How to use Decay in a sentence
They reek of decay and death.
Some species rapidly change colour, and cause the decay of any others with which they come in contact.
Though rebuilt, the building fell into decay after the Dissolution.
The rise of Neapolis (Shechem) in the neighbourhood caused the decay of Sebaste.
Its rise and development and decay deserve a more thorough study than they have yet received.Advertisement
From this time forward the city began to decay.
The explanation of this decay of interest does not lie upon the surface.
The loss to Spain was enormous, and from this act of the Dominican the commercial decay of Spain dates.
With the decay of her mining industries, Ouro Preto had become merely the political centre of the state.
It appears, therefore, contemporaneously with Christianity, and is a sign of the world-weariness and deep religious need that mark the decay of the old world.Advertisement
His reign, after a few passing years of barren successes, was a long story of political and military decay and disaster.
After the overthrow of the dynasty of the Achaemenides a period of decay seems to have set in.
Unfortunately it is rapidly falling into decay.
During the latter part of the Saxon period the numbers of the population of the country began to decay; this decay, however, was arrested by the Norman Conquest.
We think that the decay of interest in these writers involves a real loss, and that students of modern problems may do worse than read Ricardo and his school.Advertisement
After a long period of decay he died on the 13th of September 1872.
There was a grammar school at Midhurst, which at one time had enjoyed considerable reputation, but which had fallen into decay.
The same process of decay was greatly promoted by the Arab conquest of Persia, achieved through the victory of Kadisiya in 636-637.
Such injuries are apt to occur in syphilitic endarteritis, or senile arterial decay, whereby an artery may be blocked permanently, as if with an embolus, and the area supplied by it, in so far as it was dependent upon this vessel, deprived of nutrition.
Their wars exhausted the country, and before the end of the century it was in the greatest decay.Advertisement
In 1752 its capital was situated on the right bank of the Guapore river and was named Villa Bella da Santissima Trindade de Matto Grosso, but in 1820 the seat of government was removed to Cuyaba and Villa Bella has fallen into decay.
On the Lower Murray the body is placed on a platform of sticks and left to decay.
In the following century the power of the Ahoms began to decay, alike from internal dissensions and the pressure of outside invaders.
In some parts of the river 300 naouras have been counted within a space of 130 m., but of late years many have fallen into decay.
Where the valley is still cultivated, the jerd, a skin raised by oxen, is gradually being substituted for the naoura, no more of the latter being constructed to take the place of those which fall into decay.Advertisement
It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
The assumption that the decay of Assyria awoke the national feeling of independence is perhaps justified by those events which made the greatest impression upon the compiler, and an account is given of Josiah's religious reforms, based upon a source apparently identical with that which described the work of Jehoash.
In consequence, however, of the frequent violence of the southwesterly gales and other causes, the communication ceased in the middle of the 19th century, and the artificial harbour designed by John Rennie has gradually fallen into decay.
Looking at the surface of the life of Spain, he might well believe in its decay.
Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen.Advertisement
With the moral and ecclesiastical decay of the papacy in the 9th and 10th centuries much of its territorial authority slipped from its grasp; and by the middle of the I ith century its rule was not recognized beyond Rome and the immediate vicinity.
Kolzum retained some of the trade of Egypt with Arabia and countries farther east long after the canal was closed, but by the 13th century it was in ruins and Suez itself, which had supplanted it, was also, according to an Arab historian, in decay.
The war that followed marks an epoch in the decay of the Ottoman Empire and in the expansion of Russia.
Uncombined sulphur is injurious, and often leads to the decay of vulcanized goods, but an excess of sulphur is generally required in order to ensure perfect vulcanization.
It was garrisoned at the period of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745, fell into decay early in the 19th century, and is now the property of the crown, the duke of Argyll being hereditary keeper.Advertisement
Thus an individual living body is not only constantly changing its substance, but its size and form are undergoing continual modifications, the end of which is the death and decay of that individual; the continuation of the kind being secured by the detachment of portions which tend to run through the same cycle of forms as the parent.
The mushroom is a semi-deliquescent fungus which rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes its original form again after the first shower.
These walls all fell into decay long since; at places they were used as brick quarries, and finally the great reforming governor, (1868-1872), Midhat Pasha, following the example set by many European cities, undertook to destroy them altogether and utilize the free space thus obtained as a public park and esplanade.
Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.
The fall of the republic was accompanied by interruption of trade and decay of manufacture, and in the last years of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century the glass-making of Murano was at a very low ebb.Advertisement
Soon after this, decay set in.
It is only when these conditions are attended to that decay and nitrification of dung, guano, fish-meal, sulphate of ammonia and other manures take place, and the constituents which they contain become available to the crops for whose benefit they have been applied to the land.
After the decay of the roots some of the unchanged bacteria are left in the soil, where they remain ready to infect a new leguminous crop.
It was then dismantled and fell into decay.
Centuries of neglect followed, and the ancient port was almost choked up, though the value of the fisheries saved the town from utter decay.Advertisement
A few had been converted to apartments, but a recent wave of historical consciousness had temporarily halted the decay.
To a youth and womanhood of storm and stress had succeeded an old age of serene activity and then of calm decay.
The tree will continue to form wood for i 50 or 200 years before showing any symptoms of decay.
He was the real founder of the Parthian empire, which was of very limited extent until the final decay of the Seleucid empire, occasioned by the Roman intrigues after the death of Antiochus IV.
It is true that Arabian polytheism in the time of Mahomet was in a state of decay.Advertisement
Berkhampstead rose to importance with its castle, which is said to have been built by Robert, count of Mortain, and when the castle fell into ruin after 1496 the town also began to decay.
The rise of the mineral saltworks of Cheshire led to its decline in the 18th century, and later the renewed importance of Southampton completed its decay.
It contains many villas of the aristocracy of Palermo, the majority of which were erected in the 18th century, but have now fallen into decay.
Wilpert's great work, in which these frescoes are reproduced in colours, now enables the student even better to distinguish the styles of different centuries and follow the course of artistic development or decay.
