"Baton de gueules, engrele de gueules d'azur--maison Conde," said he.
Biomedical gerontologist Aubrey de Grey maintains that aging is caused by seven underlying factors, each of which can, in theory, be countered.
You are a Madame de Genlis and nothing more" (this nickname, bestowed on Vera by Nicholas, was considered very stinging), "and your greatest pleasure is to be unpleasant to people!
He emerged from the shadow world in a luxurious penthouse suite in Paris overlooking the Arc de Triomphe.
He was dressed in a dark-green dress coat, knee breeches of the color of cuisse de nymphe effrayee, as he called it, shoes, and silk stockings.
He skipped the class on good nom de plumes.
It was not until 1637 that the explorations of the upper river began, Jannequin, Sieur de Rochfort, in that year ascending the river some 200 m.
I admire your joie de vivre and am always fascinated by your perspective on life.
De Tocqueville would be impressed.
The menu caters to hearty appetites with and long list of signature delicacies like chuletas (pork chops), pechuga de pollo (grilled chicken breast), camarones al ajillo (shrimp in garlic), and vaca frita (fried beef).
In the spring of 1792 he received the rank of marechal de camp in command of the cavalry in the army of the north; but the influence of the extremists becoming predominant he took indefinite leave of absence, and settled at Auteuil, where, with Condorcet and Cabanis, he devoted himself to scientific studies.
Alfred de Musset is impossible!
She'd never left the country and couldn't help but stare in wonder at the romantically lit Arc de Triomphe.
They were in a burnt-out room…with the Arc de Triomphe a short distance away.
"Giovanni de Medici, descendent of the Italian de Medici," his secretary answered from behind them.
Dom Francisco Manuel de Mello >>
Indeed, at one time it was believed that the best way for them to communicate was through systematized gestures, the sign language invented by the Abbe de l'Epee.
Local favorites include pan fried trout, chiles rellenos, enchiladas de carne and chicken enchiladas.
In 1708 he published his De ratione studiorum, in 1710 De antiquissima Italorum sapientia, in 1720 De universi juris uno principio et fine uno, and in 1721 De constantia jurisprudentis.
wise was the second, with the respective titles of De constantia philologiae and De constantia jurisprudentis.
de Sacy's Seances de Marini.
Peter Bayle is severe on certain historical inaccuracies of Davila, and it is true that Davila must be read with due remembrance of the fact that he was not only a Catholic but the especial protege of Catherine de' Medici, but it is not to be forgotten that Bayle was as strongly Protestant.
In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
His mother was Marytje, daughter of Jan de Gorter, of a good family in Delft.
Thenard stated that yeast was the cause of fermentation, and held it to be of an animal nature, since it contained nitrogen and yielded ammonia on distillation, nor was it conclusively proved that the yeast cell was the originator of fermentation until the researches of C. Cagniard de la Tour, T.
The elementary composition of sugar and alcohol was fixed in 1815 by analyses made by GayLussac, Thenard and de Saussure.
In France there once lived a famous man who was known as the Marquis de Lafayette. When he was a little boy his mother called him Gilbert.
Gilbert de Lafayette's father and grandfather and great-grandfather had all been brave and noble men.
The great cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, which was begun before your birth, would not be finished by your death.
After touring the United States for more than nine months in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville returned to his native France and penned the two-volume Democracy in America.
That notwithstanding, de Tocqueville's "voluntary associations" are still alive and well in the United States.
It is a shame that de Tocqueville's voluntary associations aren't more prominent around the world today—but in the future, they may be.
So did de Tocqueville, touring nineteenth-century America, when he wrote that "All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it."
That makes us all de facto millionaires, and very committed to remaining so.
Maybe Corbin is just another name—a nom de plume—another alias for Byrne, just in case.
If this had been the Tour de France, he'd still be on the road.
In 1792 he was prosecuted for publishing an edition of the Lettres de Mirabeau et Sophie, but was acquitted.
The Society of St Vincent de Paul was founded by Frederic Ozanam and others in 1833, in reply to a charge brought by some free-thinking contemporaries that the church no longer had the strength to inaugurate a practical enterprise.
Albufera de Valencia >>
Destutt de Tracy was the last eminent representative of the sensualistic school which Condillac founded in France upon a one-sided interpretation of Locke.
From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
In 1676 the duke of Crequy seized it in the name of Louis XIV., who in 1678 gave it to Godefroy Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne, whose descendants continued in possession till 1795.
to Gilbert de Gaunt, whose son and heir Walter founded the priory and endowed it with the manor of Bridlington and other lands.
and several succeeding kings confirmed Walter de Gaunt's gift, Stephen granting in addition the right to have a port.
Thus the vidame de Picquigny was the representative of the bishop of Amiens, the vidame de Gerberoy of the bishop of Beauvais.
His relations with Cornelius Herz and the baron de Reinach compelled his retirement, however, from the Ribot cabinet at the time of the Panama scandals in December 1892.
Bakhuyzen (Bulletin de Corn.
Baron de Reiffenberg, Le Chevalier au cygne et Godfrey de Bouillon (Brussels, 2 vols., 1846-1848), in Mon.
the Latin tale by Jean de Haute Seille (Johannes de Alta Silva) in his Dolopathos (ed.
de Godeffroy de Boulin (printed 1504) and is reprinted by W.
It was also printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1512.
Of Nuraghe Lugheras near Paulilatino, or the Nuraghe de S'Orcu near Domusnovas, the entrance may be protected by a regular system of courtyards and subsidiary nuraghi.
They seem to be almost entirely lacking in the north-east extremity, near Terranova, and in the mountains immediately to the north of Iglesias, though they are found to the north of the Perda de sa Mesa.
