How to use Dealt in a sentence
The more Damian dealt with them, the less he wanted to deal with them again.
Wireless Telegraphy is dealt with.
You should not hunt until this Victor is dealt with.
Darkyn dealt with her the same way he did everything else in his life.
Violations, especially by those supplying alcohol to minors, should be dealt with severely.Advertisement
In case of dispute the judges dealt first with the contract.
The soldiers had biscuits dealt out to them freely, and they even shared them with the other squadrons.
The conversations all dealt with public questions.
In 1 774 the governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, himself led a force over the mountains, and a body of militia under General Andrew Lewis dealt the Shawnee Indians under Cornstalk a crushing blow at Point Pleasant at the junction of the Kanawha and the Ohio rivers, but Indian attacks continued until after the War of Independence.
Taxation laws must deal with only one subject of taxation; but customs and excise duties may, respectively, be dealt with together.Advertisement
The other volumes dealt with (a) iron and steel, (b) copper and brass, their smelting, conversion and assaying, and chemical experiments thereon.
His story being that their family dealt in oil and real estate, and he managed some of their holdings.
At the Hague Conference of 1899 the position of irregular combatants was one of the subjects dealt with, and the rules there adopted were reaffirmed at the Conference of 1907.
The potentials that have to be dealt with are often hundreds and sometimes thousands of volts, and insulation troubles are more serious than is generally appreciated.
Hand cranes are extremely useful where the load is not excessive, and the quantities to be dealt with are not motive powers.Advertisement
The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter periods.
Having thus disposed of this matter, the grievances of the barons are again considered, the vexed question of scutage being dealt with.
Other provisions, the object of which had been to restrain John from demanding more money from various classes of his subjects, were also deleted, and the same fate befell such chapters as dealt with mere temporary matters.
Since, however, medusa-colonies occur only in one group, the Siphonophora, and divergent views are held with regard to the morphological interpretation of the members of a siphonophore, only the first three of the above sub-divisions of hydromedusa morphology will be dealt with here in a general way, and the morphology of the Siphonophora will be considered under the heading of the group itself.
They dealt with such subjects as the origin of the gods, the creation of the world, the ritual of purification and initiation, and oracular responses.Advertisement
Definite economic problems can very rarely be dealt with by merely quantitative methods.
During the 18th century the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War dealt heavy blows at the prosperity of the landgraviate, which was always loyal to the house of Austria.
To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
His public lectures, indeed, were never largely attended, but in his more private classes, where he dealt with the technical work of a historian, he trained generations of scholars.
These lectures, which dealt with such special subjects as Gnosticism and the Apocalypse, attracted considerable attention, and in 1876 he was appointed professor extraordinarius.Advertisement
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
The commercial motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally prosperous.
The treaty of Westminster (24th of October 1655) dealt chiefly with commercial subjects, and contained a clause promising the expulsion from France of political exiles.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
Tartaglia's first printed work, entitled Nuova scienzia (Venice, 1 537), dealt with the theory and practice of gunnery.Advertisement
The freedom of teaching was first curtailed by Theodosius I.; the edict of Justinian (529), forbidding the study of philosophy, dealt the death-blow to ancient Athens.
Though his ultimate fate was never known, it was generally believed at the time that he had been foully dealt with.
Turkey's severity in repressing the Bulgarian insurrection had raised up in England a storm of public opinion against her, of which the Liberal opposition had taken the fullest advantage; moreover the suspension of payments on the Ottoman debt had dealt Turkey's popularity a blow from which it had never recovered.
The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that Native a more local investigation was needed, and in August Affairs' 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire Corn- into the condition of the Natal natives.
This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.Advertisement
By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
Chastellain was constantly engaged during the earlier part of his career in negotiations between the French and Burgundian courts, and thus had personal knowledge of the persons and events dealt with in his history.
Map Projections are dealt with separately below.
Loriti Glareanus (1527) were the first who dealt scientifically with the principles underlying their construction.
His writings, said to have numbered four hundred and fifty-three, were in the style of Aristotle, and dealt with philosophy, ethics and music. The empirical tendency of his thought is shown in his theory that the soul is related to the body as harmony to the parts of a musical.Advertisement
Other encyclicals, such as those on Christian marriage (Arcanum divinae sapientiae, 10th February 1880), on the Rosary (Supremi apostolatus oficii, 1st September 1883, and Superiore anno, 5th September 1898), and on Freemasonry (Humanism genus, 20th April 1884), dealt with subjects on which his predecessor had been accustomed to pronounce allocutions, and were on similar lines.
We have so far dealt with the political results of ancient slavery, and have found it to have been in certain respects not only useful but indispensable.
Even when the slave had killed his master, the relatives of the house could not themselves inflict punishment; they were obliged to hand him over to the magistrate to be dealt with by legal process.
His "semi-Pelagian" opposition to Augustine is dealt with by Prosper of Aquitania in his Pro Augustini doctrina responsiones ad capitula objectionum Vincentiarnarium.
The remaining regulations set forth the manner in which extra-budgetary and extraordinary expenses were to be dealt with, and the manner in which the rectified budget, showing the actual revenues and expenditure as proved at the close of the year was to be drawn up with the assistance of the state accounts department (divan-i-mouhassebat).Advertisement
Now and then it has been dealt with piecemeal, when some particular class of creditors has become too pressing, but it is more than probable that the piece got rid of has been more or less rapidly replaced by fresh liabilities occasioned by budgetary deficits, or by the mere accumulation of interest on debts allowed to run on.