Partially destroyed by fire in 1 447 and afterwards rebuilt, it was sacked in 1650 and again in 1688, and then gradually fell into decay.
This wasting may be general or local - continuously from the embryonic period there is this natural process of displacement and decay of tissues going on in the growing organism.
But the Liberalism of his early years was gone for ever, and he had become reconciled to Metternich's view that, in an age of decay, the sole function of a statesman was to "prop up mouldering institutions."
Owing perhaps to Assyrian aggression, this power seems to have begun to suffer decay about 1000 B.C. and thereafter to have shrunk inwards, leaving the coasts open.
Their growth makes no new addition of mineral food-constituents to the land, but they bring useful substances from the subsoil nearer to the surface, and after the decay of the buried vegetation these become available to succeeding crops of wheat or other plants.
The growing crops should be ploughed in before flowering occurs; they should not be buried deeply, since decay and nitrification take place most rapidly and satisfactorily when there is free access of air to the decaying material.
This transference of the authority of the latter to a number of distinct bodies and the consequent disintegration of the old organization was a gradual spontaneous movement, - a process of slow displacement, or natural growth and decay, due to the play of economic forces, - which, generally speaking, may be assigned to the 14th and 15th centuries, the very period in which the craft gilds attained the zenith of their power.
Even before the Reformation, however, signs of decay had already begun to appear, and these multiplied in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Excessive humidity causes small dark spots to appear; these become confluent and the whole leaf may become dark and decay.
The climate has a beneficial effect on pulmonary diseases, especially in their earlier stages, and is remarkable in arresting the decay of vital power consequent upon old age.
The decay that followed caused a number of Sabaeans to migrate to other parts of Arabia.
The town is enclosed by nearly square brick walls, flanked by massive round towers, dating from the time of the caliphs, but now falling into decay.
The khakan and his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and till the decay of the Mahommedan empire Khazaria with all the other countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of corn (737861).
The Almohade Empire soon began to decay, and in 1336 Abu Zakariya, prince of Tunis, was able to proclaim himself independent and found a dynasty, which subsisted till the advent of the Turks.
Leo Africanus, writing early in the 16th century, gives a favourable picture of the "great city" of Tunis, which had a flourishing manufacture of fine cloth, a prosperous colony of Christian traders, and, including the suburbs, nine or ten thousand hearths; but he speaks also of the decay of once flourishing provincial towns, and especially of agriculture, the once powerful Church.
During the reign of Alexander Byzantium was compelled to acknowledge the Macedonian supremacy; after the decay of the Macedonian power it regained its independence, but suffered from the repeated incursions of the Scythians.
Since the adoption of the constitution the conditions have become worse owing to the extensive immigration of foreigners into the large cities and the gradual decay of the rural towns.
The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.
But by the new method embroiderers now succeed in producing fabrics which defy all destructive influences except, of course, dirt and decay.
This arrangement, though short-lived, is significant of the decay of the political influence of the Eupatridae, and it is not likely that they recovered, even in practice, any real control of the government.
Even as a grammarian he performed an important service to the literary language of Rome, by fixing its prosody and arresting the tendency to decay in its final syllables.
From the time of Mimnermus this form seems to have presented itself as the most natural vehicle for the poetry of pleasure in an age of luxury, refinement and incipient decay.
On the whole this century shows, in form, language and substance, the signs of literary decay.
What remains to describe is little but death and decay.
This singular phenomenon is supposed to owe its appearance to an accumulation of gas, formed by the decay of vegetable matter, detaching and raising to the surface the matted weeds which cover the floor of the lake at this point.
The style of Malachi, like his argument, corresponds in its generally prosaic character to that transformation or decay of prophecy which began with Ezekiel; and Ewald rightly called attention to the fact that the conduct of the argument already shows traces of the dialectic manner of the schools.
This plan is, however, objectionable, as inducing decay in the centre of the trunk.
They fell into almost complete decay in the 17th century, and a "fair house" was erected out of the ruins by Sir Nicholas Carew of Beddington.
The products of the decay of the organisms thus A, Bladder of Utricularia neglecta (after Darwin), enlarged.
They have mostly been replaced, decay having taken place at the joints.
The decay of ecclesiastical discipline grew to alarming proportions under Sixtus.
But the downfall of Buddhism 'De cline seems to have resulted from natural decay, and from h ismdd- new movements of religious thought, rather than from any general suppression by the sword.
Aurangzeb's long reign, from 1658 to 1707, may be regarded as representing both the culminating point of Mogul power and the beginning of its decay.
During the 5th century, they appear as furnishing a contingent of cavalry to Sitalces, king of the Odrysae, in his attack on Perdiccas II., king of Macedon, but the decay of the Odrysian kingdom again left them independent.
During the Hanseatic period it was the most important commercial town on the Sound, but in the 16th and 17th centuries greatly lost ground owing to the decay of its herring fisheries and the rise of its rival, Copenhagen.
The climate is much drier than that of Chiapas, and the structures are in a better state of preservation than those of Palenque, but the rank vegetation and the decay of the wooden lintels over the doorways have broken down many of the walls.
In the second term you will begin to learn how to manage dental decay using manikins in the laboratory.
By the end of the Middle Ages fashions changed and most were abandoned, leaving the wooden manor houses to slowly decay.
To prevent tooth decay and gum disease it is necessary to have regular dental visits.
After the union of Schleswig and Holstein under the Danish crown, the Danevirke fell into decay, but in 1848 it was hastily strengthened by the Danes, who were, however, unable to hold it in face of the superiority of the Prussian artillery, and on the 23rd of April it was stormed.
It is not in the decay of combination and monopoly or in the growth of competition that we must look for the distinctive characteristics of modern problems. A 17th-century monopoly was a very weak and ineffective instrument compared with a modern syndicate; the Statute of Apprenticeship was certainly not so widely enforced as the " common rules " of trade unions; and many of the regulations of past times, which look so complicated to modern eyes, were conditions of free enterprise rather than restraints upon it.