The tombs of their inhabitants are of two classes - the so-called tombe dei giganti, or giants' tombs, and the domus de gianas, or houses of the spirits.
The domus de gianas, on the other hand, resemble closely the rock tombs of the prehistoric cemeteries of Sicily.
But the best canonists, from the Roman professor De Angelis (Prael.
In the first place is the official recognition by the state of the Catholic religion 1 These are arranged under thirty-five distinct heads in Nussi's Quinquaginta conventiones de rebus ecclesiasticis (Rome, 1869).
For texts see Vincenzio Nussi, Quinquaginta conventiones de rebus ecclesiasticas (Rome, 1869; Mainz, 1870); Branden, Concordata inter S.
Sevestre, Le Concordat de 1801, l'histoire, le texte, la destinee (Paris, 1905).
Two years later appeared his Recherches geographiques et critiques on the De Mensura Orbis Terrae of Dicuil.
By De la Rue's advice, Pritchard began his career there with a determination of the physical libration of the moon, or the nutation of its axis.
[[Roland (disambiguation)|ROLAND [[[Roland]] De La Platiere], Jean Marie]] (1734-1793), French statesman, was born at Thizy on the 18th of February 1734.
The Courrier de Lyon contained articles the success of which reached even to the capital and attracted the attention of the Parisian press.
A small fort was built at Sheerness by Charles II., which, on the 10th of July 1667, was taken by the Dutch fleet under De Ruyter.
was published, declaring that "he had abolished entirely the exercise of the so-called reformed religion" ("qu'il avait aboli tout exercice de la religion pretendue ref ormee").
He was the father of the more generally known Antoine Court de Gebelin.
28-45, whose account differs in some respects from Livy's; Cicero, De finibus, ii.
A few colonists sent out by the Susque hanna Company settled at Mill Creek near the present site of 1 In place of De Forest Richards, deceased.
In 1535 he received his cardinal's hat; in1536-1537he was nominated "lieutenant-general" to the king at Paris and in the Ile de France, and was entrusted with the organization of the defence against the imperialists.
In this same year he competed for the Steiner prize of the Berlin Academy, with a treatise entitled "Memoria sulle superficie de terzo ordine," and shared the award with J.
See Correspondance de l'empereur Maximilien I.
et de Marguerite d'Autriche, 1507-1519, edited by A.
P. Gachard, Lettres ine'dites de Maximilien I.
Arcos de la Frontera >>
de l'Astrolabe: Oiseaux, p. 239, pl.
Bonnell, De dignitate majoris domus (Berlin, 1858); E.
In 1672, having finished his philosophy course, he was given a scholarship at the college of St Michel at Paris by Jean, marquis de Pompadour, lieutenant-general of the Limousin.
by bringing about the marriage of his pupil with Mademoiselle de Blois, a natural but legitimated daughter of the king; and for this service he was rewarded with the gift of the abbey of St Just in Picardy.
His portrait was thus drawn by the duc de St Simon: - "He was a little, pitiful, wizened, herringgutted man, in a flaxen wig, with a weasel's face, brightened by some intellect.
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
He had expressed an opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the examination of truth.
The ancient geometry, as we know it, is a wonderful monument of ingenuity - a series of tours de force, in which each problem to all appearance stands alone, and, if solved, is solved by methods and principles peculiar to itself.
And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
219.5 Disc. de methode, part ii.
In another question connected with this, the problem of drawing tangents to any curve, Descartes was drawn into a controversy with Pierre (de) Fermat (1601-1663), Gilles Persone de Roberval (1602-1675), and Girard Desargues (1593-1661).
The doubt as to the details is natural; it 4 Disc. de methode, part.
The chief of his other contributions to optics was the explanation of the rainbow - an explanation far from complete, since the unequal refrangibility of the rays of light was yet undiscovered - but a decided advance upon his predecessors, notably on the De radiis visas et lucis (1611) of Marc-Antonio de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato.
Passions de l'ame, 36.
Grand seigneurs, like the prince of Conde, the duc de Nevers and the marquis de Vardes, were glad to vary the monotony of their feudal castles by listening to the eloquent rehearsals of Malebranche or Regis.
And the salons of Mme de Sevigne, of her daughter Mme de Grignan, and of the duchesse de Maine for a while gave the questions of philosophy a place among the topics of polite society, and furnished to Moliere the occasion of his Femmes savantes.
The Chateau of the duc de Luynes, the translator of the Meditations, was the home of a Cartesian club, that discussed the questions of automatism and of the composition of the sun from filings and parings, and rivalled Port Royal in its vivisections.
The cardinal de Retz in his leisurely age at Commercy found amusement in presiding at disputations between the more moderate Cartesians and Don Robert Desgabets, who interpreted Descartes in an original way of his own.
In1859-1860Foucher de Careil published in two parts some unedited writings of Descartes from copies taken by Leibnitz from the original papers.
Baillet, La Vie de M.
Barbier, Rene Descartes, sa famille, son lieu de naissance, &c. (1901); Richard Lowndes, Rene Descartes, his Life and Meditations (London, 1878); J.
P. Mahaffy, Descartes (1902), with an appendix on Descartes's mathematical work by Frederick Purser; Victor de Swarte, Descartes directeur spirituel (Paris, 1904), correspondence with the Princess Palatine; C. J.
Jeannel, Descartes et la princesse palatine (Paris, 1869); Lettres de M.
Renouvier, Manuel de philosophie moderne (Paris, 1842); V.
de la philosophie cartesienne (Paris, 1854), 2 vols., and Hist.
de Descartes depuis 1637 (Paris, 1870); L.
Fouillee, Descartes (Paris, 1893); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (July, 1896, Descartes number); Norman Smith, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy (1902); R.
Touchard, La Morale de Descartes (1898); Lucien LevyBruhl, Hist.
during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1901); Duboux, La Physique de Descartes (Lausanne, 1881); G.