The tahsildars check the accounts of the kabz-i-mals, and, if they discover peculation, send them at once to be dealt with by the chief official authorities of the Gaza (department); all the electors of a mukhtar are, ipso facto, joint sureties for him.
Russia, meanwhile, had seized the occasion to send to Constantinople an ultimatum demanding satisfaction for her own particular grievances; the Porte resented the intrusion of new demands before the others had been dealt with, and hurried on preparations for war.
The era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars falls into two main divisions, the first of which (1792-1801) is dealt with under the heading French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon's short Spanish Campaign of 1809 is dealt with under Peninsular War (this article covering the campaigns in Spain, Portugal and southern France 1808-1814), and for the final drama of Waterloo the reader is referred to Waterloo Campaign.Advertisement
Jerome was replaced by Davout, and the army resumed its march, this time in the hope of surrounding and overwhelming Barclay, whilst Davout dealt with Bagration.
The more important vestments are dealt with in some detail under their separate headings; here it will only be necessary to give short descriptions of those which cannot be conveniently treated separately.
The Church of England, in which the Lutheran and Calvinistic points of view struggled for the mastery, a struggle which resulted in a compromise, is separately dealt with below.
This argument is dealt with in the bishop's Report, p. 66.
Mining, the second industry in point of importance, is dealt with above.
Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.
Since all these books are dealt with in separate articles, they call for no further notice here.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
The long-standing Newfoundland fishery dispute with France (finally settled in 1904) is dealt with under Newfoundland.
The title of earl, applied by the English to the foreign counts established in England by William the Conqueror, is dealt with elsewhere (see Earl).
Many of them are also dealt with in separate articles, to which the reader is referred.
Simple fibrous narrowing of the gateway of the stomach or of the intestine is dealt with by dividing it longitudinally and then suturing the edges of the wound transversely.
In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.
This insertion of irrational numbers (with corresponding negative numbers) requires for its exact treatment certain special methods, which form part of the algebraic theory of number, and are dealt with under Number.
The boundary on the east was settled by a treaty with Portugal in 1869, the Boers abandoning their claim to Delagoa Bay; that on the west was dealt with in 1871.
He declared that he had preserved the thing in its substance, if he had not actually used the word; and this view of the matter was always officially maintained in the colonial office (which, significantly enough, dealt with Transvaal affairs) whatever the political party in power.
The two most important 4th-century writers - Aphraates and Ephraim - are dealt with in separate articles.
Rabbula, the powerful and energetic bishop of Edessa who withstood the beginnings of Nestorianism, and who gave currency to the Peshitta text of the four Gospels, abolishing the use of the Diatessaron, is dealt with in a separate article.
Moreover, though he mismanaged almost every political problem with which he personally dealt, he was singularly tactless and impatient of advice.
Blumenthal returned and read the letter, and without troubling to disturb his chief he dealt with the matter himself in what is certainly one of the most remarkable documents ever issued in a grave crisis by a responsible staff officer.
Hanover and Hesse-Cassel, which were nearest to Prussia and therefore immediately dangerous, were dealt with promptly and without waiting for the decision in the main theatre of war.
Sydenham showed that these processes might be profitably studied and dealt with without explaining them; and, by turning men's minds away from explanations and fixing them on facts, he enriched medicine with a method more fruitful than any discoveries in detail.
Thus the defects, whether of this secretion or of that, and again of motor activity, the state of the valvular junctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position in the abdomen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are still very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere traditional routine is no longer excusable.
Thus, by the avoidance both of toxaemia and of shock, peritonitis and other dangers of the abdomen, such as strangulations or intussusceptions of the bowels, formerly desperate, can in many cases be dealt with safely and effectively.
The Local Government Act of 1888 dealt with the metropolis for non-administrative purposes as it did for administrative, that is to say, as a separate county.
Special methods of mining are dealt with in the separate articles on Coal, Gold, and other minerals and metals.
Even assuming that the fleet forced the Dardanelles, its communications would have to be safeguarded, and there would still be Constantinople and the Bosporus to be dealt with.
The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative control.
For the production of coloured sheet-glass, however, the employment of pot furnaces is still almost universal, probably because the quantities of glass required of any one tint are insufficient to employ even a small tank furnace continuously; the exact control of the colour is also more readily attained with the smaller bulk of glass which has to be dealt with in pots.
Croesus found them centred at Pteria in the 6th century and dealt them a final blow.
The latter half probably dealt with questions about the creation.
By the short-rod system, short instead of long rods are retained; they are dealt with in a similar manner.
Apart from the sugar-cane and the beet, which are dealt with in detail below, a brief reference need only be made here to maple sugar, palm sugar and sorghum sugar.
The final blow to any political pretensions of Medina was dealt by the caliph when he had his son Yazid declared as his successor, thus taking away any claim on the part of the citizens of Medina to elect to the caliphate.
The Annals soon came to be dealt with in various ways.
The literature of the various sciences is dealt with elsewhere.
The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War.
The later development of the boundary question is dealt with at the outset of this article.
Dry distillation is extremely wasteful even when definite substances or mixtures, such as calcium acetate which yields acetone, are dealt with, valueless by-products being obtained and the condensate usually requiring much purification.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
The Speculum Naturale is so constructed that the various subjects are dealt with according to the order of their creation; it is in fact a gigantic commentary on Genesis i.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
How is this crisis to be dealt with?
Dr Samuel Jebb started Bibliotheca literaria (1722-1724), to appear every two months, which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared.
Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under Newspapers, may be mentioned, the Examiner (1808-1881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888-1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900-1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation.
Defoe's Review (1704-1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the "scandalous club " was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners.
The newspaper tax enforced in 1712 dealt a hard blow at these.
