De Sentence Examples
It was also printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1512.
Two years later appeared his Recherches geographiques et critiques on the De Mensura Orbis Terrae of Dicuil.
His relations with Cornelius Herz and the baron de Reinach compelled his retirement, however, from the Ribot cabinet at the time of the Panama scandals in December 1892.
Of Nuraghe Lugheras near Paulilatino, or the Nuraghe de S'Orcu near Domusnovas, the entrance may be protected by a regular system of courtyards and subsidiary nuraghi.
They seem to be almost entirely lacking in the north-east extremity, near Terranova, and in the mountains immediately to the north of Iglesias, though they are found to the north of the Perda de sa Mesa.Advertisement
A few colonists sent out by the Susque hanna Company settled at Mill Creek near the present site of 1 In place of De Forest Richards, deceased.
In 1535 he received his cardinal's hat; in1536-1537he was nominated "lieutenant-general" to the king at Paris and in the Ile de France, and was entrusted with the organization of the defence against the imperialists.
See Correspondance de l'empereur Maximilien I.
In 1672, having finished his philosophy course, he was given a scholarship at the college of St Michel at Paris by Jean, marquis de Pompadour, lieutenant-general of the Limousin.
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).Advertisement
He had expressed an opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the examination of truth.
The ancient geometry, as we know it, is a wonderful monument of ingenuity - a series of tours de force, in which each problem to all appearance stands alone, and, if solved, is solved by methods and principles peculiar to itself.
And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
In another question connected with this, the problem of drawing tangents to any curve, Descartes was drawn into a controversy with Pierre (de) Fermat (1601-1663), Gilles Persone de Roberval (1602-1675), and Girard Desargues (1593-1661).
The doubt as to the details is natural; it 4 Disc. de methode, part.Advertisement
The chief of his other contributions to optics was the explanation of the rainbow - an explanation far from complete, since the unequal refrangibility of the rays of light was yet undiscovered - but a decided advance upon his predecessors, notably on the De radiis visas et lucis (1611) of Marc-Antonio de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato.
Grand seigneurs, like the prince of Conde, the duc de Nevers and the marquis de Vardes, were glad to vary the monotony of their feudal castles by listening to the eloquent rehearsals of Malebranche or Regis.
And the salons of Mme de Sevigne, of her daughter Mme de Grignan, and of the duchesse de Maine for a while gave the questions of philosophy a place among the topics of polite society, and furnished to Moliere the occasion of his Femmes savantes.
The Chateau of the duc de Luynes, the translator of the Meditations, was the home of a Cartesian club, that discussed the questions of automatism and of the composition of the sun from filings and parings, and rivalled Port Royal in its vivisections.
The cardinal de Retz in his leisurely age at Commercy found amusement in presiding at disputations between the more moderate Cartesians and Don Robert Desgabets, who interpreted Descartes in an original way of his own.Advertisement
In1859-1860Foucher de Careil published in two parts some unedited writings of Descartes from copies taken by Leibnitz from the original papers.
The strong castle built by Robert de Romille in the time of the Conqueror was partly demolished in 1648, but was restored by the countess of Pembroke.
Of the ancient building of de Romille all that remains is the western doorway of the inner castle.
At the Norman accession it became part of the possessions of Earl Edwin, and was granted to Robert de Romille.
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.Advertisement
Of other 5th-century sources, Aristophanes is obviously a caricaturist, pseudo-Xenophon (de republica Atheniensium) a mere party pamphleteer.
Thus he gave to his undeserving son Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici.
Accrington (Akerenton, Alkerington, Akerington) was granted by Henry de Lacy to Hugh son of Leofwine in Henry II.'s reign, but came again into the hands of the Lacys, and was given by them about 1200 to the monks of Kirkstall, who converted it into a grange.
But the tale is not contemporary, and is an obvious copy of the story told of Jacques de Molay, grand-master of the Temple, and Philippe Le Bel.
He owed his escape from the violence of competitors and nobles, partly to the tact and undaunted bravery of his mother Maria de Molina, and partly to the loyalty of the citizens of Avila, who gave him refuge within their walls.
At the beginning of 1680 he presented a paper to the Royal Society, De nova temporis dimetiendi ratione et accurata horologiorum .constructione, in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the pendulum to the measurement of time.
The English, under Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, in March 1814 made an attempt to take it by a coup de main, but were driven back with great loss by the French, who surrendered the place, however, by the treaty of peace in the following May.
Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
Pierre de Saint Cloud, the writer of the fourth section of the romance, was evidently acquainted with the Historia de proeliis.