After the destruction of Old Winchelsea, New Winchelsea, a walled town, flourished for about a hundred years and provided a large proportion of the ships furnished by the Cinque Ports to the crown; but the ravages of the French destroyed it, its walls were broken down, and the decay of the harbour, owing to the recession of the sea, prevented any later return of its prosperity.
Thus, in Germany, with the decay of the empire the title " prince " received a sovereign connotation, though it ranks, as in France, below that of " duke."
Napoleon in 1798 ordered the restoration of the fortifications, but they have again fallen into decay.
Leland calls attention to the decay of a great number of houses.
In view of this general demoralization not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (1578-1590) could prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening the Mussulman states, they hastened the process, since they facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the Caspian.
This goodness, therefore, alone exists; matter, motion, growth and decay are figments of the senses; they have no existence for Reason.
It is impossible not to be struck with the growing development of the Israelite tribes after the invasion of Palestine, their strong position under David, the sudden expansion of the Hebrew monarchy under Solomon, and the subsequent slow decay, and this, indeed, is the picture as it presented itself 'to the last writers who found in the glories of the past both consolation for the present and grounds for future hopes.
After the removal of the capital to Bagdad, in the middle of the following century, Kufa lost its importance and began to fall into decay.
Produced by long-continued subaerial decay and erosion, in later Cretaceous times this lowland extended from the Atlantic Ocean well toward the interior of North America; since then the whole continent has been generally elevated, and by successive steps the Appalachian belt has been raised to form a wide but relatively low arch.
Bauxite, probably derived from the decay of lavas, is found between Glenarm and Broughshane, associated with brown and red pisolitic iron-ores; both these materials are worked commercially.
The 4th century found Mutina in a state of decay; the ravages of Attila and the troubles of the Lombard period left it a ruined city in a wasted land.
But the ramparts were long ago demolished; only natives, Malays, Arabs and Chinese live here, and the great European houses have either fallen into decay or been converted into magazines and warehouses.
After that it seems to have fallen into decay or been destroyed, but was restored by Assur-nasir-pal, about 880 B.C., and from that time to the overthrow of the Assyrian power it remained a residence city of the Assyrian kings.
Of more importance is the fact that, in co-operation with the bishops of Rome, he carried out the organization of the church in Bavaria, and began the reorganization of the Frankish church, which had fallen into confusion and decay during the political disorders of the last years of the Merovingians.
After the decay of Aquileia and Iulium Carnicum (Zuglio) it became the chief town of the district of Friuli and gave its name to it.
The Buddhist religion, then beginning to decay in India, was working its way to a new growth in China, and contemporaneously the Nestorian Christians were establishing bishoprics at Herat, Mer y and Samarkand, whence they subsequently proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself.
The provincial schools, dependent upon so decrepit an alma mater, were suffered to decay.
The city was at one time an important commercial and mining centre, but much of its importance was lost through the transfer of trade to Cali and Pasto, through the decay of neighbouring mining industries, and through political disturbances.
This valley i$ famed for its fertility, and is admirably irrigated by canals, part of which, however, fell into decay after 55,000 of the inhabitants migrated to Russian territory in 1881.
The time of the Ashtarkhanides had been for the most part a time of dissolution and decay; fanaticism and imbecility went hand in hand.
But "the terrible power in the universal church, the great riches and the extraordinary prestige" of the Society, which Palafox complained had raised it "above all dignities, laws, councils and apostolic constitutions," carried with them the seeds of rapid and inevitable decay.
It is also possible that the compiler has himself attempted here and there to harmonize to a certain extent the various Gnostic doctrines, yet in no case is this collection of sources given by Hippolytus to be passed over; it should rather be considered as important evidence for the beginnings of the decay of Gnosticism.
The, cochineal insect was once an important commercial product, but the industry has fallen into decay.
Ranking during the early centuries of its existence as one of the greatest cities of Islam, Marrakesh has long been in a state of grievous decay, but it is rendered attractive by the exceptional beauty of its situation, the luxuriant groves and gardens by which it is encompassed and interspersed, and the magnificent outlook which it enjoys towards the mountains.
It fell com pletely into decay, and it is only of recent years that the jungle has been cleared away, the ruins laid bare, and some measure of prosperity brought back to the surrounding country by the restoration of hundreds of village tanks.
This policy was accompanied by a gradual decay of civic feeling and municipal enterprise, which showed itself mainly in the unwillingness of the townsmen to become candidates for local magistracies, or to take up the burdens entailed in membership of the municipal senate.
Two lofty platforms along the Tigris front had served as foundations of the palaces hitherto built, but the platforms had been wrecked and the palaces were in decay.
The souls of members of the tribe who have died survive in these slips of wood, which are treasured up for long generations and repaired if they decay.
It was chiefly the mineral wealth of the Cordilleran region, first developed on the far Pacific slope, and later in many parts of the inner mountain ranges, that urged pioneers across the dry plains into the apparently inhospitable mountain region; there the adventurous new-corners rapidly worked out one mining district after another, exhausting and abandoning the smaller camps to early decay and rushing in feverish excitement to new-found river fields, but establishing important centres of varied industries in the more important mining districts.
This mature weathering, resulting in the relatively complete separation of the quartz from the kaolin, and both from the calcium carbonate and other basic materials, implies conditions of rock decay comparable to those of the present time.
During the course of its history it has passed through two periods of greatness, two of decay and one of revival.
From 1411 to 1511 it grew in size and wealth; from 1512 to 1572 it declined with the decay of the dynasty of Gujarat; from 1572 to 1709 it renewed its greatness under the Mogul emperors; from 1709 to 1809 it dwindled with their decline; and from 1818 onwards it has again increased under British rule.
The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival.
The first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay of discipline was so complete in France that the monks are said to have been frequently unacquainted with the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were bound by any rule at all.
The country never recovered from these disasters, and under the Roman government fell into decay, to which the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the Samnites against Rome (90-88 B.C.) gave the finishing stroke.
They also were permitted to fall into decay, but the 3rd marquess of Bute undertook the restoration of the Greyfriars' chapel.