While the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with philosophy.
The times of the consulate and the empire were the subjects dealt with by the Revue de l'empire (1842-1848).
The history of the renewal of the war, of the fall of Addington's ministry, and of the formation of Pitt's second administration is so fully dealt with in the article on Pitt (q.v.) that it need not be repeated here.
He also dealt with the questions of stock-jobbing and of electioneering corruption.
The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the article ZOOLOGY.
He dealt also with the geology and mineralogy of New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island.
A misunderstanding as to the manner in which these should be dealt with was the immediate occasion of the publication by Hutchinson in 1724 of Moses's Principia, part i., in which Woodward's Natural History was bitterly ridiculed, his conduct with regard to the mineralogical specimens not obscurely characterized, and a refutation of the Newtonian doctrine of gravitation seriously attempted.
Large numbers of unemployed, ex-criminal and other needy persons have been aided or dealt with.
The events of his reign are dealt with under Spain.
It was then a trading station of some importance, slaves being the chief commodity dealt in.
Some 21 of its articles dealt with doctrine, 7 with ecclesiastical abuses.
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
But while abstaining from irrelevant historical discussions, Hallam dealt with statesmen and policies with the calm and fearless impartiality of a judge.
The most celebrated were Jacques (James), Jean (John) and Daniel, the first, second and fourth as dealt with below; but, for the sake of perspicuity they may be considered as nearly as possible in the order of family succession.
Bournonville's army near Frankfort was still to be dealt with, and the Great Elector and his Brandenburgers were rapidly approaching the Main valley.
Dealing freely with the outline of Castruccio's career, as he had previously dealt with Cesare Borgia, he sketched his own ideal of the successful prince.
The area of the grant may have been enlarged by later interpolations; or it may have dealt with property rather than with sovereignty, and have only referred to estates claimed by the pope in the territories named; or it is possible that Charles may have actually intended to establish an extensive papal kingdom in Italy, but was released from his promise by Adrian when the pope saw no chance of its fulfilment.
The problem was next dealt with by Vischer (Die Offenbarung Johannis, eine Jiidische Apokalypse in Christlicher Bearbeitung, 1886, 2nd ed., 1895), who took iv.
When the reviser recast the passage it dealt not with the destruction of Jerusalem, but with the persecution of the Christians.
The most numerous analyses have been carried out by Forchhammer, who dealt with 150 samples, and Dittmar, who made complete analyses of 77 samples obtained on the" Challenger"expedition.
The position and treatment of captives or prisoners of war is now dealt with fully in chapter ii.
From the hypothesis of an external world a series of contradictions are deduced, such as that the world is both finite and infinite, is movable and immovable, &c.; and finally, Aristotle and various other philosophers are quoted, to show that the external matter they dealt with, as mere potentiality, is just nothing at all.
The value of his work consists not only in the stores of material which he collected, but also in the success with which he dealt with many of the problems raised by the inscriptions.
Polycarp is dealt with in i.
Houston now assumed active command and retreated before Santa Anna until he reached the San Jacinto river, where he dealt the enemy a crushing blow and brought the war to an end; nearly all of Santa Anna's army were killed, wounded or taken prisoners, and even Santa Anna himself was captured the next day, while the Texans lost only two killed and twenty-three wounded.
The usual `provision is that private offences are to be dealt with according to the rule in Matt.
He dealt with (a) human life as explained by the relative nature of Man and God, (b) the Divine nature and the existence of God, and, (c) the great Logos doctrine as the explanation of the relation between God and the material universe.
By the beginning of the 3rd century, and perhaps earlier, appeals to the emperor in civil cases were handed over by him to be dealt with by the praefect.
The causes which led to the revolt of the Plantations, the political and military history of the War of Independence, are dealt with under the heading of United States (History) and American War Of Independence.
Then, again, as to the scope of the inquiry, the administrative purposes for which information is thus collected vary greatly in the different countries, and the inquiry, too, has to be limited to what the conditions of the locality allow, and the population dealt with is likely to be able and willing to answer.
The first enumeration of what was afterwards called Lower Canada, took place, as above stated, in 1665, and dealt with the legal, or domiciled, population, not with that actually present at the time of the census, a practice still maintained, in contrast to that prevailing in the rest of the empire.
Occupation is dealt with minutely, in conjunction with temporary unemployment, average wage or salary earned, and other particulars.
The first act of effective occupation of the country having been the establishment of a penal settlement, the only population to be dealt with in the earlier years of British administration was that under restraint, with its guardians and a few scattered immigrants in the immediate neighbourhood of Sydney Cove.
As in India, the schedules had to be issued in an unusual number of languages, and were dealt with locally in the earlier stages of tabulation.
The result of performipg both operations, in order to obtain the volume, is the result of the operation denoted by the product of these two expressions; and in this product the powers of E and of E' may be dealt with according to algebraical laws.
Polemon, Aristotle and Adamantius may also be named as having dealt with the subject; as also have the medical writers of Greece and Rome - Hippocrates, Galen and Paulus Aegineta, and in later times the Arabian commentators on these authors.
In retaliation a punitive expedition under Generals John Sullivan and James Clinton in 1779 destroyed the Iroquois towns, and dealt the Indian confederacy a blow from which it never recovered.
At Mainz also he held a council, at which the Italian and French as well as the German clergy were represented, and ambassadors of the Greek emperor were present; here too simony and the marriage of the clergy were the principal matters dealt with.
As we obtained the result on the supposition of unchanged form, we can of course only apply it for such short lengths and such short times that the part dealt with does not appreciably alter.