The redaction of the whole work is due to Alexandre de Bernai, who replaced the original assonance by rhyme.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
The best modern work on the subject is by the comtesse Catherine de Flavigny, entitled Sainte Brigitte de Suede, sa vie, ses revelations et son oeuvre (Paris, 1892), which contains an exhaustive bibliogr,aphy.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
Hugh de la Marche, whose betrothed wife, Isabella of Angouleme, King John of England seized (thus bringing upon himself the loss of the greater part of his French possessions), was a nephew of Guy of Lusignan.
Guy was a brave if not a particularly able knight; and his instant attack on Acre after his release by Saladin shows that he had the sentiment de ses devoirs.
Peter and his chancellor de Mezieres represent the last flicker of the crusading spirit.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley (vide Ellis's lecture) regarded the French ton de chapelle as being about a minor third below the Diapason Normal, a' 435, and said that most of the untouched organs in the French cathedrals were at this low pitch.
Hugh de Gurnay held a fair in Wendover on the eve, feast and morrow of St John the Baptist, granted him in 1 214.
Another fair was granted to John de Molyns in1347-1348on the eve, feast and morrow of St Barnabas, but in 1464 Edward IV.
In 1266 the town was the scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, was taken prisoner.
See Pridik, De Cei Insulae rebus (1892).
It is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about 1621, and the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the market-place outside the church.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Other medical works translated into Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso.
His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine.
Hubert de Burgh was the last of the great justiciars; after his fall (1231) the justiciarship was not again committed to a great baron, and the chancellor soon took the position formerly occupied by the justiciar as second to the king in dignity, as well as in power and influence.
William de Braose claimed to have a free market on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
In 1642 she was married to the duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age.
On her return she fell in love with the duc de la Rochefoucauld, the author of the Maxims, who made use of her love to obtain influence over her brother, and thus win honours for himself.
She was the guiding spirit of the first Fronde, when she brought over Armand, Prince de Conti, her second brother, and her husband to the malcontents, but she failed to attract Conde himself, whose loyalty to the court overthrew the first Fronde.
It was during the first Fronde that she lived at the Hotel de Ville and took the city of Paris as god-mother for the child born to her there.
In the last year of the war she was accompanied into Guienne by the duc de Nemours, her intimacy with whom gave La Rochefoucauld an excuse for abandoning her, and who himself immediately returned to his old mistress the duchesse de Chevreuse.
She became the great protectress of the Jansenists; it was in her house that Arnauld, Nicole and De Lane were protected; and to her influence must be in great part attributed the release of Lemaistre De Sacy from the Bastille, the introduction of Pomponne into the ministry and of Arnauld to the king.
The chief authority for Madame de Longueville's life is a little book in two volumes by Villefore the Jansenist, published in 1738.
Maass, De Sibyllarum indicibus (1879); C. Schultess, Die sibyllinischen Bucher in Rom (1895; with references to authorities in notes).
There is a fine park outside the town belonging to the duke of Arenberg, whose ancestor, Charles de Ligne, bought it from Henry IV.
A fine pavilion or kiosk, named de l'Etoile, has also survived.
A few years afterwards he married again, his second wife being Agnes, daughter of Sir James 1 The descent of the first Napier of Merchiston has been traced to "Johan le Naper del Counte de Dunbretan," who was one of those who swore fealty to Edward I.
An account of the contents of these manuscripts was given by Mark Napier in the appendix to his Memoirs of John Napier, and the manuscripts themselves were edited in their entirety by him in 1839 under the title De Arte Logistica Joannis Naperi Merchistonii Baronis Libri qui supersunt.
In connexion with the first he desired that the discipline de l'excommunication should be exercised.
A small company had been accustomed to meet in the lodging of the sieur de la Ferriere in Paris near the Pre-auxCleres.
Some doctrinal differences having arisen in the church at Poitiers, Antoine de Chandieu, First minister at Paris, went to compose them, and, as the General .
The book of order, Discipline ecclesiastique des eglises reformees de France, regulated the organization and procedure of the churches.
When it refused to discuss points of doctrine a secession took place under the name of the Union des eglises evangeliques de France.
Under Pierre de Guast, sieur de Monts, Huguenots settled in Nova Scotia in 1604 but did not remain after 1607.
A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and the other at Michaelmas.
Parma was thus governed for several years by Moreau de SaintMery and by Junot.
He married Pauline Cassin, the authoress of the Peelle de Madeleine and other well-known novels.
These minor ranges, excepting the Zenta, are separated from the Andean masses by comparatively low depressions and are usually described as distinct ranges; topographically, however, they seem to form a continuation of the ranges running southward from the Santa Victoria and forming the eastern rampart of the great central plateau of which the Puna de Atacama covers a large part.