The decay of the wooden shipbuilding industry has lessened the comparative importance of the mercantile marine, but there has been a great increase in the tonnage employed in the coasting trade and upon inland waters.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
On the decay of Kincardine, the original capital, Stonehaven became the county town in 1600, and suffered heavily during the covenanting troubles, Montrose setting it on fire in 1645.
As the corpse was found generally to disappear and decay in spite of preservative magic, especially in the early ages, various substitutes were resorted to; statues and statuettes were thought efficacious, but, apart from their costliness, even these were subject to decay or destruction by violence, and in the absence of anything more substantial the Egyptians doubtless reflected that magic words alone in the last resort made everything right.
Meantime, however, the decay and ultimate silence of the living prophetic word concurred with prolonged political servitude to produce an important change in Hebrew religion.
How far he was above his contemporaries, how little appreciated or understood by them, is shown by the absence of references to him in other Greek writers, and by the fact that his work had no effect in arresting the decay of mathematical science.
This arrangement still survives in some of the ancient churches of Rome; it has been revived in many Protestant places of worship. It symbolized principally an official distinction; but with the theocratizing of the empire in the East and its decay in the West the accentuation of the mystic powers of the clergy led to a more complete separation from the laity, a tendency which left its mark on the arrangements of the churches.
But with the decline of dogmatic belief and the spread of religious doubt - as the special sciences also grow more general, and the natural sciences become more speculative about matter and force, evolution and teleology - men begin to wonder again about the nature and origin of things, just as it was the decay of polytheism in Greek religion and his own discoveries in natural science which impelled Aristotle to metaphysical questions.
Agdistis in repentance prevailed upon Zeus to grant that the body of the youth should never decay or waste.
Save for a short period of prosperity under the Frankish rulers of Athens (1205-1310), who repaired the katavothra and fostered agriculture, Boeotia long continued in a state of decay, aggravated by occasional barbarian incursions.
Nepotism, however, still left its scars upon the body politic, shown in the progressive decay of agriculture in the Campagna, causing Rome to starve in the midst of fertile but untilled nepotistic latifundia.
As the yeomen of England were then in comparatively easy circumstances, the practice of sending their sons to the universities was quite usual; indeed Latimer mentions that in the reign of Edward VI., on account of the increase of rents, the universities had begun wonderfully to decay.
And it must be admitted that there are also many cases, some of them caused by irregularities of writing, modification of spelling by decay, and by a probable use of prefixes still unascertained, which also resist explanation, though the account just given stands good whatever solution the question of prefixes may receive in future.
It was not, however, till after the closing of the Zwyn and the decay of Bruges that Antwerp became of importance.
The grains should show no signs of decay, and by preference should be of an angular shape.
Indeed, economic causes contributed much to the decay of romantic chivalry.
This explains the failure of boats built of commercially pure aluminium which have been put together with iron or copper rivets, and the decay of other boats built of a light alloy, in which the alloying metal (copper) has been injudiciously chosen.
In their interior fittings plant stoves require more care than greenhouses, which are much drier, and in which consequently the staging does not so soon decay.
The accumulations of light earth formed on the surface in woods where the leaves fall and decay annually are leaf-mould of the finest quality.
In cooler structures it becomes necessary in the dull season of the year to prevent the slopping of water over the plants or on the floor, as this tends to cause " damping off," - the stems assuming a state of mildewy decay, which not infrequently, if it once attacks a plant, will destroy it piece by piece.
Others, as the asters, spread rapidly; those possessing this habit should be taken up every second or third year, and, a nice patch being selected for replanting from the outer portions, the rest may be either thrown aside, or reserved for increase; the portion selected for replanting should be returned to its place, the ground having meanwhile been well broken up. Some plants are apt to decay at the base, frequently from exposure caused by the lifting process going on during their growth; these should be taken up annually in early autumn, the soil refreshed, and the plants returned to their places, care being taken to plant them sufficiently deep.
From that time it began to decay.
The settlement was in a low marshy district which proved to be unhealthy; it was accidentally burned in January 1608, was almost completely destroyed by Nathaniel Bacon in September 1676, the state house and other buildings were again burned in 1698, and after the removal of the seat of government of Virginia from Jamestown to the Middle Plantations (now Williamsburg) in 1699 the village fell rapidly into decay.
They are characterized by an ascocarp without any opening to the exterior, the ascospores being set free by the decay or rupture of the ascocarp wall; such a fruit-body is termed a cleistothecium (cleistocarp).
The asci are developed in the large dense fruit bodies (cleistothecia) and the spores escape by the decay of the wall.
By debasing the coinage he hastened the decay of Byzantine commerce.
On the other hand, the good condition of many of the painted Oscan inscriptions at the times when they were first uncovered (1797 onwards) and their subsequent decay and the number of Oscan graffiti appear to make it probable that at the Christian era Oscan was still spoken in the town.
With the decay of the Babylonian power the high-priests succeeded in making themselves independent kings, and Assur became the capital of an important kingdom.
The history of the decay of state rights makes it seem doubtful if the federal form of government is a permanent one, or is only a transient form between independent state governments or loose confederacies and a centralized national government.
The soul must be freed from its material surrounding, the "muddy vesture of decay," by an ascetic habit of life.
Happily, Johnson soon had an opportunity of proving most signally that his failure was not to be ascribed to intellectual decay.
Later it has a less rich development, betraying the political decay of the race.
From all these circumstances it curiously happened that the sovereign who did more than almost any other to raise the royal power, was also the sovereign who, more than any other, wrought its decay.
It is noticeable that in 1894 when this motion was introduced it was lost; a striking instance of the decay of Liberalism.
The unity of the Conservatives was preserved by social forces and the interests of agriculture; the decay of the Liberals was the result of universal suffrage.
The fact that at most places the morning shows a marked decay of auroral frequency and intensity as compared to the evening, the maximum preceding midnight by several hours, is certainly favourable to theories which postulate ionization of the atmosphere by some cause or other emanating from the sun.
But clear signs of the decay of the dualist and of the growth of an extreme nationalist Magyar spirit were already visible.