The Russians again broke out northward; but some of the Japanese squadrons hung on to the remnant of the enemy's battle-fleet, and the others dealt with the numerous Russian vessels that were unable to keep up. Then Togo called off his ships, and gave the torpedo craft room and the night in which to act.
The inspection of tramways, their by-laws and "provisional orders" are all dealt with here, as are similar orders relating to gas and water schemes and to electric lighting.
Patents, designs and trade marks are now dealt with by the patent office under the charge of a controller-general (salary £1800), which is subordinate to the railway department, and copyright, art unions and industrial exhibitions are also among the matters dealt with by the department.
The Austro-Hungarian army is dealt with under Army.
The Hereward legend has been fully dealt with by him and by Professor Freeman, who observed that "with no name has fiction been more busy."
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
It often causes unpleasant symptoms, which must always be dealt with and not disregarded, more harm than good being done if this course is not followed.
The discovery of coal in the northern counties dealt the final blow to its prosperity.
He again devoted himself with great enthusiasm to historical studies, which naturally dealt chiefly with Bavarian history.
As, however, our terrestrial optical apparatus is now all in motion along with the matter, we must dealt .with the rays relative to the moving system, and to these also Fermat's principle clearly applies; thus V+ (lu'--mv'-Fnw') is here the velocity of radiation in the direction of the ray, but relative to the moving material system.
The only possible synthesis is that of the Christianity common to all; as institutions, though they possess many features in common, their history is separate and must be separately dealt with.
As contrasted with the baru or soothsaying priest, as he is called by Zimmern, we have the asipu, who was the priestmagician who dealt in conjurations (siptu), whereby diseases were removed, spells broken, or in expiations whereby sins were expiated.
Commercial cases are dealt with by the ordinary courts, except at Prague where a special commercial court sits.
Prohibitions in respect of night work, the work of women (especially mothers) and young persons have been dealt with in the sense of the resolutions adopted at international conferences.
Each vote is dealt with separately, notice being given beforehand by one party to the other of the votes objected to and therounds of objection.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
Had that dynasty been prolonged for another century, there is every reason to suppose that it would also have dealt satisfactorily with Poland's still more dangerous internal difficulties, and arrested the development of that anarchical constitution which was the ruling factor in the ruin of the Republic. Simultaneously with the transformation into a great power of the petty principalities which composed ancient Poland, another and equally momentous political transformation was proceeding within the country itself.
The glorious career of Stephen Bathory (1575-1586) is dealt with elsewhere (see Stephen, King of Poland).
The relations between Poland, Prussia and Livonia are adequately dealt with by two sound German books, Theodor Schiemann's Russland, Polen and Livland bis ins xviii.
The calculation of the stress in the various parts of the gun due to the powder pressure is dealt with in the article Ordnance.
The political history of the war, its antecedents and its consequences, are dealt with in the articles United States (History) and Confederate States.
For subsequent developments, and the fruitful results of documentary analysis as applied to the Pentateuch and other composite books, which cannot be dealt with in any detail here, reference must be made to the special articles on the books of the Old Testament.
The former dealt with legal and ritual matters; it flourished in the schools and developed into the most subtle casuistry.
The rise of this function of the prophets is plainly parallel with the change which took place under the kings in the position of the priestly oracle; the Torah of the priests now dealt rather with permanent sacred ordinances than with the giving of new divine counsel for special occasions.
For Basiliscus see Basilisk; Iguana is dealt with under its own heading; allied is Metopoceros cornutus of Hayti.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
Even when (as in the Shorter Westminster Catechism and the School Catechism) the Creed is simply printed as an appendix, or where (as in the Free Church Catechism) it is not mentioned at all, its substance is dealt with.
But the Nervii, and their neighbours further to the north-west, remained to be dealt with, and were crushed only after a desperate struggle on the banks of the Sambre, in which Caesar was forced to expose his person in the mêlée.
Instead, the country was traversed by flying columns, and the guerillas dealt with by a French service of " contre-guerilla," who fought with much the same savagery as their foes.
As the naval operations in connexion with the war have a European interest as well, they are dealt with in a separate section.
Other alleged discoveries, such as' the construction of early Roman history out of still earlier ballads, have not been equally fortunate; but if every positive conclusion of Niebuhr's had been refuted, his claim to be considered the first who dealt with the ancient history of Rome in a scientific spirit would remain unimpaired, and the new principles introduced by him into historical research would lose nothing of their importance.
The ancient duchy and the Napoleonic kingdom of the same name, neither of which was conterminous with the modern province, are dealt with in the historical part of this article.
The psychological side of animism has already been dealt with; almost equally important in primitive creeds is the eschatological aspect.
The union of the Mahommedan East had beyond question dealt the death-blow to the Latin kingdom.
Another evil which has not yet been dealt with is the large number of posts for which the voter is expected, at an.
The value of local self-government as a training for the duties of citizenship has been very great, and in many parts of the country, especially where the funds dealt with are small, elections are not fought and offices not distributed upon party lines.
Every bill when introduced is referred to some committee, and each bill comes up for consideration by the whole house on the report of the committee which has dealt with it.
Essentially, therefore, Descartes's process is that known later as the process of isoperimeters, and often attributed wholly to Schwab.2 In 16J5 appeared the Arithmetica Infinitorum of John Wallis, where numerous problems of quadrature are dealt with, the curves being now represented in Cartesian co-ordinates, and algebra playing an important part.
Some of these questions have played a considerable part in Canadian politics, but are of too complicated a nature to be dealt with in the present brief sketch.
Subsequently another inquiry was carried out by Major Reynell Taylor, which dealt simply with Hodson's accounts and found them to be "an honest and correct record.