The large saline Mar Chiquita, of Cordoba, is fed from the Sierra de Cordoba and has no outlet.
At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
Their leader, Juan Diaz de Solis, landing incautiously in 1516 on the north coast with a few attendants to parley with a body of Charrua Indians, was suddenly attacked by them and was killed, together with a number of his followers.
Sebastian Cabot had in 151 9 deserted England for Spain, and had received from King Charles the post of pilot-major formerly held by Juan de Solis.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
Among these was Pedro de Mendoza, a Basque nobleman.
Here, on the 2nd of February, Mendoza laid the foundations of a settlement which in honour of the day he named Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.
A portion of one of the expeditions he despatched, under Juan de Ayolas, pushing up the Paraguay, is said to have reached the south-east districts of Peru, but while returning laden with booty, was attacked by the Payagua Indians, and every man perished.
Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).
In 1542 the settlement of Buenos Aires was re-established by an expedition sent for the purpose from Spain, under a tried adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca.
In 1573 Juan de Garay, at the head of an expedition despatched from Asuncion, founded the city of Santa Fe near the abandoned settlements of San Espiritu and Corpus Christi.
The new town received from Garay the name of Ciudad de la Santissira Trinidad, while its port retained the old appellation of Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.
Pedro de Zeballos, the first viceroy, took with him from Spain a large military force with which he finally expelled the Portuguese from the banks of the river Plate.
But a French officer, Jacques de Liniers, gathered together a large force with which he enclosed the British within the walls, and finally, on the 12th of August, by a successful assault, forced Beresford and his troops to surrender.
The central junta at Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand, appointed Balthasar de Cisneros to be viceroy in his place.
An attempt of the Spanish party to make Balthasar de Cisneros president of the junta failed, and the ex-viceroy retired to Montevideo.
Foremost among the leaders of the revolutionary armies were Manuel Belgrano, and after March 1812 General Jose de San Martin, an officer who had gained experience against the French in the Peninsular War.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
After the conclusion of the peace with Brazil, the Unitarians placed themselves under the leadership of General Juan de Lavalle, the victor of Ituzaingo.
On the death of Dorrego, a remarkable man, Juan Manuel de Rosas, became the Federalist chief.
The downfall of Rosas was at last brought about by the instrumentality of Justo Jose de Urquiza, who as governor of Entre Rios, had for many years been one of his strongest supporters.
The consequences of this catastrophe were felt far and wide, and in the spring of 1891 both the Banco Nacional and the Banco de la provincia de Buenos Aires were unable to meet their obligations.
During the last months of President Uriburu's administration, matters had reached a climax, especially in connexion with the delimitation in a district known as the Puna de Atacama.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
Joining the Atlantic between Royan and the Pointe de Grave, opposite the tower of Cordouan.
Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.
The organization of the Lutheran Church (Eglise de la confession dAugsburg) is broadly similar.
The salt-marshes of the Mediterranean coast, especially the Etang de Berre and those of LoireInfrieure, are the principal sources of sea-salt.
The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
Ardennes (uniting Aisne and Canal de lEst) -.
In 1878 it agreed to spend 20,000,000 in purchasing and completing a number of these lines, some of which were handed over to the great companies, while others were retained in the hands of the government, forming the system known as the Chemins de Fer de lEtat.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
They are elected by the scrutin de lisle for a period of nine years, and one-third of the body retires every three years.
This body consists, according to the population of the commune, of from 10 to 36 members, elected for four years on the principle of the scrutin de liste by Frenchmen who have reached the age of twenty-one years and have a six months residence qualification.
Each section (chambre) consists of a prsident de chambre and four judges (conseillers).
The cour de cassation can review the decision of any other tribunal, except administrative courts.
In the absence of a tribunal de commerce commercial cases come before the ordinary tribunal darrondissement.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
Gardiens de la pair (sometimes called sergents de yule, gardes de yule or agents de police) are not to be confounded with the gendarmerie, being a branch of the administrative police and corresponding more or less nearly with the English equivalent police constables, which the gendarmerie do not, although both perform police duty.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
The municipal police is divided into two principal branchesthe service in uniform of the agents de police and the service out of uniform of ins pecteurs de police.
There are also reformatory establishments for juvenile offenders, and ddpDts de stireU for prisoners who are travelling, at places where there are no other prisons.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
The service in the departments comprises brigades, which are actually engaged in guarding the frontiers, and a clerical staff (service de bureau) entrusted with the collection of the duties.
These young men are then examined by a revising body (Conseil de revision cantonal) composed of civil and military officials.
The general staff and also the staff of the corps and divisions are composed of_certificated (breveUs) officers who have passed all through the Ecole de Guerre.