The strong castle built by Robert de Romille in the time of the Conqueror was partly demolished in 1648, but was restored by the countess of Pembroke.
Of the ancient building of de Romille all that remains is the western doorway of the inner castle.
At the Norman accession it became part of the possessions of Earl Edwin, and was granted to Robert de Romille.
bestowed it on Piers de Gaveston.
Brasch, "Der Begriinder de Volkerpsychologie," in Nord et Sud (September 1894).
Carcopino in Mélanges de l'Ecole Francaise, 1907).
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.
Touron, La Vie de St Thomas d'Aquin, avec un exposé de sa doctrine et de ses ouvrages (Paris, 1737); Karl Werner, Der Heilige Thomas von Aquino (1858); and R.
Desmousseaux de Giure (Paris, 1888); M.
His Histoire critique de l'ecole d'Alexandrie (3 vols.
east) by the Sierra de Cullera.
Of other 5th-century sources, Aristophanes is obviously a caricaturist, pseudo-Xenophon (de republica Atheniensium) a mere party pamphleteer.
Thus he gave to his undeserving son Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici.
Accrington (Akerenton, Alkerington, Akerington) was granted by Henry de Lacy to Hugh son of Leofwine in Henry II.'s reign, but came again into the hands of the Lacys, and was given by them about 1200 to the monks of Kirkstall, who converted it into a grange.
Bertrand, Une nouvelle conception de la redemption.
1312), son of Sancho El Bravo, and his wife Maria de Molina, is a figure of small note in Spanish history.
But the tale is not contemporary, and is an obvious copy of the story told of Jacques de Molay, grand-master of the Temple, and Philippe Le Bel.
He owed his escape from the violence of competitors and nobles, partly to the tact and undaunted bravery of his mother Maria de Molina, and partly to the loyalty of the citizens of Avila, who gave him refuge within their walls.
At the beginning of 1680 he presented a paper to the Royal Society, De nova temporis dimetiendi ratione et accurata horologiorum .constructione, in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the pendulum to the measurement of time.
The English, under Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, in March 1814 made an attempt to take it by a coup de main, but were driven back with great loss by the French, who surrendered the place, however, by the treaty of peace in the following May.
Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
d'Argental and Pont de Veyle.
de Tencin, but they are above all of interest in the picture they afford of the writer's own tenderness and fidelity.
de Lavergne and P. Woucher (1854), by Louis Bouilhet (1872) and by Dejoux (1898).
(According to pseudo-Plutarch, de fort.
4; de Alex.
Anspach, De Alex.
Schoene, De rerum Alexandri Magni scriptorum imprimis Arriani Plutarchi fontibus (1870); Fraenkel, Die Geschichtschreiber Alex.
rev. by author, 1852); Grote, History of Greece; Droysen, Histoire de l'Hellenisme (translation by Bouche-Leclerq); Ad.
de situ et mirabilibus Indiae), and the correspondence between Alexander and the king ï¿½ of the Brahmins, Dindimus, both of which are often contained in MSS.
Pierre de Saint Cloud, the writer of the fourth section of the romance, was evidently acquainted with the Historia de proeliis.
The redaction of the whole work is due to Alexandre de Bernai, who replaced the original assonance by rhyme.
The Monk (De Cas.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
des Archpresbyter Leo (Historia de proeliis), (Erlangen, 1885); Alexander's letter to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are included in the Teubner edition of Julius Valerius (ed.
Weismann (Frankfort, 1850) and by C. Kinzel (Halle, 1884); the Alexandreis of Gaultier de Lille, by F.
The best modern work on the subject is by the comtesse Catherine de Flavigny, entitled Sainte Brigitte de Suede, sa vie, ses revelations et son oeuvre (Paris, 1892), which contains an exhaustive bibliogr,aphy.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
Hugh de la Marche, whose betrothed wife, Isabella of Angouleme, King John of England seized (thus bringing upon himself the loss of the greater part of his French possessions), was a nephew of Guy of Lusignan.
Guy was a brave if not a particularly able knight; and his instant attack on Acre after his release by Saladin shows that he had the sentiment de ses devoirs.
(the Great), who was king from 1267 to 1285: to him, apparently, St Thomas dedicated his De Regimine Principum; and it is in his reign that the kingdom of Jerusalem becomes permanently connected with that of Cyprus.
Peter and his chancellor de Mezieres represent the last flicker of the crusading spirit.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley (vide Ellis's lecture) regarded the French ton de chapelle as being about a minor third below the Diapason Normal, a' 435, and said that most of the untouched organs in the French cathedrals were at this low pitch.
Cagnard de la Tour Scheibler Scheibler Ellis..
Hugh de Gurnay held a fair in Wendover on the eve, feast and morrow of St John the Baptist, granted him in 1 214.
Another fair was granted to John de Molyns in1347-1348on the eve, feast and morrow of St Barnabas, but in 1464 Edward IV.
In 1266 the town was the scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, was taken prisoner.
Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome vi.
For legends: Pseud.- Epiphan., De vit.
de l'art, &c., in which, however, the restoration of Ezekiel's temple (by Chipiez) is probably untrustworthy.
Monchiquite (Ria do Ouro, Serra de Tingua).
See Pridik, De Cei Insulae rebus (1892).
It is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about 1621, and the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the market-place outside the church.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Fabre, La Jeunesse de Flechier (1882), and Adolphe Fabre, Flechier, orateur (1886); A.
de Flechier (1865).
Other medical works translated into Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso.
His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine.
de Slane (1842); F.
medicine, see Sprengel, Histoire de la Medecine; and for his philosophy, see Shahrastani, German trans.
der bayerischen Academie (1867); and Carra de Vaux, Avicenne (Paris, 1900).