This he did with safety in the face of a large and threatening crowd, and thus dealt the mutineers a heavy blow.
These works were attacks on the divine authority of kings and of the clergy, but as the sermon dealt more specifically and distinctly with the power of the church, its publication caused an ecclesiastical ferment which in certain aspects has no parallel in religious history.
His lectures on art had dealt bitterly with the mode in which buildings and other works were produced.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
Technology, electricity, mining, railways, navigation and many other subjects are now dealt with in international congresses.
Petitions against municipal elections were dealt with in 35 & 36 Vict.
The linguistic side of the matter may be conveniently dealt with here.
In 1888 he was sent out as captain-general to the Philippines, where he dealt very sternly with the native rebels of the Carolines, of Mindanao and other provinces.
In what follows, the archaeological interest of early Britain is dealt with, in connexion with the history of Britain in PreRoman, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon days; this account being supplementary to the articles England; English History; Scotland, &C.
The death of Valens, followed by the succession and the early conversion to Catholicism of Theodosius, dealt a fatal blow to the Arian party within the empire.
The linguistic characteristics of the various Teutonic peoples have been dealt with under Teutonic Languages.
Special periods, or aspects are dealt with in fuller detail elsewhere, e.g.
He dealt with the great question at issue from the standpoint of the diplomatist, rather than from that of the statesman well versed in ecclesiastical history and possessing an insight into what it implies; and by his violent, inconsiderate action he unwittingly drove into the ranks of Ultramontanism the moderate elements of the Catholic population.
When this case has been sufficiently studied, the motion of any system can be dealt with by regarding it as built up of small portions.
Newton dealt with the question at the beginning of the Principia, distinguishing what he called "absolute time" from such measures of time as would be afforded by any particular examples of motion; but he did not give any clear definition.
Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship. Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g.
In this work the laws or uniformities of the physical universe are dealt with in the articles on the various sciences.
What may be described as "national systems" of law are dealt with historically and generally under English Law, American Law, Roman Law, Greek Law, Mahommedan Law, Indian Law, &c. Certain broad divisions of law are treated under Constitution And Constitutional Law, Canon Law, Civil Law, Common Law, Criminal Law, Ecclesiastical Law, Equity, International Law, Military Law, &C. And the particular laws of different countries on special subjects are stated under the headings for those subjects (Bankruptcy, &c.).
Proceedings for annulling marriages, which used to be reserved to it, were transferred to the tribunal of the Rota; reports on the condition of the dioceses were henceforth to be addressed to the Consistorial Congregation, which involved the suppression of the commission which had hitherto dealt with them.
It also dealt with the administration of the churches of Latin America, not to mention certain European countries, such as Russia, under the same conditions as the Propaganda in countries under missions.
The special properties of these solutions are dealt with under Electrolysis and Electric conduction, § In Liquids.
He dealt with only twenty divines of other countries.
For the time Tyre lost its political existence, while the foundation of Alexandria presently changed the lines of trade, and dealt a blow even more fatal to the Phoenician cities.
Only a Roman master could have dealt thus with the Altis, and with a building which stood within its sacred precinct.
He approached parties as a statesman approaches them, as facts which have to be dealt with, and governed, not suppressed in the interests of some one of their number.
Varro probably dealt with the history of art in connexion with architecture, which was included in his Disciplinae.
The sovereign undertook to consult the knights before embarking on a war, all disputes between the knights were to be settled by the order, at each chapter the deeds of each knight were held in review, and punishments and admonitions were dealt out to offenders; to this the sovereign was expressly subject.
The chemistry of lichens is very complex, not yet fully investigated and can only be very briefly dealt with here.
The booty taken in war was not necessarily under the control of the quaestor, but was dealt with, especially in later times, by inferior officers called praefecti fabrum.
The expedition to New Orleans is separately dealt with.
The general relation between parent and filial organisms is discussed under Heredity and Embryology; many of the details of the cellular processes are dealt with under Cytology, and the modes of reproduction exhibited by different kinds of animals and plants are treated of in the various articles describing individual groups.
As reproduction is a general biological phenomenon, its manifestations should be dealt with simultaneously in the case of animals and plants, but many of the special details differ so much that it is practically convenient to make two headings.
The amount of silk handled and woven in Milan is greater than that dealt with at Lyons.
Some plants, especially when potted temporarily, may be dealt with in a simpler way.
The young shoots produced from the portion of the new wood retained are to form the framework of the bush tree, and must be dealt with as in the case of standard trees.
The flora may be most conveniently dealt with in the four physiographical divisions to which it belongs.
But when difficulties and differences arose between North and South, as they were sure to arise, they were not dealt with wisely.
The question of the chronological reconstruction of the Register is dealt with by Ewald in his celebrated article in the Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft fiir dltere deutsche Geschichtskunde, iii.
Special grease is then rubbed in and the skin placed in a machine which softly and continuously beats in the softening mixture, after which it is put into a slowly revolving drum, fitted with wooden paddles, partly filled with various kinds of fine hard sawdust according to the nature of the furs dealt with.
Primary education was dealt with in 1895 by a law, which made religious instruction obligatory, and extended state support to all schools that satisfied certain conditions.
It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.
Besides the tithes dealt with by local acts as already mentioned, certain other kinds of tithes are outside the scope of the Commutation Acts, namely, tithes of fish and fishing, personal tithes other than tithes of mills, and mineral tithes, unless the landowners and tithe-owners consent to make a parochial agreement for commutation before the confirmation of an apportionment after a compulsory award in such parish.