Artillery and engineer officers come from the Ecole Polytechnique, infantry and cavalry from the Ecole spciale militaire de St-Cyr.
Other important training institutions are the staff college (cole suprieure de Guerre) which trains annually 70 to 90 selected captains and lieutenants; the musketry school of Chlons, the gymnastic school at Joinville-le-Pont and the schools of St Maixent, Saumur and Versailles for the preparation.
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
All French sailors between the ages of eighteen and fifty must be enrolled as members of the armte de me,.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
At Paris there is a more advanced school (Ecole superieure de la Marine) for the supplementary training of officers.
The total personnel of the armee de mer in 1909 Is given as 56,800 officers and men.
The municipality has to pay the Cost of building, furnishing and upkeep. At the head of the lyce is the principal (proviseur), an official nominated by the minister, and assisted by a teaching staff of professors and charges de cours or teachers of somewhat lower standing.
At the end of this period he presents himself for a degree called the Baccalaurat de tenseignement secondaire.
The faculties of letters and sciences, besides granting the Baccalaurat de lenseignement secondaire, confer the degrees of licentiate and doctor (la Licence, le Doctoral).
At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
The In Indo-China A cadimie de Midecine is a separate body.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
The bureaux de bien- Total in 0cc faisance in the larger centres are aided by unpaid workers (commissaires or dames de charit), and in the big towns by paid inquiry officers.
Bureaux dassistance exist in every commune, and are managed by the combined committees of the hospices and the bureaux de bienfaisance or by one of these in municipalities, where only one of those institutions exists.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
In 1803 he produced El BarOn in its present form; originally written (1791) as a zarzuela, it was shamelessly plagiarized by Andres de Mendoza, but the recast, a far more brilliant work, still keeps the stage.
In 1812 his Escuela de los maridos, a translation of Moliere's Ecole des maris, was produced at Madrid, and in 1813 El Medico a Palos (a translation of Le Medecin malgre lui) at Barcelona.
In 1764 Moratin published a collection of pieces, chiefly lyrical, under the title of El Poeta, and in 1765 a short didactic poem on the chase (Diana 0 arte de la caza).
His works are included in the Biblioteca de autores espanoles, vol.
Another institution is the college of San Nicolas de Hidalgo, which was.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
In 1186 at Woodstock William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a cousin of Henry II., and peace with England being assured three years later, he turned his arms against the turbulent chiefs in the outlying parts of his kingdom.
He left one son, his successor Alexander II., and two daughters, Margaret and Isabella, who were sent to England after the treaty of 1209, and who both married English nobles, Margaret becoming the wife of Hubert de Burgh.He also left some illegitimate children.
These were published in the Prix de l'Academie des Sciences.
Ten years were spent in this operation, a full account of which was published by Bouguer in 17 4 9, Figure de la terre determinee.
Although there is evidence of Roman and Saxon occupation of the site, the earliest mention of Brighton (Bristelmeston, Brichelmestone, Brighthelmston) is the Domesday Book record that its three manors belonged to Earl Godwin and were held by William de Warenne.
The city is built at the narrow end of the valley and at the foot of the Cerro de Avila, and stands from 2887 to 3442 ft.
Two miles north-east is the famous Silla de Caracas, whose twin summits, like a gigantic old-fashioned saddle (silla), rise to an elevation of 8622 ft.; and the Naiguete, still farther eastward, overlooks the valley from a height of 9186 ft.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.
Sieyes, who were later joined by other politicians, among them being Dupont de Nemours.
The members of the club preserved the title of Amis de la Constitution, as being a sufficient indication of the line they intended to pursue.
In 1667 Theophile de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, obtained the office of grand bailiff of Orleans, which was held by several of his descendants after him.
Claude Antoine de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and duc d'Avaray in 1818.
He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science.
It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.
The second son of the duke of Maine, Louis Charles de Bourbon (1701-1775), bore the title of count of Eu.
In 1755 he inherited from his elder brother, Louis Auguste de Bourbon (170o-1755), prince de Dombes, great estates, part of which he sold to the king.
Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord.
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
The little fleet comprised three vessels, with the Portuguese pilot, De Quiros, as navigator, and De Torres as admiral or military commander.
They left Callao on the 21st of December 1605, and in the following year discovered the island now known as Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides group, which De Quiros, under the impression that it was indeed the land of which he was in search, named La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
Sickness and discontent led to a mutiny on De Quiros' vessel, and the crew, overpowering their officers during the night, forced the captain to navigate his ship to Mexico.
De Quiros returned to Spain to re-engage in the work of petitioning the king to despatch an expedition for the purpose of prosecuting the discovery of the Terra Australis.