Hubert de Burgh was the last of the great justiciars; after his fall (1231) the justiciarship was not again committed to a great baron, and the chancellor soon took the position formerly occupied by the justiciar as second to the king in dignity, as well as in power and influence.
Pouqueville, Voyage de la Grece (Paris, 1820); W.
Hecquard, Histoire et description de la Haute Albanie ou Guegarie (Paris, undated); S.
granted William de Braose a yearly three-days' fair at his manor of Horsham.
William de Braose claimed to have a free market on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
Guerrier, De Petro Damiano (Orleans, 1881); W.
ANNE GENEVIEVE, Duchesse de LONGUEVILLE (1619-1679), was the only daughter of Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, and his wife Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, and the sister of Louis, the great Conde.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
In 1642 she was married to the duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age.
On her return she fell in love with the duc de la Rochefoucauld, the author of the Maxims, who made use of her love to obtain influence over her brother, and thus win honours for himself.
She was the guiding spirit of the first Fronde, when she brought over Armand, Prince de Conti, her second brother, and her husband to the malcontents, but she failed to attract Conde himself, whose loyalty to the court overthrew the first Fronde.
It was during the first Fronde that she lived at the Hotel de Ville and took the city of Paris as god-mother for the child born to her there.
In the last year of the war she was accompanied into Guienne by the duc de Nemours, her intimacy with whom gave La Rochefoucauld an excuse for abandoning her, and who himself immediately returned to his old mistress the duchesse de Chevreuse.
She became the great protectress of the Jansenists; it was in her house that Arnauld, Nicole and De Lane were protected; and to her influence must be in great part attributed the release of Lemaistre De Sacy from the Bastille, the introduction of Pomponne into the ministry and of Arnauld to the king.
The chief authority for Madame de Longueville's life is a little book in two volumes by Villefore the Jansenist, published in 1738.
de la Palestine, chap. i.).
Koeppel (see Laurents de Premier.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
Maass, De Sibyllarum indicibus (1879); C. Schultess, Die sibyllinischen Bucher in Rom (1895; with references to authorities in notes).
See Sallust, Jugurtha; Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum; Asconius, In Scaurum; Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus, 72; A.
There is a fine park outside the town belonging to the duke of Arenberg, whose ancestor, Charles de Ligne, bought it from Henry IV.
A fine pavilion or kiosk, named de l'Etoile, has also survived.
A few years afterwards he married again, his second wife being Agnes, daughter of Sir James 1 The descent of the first Napier of Merchiston has been traced to "Johan le Naper del Counte de Dunbretan," who was one of those who swore fealty to Edward I.
d.) Nonpareil, Sieur de Merchiston, reveue par lui-mesme, et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson, Escossois.
Secundo, Appendix de alid, edque praestantiore Logarithmorum specie construenda.
Fortunately, however, Robert Napier had transcribed his father's manuscript De Arte Logistica, and the copy escaped the fate of the originals in the manner explained in the following note, written in the volume containing them by Francis, seventh Lord Napier: "John Napier of Merchiston, inventor of the logarithms, left his manuscripts to his son Robert, who appears to have caused the following pages to have been written out fair from his father's notes, for Mr Briggs, professor of geometry at Oxford.
An account of the contents of these manuscripts was given by Mark Napier in the appendix to his Memoirs of John Napier, and the manuscripts themselves were edited in their entirety by him in 1839 under the title De Arte Logistica Joannis Naperi Merchistonii Baronis Libri qui supersunt.
The Algebra Joannis Naperi Merchistonii Baronis consists of two books: (I) "De nominata Algebrae parte; (2) De positiva sive cossica Algebrae parte," and concludes with the words, "There is no more of his algebra orderlie sett doun."
of his Histoire de l'Astronomie moderne.
Item 25.803, idem quod 25M, 8r, Item 9999998.0005021, idem valet quod 9999998 T O M0 - 0, o o oo, & sic de caeteris."
de Candolle as probably a modification of A.
In connexion with the first he desired that the discipline de l'excommunication should be exercised.
A small company had been accustomed to meet in the lodging of the sieur de la Ferriere in Paris near the Pre-auxCleres.
Some doctrinal differences having arisen in the church at Poitiers, Antoine de Chandieu, First minister at Paris, went to compose them, and, as the General .
The book of order, Discipline ecclesiastique des eglises reformees de France, regulated the organization and procedure of the churches.
When it refused to discuss points of doctrine a secession took place under the name of the Union des eglises evangeliques de France.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
Under Pierre de Guast, sieur de Monts, Huguenots settled in Nova Scotia in 1604 but did not remain after 1607.
A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and the other at Michaelmas.
Charles Cagniard de la Tour >>
Parma was thus governed for several years by Moreau de SaintMery and by Junot.
He married Pauline Cassin, the authoress of the Peelle de Madeleine and other well-known novels.
Littre et le positivisme (1883), George Sand (1887), Melanges et portraits (1888), La Philosophie de Goethe (2nd ed., 1880).
- Procopius, De Bellis and Historia Arcana (best edition by J.
Brasiliae, p. 203), posthumously published by De Laet in 1648, to be recognized by succeeding ornithologists, among whom M.
The Seriema inhabits the campos or elevated open parts of Brazil, from the neighbourhood of Pernambuco to the Rio de la Plata, extending inland as far as Matto Grosso (long.
These minor ranges, excepting the Zenta, are separated from the Andean masses by comparatively low depressions and are usually described as distinct ranges; topographically, however, they seem to form a continuation of the ranges running southward from the Santa Victoria and forming the eastern rampart of the great central plateau of which the Puna de Atacama covers a large part.
The large saline Mar Chiquita, of Cordoba, is fed from the Sierra de Cordoba and has no outlet.