Hence came both the short-lived brilliancy of Sicily and its later decay.
Much of its commercial and political importance has been lost, also, through the decay of industrial activity in the state, and through the more vigorous competition of the agricultural states of the south.
The restoration of parts of the mosque which had fallen into decay was begun in 1904.
The second period passes from the highest point to which this art attained to a luxuriance promising decay.
In the middle ages, when Alexandria was in decay, these two towns were busy ports; with the revival of Alexandria under Mehemet Ali and the foundation of Port Said (c. 1860), their trade declined.
Yet even the buried portions of limestone buildings have seldom been permitted to survive on the cultivated land; the Nubian sandstone of Upper Egypt was of comparatively little value, and, generally speaking, buildings in that material have fallen into decay rather than been destroyed by quarrying.
The utmost care was taken to preserve the body itself from decay.
In spite of all the precautions they took and the contracts they made, the Egyptians could never quite rid themselves of the dread that their tombs might decay and their cult be neglected; and they sought therefore to obtain by prayers and threats what they feared they might lose altogether.
After this there was a strong archaistic fashion, much like that under Hadrian; in both cases it may have arrested decay, but it did not lift the art up again.
The prosperity of the church was the sign of its decay, and before long we find persecution and injustice disgracing the seat of Athanasius.
The old canal had long fallen into decay, and the necessity of a safe channel between Alexandria and the Nile was much felt.
Ismail re-established and improved the administrative system organized by Mehemet Au, and which had fallen into decay under Abbass indolent rule; he caused a thorough remodelling of the customs system, which was in an anarchic state, to be made by English officials; in 1865 he established the Egyptian post office; he reorganized the military schools of his grandfather, and gave some support to the cause of education.
Spirulina sp. (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.) or because of the decay of a cell, becomes interrupted by breaking, and the free ends slip past one another.
From this state of decay, however, it was raised, in the second half of the, 8th century, by the unwearied exertions of Archbishop Richard Robinson, 1st Lord Rokeby (1709-1794), which, seconded by similar devotion on the part of succeeding archbishops of the Beresford family, notably Archbishop Lord John George Beresford (1773-1862), made of Armagh one of the best built and most respectable towns in the country.
In the 3rd century the Kushan dynasty began to decay; about A.D.
Each ridge and mountain has been cut into its shape by denudation, but its outlines have been determined by the nature of the rocks and the manner in which they have yielded to decay.
And to the soil created by the decay of the limestones is due a greener verdure than that of the surrounding moors.
In 1831 Patrick Matthew, in the appendix to a book on naval timber and arboriculture, laid stress on the extreme fecundity of nature "who has in all the varieties of her offspring a prolific power much beyond (in many cases a thousandfold) what is necessary to fill up the vacancies caused by senile decay.
On both these subjects he availed himself largely of the aid of others, and threw himself with characteristic energy and entire success into the task of rescuing from neglect and preserving from decay the treasure of historic monuments in which the abbey is so rich.
Between 680 and 670 the Cimmerians in their destructive progress over Asia Minor overran Phrygia; the king Midas in despair put an end to his own life; and from henceforth the history of Phrygia is a story of slavery, degradation and decay, which contrasts strangely with the earlier legends.
Birth is attended with pain, decay is painful, disease is painful, death is painful.
No sooner has an individual become separate, become an individual, than disease and decay begin to act upon it.
For water-vessels, &c., they employ gourds and large coco-nut shells, in preparing which they pour in water and allow the pulp or the kernel to decay, so that it may be removed without breaking the rind or shell.
The wood of an old tree, on the other hand, has lost a great part of its toughness, and is of bad colour, brittle and often predisposed to decay.
The primary causes of decay in timber are the presence of sap, exposure to conditions alternately wet and dry, and want of efficient ventilation, especially if accompanied by a Timber.
There will be little danger of the decay of timber used in the construction of ordinary buildings if care has been taken, in the first place, to have it well seasoned, and, in the second, to ensure its being well ventilated when fixed in position.
The heat and pressure together exert a chemical action upon the sap, which becomes insoluble and itself preserves the wood from decay.
These primitive monuments are, however, rapidly falling to decay, and the people who erected them are becoming reduced in number and spirit.
In medieval times it was evidently still a strong place, but it has now sunk, in the general decay of Pamphylia, to a wretched hamlet.
By the early emperors it was allowed to fall into decay, but was afterwards restored by Constantine, from whom it took its modern name.
At all events, Egypt (under Necho, 609-593) prepared to take advantage of the decay of Assyria, and marched into Asia.
Though fusible at a very low temperature, and very soft, it has great power of resisting decay from damp or exposure.
After the decay of Richborough harbour the passage from Dover to Whitsand, and later to Calais, became the accustomed route to France, and by a statute of 1465 no one might ship for Calais except at Dover.
The superior stability of the village system was overlooked, and in the old provinces of Bengal and Madras the village organization has gradually been suffered to fall into decay.
During this first period of their dealings with India the aims of the British were purely those of traders, without any aspirations to military power or territorial aggrandizement; but in the period that followed, the gradual decay of the Mogul empire from within, and the consequent anarchy, forced the English to take up arms in their own defence, and triumphing over one enemy after another they found themselves at last in the place of the Moguls.
He came to the throne at a time when the attacks of the Greeks in Cilicia, and of Zengi on Edessa, were fatally weakening the position of the Franks in northern Syria; and from the beginning of his reign the power of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem may be said to be slowly declining, though as yet there is little outward trace of its decay to be seen.
It reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th century, and in the 17th century it was the depot for much of the merchandise exported from Saxony and Bavaria to the mouth of the Elbe; then after a period of decay the 19th century witnessed a revival of its prosperity.
After that E-kur appears to have gradually fallen into decay, until finally, in the Seleucid period, the ancient temple was turned into a fortress.
Notwithstanding his activity and his devotion to the management of affairs, the Moslem power declined rather than advanced, and signs of the decay of the Omayyad dynasty began to show themselves.
The twenty-four years of Moqtadir's reign are a period of rapid decay.