During the same year in which De Torres sailed through the strait destined to make him famous, a little Dutch vessel called the " Duyfken," or " Dove," set sail from Bantam, in Java, on a voyage of discovery.
Among other early Dutch discoverers were Edel; Pool, in 1629, in the Guif of Carpentaria; Nuyts, in the " Gulde Zeepaard," along the southern coast, which he called, after himself, Nuyts Land; De Witt; and Pelsaert, in the " Batavia."
Some twelve years afterwards the East India Company fitted out an expedition under the leadership of Commander William de Vlamingh, with the object of searching for any traces of the lost vessel on the western shores of New Holland.
Educated at the Lycee Corot, and the Rcole Normale he was successively professor of philosophy at the Lycee d'Angers 1881-3, at the Lycee de Clermont 1883-8, at the College Rollin 1888-9, at the Lycee Henry IV.
For the neighbouring Bois de Boulogne see Paris.
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
His father, Mathieu de Lesseps (1774-1832), was in the consular service; hi$ mother, Catherine de Grivegnee, was Spanish, and aunt of the countess of Montijo, mother of the empress Eugenie.
From 1825 to 1827 he acted as assistant viceconsul at Lisbon, where his uncle, Barthelemy de Lesseps, was the French charge d'affaires.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
In 1832 Ferdinand de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria.
This work struck de Lesseps's imagination, and gave him the idea of piercing the African isthmus.
Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
In the course of a bloody insurrection in Catalonia, which ended in the bombardment of Barcelona, Ferdinand de Lesseps showed the most persistent bravery, rescuing from death, without distinction, the men belonging to the rival factions, and protecting and sending away not only the Frenchmen who were in danger, but foreigners of all nationalities.
Following his interpretation of the instructions he had received, de Lesseps began negotiations with the existing government at Rome, according to which Pius IX.
Encouraged by this approval, de Lesseps no longer allowed anything to stop him.
Ferdinand de Lesseps steadily endeavoured to keep out of politics.
In 1879 a congress assembled in the rooms of the Geographical Society at Paris, under the presidency of Admiral de la Ronciere le Noury, and voted in favour of the making of the Panama Canal.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
Politics, which de Lesseps had always avoided, was his greatest enemy in this matter.
Charles de Lesseps, a victim offered to the fury of the politicians, tried to divert the storm upon his head and prevent it from reaching his father.
Ferdinand de Lesseps died at La Chenaie on the 7th of December 1894.
He had contracted a second marriage in 1869 with Mlle Autard de Bragard, daughter of a former magistrate of Mauritius; and eleven out of twelve children of this marriage survived him.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.
The foundation of the Burgundian r ule in the Netherlands was laid by the succession of Y Philip the Bold to the counties of Flanders and Artois in 1384 in right of his wife Margaret de Male.
The most serious difficulty with which Margaret had to deal arose from the attitude of the great nobles, and among these especially of William (the " Silent ") of Nassau, prince of Orange, Lamoral, count of Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, count of Hoorn.
A body of some 2000 men drawn principally from Antwerp were cut to pieces at Austruweel (March 13, 1567), and their leader John de Marnix, lord of Thouseule, slain.
Under the command of the lord of Lumbres, the lord of Treslong, and William de la Marck (lord of Lumey) they spread terror and alarm along the coast, seized much plunder, and in revenge for Alva's cruelty committed acts of terrible barbarity upon the priests and monks and catholic officials, as well as upon the crews of the vessels that fell into their hands.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
On the Grand Place is the fine statue of Christine de Lalaing, princess d'Epinoy, who defended Tournai against Parma in 1581.
In 1177 John de Courci, with the countenance of Henry II., set out to the conquest of Ulster.
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
It was with the expectation that he might, with local aid, seize the castle, that Llewellyn invaded this district in December 1282, when he was surprised and killed by Stephen de Frankton in a ravine called Cwm Llewellyn on the left bank of the Irfon, 22 m.
The first Portuguese expedition sent out to capture Malacca was under the command of Diogo Lopez de Siqueira and sailed from Portugal in 1508.
In 1510 a second expedition against Malacca was sent out from Portugal under the command of Diogo Mendez de Vasconcellos, but d'Alboquerque retained it at Cochin to aid him in the retaking of Goa, and it was not until 1511 that the great viceroy could spare time to turn his attention to the scene of Siqueira's failure.
In 1536 his didactic poem in Latin hexameters, De immortalitate animarum, was published at Lyons.
Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim.
Friedrich Schlegel's wife, Dorothea, was the author of an unfinished romance, Florentin (1801), a Sammlung romantischer Dichtungen des Mittelalters (2 vols., 1804), a version of Lother and Mauler (1805), and a translation of Madame de Stael's.