At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
Napp's Argentine Republic; and de Moussy's Confederation argentine.
Their leader, Juan Diaz de Solis, landing incautiously in 1516 on the north coast with a few attendants to parley with a body of Charrua Indians, was suddenly attacked by them and was killed, together with a number of his followers.
Sebastian Cabot had in 151 9 deserted England for Spain, and had received from King Charles the post of pilot-major formerly held by Juan de Solis.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Among these was Pedro de Mendoza, a Basque nobleman.
Here, on the 2nd of February, Mendoza laid the foundations of a settlement which in honour of the day he named Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.
A portion of one of the expeditions he despatched, under Juan de Ayolas, pushing up the Paraguay, is said to have reached the south-east districts of Peru, but while returning laden with booty, was attacked by the Payagua Indians, and every man perished.
Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).
In 1542 the settlement of Buenos Aires was re-established by an expedition sent for the purpose from Spain, under a tried adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca.
In 1573 Juan de Garay, at the head of an expedition despatched from Asuncion, founded the city of Santa Fe near the abandoned settlements of San Espiritu and Corpus Christi.
The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad, while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.
Pedro de Zeballos, the first viceroy, took with him from Spain a large military force with which he finally expelled the Portuguese from the banks of the river Plate.
But a French officer, Jacques de Liniers, gathered together a large force with which he enclosed the British within the walls, and finally, on the 12th of August, by a successful assault, forced Beresford and his troops to surrender.
The central junta at Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand, appointed Balthasar de Cisneros to be viceroy in his place.
An attempt of the Spanish party to make Balthasar de Cisneros president of the junta failed, and the ex-viceroy retired to Montevideo.
Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
After the conclusion of the peace with Brazil, the Unitarians placed themselves under the leadership of General Juan de Lavalle, the victor of Ituzaingo.
On the death of Dorrego, a remarkable man, Juan Manuel de Rosas, became the Federalist chief.
The downfall of Rosas was at last brought about by the instrumentality of Justo Jose de Urquiza, who as governor of Entre Rios, had for many years been one of his strongest supporters.
The consequences of this catastrophe were felt far and wide, and in the spring of 1891 both the Banco Nacional and the Banco de la provincia de Buenos Aires were unable to meet their obligations.
During the last months of President Uriburu's administration, matters had reached a climax, especially in connexion with the delimitation in a district known as the Puna de Atacama.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
Carrasco, El crecimiento de la poblacion de la Republica Argentina comparado con el de las principales naciones 1890-1903 (Buenos Aires, 1904); C. M.
Zeballos, Description Amena de la Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1881); Anuario de la Direcion General de Estadistica 1898 (Buenos Aires, 1899); Charles Wiener, La Republique Argentine (Paris, 1899); Segundo Censo Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1898); Handbook of the Argentine Republic (Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, 1892-1903).
Joining the Atlantic between Royan and the Pointe de Grave, opposite the tower of Cordouan.
Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.
1848), by Dufrnoy and Elie de Beaumont; a more modern account, with full references, is given by A.
de Lapparent, Trait de gologie (Paris, 1906).
erritoire de - 235 79,758 88,047 95,421
(4) Population municipale agglomre au chef-lieu de la commune, which embraces the urban population as opposed to the rural population.
The organization of the Lutheran Church (Eglise de la confession dAugsburg) is broadly similar.
Three societies demand special mention: the Union centrale des agriculteurs de France, to which the above syndicates are affiliated; the Sociit nationale dagriculture, whose mission is to further agricultural progress and to supply the government with information on everything appertaining thereto and the Socit des agriculteurs de France.
re de Belfort 40,703 24,470 60.10 58.77
The salt-marshes of the Mediterranean coast, especially the Etang de Berre and those of LoireInfrieure, are the principal sources of sea-salt.
The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
Canal de Ia Somme 97
Canal de lOurcq 67
Ardennes (uniting Aisne and Canal de lEst) -.
Canal de Ia Haute Marne 60
In 1878 it agreed to spend 20,000,000 in purchasing and completing a number of these lines, some of which were handed over to the great companies, while others were retained in the hands of the government, forming the system known as the Chemins de Fer de lEtat.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
They are elected by the scrutin de lisle for a period of nine years, and one-third of the body retires every three years.
2 The province or provinces named are those out of which the de seven years, by a majority of votes, by the Senate and Chamber of Deputies sitting together as the National Assembly.
This body consists, according to the population of the commune, of from 10 to 36 members, elected for four years on the principle of the scrutin de liste by Frenchmen who have reached the age of twenty-one years and have a six months residence qualification.
The ordinary judicial system of France comprises two classes of courts: (I) civil and criminal, (2) special, including courts dealing only with purely commercial cases; in addition there are the administrative courts, including bodies, the Conseil dEtat and the Conseils de Prefecture, which dGal, in their judicial capacity, with cases coming under the droit administratif.
BESANON - Doubs, Jura, Haute-Sabne, Territoire de Belfort.
Each section (chambre) consists of a prsident de chambre and four judges (conseillers).
The cour de cassation can review the decision of any other tribunal, except administrative courts.
In the absence of a tribunal de commerce commercial cases come before the ordinary tribunal darrondissement.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
Gardiens de la pair (sometimes called sergents de yule, gardes de yule or agents de police) are not to be confounded with the gendarmerie, being a branch of the administrative police and corresponding more or less nearly with the English equivalent police constables, which the gendarmerie do not, although both perform police duty.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
The municipal police is divided into two principal branchesthe service in uniform of the agents de police and the service out of uniform of ins pecteurs de police.
There are also reformatory establishments for juvenile offenders, and ddpDts de stireU for prisoners who are travelling, at places where there are no other prisons.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
The service in the departments comprises brigades, which are actually engaged in guarding the frontiers, and a clerical staff (service de bureau) entrusted with the collection of the duties.