Another remarkable indication of the decay of the ceorl's estate is afforded by the fact that in the treaties with the Danes the twihynde ceorls are equated with the Danish leysings or freedmen.
Under the Carolingians the functions of the dukes remained substantially the same; but with the decay of the royal power in the 10th century, both dukes and counts gained in local authority; the number of dukes became for the time fixed, and finally title and office were made hereditary, the relation to the crown being reduced to that of more or less shadowy vassalage.
The early heirs of this vigorous and capable monarch used their power, like him, for the good of the people; but later decay set in, and Japanese buccaneers ravaged the coasts, though for two centuries under Chinese protection Korea was free from actual foreign invasion.
The wood has a fine, straight and even grain; and though light and soft, is firm and extremely durable, lying, it is authoritatively asserted, for centuries in the forest without appreciable decay.
During the civil wars the castle was dismantled by the soldiers of Cromwell and was from that time abandoned to decay.
Its remoteness from the ports and harbours of the country, combined with the extreme unhealthiness of its situation, have led to its gradual decay subsequently to the formation of the comparatively recent settlement of Akyab, which place is now the chief town of the province.
But the economic decay and consequent loss of political influence among both imperial and territorial towns must be chiefly ascribed to inner causes.
Too much stability, however, finally changed into stagnation, and decay followed.
It is this aggregation which we describe variously as birth, death, maturity, decay, and of which the senses give inaccurate reports.
The constant -r is called the modulus of decay of the oscillations; if it is large compared with 2irfa the effect of friction on the period is of the second order of small quantities and may in general be ignored.
From the outset they were more or less isolated, and, having no fixed forms or common head, tended to decay.
In 1629 Whitby petitioned for incorporation on the ground that the town was in decay through want of good government and received letters patent giving them self-government..
Then follows the chequered period of the prime of life and middle age, during which the liability of men to industrial accidents, war and other causes of special mortality, irrespective of their greater inclination to emigrate, is generally sufficient to outweigh the dangers of childbirth or premature decay among the women, who tend, accordingly, to predominate in number at this stage.
These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
For older thinkers like Plato and Aristotle the perfect life was that of the citizen and householder; but the Cynics were individualists, citizens of the world without loyalty or respect for the ancient city state, the decay of which was coincident with their rise.
Never very precise, this system in the 1st century B.C. fell into extreme decay.
The churches and manses were frequently of the most miserable description, if not falling to decay.
Meanwhile the persecutions of Constantine and Constantius brought about the decay of the Palestinian schools, and, probably in the 5th century, their recension of the Talmud was essentially complete.
All religions, even the most conservative and traditional, are in constant flux, they either advance or decay.
In 1864 it was chartered as a town and was made the county-seat, succeeding Georgetown (then a flourishing town, which speedily fell into decay), the transfer of the offices taking place in 1865.
From these fragments we learn that the beginning or first principle (apxii, a word which, it is said, he was the first to use) was an endless, unlimited mass (i.irecpov), subject to neither old age nor decay, and perpetually yielding fresh materials for the series of beings which issued from it.
Still another instance is that of Castro, the oldest settlement and former capital of Chiloe, which after a century of decay is increasing again through the efforts to develop the industries of that island.
The inner decay of the Roman Empire, and the widespread tendency of its troops to mutiny and usurpation, favored his enterprise.
The successes of the Sassanids in the east were gained in the later period of their dominion; and the Roman armies, in spite of decay in discipline and military spirit, still remained their tactical and strategical superiors.
Far to the east, on both sides of the Indus, the Kushana Empire was still in existence, though it was already hastening to decay, and about A.D.
The present stone cross replaced a far finer one of great age, which had fallen into decay.
At the Dissolution the introduction of woollen manufacture checked the decay of the town.
The natural end of life is that all the organs should become old and gradually decay at the same time, so that at the last the individual should become less and less active, weaker and weaker, and finally die without any definite disease, without pain and without struggle.
As late as the 14th century it was a populous city, after which it gradually fell into decay.
In his view not only the religious life of the nation, but (what he regarded as synonymous) the church itself, was in an almost hopeless state of decay, as we see from his first and only charge to the diocese of Durham and from many passages in the Analogy.
The course of decay would seem to have been the following.
Reinach (reviewing P. Mazan's L'Orestie d'Eschyle, 1902) defends the theory of Bachofen, who finds in the legend of Orestes an indication of the decay of matriarchal ideas.
For the world which has grown up will in turn decay.
Finally, the same cause, a relaxation of tension, accounts for sleep, decay and death of man and for the dissolution of the world; after death the disembodied soul can only maintain its separate existence, even for a limited time, by mounting to that region of the universe which is akin to its nature.
The circumstances of the time, such as the decay of Greek city-life, the foundation of large territorial states under absolute Greek rulers which followed upon Alexander's conquests, and afterwards the rise of the world-empire of Rome, aided to develop the leading idea of Zeno's There he had anticipated a state without family life, without law courts or coins, without schools or temples, in which all differences of nationality would be merged in the common brotherhood of man.
The process of decay was hastened by frequent outbreaks of plague, sometimes followed by famine; a contemporary manuscript estimates that no fewer than 500 persons died daily in Lisbon alone during July, August and September 1569, and in some other years the joint effects of plague and famine were little less disastrous.
Frequent intermarriage, often so far within the prohibited degress as to require a papal dispensation, may possibly explain the weakened vitality of the Portuguese royal family, which was now subject to epilepsy, insanity and premature decay.
After the Arab conquest of North Africa the town fell into decay.
Under Portugal the place fell into decay.
No means of eschewing this wretched state of decay?
From his age to the decay of Roman civilization there were never altogether wanting men devoted to the study of their nation's past; but none ever pursued the task with the advantages of Varro's comprehensive learning, his indefatigable industry and his reverent yet discriminating regard for the men and the institutions of the earlier ages.
The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards - notably friars - and the renewal of Apache wars, led to the temporary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson.
In general Borsippa shared the fate of Babylon, falling into decay after the time of Alexander, and finally in the middle ages into ruins.