It has a fine Renaissance facade, constructed about 1500 by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Pope Leo X.), and some good terra cottas by the Della Robbia.
Extending along the front of the town is the boulevard de la Republique, a fine road built by Sir Morton Peto on a series of arches, with a frontage of 3700 ft., and bordered on one side by handsome buildings, whilst a wide promenade overlooking the harbour runs along the other.
At the southern end of the boulevard de la Republique is the square de la Republique, formerly the place Bresson, in which is the municipal theatre; at the other extremity of the boulevard is the place du Gouvernement, which is planted on three sides with a double row of plane trees and is the fashionable resort for evening promenade.
A large part of the modern town lies south of the square de la Republique; in this quarter are the law courts, hotel de ville, post office and other public buildings.
They often end in a cul-de-sac. The principal street is the rue de la Kasbah, which leads up to the citadel by 497 steps.
The principal facade, in the rue de la Marine, consists of a row of white marble columns supporting an arcade.
The rue de la Marine follows the lines of a Roman street.
On the 4th of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day.
Crevillente is a picturesque old town built among the eastern foothills of the Sierra de Crevillente.
The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.
In particular, his acceptance of the crown would have guaranteed his followers, under the act of Henry VII., from liability in the future to the charge of high treason for having given allegiance to himself as a de facto king.
In 1798 it was freed from Bernese rule and became part of the canton du Leman (renamed canton de Vaud in 1803) of the Helvetic Republic.
The minority among the "nations" chose him as rector in opposition to the elected candidate, Aubri de.
The matter was settled by the Papal Legate, Simon de Brion, afterwards Pope Martin IV.
Again Siger and Bernier de Nivelles were summoned to appear on a.
It will give some idea of the importance of the town to mention that it had its own maritime law, known as Droit maritime de Damme.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
The results of his work at Babylon appeared first in the Vienna serial Mines de l'orient, and in 1815 in England, under the title Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811.
Nothing else is known of his life except that he was the author of a Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis, or Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de bello sacro, a work in twelve books, written between 1125 and 1150.
It contains many mountains volcanic in origin (Plomb du Cantal, Puy de Dome, Mont Dore), fertile valleys such as that of Limagne, vast pasturelands, and numerous medicinal springs.
She made her first appearance on the stage at Rouen with Charles Chevillet (1645-1701), who called himself sieur de Champmesle, and they were married in 1666.
By 1669 they were playing in Paris at the Theatre du Marais, her first appearance there being as Venus in Boyer's Fete de Venus.
The next year, as Hermione in Racine's Andromaque, she had a great success at the Hotel de Bourgogne.
After the affair of the Champ de Mars (July 17th, 1791) a warrant was issued for his arrest, and he went into hiding.
Santerre was appointed marechal de camp on the 23rd of October 1792, and subsequently general of division.
Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.
After a year of zealous work as preacher and director he was sent by the bishop, Claude de Granier, to try and win back the province of Chablais, which had embraced Calvinism when usurped by Bern in 1535, and had retained it even after its restitution to Savoy in 1564.
At this time he was nominated to the pope as coadjutor of Geneva,' and after a visit to Rome he assisted Bishop de Granier in the administration of the newly converted countries and of the diocese at large.
De Granier died in September 1602, and the new bishop entered on the administration of his vast diocese, which, as a contemporary says, "he found brick and left marble."
The important T Lents of 1617 and 1618 at Grenoble were a prelude to a still more important apostolate in Paris, "the theatre of the world," as St Vincent de Paul calls it.
The biography of St Francis de Sales was written immediately after his death by the celebrated P. de La Riviere and Dom John de St Francois (Goulu), as well as by two other authors of less importance.
The saint's nephew and successor, Charles Auguste de Sales, brought out a more extended life, Latin and French, in 1635.
Bancroft's The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, of which the principal authorities are the Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua of Escudero, who visited the ruins in 1819; an article in the first volume of the Album Mexicano, the author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (1854), by John Russell Bartlett, who explored the locality in 1851.
His son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers, by whose heirs it was sold in 1 554 to the dukes of Montmorency.
San Pietro de' Cassinensi (outside the Porta Romana) is a basilica with nave and aisles, founded in the beginning of the i 1th century by San Pietro Vincioli on the site of a building of the 6th century, and remarkable for its conspicuous spire, its ancient granite and marble columns, its walnut stall-work of 1535 by Stefano de' Zambelli da Bergamo, and its numerous pictures (by Perugino, &c.).
Though querulous because of his non-preferment, De Quincey tells us that "his lordship was a joyous, jovial, and cordial host."
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
For Mozart there never was any such embarras de richesse in any combination of instruments.