In the chapter (xx.) of that work where Hobbes dealt with the famous problem whose solution he thought he had found, there were left expressions against Vindex (Ward) at a time when the solutions still seemed to him good; but the solutions themselves, as printed, were allowed to be all in different ways halting, as he naively confessed he had discovered only when he had been driven by the insults of malevolent men to examine them more closely with the help of his friends.
But the subjects dealt with concern more or less all the great problems of thought on what may be called the theological side of metaphysics - the sufficiency of reason, the trustworthiness of experience, the admissibility of revelation, free will, foreknowledge, and the rest.
Here he was conspicuous as an ardent free-trader and an uncompromising advocate of "States Rights," opposed the protectionist tariff bills of 1824 and 1828, and consistently upheld the doctrine that slavery was a domestic institution and should be dealt with only by the individual states.
After the Arab opposition had been crushed on the east coast of Africa, Colonial there still remained the native states to be dealt with, wars.
He also published a small work, The Christ of the Gospels and the Christ of History, in which the views of Renan on the gospel history were dealt with; a monograph on Pascal for Blackwood's Foreign Classics series; and a little work, Beginning Life, addressed to young men, written at an earlier period.
The functions of the confessor are dealt with in the article Confession.
The events of the period that followed, in which Austria necessarily played a conspicuous part, are dealt with elsewhere of (see Europe, French Revolutionary Wars, Effects the Revol- Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns).
The campaign of 1859, and the diplomatic events that led up to it, are dealt with elsewhere (see Italy, Italian Wars, Napoleon Iii., Cavour).
An ordinance of 1880 determined that henceforward all business which had been brought before any government office or law court should be dealt with, within the office, in the language in which it was introduced; this applied to the whole of Bohemia and Moravia, and meant that Czech would henceforward have a position within the government service.
It was another step in the same direction when, in 1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn.
But it was no sooner over than the crisis over the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is dealt with above, eclipsed all purely domestic affairs in the larger European question.
In the arrangement of the separate sections, a classification according to contents was impracticable because of the variety of subjects often dealt with in one sura.
These earliest expositions dealt more with the sense and connexion of whole verses than with the separate words.
When the company's troops were withdrawn the deposed emir returned and reoccupied the throne, leaving the situation to be dealt with after the territories of the company had been transferred to the crown.
The Ashanti War of 1900 claimed the despatch of a strong detachment of the West African Frontier Force, and it was not until the return of the troops in February 1901 that Nupe and Kontagora could be effectively dealt with.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
Most of these classes are dealt with in this article under special headings.
The Libyans had also to be dealt with, and afterwards Seti advanced again through Palestine, ravaged the land of the Amorites and came into conflict with the Hittites.
Sheshonk secured Thebes, making one of his sons high priest of Ammon, and whereas Solomon appears to have dealt with a king of Egypt on something like an equal footing, Sheshonk re-established Egyptian rule in Palestine and Nubia, and his expedition in the fifth year of Rehoboam subdued Israel as well as Judah, to judge by the list of city names which he inscribed on the wall of the temple of Karnak.
In a despatch of the 6th of February 1883 Lord Dufferin dealt with the Sudan, and stated that Egypt could hardly be expected to acquiesce in a policy of withdrawal from her Southern territories.
Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.
The turning of attention towards the knee interferes with the jerk; hence the device of directing the person to perform vigorously some movement, which does not involve the muscles of the lower limb, at the moment when the light blow is dealt upon the tendon.
The symptoms of poisoning by belladonna or atropine are dealt with above.
It is as a legislator and codifier of the law that Justinian's name is most familiar to the modern world; and it is therefore this department of his action that requires to be most fully dealt with here.
The department was divided into three branches - (r) the section which censored the correspondence of prisoners of war in the United Kingdom and British prisoners in enemy countries; (2) the private correspondence section which dealt with letters from members of the British Expeditionary Force, letters and parcels to and from certain foreign countries, press messages sent abroad by other means than cable, and newspapers.
They constitute the Euphaeophyceae, and will be dealt with in the first place.
In 1879 he was elected burgomaster of Frankfort-on-Main, where he gained a great reputation for the energy with which he dealt with social questions, especially that of the housing of the poor.
The series into which we can arrange the results of observing phenomena of complex causation, whether exhibited by living organisms or not, have certain properties in common, which are dealt with by the theory of chance.
One of his last essays dealt with the war of 1866 and the influence of the breech-loading rifle, and he died at Passy on the 24th of March 1869 only a year before the Franco-German War.
Friedmann, while inspired with regard for tradition, dealt with the Rabbinic texts on modern scientific methods, and rendered conspicuous service to the critical investigation of the Midrash and to the history of early homilies.
His published work, except occasional critical studies in philosophy, dealt with church history and the history of dogma.
In 1848 he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, in which capacity he dealt impartially with the different church parties.
The first of these was a collection of essays on the principal truths of natural religion (Abhandlungen von den vornehmsten Wahrheiten der natiirlichen Religion, 1755, 7th ed., 1798); the second (Betrachtungen fiber die Triebe der Thiere, 1760, 4th ed., 1798) dealt with one particular branch of the same subject.
But, for reasons dealt with below, great discontent was roused by the new system.
Edgeworth, in two papers on " The Statistics of Examinations " and the " Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations " (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1888 and 1890), has dealt with the subject, although on somewhat limited lines.
All this is necessarily fresh material, for the other records had dealt only with the period of public ministry.
This change of punishment imports not a falling off in the moral standard but rather the conviction that a crime of this sort is best dealt with by public opinion; in airy case it means a change in the constitution of society.