In its final form this temple and tower were the work of Nebuchadrezzar, but from the clay cylinders found by Sir Henry Rawlinson in two of the corners of the tower it appears that he restored an incomplete ziggurat of a former king, "which was long since fallen into decay."
Next we get incidental but not unimportant references to the destruction of roads and property wrought by the Goths, to the state of the havens at the mouths of the Tiber, and the general decay of nearly all the old commercial ports on the coast..
This catastrophe attracted renewed attention to the state of Stonehenge, and much discussion took place as to the taking of precautions against further decay.
Italy was and ever has been a land of cities; and, ever since the downfall of Rome and the decay of the municipal system, the bishops of the cities had really been at the head of the peaceful and industrial part of their population, and were a natural refuge for the oppressed, and sometimes for the mutinous and the evil doers, from the military and civil powers of the duke or count or judge, too often a rule of cruelty or fraud.
Atoms and void being infinite in number and extent, and motion having always existed, there must always have been an infinite number of worlds, all consisting of similar atoms, in various stages of growth and decay.
When Assur-bani-pal died in 626 (?) B.C. his empire was already in decay, and within a few years the end came.
During Akhar's reign and that of his son Jahangir, the capital was either at Agra or at Lahore, and Delhi once more fell into decay.
Southwold (Sudwold, Suwold, Suthwaud) owes its origin and prosperity to its herring fisheries, which were considerable in 1086, while the importance of its harbour increased with the decay of Dunwich.
In the 12th century the town suffered at the hands of Saladin and thereafter fell into decay.
The remaining history of Achin was one of rapid decay.
Which name he used to indicate that he would stand for ever, and had no cause in him for bodily decay.
It is a form of empire or state building which appears when a powerful, expanding state comes in contact with feebler political organizations, or when a state falls into decay, and disintegration sets in.
But, even granting that a certain obscurity still hangs undispelled over the problem of the old Avesta, with its twenty-one nasks, we may well believe the Parsees themselves, when they affirm that their sacred literature has passed through successive stages of decay, the last of which is represented by the present Avesta.
In fact we can clearly trace this gradual process of decay in certain portions of the Avesta during the last few centuries.'
The points of resemblance are innumerable; they extend to the most recondite arrangements of that mechanism which maintains instrumentally the physical life of the bod y, which brings forward its early development and admits, after a given period, its decay, and by means of which is prepared a succession of similar beings destined to perpetuate the race."
During the time of the barbarian invasions much of the protective system was allowed to fall into decay; but the latter part of the middle ages saw the works resumed with great energy, so that the main features of the present arrangement were in existence by the close of the 15th century.
None of them arrested, some actually accelerated, the natural agencies of damp and disintegration, decay and mildew.
The ghost has now been brought back to much of true life again by the skill of the most scrupulous of all restorers, Cavaliere Cavenaghi, who, acting under the authority of a competent commission, and after long and patient experiment, found it possible to secure to the wall the innumerable blistered, mildewed and half-detached flakes and scales of the original work that yet remained, to clear the surface thus obtained of much of the obliterating accretions due to decay and mishandling, and to bring the whole to unity by touching tenderly in with tempera the spots and spaces actually left bare.
The making of cloth, particularly Hampshire kerseys, was the staple industry of Godalming in the middle ages, but it began to decay early in the 17th century and by 1850 was practically extinct.
The grief which the gradual decay of her health evidently occasioned Swift is sufficient proof of the sincerity of his attachment, as he understood it.
As a consequence of that paralysis, but not before, the brain, already weakened by senile decay, at length gave way, and Swift sank into the dementia which preceded his death."
Aphasia due to the local trouble and general decay then progressed rapidly together, and even then at 76, two more years were still to elapse before "he exchanged the sleep of idiocy for the sleep of death."
Another phase in the myth of Dionysus originated in observing the decay of vegetation in winter, to suit which he was supposed to be slain and to join the deities of the lower world.
We may treat it as a superficial effect, especially in the case of bodies which are opaque enough or thick enough to prevent all transmission of light, and we may investigate how much is reflected at the surface and how much is absorbed; or, on the other hand, we may confine our attention to the light which enters the body and inquire into the relation between the decay of intensity and the depth of penetration.
The law which governs the rate of decay of light intensity in passing through any medium may be readily obtained.
The Phanariote period has been described as one of total decay; the political degradation of Rumania was thought to be reflected in its spiritual life.
It is now generally agreed that Adonis is a vegetation spirit, whose death and return to life represent the decay of nature in winter and its revival in spring.
Thus, in Germany, with the decay of the empire the title "prince " received a sovereign connotation, though it ranks, as in France, below that of "duke."
He warned his hearers against the fires of concupiscence, anger, ignorance, birth, death, decay and anxiety; and taking each of the senses in order he compared all human sensations to a burning flame which seems to be something it is not, which produces pleasure and pain, but passes rapidly away, and ends only in destruction.3 Accompanied by his new disciples, the Buddha walked on to Rajagaha, the capital of King Bimbisara, who, not unmindful of their former interview, came out to welcome him.
The confused and legendary notices of the journeyings of 1 These were at first simple huts, built for the mendicants in some grove of palm-trees as a retreat during the rainy season; but they gradually increased in splendour and magnificence till the decay of Buddhism set in.
In the splendid times of the caliphs immense sums were lavished upon the pilgrimage and the holy city; and conversely the decay of the central authority of Islam brought with it a long period of faction, wars and misery, in which the most notable episode was the sack of Mecca by the Carmathians at the pilgrimage season of A.D.
They next took advantage of the decay of the kingdom of Gujarat to occupy Chaul (1531), Bassein with its dependencies, including Bombay (1534), Diu (1535) and Daman (1559) But the inherent vices of their intolerant system undermined their power, even before their Dutch and English rivals appeared on the scene.
How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known, but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell, till 1820, when, owing to decay, the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved.
Under severe pressure from the cardinal archbishop of Toledo, Portocarrero, he finally made a will in favour of Philip, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., and died on the ist of November 1700, after a lifetime of senile decay.