The movement was especially strong in the diocese of Liege, and when Julienne, prioress of Mont-Cornillon near Liege (1222-1258), had a vision in which the need for the establishment of a festival in honour of the Sacrament was revealed to her, the matter was taken up with enthusiasm by the clergy, and in 1246 Robert de Torote, bishop of Liege, instituted such a festival for his diocese.
In addition, the intervention of very heavy weather may mar all the work already accomplished, and require the whole series of operations to be undertaken de novo.
This consists of a low resistance coil of copper wire enclosed in a laminated iron circuit similar to the magnetic shunt already de Magnetic scribed.
Belgium and Great Britain became joint-proprietors of the cables between Ramsgate and Ostend and Dover and De la Panne (near Fumes).
Arrangements not very different in general principle were put into practice in the United States by Fessenden, de Forest and others.
The existing seven were first published in a careful but largely mistaken transcript by Buonarotti in 1724, as an appendix to Dempster's De Etruria Regali.
Badajoz was the birthplace of the statesman Manuel de Godoy, duke of Alcudia (1767-1851), and of thepainterLuisde Morales(' 509-1586).
Another method of charge, known as the " measured service rate," is de - signed to make the subscriber pay in proportion to the quality and quantity of the service he takes.
Ceillier's other work, Apologie de la morale des peres de l'eglise (Paris, 1718), also won some celebrity.
Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
Among his numerous critical works are Ecrivains modernes d'Angleterre (3rd series, 1885-1892) and Heures de lecture d'un critique (1891), studies of John Aubrey, Pope, Wilkie Collins and Sir John Mandeville.
He was successively councillor of the parlement of Grenoble, secretary to the king, almoner to Marie de' Medici, abbot of Aulnay and finally, in 1606, bishop of Sees.
After his elevation to the bishopric he ceased to produce the light verse in which he excelled, though his scruples did not prevent him from preparing a new edition of his Recueil de quelques vers amoureux (1602) in 1606.
Rome is plotected by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 12 m.
Italy had entered on a new phase of her existence, and the great poets De monarchia represented a dream of the past which could not be realized.
Thus was elaborated the type of despot which attained completeness in Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Lorenzo de Medici.
When the Visconti dynasty ended by the dukes death in 1447, he pretended to espouse the cause of the Milanese republic, which was then re-established; but he played his cards so subtly as to make himself, by the help of Cosimo de Medici in Florence, duke de facto if not de jure.
Cosimo de Medici, the chief of the opposition, was exiled to Venice.
Their career of conquest, and their new policy of forming Italian alliances and entering into the management of Italian affairs were confirmed by the long dogeship of Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), who must rank with Alfonso, Cosimo de Medici, Francesco Sforza and Nicholas V., as a joint-founder of confederated Italy.
After Cosimo de Medicis death in 1464, the presidency of the Florentine republic passed to his son Piero, who left it in 1469 to his sons Lorenzo and Giuliano.
The king of Naples was his natural enemy, and he had cause to suspect that Piero de Medici might abandon his alliance.
Gaston de Foix bought a doubtful victory dearly with his death; and the allies, though beaten on the banks of the Ronco, immediately afterwards expelled the French from Lombardy.
After his death, the Constable de Bourbon took command of them; they marched slowly down, aided by the marquis of Ferrara, and unopposed by the duke of Urbino, reached Rome, and took it by assault.
Alessandro de Medici was placed there with the title of duke of Civit di Penna; and, on his murder in 1537, Cosimo de Medici, of the younger branch of the ruling house, was made duke.
He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.
The duke Antonio Farnese acreS died ill 1731; the grand-duke Gian Gastone de Medici died in 737.
It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.
On the following day, however, the Abyssinians succeeded in surprising, near the village of Dogali, an Italian force of 524 officers and men under Colonel De Cristoforis, who were convoying provisions to the garrison of Saati.
Meanwhile the marquis de Rudini, who had succeeded Crispi as Italian premier, had authorized the abandonment of article 17 even before he had heard of the failure of Antonellis negotiations.
Arrests of other prominent persons followed, and on the 3rd of February the Chamber authorized the prosecution of De Zerbi, a Neapolitan deputy accused of corruption.
On the 20th of February De Zerbi suddenly expired.
In the army itself the esprit de corps and the sense of duty and discipline nullified the work of the propagandists.
In the spring of 1908 there were agrarian strikes at Parma; the labor contracts had pressed hardly on the peasantry, who had cause for complaint; but while some improvement had been effected in the new contracts, certain unscrupulous demagogues, of whom Alceste De Ambris, representing the syndacalist wing of the Socialist party, was the chief, organized a widespread agitation.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
Brissot became known as a facile and able writer, and was engaged on the Mercure, on the Courrier de l'Europe, and on other papers.
