of supplies that recalled the campaigns of Aurangzeb; y and the two great native powers, the nizam of the Wa Deccan and the Mahratta confederacy, co-operated as allies of the British.

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  • The reckless conduct of the Madras government had roused the hostility both of Hyder Ali of Mysore and of the nizam of the Deccan, the two strongest Mussulman powers in India, who attempted to draw the Mahrattas into an alliance against the British.

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  • Wellesley operated in the Deccan, where, in a few short months, he won the decisive victories of Assaye and Argaum.

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  • The consequences of this prolonged drought, which extended from Cape Comorin to the Deccan, and subsequently invaded northern India, were more disastrous than any similar calamity up to that time from the introduction of British rule.

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  • The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca); khirki-dar (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of great men); latudar (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the cloth twisted into rope shape) (Plate I.

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  • - Deccan Brahman wearing pagri, dhoti or pitamber, anga and dopatta.

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  • On his return to India in 1817 he was appointed by Lord Moira his political agent in the Deccan, with eligibility for military command; as brigadier-general under Sir T.

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  • On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.

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  • The greater part of the population of Central India is of the Hindu religion, but a few Mahommedan groups still exist, either traces of the days when the Mogul emperors extended their sway from the Punjab to the Deccan, or else the descendants of those northern adventurers who hired out their services to the great Mahratta generals.

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  • With this object he formed a national party among the Hindus of the Deccan, and opposed in turn the vassal power of Bijapur and the imperial armies of the Mogul of Delhi.

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  • Aurangzeb, who erected here a mausoleum to his wife which has been compared to the Taj at Agra, made the city the seat of his government during his viceroyalty of the Deccan, and gave it the name of Aurangabad.

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  • But in the upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary, especially in north-western Baluchistan, there is an extensive development of volcanic tuffs and conglomerates, which are probably contemporaneous with the Deccan Traps of India.

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  • During the critical period in which their empire was being established (c. 1505-1550) the Portuguese were fortunate in escaping conflict with any Oriental power of the first rank except Egypt and Turkey; for the Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan had been already disintegrated before 1498, and the Mughals and Mahrattas were still far off.

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  • The Bhor Ghat, on the northern border of the state, has always been the main pass over the Western Ghats, or means of communication between the seacoast and the Deccan.

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  • Through this arch Sikandar Adil Shah, the last king of Bijapur, was brought bound with silver chains, while on a raised platform sat Aurangzeb, the Mogul emperor, who had left Delhi three years previously to conquer the Deccan.

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  • He went to India, where he took service under the Bahmani king of the Deccan, and ultimately became a person of great importance at the court of Mahmud II.

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  • The city and territory of Bijapur remained annexed to Delhi till 1724, when the nizam established his independence in the Deccan, and included Bijapur within his dominions.

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  • The East Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway traverses the district from north to south.

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  • AKALKOT, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, ranking as one of the Satara Jagirs, situated between the British district of Sholapur and the nizam's dominions.

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  • It forms part of the Deccan table-land, and has a cool and agreeable climate.

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  • The first town built on Bombay Island was Mahikavati (Mahim),founded byKing Bhima, probably a member of the house of the Yadavas of Deogiri, as a result of Ala-ud-din Khilji's raid into the Deccan in 1294.

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  • This was still further increased by the famine of 1803, which drove large numbers of people from Konkan and the Deccan to seek employment in Bombay.

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  • The British victory over the Mahrattas and the annexation of the Deccan opened a new period of unrestricted development for Bombay.

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  • MIRAJ, a native state of India, in the Deccan division of Bombay, forming part of the southern Mahratta Jagirs.

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  • The four divisions are the northern or Gujarat, the central or Deccan, the southern or Carnatic, and Sind.

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  • The chief groups of states are North Gujarat, comprising Cutch, Kathiawar agency, Palanpur agency, Mahi Kantha agency, Rewa Kantha agency and Cambay; South Gujarat, comprising Dharampur, Bansda and Sachin; North Konkan, Nasik and Khandesh, comprising Khandesh political agency, Surgana and Jawhar; South Konkan and Dharwar, comprising Janjira, Sawantwari and Savanur; the Deccan Satara Jagirs, comprising Akalkot, Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Jath and Daphlapur; the southern Mahratta states, comprising Kolhapur and other states, and Khairpur in Sind.