Though Old Keith has a charter dating from William the Lion it fell into gradual decay; New Keith, founded in the 18th century by the second earl of Seafield, being better situated for the growth of a town.
Its decay probably dates from the invasion of the Mongols (1260), who fought two important; battles with the Egyptians (1281 and 1299) in its vicinity.
These conflicts seem to have worn out the land, which already in Roman times had fallen into decay.
After a century of decay, it was anew brought into importance by the establishment of its university; and a marked increase in its industrial and commercial prosperity has again taken place in recent years.
In the 18th century Dunfermline impressed Daniel Defoe as showing the "full perfection of decay," but it is now one of the most prosperous towns in Scotland.
Now all is in decay.
But already there were tokens of its decay; even then the eastern parts of the Tarim basin seem to have been growing less and less populous.
Epsom gradually lost its celebrity as a spa, but the annual races held on its downs arrested the decay of the town.
From petitions presented to parliament in 1376 it seems that the view of frankpledge was in active operation at this time, but it soon began to fall into disuse, and its complete decay coincides with the new ideas of government introduced by the Tudors.
Foreign statesmen who flattered themselves that France was sinking into anarchy and therefore into decay were content to follow their respective ambitions without the dread of French interference.
The finances were in the last distress; the anti-religious policy of the government kept many departments on the verge of revolt; and commerce was almost suspended by the decay of roads and the increase of bandits.
In 1860 the mansion-house and 200 acres of the original estate, fast falling into decay, were bought for $200,000 (much of which had been raised through the efforts of Edward Everett) by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union.
The city fell finally into decay in the frontier wars with the Turkish invaders.
With the decay of the power of the Abbasid caliphate its importance declined.
It surrendered without a struggle to Cyrus, but two sieges in the reign of Darius Hystaspis, and one in the reign of Xerxes, brought about the destruction of the defences, while the monotheistic rule of Persia allowed the temples to fall into decay.
The foundation of Seleucia in its neighbourhood, however, drew away the population of the old city and hastened its material decay.
Athens had long been suffering from the profound decay of public spirit.
He allowed the fleet, which his father had organized, to fall into decay; and the empire was thus less able than ever to resist the exacting demands of the rival powers of Venice and Genoa.
From this same solitary outpost went forth the illustrious Aidan to plant another Iona at Lindisfarne, which, " long after the poor parent brotherhood had fallen to decay, expanded itself into the bishopric of Durham."
With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the modern use of "pontiff" and "pontifical."
But the decay was too deeprooted to be eradicated by such means, and we shall see that at a late period in Sparta's history an attempt was made without success to deal with the evil by much more drastic measures.
Like their territories public authority little by little slipped from the grasp of the Carolingians, largely because of their Decay of abuse of their too great power.
After Colberts day, when the crutches lent by privilege were removed, his achievements lost vigour; industries that ministered to luxury alone escaped decay; the others became exhausted in struggling against the persistent and teasing opposition of the municipal bodies and the bourgeoisieconceited, ignorant and terrified at any innovationand against the blind and intolerant policy of Louis XIV.
He was already showing signs of physical decay; the Roman.
The 12th century exhibits the decay of liberal intellectual activity in the Caliphate, and the gradual ascendancy of Turkish races animated with all the intolerance of semi-barbarian proselytes to the Mahommedan faith.
The Fens (q.v.), the soil of which has been formed partly by tidal action and partly by the decay of forests, occupy the Isle of Axholme on the north-west, the vale of Ancholme on the north, and most of the country south-east of Lincoln.
The Lincolnshire towns suffered from the general decay of trade in the eastern counties which marked the 15th century, but agriculture was steadily improving, and with the gradual drainage of the fendistricts culminating in the vast operations of the 17th century, over 330,000 acres in the county were brought under cultivation, including more than two-thirds of Holland.
Towards the end of the 18th century the Hameg wrested power from the Funj and the kingdom fell into decay, many of the tributary princes refusing to acknowledge the king of Sennar.
As the authority of the Hittite satraps at Sardis began to decay the Heraclid dynasty arose.
The Tatars and the Lithuanians destroyed it several times, but it always recovered, and only fell into decay in the 17th century.
During this period he published his two best works - an historical novel, Las Campanas de Huesca, and the history of the decay of Spain from Philip III.
This was the starting-point of the decline in foreign trade, the advance of foreign exchanges, the decay of railway traffic, and the monetary and financial crisis which continued from 1892 to 1898.
Conceptacles contaning Spores, and strongly suggesting the Chytridineous Fungus Urophlyetis, have recently been found, in petrified material, on the leaves of an Alethopteris, which appears to have undergone decay before fossilization set in.
With the decay of the Seleucid power, weakened by Rome and Parthia, the old influx from the desert would recommence, and an Arabic element begin to show.
From the date of his retirement from the chair Kant declined in strength, and gave tokens of intellectual decay.
The stables were dark inside, the scent of horse, leather, and hay overwhelming the scents of decay from the rest of Landis.
The book is divided into two main sections with the first describing the basics of wood anatomy, fungi and the decay process.
These sclerotic plaques are the decay in the myelin sheathing of the myelinated axons from distinct regions within the CNS.
Germanium-76 can undergo double beta decay in which two neutrons decay into protons, electrons and antineutrinos.
As judged by bootstrap proportions, decay indices, and leaf stabilities, well-supported relationships of the Indian caecilians are recovered from the alignment.
These works comprise stretched raw canvas soaked with motor oil which causes the support to slowly decay.
Radioactive elements in the Earth decay, giving off heat, which drives the convection of rocks in the Earth's interior.
And its moral decadence means a decay of conscience.
Table 4 Skewed distribution of decay (decay defined as decay into dentine ).
The rate of radioactive decay is an example of 1st order kinetics.
All categories of dentinal decay (C1, C2, C3 and C4) are included in this measure.
Second, we use of the word " decreasing " for exponential decay.
Table G2 gives the breakdown, by Health Board, for surfaces affected by unrestorable decay, total dentinal decay and fillings.