Ardently devoted to the service of humanity, he projected a scheme for a general concourse of all the savants in Europe, and started in London a paper, Journal du Lycee de Londres, which was to be the organ of their views.
The gonads are de
The doctrine of " Emboitement " is contained in the Considerations sur le principe de vie (1705); the preface to the Theodicee (1710); and the Principes de la nature et de la grace (§ 6) (1718).
Les Etres organises commencent a jouir de l'existence.
In a well-known note to Charles Leopold Laurillard's Eloge, prefixed to the last edition of the Ossemens fossiles, the " radical de l'etre " is much the same thing as Aristotle's " particula genitalis " and Harvey's " ovum."
Among the earliest of these speculations is that put forward by Benoit de Maillet in his Telliained, which, though printed in 1735, was not published until twenty-three years later.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
Jean Baptiste Rene Robinet' followed out much the same line of thought as De Maillet, but less soberly; and Bonnet's speculations in the Palingenesie, which appeared in 1769, have already been mentioned.
The Spanish governor, Gonzalo de Cordova, had given him a safe-conduct, and he was meditating fresh plans, when Gonzalo arrested him by the order of Ferdinand of Spain as a disturber of the peace of Italy (May 1504).
Demosthenes (De corona, p. 313) mentions various ceremonies practised during the celebration of the mysteries of this deity.
See this and other instances collected in Usages y demas derechos de Cataluna, by Vives y Cebria (Barcelona, 1835), tom.
The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).
Of these risings the most notable was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis de Crecy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Artevelde (q.v.).
In 1768 Louis de Bougainville visited Tahiti, claimed it as French, and named it La Nouvelle Cythere.
This was the only authoritatively prescribed fast known to Tertullian (De jejunio, 2, 13, 14; De oratione, 18).
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
Two years after his marriage he became possessed of a copy of the Kabbalistic " Bible " - the Zohar of Moses de Leon.
Pseudis was first described by Marie Sibylle de Merlon (1647-1717), in her work on the fauna of Surinam (published first in 1705 at Amsterdam, republished in Latin in 1719), as a frog changing into a fish.
A four act play in verse, Un Hombre de Estado, was accepted by the managers of the Teatro Espanol, was given on the 25th of January 1851, and proved a remarkable success.
A zarzuela, entitled Guerta a muerte, for which Emilio Arrieta composed the music, belongs to 1855, and to the same collaboration is due El Agente de Matrimonios.
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
Meanwhile, however divided in opinion as to his political conduct, his countrymen were practically unanimous in admiring his dramatic work; and his reputation, if it gained little by El Nuevo Don Juan, was greatly increased by El Tanto por Ciento and El Tejado de Vidrio.
And it may be fairly claimed for him that in El Tejado de Vidrio and El Tanto por Ciento he displays a very exceptional combination of satiric intention with romantic inspiration.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.
The foundation of the chapel of the gild of the Holy Cross was laid by Robert de Stratford.
The question of the relation of Cicero's De inventione to the Rhetorica has been much discussed.
Chalk, from which blanc de Troyes is manufactured, and clay are abundant; and there are peat workings and quarries of building-stone and limestone.
In the progress of the last three decades, since the publication of De Barys great work, five or six main lines of advance can be distinguished.
Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c., but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.
Casimir de Candolle has made an independent investigation, based on Hooker and Benthams Genera plantarum.
C. de Candolle finds that with one exception the species belong to genera represented in one or other of the Indian peninsulas.
His Cours de belles lettres (1765) was afterwards included with some minor writings in the large treatise, Principes de la litterature (1774).
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
His last and most extensive work was a Cours d'etudes a l'usage des eleves de l'ecole militaire (45 vols.).
Joannes de Plano Carpini, a Franciscan monk, was the head of one of the missions despatched by Pope Innocent to call the chief and people of the Tatars to a better mind.
In 1403 the Spanish king sent a knight of Madrid, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, to the distant court of Timur, at Samarkand.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
The king of Portugal next despatched Bartolomeu Diaz in 1486 to continue discoveries southwards; while, in the following year, he sent Pedro de Covilhao and Affonso de Payva to discover the country of Prester John.
In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.
One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
His work Suma de Geografia, which was printed in 1519, is the first Spanish book which gives an account of America.
Vasco Nunez was beheaded in 1517 by Pedrarias de Avila, who was sent out to supersede him.
Hernan Cortes overran and conquered Mexico from 1518 to 1521, and the discovery and conquest of Guatemala by Alvarado, the invasion of Florida by De Soto, and of Nueva Granada by Quesada, followed in rapid succession.