These young men are then examined by a revising body (Conseil de revision cantonal) composed of civil and military officials.
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
The general staff and also the staff of the corps and divisions are composed of_certificated (breveUs) officers who have passed all through the Ecole de Guerre.
Artillery and engineer officers come from the Ecole Polytechnique, infantry and cavalry from the Ecole spciale militaire de St-Cyr.
Other important training institutions are the staff college (cole suprieure de Guerre) which trains annually 70 to 90 selected captains and lieutenants; the musketry school of Chlons, the gymnastic school at Joinville-le-Pont and the schools of St Maixent, Saumur and Versailles for the preparation.
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
All French sailors between the ages of eighteen and fifty must be enrolled as members of the armte de me,.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
At Paris there is a more advanced school (Ecole superieure de la Marine) for the supplementary training of officers.
The total personnel of the armee de mer in 1909 Is given as 56,800 officers and men.
Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saflne, Territoire de Belfort.
The municipality has to pay the Cost of building, furnishing and upkeep. At the head of the lyce is the principal (proviseur), an official nominated by the minister, and assisted by a teaching staff of professors and charges de cours or teachers of somewhat lower standing.
At the end of this period he presents himself for a degree called the Baccalaurat de tenseignement secondaire.
The faculties of letters and sciences, besides granting the Baccalaurat de lenseignement secondaire, confer the degrees of licentiate and doctor (la Licence, le Doctoral).
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
The In Indo-China A cadimie de Midecine is a separate body.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
The bureaux de bien- Total in 0cc faisance in the larger centres are aided by unpaid workers (commissaires or dames de charit), and in the big towns by paid inquiry officers.
Bureaux dassistance exist in every commune, and are managed by the combined committees of the hospices and the bureaux de bienfaisance or by one of these in municipalities, where only one of those institutions exists.
Funds for hbpitals, hospices and bureaux de bienfaisance comprise:
Profits of the communal Monts de Piht (pawn-shops).
BIBL100RAPHY.P. Joanne, Diciionnalre gographique et administrative de la France (8 vols., Paris, 1890-1905); C. Brossard, La France et ses colonies (6 vols., Paris, 1900-1906); 0.
Reclus, Le Plus Beau Royaume sous le ciel (Paris, 1899); Vidal de La Blache, La France.
Block, Dictionnaire de ladministration franfaise, the articles in which contain full bibliographies (2 vols., Paris, 1905); E.
de St Genis, La Fropriiti rurale en France (Paris, 1902); H.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
of Portugal, and of Louisa de Gusman, daughter of the duke of Medina Sidonia, was born on the 15/25 of November 1638 at Villia Vicosa.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
Lauer, La Regne de Louis IV d'Outre-Mer (Paris, 1900); and A.
JEAN FRANCOIS BOISSONADE DE FONTARABIE (1774-1857), French classical scholar, was born at Paris on the 12th of August 1774.
Gail in the chair of Greek at the College de France.
Boissonade chiefly devoted his attention to later Greek literature: Philostratus, Heroica (1806) and Epistolae (1842); Marinus, Vita procli (1814); Tiberius Rhetor, De Figuris (1815); Nicetas Eugenianus, Drosilla et Charicles (1819); Herodian, Partitiones (1819); Aristaenetus, Epistolae (1822); Eunapius, Vitae Sophisiarum (1822); Babrius, Fables (1844); Tzetzes, Allegoriae Iliados (1851); and a Collection of Greek Poets in 24 vols.
Francois Antoine de Boissy d'Anglas >>
Moratin, Leandro Antonio Eulogio Meliton Fernandez De (1760-1828), Spanish dramatist and poet, the son of N.
de Moratin, was born at Madrid on the 10th of March 1760.
In 1803 he produced El BarOn in its present form; originally written (1791) as a zarzuela, it was shamelessly plagiarized by Andres de Mendoza, but the recast, a far more brilliant work, still keeps the stage.
In 1812 his Escuela de los maridos, a translation of Moliere's Ecole des maris, was produced at Madrid, and in 1813 El Medico a Palos (a translation of Le Medecin malgre lui) at Barcelona.
of the Biblioteca de autores espanoles; this is supplemented by the Obras postumas (3 vols., Madrid, 1867-1868).
MORATIN, NICOLAS FERNANDEZ DE (1737-1780), Spanish poet and dramatist, was born at Madrid in 1 737.
In 1764 Moratin published a collection of pieces, chiefly lyrical, under the title of El Poeta, and in 1765 a short didactic poem on the chase (Diana 0 arte de la caza).
His works are included in the Biblioteca de autores espanoles, vol.
His best-known work, entitled De Republica Anglorum: the Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England, was published posthumously in 1583, and passed through many editions.
Another institution is the college of San Nicolas de Hidalgo, which was.
committed by Nun() de Guzman), was removed to Valladolid (Morelia) a few years later to be combined with a local college, and was rebuilt in 1882.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
Stirling Maxwell, Don John of Austria (1883); and Jurien de la Graviere, La Guerre de Chypre la bataille de Lepanto (1888).
In sacred literature: Antimuratorius sive confutatio disputationis Muratorianae de rebus liturgicis (1755-1758); Neue theologische Bibliothek, vols.
In 1186 at Woodstock William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a cousin of Henry II., and peace with England being assured three years later, he turned his arms against the turbulent chiefs in the outlying parts of his kingdom.
He left one son, his successor Alexander II., and two daughters, Margaret and Isabella, who were sent to England after the treaty of 1209, and who both married English nobles, Margaret becoming the wife of Hubert de Burgh.He also left some illegitimate children.
Garnier, Le Temple de Jupiter Panhellenien a Egine (Paris, 1884); Ad.