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  • The landward slope is in many places very gentle, the crest of the range being sometimes but slightly raised above the level of the plateau of the Deccan.

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  • In the neighbourhood of the Sahyadri hills, particularly towards the northern extremity of the range, the country is rugged and broken, containing isolated peaks, masses of rock and spurs, which, running eastward, form watersheds for the great rivers of the Deccan.

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  • The more level parts of Bombay consist of five well-demarcated tracts - Sind, Gujarat, the Konkan, the Deccan, and the Carnatic. Sind, or the lower valley of the Indus, is very flat, with but scanty vegetation, and depending for productive ness entirely on irrigation.

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  • The plains of the Deccan and Khandesh are watered by large rivers, but as the rainfall is uncertain, they are generally, during the greater part of the year, bleak and devoid of vegetation.

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  • These rivers collect countless tributary streams, some of them of considerable size, and drain the entire plain of the Deccan as they pass eastward towards the Bay of Bengal.

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  • South of Gujarat nearly the whole of Bombay is covered by the horizontal lava flows of the Deccan Trap series, and these flows spread over the greater part of the Kathiawar peninsula and extend into Cutch.

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  • Tertiary limestones, sandstones and shales overlie the Deccan Trap in Cutch, but the greatest development of deposits of this age is to be met with on the western side of the Indus (see Sind).

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  • The table-land of the Deccan above the Ghats, on the contrary, has an agreeable climate except in the hot months, as has also the southern Mahratta country; and in the hills of Mahabaleshwar, Singarh, and other detached heights, Europeans may go out at all hours with impunity.

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  • The Deccan is the home of the Mahrattas, who constitute 30% of the population.

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  • The staple crops are as follows: - Joar (Sorghum vulgare) and bajra (Holcus spicatus) are the staple food grains in the Deccan and Khandesh.

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  • Of fibres the most important are cotton, Deccan hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), and sunn or tag (Crotalaria juncea).

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  • In Kathiawar a chief named Bhatarka, probably of foreign origin, had established himself at Valabhi (Wala) on the ruins of the Gupta power (c. 500), and founded a dynasty which lasted until it was overthrown by Arab invaders from Sind in 77 0.1 The northern Konkan was held by the Mauryas of Puri near Bombay, the southerly coast by the Kadambas of Vanavasi, while in the southern Deccan Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas struggled for the mastery.

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  • But in the 10th century the Rashtrakuta power began to break up; in 961 Mularaja Solanki (Chalukya) conquered the kingdom of Anhilvada (Anhilvara) in Gujarat, where his dynasty reigned till 1242; and twelve years later the Chalukyas once more overthrew the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan, establishing their capital at Kalyani, while a branch line was set up in southern Gujarat.

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  • From 1143 onward the power of the latter had been overshadowed by that of the Vaghela chiefs of Dholka, and during the same period the Deccan had been rapidly lapsing into absolute anarchy, amid which rival chiefs struggled for the supreme power.

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  • In 1294 the emperor Ala-ud-din first invaded the Deccan, and in 1297 he conquered Gujarat.

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  • In the middle of the 14th century the weakness of the Delhi sovereigns tempted the governors of provinces to revolt against their distant master, and to form independent kingdoms. In this way the Bahmani kingdom was established in the Deccan, and embraced a part of the Bombay presidency.

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  • The failure of the monsoon of 1896 caused widespread distress throughout the Deccan, over an area of 46,000 sq.

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  • In 1899 the monsoon again failed in Gujarat, where famine hitherto had been almost unknown; and the winter rains failed in the Deccan, so that distress gradually spread over almost the entire presidency.

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  • The West Deccan line of the Southern Mahratta railway runs through the district from north to south.

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  • At the close of the Karroo period there was a remarkable manifestation of volcanic activity which again has its parallel in the Deccan traps of India.

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  • At the Deccan College, Poona, he graduated in arts with honours in 1876, and took the LL.B.

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  • All these, however, are often classed under the above general name, and so are the following: - Deccan or Ambari hemp, Hibiscus cannabinus, an Indian and East Indian malvaceous plant, the fibre from which is often known as brown hemp or Bombay hemp; Pite hemp, which is obtained from the American aloe, Agave americana; and Moorva or bowstring-hemp, Sansevieria zeylanica, which is obtained from an aloe-like plant, and is a native of India and Ceylon.

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