The various orders for the celebration of Mass are dealt with under Liturgy; a detailed account of the Roman order is given under Missal; and the general development of the eucharistic service, including the Mass, is described in the article Eucharist.
In his lectures on religion he dealt with Christianity, as in his philosophy of morals he had regarded the state.
In the Phenomenology consciousness, self-consciousness and reason are dealt with.
The agenda of the diet contained many things seriously affecting all Germany, but the one problem which every one was thinking about was how Luther would be dealt with.
But he dealt more Alcimus.
This proved to be the turning-point; and although the ritual difficulty by no means ceased, it was afterwards dealt with from a different point of view, and the Public Worship Regulation Act became practically obsolete.
Purely commercial matters are dealt with by the chamber of commerce, composed of a praeses, eighteen members and a secretary.
After overcoming the natural difficulties of a malarious climate and precipitous hills, the sepoys were on several occasions fairly worsted by the unexpected bravery of the little Gurkhas, whose heavy knives or kukris dealt terrible execution.
The greater divisions of "the sea," in this sense, are called oceans, and are dealt with under the heading Ocean And Oceanography, the latter being the term now generally applied to the scientific study of the sea.
About 10,000 stars altogether were dealt with in the above-mentioned investigations.
As Boyle lecturer, he dealt in 1704 with the Being and Attributes of God, and in 1 705 with the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion.
The convict is not eligible for release or licence, but when the time of conditional liberation would have formerly arrived the case is submitted to the authorities and dealt with on its merits.
P PP This is dealt with in the Theaetetus (184b sqq.).
It is evident that thought, even as dealt with in pure logic, has an objectifying function.
At noon on the 20th, Napoleon, after a prolonged reconnaissance, advanced the main army against Bautzen and Burk, leaving the enemy's right to be dealt with by Ney on the morrow.
But Leo's most striking legislative reforms dealt with religious matters.
Under the empire various special functions were assigned to certain praetors, such as the two treasury praetors (praetores aerarii),3 appointed by Augustus in 23; the spear praetor (praetor haslarius), who presided over the court of the Hundred Men, which dealt especially with cases of inheritance; the two trust praetors (praetores fideicommissarii), appointed by Claudius to look after cases of trust estates, but reduced by Titus to one; the ward praetor (praetor tutelaris), appointed by Marcus Aurelius to deal with the affairs of minors; and the liberation praetor (praetor de liberalibus causis), who tried cases turning on the liberation of slaves.'
With regard to Great Britain, a few ship-borne cases have been dealt with at different ports from time to time since 1896, but except at Glasgow the disease has nowhere obtained a footing on land.
The goods mostly dealt in are cotton, woollen, linen and silk stuffs (35 to 38% of the whole), iron and iron wares, furs and skins, pottery, salt, corn, fish, wine and all kinds of manufactured goods.
The first published research (1816) dealt with the dilatation of solids, liquids and gases and with the exact measurement of temperature, and it was followed by another in 1818 on the measurement of temperature and the communication of heat, which was crowned by the French Academy.
The former case arises when two of the principal moments are equal; this has been sufficiently dealt with in 19.
Probably the poets of the Homeric school - that which dealt with war and adventure - were the genuine descendants of minstrels whose " lays " or " ballads " were the amusement of the feasts in an earlier heroic age; whereas the Hesiodic compositions were non-lyrical from the first, and were only in verse because that was the universal form of literature.
They dealt with them in the way the white race usually deals with the coloured race - they kept them socially apart.
Costa, who named the genus Branchiostoma, and it has since been dealt with by many writers.
The possible causes of this widespread tendency of the mean age of a western community to increase appertain to the subject of the movement of the population, which is dealt with below.
It appears to be connected to a considerable extent with the subject dealt with above.
This subject can only be dealt with here in outline.
The population thus dealt with is supposed to be stationary, that is, the loss by death at each age is at once made good by the addition of an equal number of the same age, whilst the survivors pass on to the age above.
Metal sheathing shall be dealt with, by allowing in full the cost of a weight equal to the gross weight of metal sheathing stripped off, minus the proceeds of the old metal.
Of more enduring value have been the researches of the historical school, founded by John Adam Mohler (1796-1838), whose famous Symbolik (1832) was perhaps the heaviest literary blow ever dealt at the Reformation.
By "popery " must here be understood the belief that spiritual doctrines always lend themselves to a precise embodiment in black and white, and can thereafter be dealt with like so many clauses of an act of parliament.
Another of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed in the combustion of vegetable matter.
The last-named official soon confined himself to the judicial magisterial office, and a further increase in the numbers of the council having taken place by the appointment of 8 nominees of the king, a municipal council of 34, under the direction of the senior consul or burgomaster, dealt with matters exclusively civic. Later this council (the kleine Rat) was increased to 42 members, 8 of whom belonged to the artisan class.
Many remedies for this disease have been suggested, including total submersion of the vineyards, the use of carbon bisulphide for spraying, and of copper salts, but there appears to be little doubt that a really serious epidemic can only be dealt with by systematic destruction of the vines, followed by replanting with resistant varieties.
A book of canons and constitutions of the church which appeared in 1636, instead of being a digest of acts of assembly, was English in its ideas, dealt with matters of church furniture, exalted the bishops and ignored the kirk-session and elders.
The 1 Those branches of the church extension scheme which dealt with church building, and with the opening of new missions to meet the wants of increasing populations, were taken up by a new department, called the Home Mission scheme.
The cards rank as at whist, and five are dealt to each player.
Guilty officials having been severely punished, the fraudulent creditors of the government remained to be dealt with.
On his return to England he spoke strongly against the project to the king, who seems to have dealt gently with him in the hope of using him for his own ends.