These were published in the Prix de l'Academie des Sciences.
de Maupertuis as associate geometer of the Academie des Sciences.
de la Condamine for Peru, in order to measure a degree of the meridian near the equator.
Ten years were spent in this operation, a full account of which was published by Bouguer in 17 4 9, Figure de la terre determinee.
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
The city is built at the narrow end of the valley and at the foot of the Cerro de Avila, and stands from 2887 to 3442 ft.
above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.
Two miles north-east is the famous Silla de Caracas, whose twin summits, like a gigantic old-fashioned saddle (silla), rise to an elevation of 8622 ft.; and the Naiguete, still farther eastward, overlooks the valley from a height of 9186 ft.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
Pilgrims' Text Society and of the Societe de l'Orient latin; papers in Quarterly Statements of the P. E.
Perrot and C. Chipiez, Histoire de fart Bans l'antiquite, v.
MANUEL RUIZ ZORILLA, D ON (1834-189J), Spanish politician, was born at Burgo de Osma in 18 3 4.
He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.
Sieyes, who were later joined by other politicians, among them being Dupont de Nemours.
The members of the club preserved the title of Amis de la Constitution, as being a sufficient indication of the line they intended to pursue.
The date of the evidence, however, has not been fixed with unanimity, and this very The musical service of the temple has no place in the Pentateuch, but was considerably developed under the second temple and attracted the special attention of Greek observers (Theophrastus, apud Porphyry, de Abstin.
p. 624; Hottinger, De Dec. vi.
In 1667 Theophile de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, obtained the office of grand bailiff of Orleans, which was held by several of his descendants after him.
Claude Antoine de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and duc d'Avaray in 1818.
For the history, see Rivadeneyra, "Cronicas de los reyes de Castilla," Biblioteca de autores espanoles, vols.
Zurita, Anales de Aragon (Saragossa, 1610).
He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science.
Petrus Baldus De Ubaldis >>
It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.
of Lorraine, duke of Guise, sold it to "Mademoiselle," Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, duchesse de Montpensier, who made it over (1682) to the duke of Maine, bastard son of Louis XIV., as part of the price of the release of her lover Lauzun.
The second son of the duke of Maine, Louis Charles de Bourbon (1701-1775), bore the title of count of Eu.
In 1755 he inherited from his elder brother, Louis Auguste de Bourbon (170o-1755), prince de Dombes, great estates, part of which he sold to the king.
passim; C. Torr, Rhodes in Ancient Times (Cambridge, 1885), Rhodes in Modern Times (Cambridge, 1887); C. Schumacher, De republica Rhodiorum commentatio (Heidelberg, 1886); H.
Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord.
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
The little fleet comprised three vessels, with the Portuguese pilot, De Quiros, as navigator, and De Torres as admiral or military commander.
They left Callao on the 21st of December 1605, and in the following year discovered the island now known as Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides group, which De Quiros, under the impression that it was indeed the land of which he was in search, named La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
Sickness and discontent led to a mutiny on De Quiros' vessel, and the crew, overpowering their officers during the night, forced the captain to navigate his ship to Mexico.
De Quiros returned to Spain to re-engage in the work of petitioning the king to despatch an expedition for the purpose of prosecuting the discovery of the Terra Australis.
During the same year in which De Torres sailed through the strait destined to make him famous, a little Dutch vessel called the " Duyfken," or " Dove," set sail from Bantam, in Java, on a voyage of discovery.
Among other early Dutch discoverers were Edel; Pool, in 1629, in the Guif of Carpentaria; Nuyts, in the " Gulde Zeepaard," along the southern coast, which he called, after himself, Nuyts Land; De Witt; and Pelsaert, in the " Batavia."
Some twelve years afterwards the East India Company fitted out an expedition under the leadership of Commander William de Vlamingh, with the object of searching for any traces of the lost vessel on the western shores of New Holland.
north of Adelaide city, Warburton succeeded in making his way to the De Grey river, Western Australia.
de Mesmes d'Avaux, Negotiations du comte d'Avaux, 1693, 1697, 1698 (Utrecht, 1882, &c.).
- Staring, De Bodem van Nederland (1856); Blink, Nederland en zijne Bewoners (1892); P. H.
Teding van Berkhout, De Landaanwinning op de Friesche Wadden (1869); J.
de Vries and T.
Educated at the Lycee Corot, and the Rcole Normale he was successively professor of philosophy at the Lycee d'Angers 1881-3, at the Lycee de Clermont 1883-8, at the College Rollin 1888-9, at the Lycee Henry IV.
1889-97, at the Ecole Normale Superieure 1897-1900 and at the College de France 1900-21.
With the exception of a pamphlet, La Significance de la Guerre (1915), nothing more appeared until L'Energie Spirituelle (1919), with Eng.
For the neighbouring Bois de Boulogne see Paris.
FERDINAND DE LESSEPS (1805-1894).
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
His father, Mathieu de Lesseps (1774-1832), was in the consular service; hi$ mother, Catherine de Grivegnee, was Spanish, and aunt of the countess of Montijo, mother of the empress Eugenie.
From 1825 to 1827 he acted as assistant viceconsul at Lisbon, where his uncle, Barthelemy de Lesseps, was the French charge d'affaires.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
In 1832 Ferdinand de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria.
This work struck de Lesseps's imagination, and gave him the idea of piercing the African isthmus.
Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
de Lesseps became the father of five sons.
In the course of a bloody insurrection in Catalonia, which ended in the bombardment of Barcelona, Ferdinand de Lesseps showed the most persistent bravery, rescuing from death, without distinction, the men belonging to the rival factions, and protecting and sending away not only the Frenchmen who were in danger, but foreigners of all nationalities.
Following his interpretation of the instructions he had received, de Lesseps began negotiations with the existing government at Rome, according to which Pius IX.
de Lesseps then retired from the diplomatic service, and never afterwards occupied any public office.
Encouraged by this approval, de Lesseps no longer allowed anything to stop him.
Ferdinand de Lesseps steadily endeavoured to keep out of politics.
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
de Brazza's explorations, and acquired stations that he subsequently abandoned to the French government.
In 1879 a congress assembled in the rooms of the Geographical Society at Paris, under the presidency of Admiral de la Ronciere le Noury, and voted in favour of the making of the Panama Canal.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
Politics, which de Lesseps had always avoided, was his greatest enemy in this matter.
Charles de Lesseps, a victim offered to the fury of the politicians, tried to divert the storm upon his head and prevent it from reaching his father.
Ferdinand de Lesseps died at La Chenaie on the 7th of December 1894.
He had contracted a second marriage in 1869 with Mlle Autard de Bragard, daughter of a former magistrate of Mauritius; and eleven out of twelve children of this marriage survived him.
de Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
Barnett Smith, The Life and Enterprises of Ferdinand de Lesseps (London, 1893); and Souvenirs de quarante ans, by Ferdinand de Lesseps (trans.
of two parcels of land in the manor of Woolwich, called Boughton's Docks, that the foundation of the: town's prosperity was laid, the launching of the "Harry Grace de.
The Royal Society printed six important memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, and a few other memoirs are to be found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Irish Academy, in the Bulletin de 1' Academic de St-Petersbourg for 1862 (under the name G.
The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.
Bouquet's Recueil de historiens des Gaules et de la France, 17, 381876).
The foundation of the Burgundian r ule in the Netherlands was laid by the succession of Y Philip the Bold to the counties of Flanders and Artois in 1384 in right of his wife Margaret de Male.
The most serious difficulty with which Margaret had to deal arose from the attitude of the great nobles, and among these especially of William (the " Silent ") of Nassau, prince of Orange, Lamoral, count of Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, count of Hoorn.
A body of some 2000 men drawn principally from Antwerp were cut to pieces at Austruweel (March 13, 1567), and their leader John de Marnix, lord of Thouseule, slain.
Under the command of the lord of Lumbres, the lord of Treslong, and William de la Marck (lord of Lumey) they spread terror and alarm along the coast, seized much plunder, and in revenge for Alva's cruelty committed acts of terrible barbarity upon the priests and monks and catholic officials, as well as upon the crews of the vessels that fell into their hands.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
General history: For the early authorities consult Collections de chroniques Belges inedites, publ.
par l'Academie de Bruxelles (58 vols., 1868-1870); among later writers, J.
P. Arend, Algemeane geschiedenis des vaderlands van de vroegste tijden (4 vols., 1840-1883); J.
de Burante, Histoire des ducs de Burgogne (1364-1477), (13 vols., 1824-1826); L.
Henne, Histoire du regne de Charles V.
The Revolt of the Netherlands: Contemporary authorities: P. C. Gachard, Correspondance de Philippe II.
Groen van Prinsterer, Archives ou correspondance ine'dite de la maison d'0range, P serie (9 vols., 1841-1861); Poullet et Piot, Correspondance du cardinal Granvelle (12 vols., 1879-1899); J.
C. Kervyn de Lettenhove, Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II.
Ghysius, Oorsprong en voortgang der nederlandscher beroerten (1626); Hugo Grotius, Annales et histoire de rebus belgicis (1657); P. C. Hooft, Nederlandscher historien, 1555-1587 (1656); E.
Reyd, Voornaenste gheschiedennissen in de Nederlanden, 1566-1601 (1626); A.
Carnero, Historia de las guerras civiles que ha avido en los estados de Flandres des del anno 1559 hasta el de 1609, y las Archduke already in course of formation, and not even the Matthias.
causas de la rebelion de los dichos estados (1625); B.
Mendota, Commentaires memorables des guerres de Flandres et Pays-Bas, avec une sommaire description des Pays-Bas 1567-1577 (1591); F.
Strada, De bello Belgico decades duae (1640-1647); L.
On the Grand Place is the fine statue of Christine de Lalaing, princess d'Epinoy, who defended Tournai against Parma in 1581.
In 1177 John de Courci, with the countenance of Henry II., set out to the conquest of Ulster.
§ 186), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero (de Divinatione, i.
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
It was with the expectation that he might, with local aid, seize the castle, that Llewellyn invaded this district in December 1282, when he was surprised and killed by Stephen de Frankton in a ravine called Cwm Llewellyn on the left bank of the Irfon, 22 m.
The first Portuguese expedition sent out to capture Malacca was under the command of Diogo Lopez de Siqueira and sailed from Portugal in 1508.
In 1510 a second expedition against Malacca was sent out from Portugal under the command of Diogo Mendez de Vasconcellos, but d'Alboquerque retained it at Cochin to aid him in the retaking of Goa, and it was not until 1511 that the great viceroy could spare time to turn his attention to the scene of Siqueira's failure.
PUENTEAREAS, a town of north-western Spain in the province of Pontevedra; on the Tuy-Santiago de Compostella railway and on the river Tea, a right-hand tributary of the Mino.
In 1536 his didactic poem in Latin hexameters, De immortalitate animarum, was published at Lyons.
Palearii Verulani Opera), including four books of Epistolae and twelve Orationes besides the De immortalitate, was published at Lyons in 1552; this was followed by two others, at Basel, and several after his death, the fullest being that of Amsterdam, 1696.
Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim.
de la question de Slesvig, 1906).
469) in North Germany; and in 1536 he wrote a preface to Gardiner's De vera Obedientia, which asserted the royal, denied the papal, supremacy, and was received with delight by the Lutherans.