Now, supposing the forme to be dealt with consists of thirty-two pages to be printed on quad crown paper, measuring 40X30 in., on a suitable size of single cylinder machine of the Wharfedale class, it would be found, although both the machine and type were fairly new (that is, not much worn), that there was some amount of inequality in the impression given to the whole sheet.
Only what may be fairly considered as representative presses have been dealt with in this article, but there are many others, some of which have been most ingeniously constructed for special purposes.
Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."
In his lectures, illustrated from his own collections of coins and vases, he dealt chiefly with Greek and Roman pottery and numismatics.
The preparing, combing, spinning, weaving and finishing of alpacas and mohairs are dealt with under WooL.
Between 1811 and 1813 the lectures of Fichte (subsequently published from his notes in his Nachgelassene Werke) dealt with what he called the "facts of consciousness" and the "theory of science," and struggled to present his final conception of philosophy.
In separate articles throughout this Encyclopaedia the main subjects of interest in connexion with British institutions are fully dealt with; and it is only necessary here to give such details as are needed to supplement those given under the subjectheading.
The Rattazzi cabinet fell before Sella could efficaciously provide for the deficit of £17,500,000 with which he was confronted; but in 1864 he returned to the ministry of finance in the La Marmora cabinet, and dealt energetically with the deficit of £8,000,000 then existing.
Other clauses dealt with the rights of the Laplanders to graze their reindeer alternatively in either country, - and with the question of transport of goods across the frontier by rail or other means of communication, so that the traffic should not be hampered by any import or export prohibitions or otherwise.
They are versions of three medieval stories taken from French and German sources, and dealt with the Chevalier au lion, of Chrestien de Troyes, with Duke Frederick of Normandy, and with Flores and Blancheflor.
The problem of finding a system which reproduces a given object upon a given plane with given magnification (in so far as aberrations must be taken into account) could be dealt with by means of the approximation theory; in most cases, however, the analytical difficulties are too great.
The deepest indignation was aroused by this incident, and was still further increased by the trivial way in which the case was dealt with by the court.
Smith had already dealt with this question; Ricardo develops and criticizes his results.
Of the four continuers of Brito's work, three are no better than their master, but Frei Antonio Brandao, who dealt with the period from King Alphonso Henriques to King John II., proved himself a man of high intelligence and a learned, conscientious historian.
These, possibly, were omitted by the compiler of P, because they had already been dealt with elsewhere, or they may have been transferred to other connexions.
None of them has ventured upon a fresh treatment of the period dealt with by Eusebius; all three begin their narratives about the point where his closes.
At the beginning of the 1 4 th century a certain number of those who were to hold the session of the Parlement were set apart to receive and judge the petitions (requetes) on judicial questions which had been presented to the king and not yet dealt with.
They could make regulations (pouvoir reglementaire) having the force of law within their province, upon all points not settled by law, when the matter with which they dealt fell within their judicial competence, and for this it was only necessary that their interference in the matter was not forbidden by law.
The last, subsequent to the time of Charles III., were held in secret; moreover, they dealt with only a very small number of sentences, of which hardly any were capital.
In the portion relating to divine affairs there were divisions parallel to these four, with a fifth, which dealt with the gods in whose honour action in divine affairs is taken.
The treatise on the Genealogy of the Roman People dealt mainly with the relation of Roman chronology to the chronology of Greece and the East.
The methods of producing immunity are dealt with below.
But the country was not sufficiently civilized to deal with Paul as the Portuguese had dealt with Alphonso VI., a very similar person, in 1667.
Thus a heavy blow was dealt to the cause of Catiline, who, in the beginning of 62, saw his legions, only partially armed and diminished by desertion, shut in between those of Metellus Celer and C. Antonius.
On the other hand he dealt very severely with the towns - Prague in particular.
Rezek, Gindely and others have dealt with the history of Bohemia posterior to the year 1526.
Elam was alone left to be dealt with, and the last resources of the empire were therefore expended in preventing it from ever being again a thorn in the Assyrian side.
The religious part of the matter will be dealt with presently; but it is impossible to think that any unbiased judge reading Rabelais can hold the grave-philosopher view or the reckless-goodfellow view without modifications and allowances which practically deprive either of any value.
With Polybius the greatness of Rome is a phenomenon to be critically studied and scientifically explained; the rise of Rome forms an important chapter in universal history, and must be dealt with, not as an isolated fact, but in connexion with the general march of events in the civilized world.
This fourth volume (the first to be published) dealt with the Talmud.
They are of interest, however, rather from the point of view of general embryology than from that of the special student of the Crustacea, and cannot be fully dealt with here.
It is to be noted, however, that the Trilobita, which, according to the classification here adopted, are dealt with under Arachnida, are not very far removed, except in such characters as the absence of a shellfold and of eye-stalks, from the primitive Crustacean here sketched.
The remaining groups are dealt with under the headings Entomostraca and Malacostraca, the annectent group Leptostraca being included in the former.
The more important nonconformist churches are fully dealt with under their several headings.
Each civil or " poor law " parish was governed by the vestry and the overseers of the poor, dating from the Poor Law of 1601; the vestry, which dealt with general affairs, being presided over by the rector, and having the churchwardens as its chief officials.
Those which are dealt with summarily.
The nuisances above enumerated are said to be nuisances liable to be dealt with summarily.
Early in the 10th century the Victoria History of the Counties of England (dedicated to Queen Victoria) began to appear; its volumes deal with each county from every aspect - natural history, prehistoric and historic antiquities, ethnography, history, economic conditions, topography and sport being dealt with by authorities in all branches.