You have some access to data bases that could be helpful.
The machine will figure this out as it collects more data and incorporates more variables, and then experiments on people to see which combinations of factors work the best.
I can't pull the data off.
I can't pull the data off.
Would you be able to access national data bases?
More and more data will be passively collected.
She rifled through the data of each one.
Even today, the scientific method involves experimentation that almost always necessitates some amount of data collection.
In the past, a scientist began with a surmise or hunch and began gathering data to prove or disprove it.
I'm checking it out; I have access to that data base, but I bet the plate is stolen.
Successes will come, encouraging more data collection and more people to participate.
Our ability to process data, move information, and make things small will progress to a point where they will not be gating factors ever again.
More data will come online, from satellite images to sensor readings.
Then along came the web, and you had data plus knowledge.
What will change is the amount of data that will be recorded, the speed of the processors, and the cost of storage and computation.
And as with ignorance, we may already have much of the data we need to find solutions.
It is quite possible that the characters of the nematocysts might afford data as useful to the systematist in this group as do the spicules of sponges, for instance.
Any time you can move data storage from brains to hard drives, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
The amount of data stored is so vast that even if we put a number on it, it would be beyond our comprehension.
gives some data as to the variability of thunder from year to year.
Before considering observational data, it is expedient to mention various sources of uncertainty.
In comparing these data allowance must be made for the fact that danger from lightning is much greater out of doors than in.
Think about notable astronomers of centuries past, who collected their own data through years of careful observation.
Perhaps the best data for a comparison are those afforded by the varying brightness of stars at different altitudes.
Perhaps the best data for a comparison are those afforded by the varying brightness of stars at different altitudes.
When the cost of recording all the data is zero, the cost of processing it is zero, and the cost of accessing it zero, then the many sciences, especially human health, will be democratized.
Over time, Amazon has achieved such scale and thus has collected so much data that their suggestions are really useful.
In some twentieth-century science fiction visions of the future, humans created friendly robot sidekicks with data storage capacity and computational speed the human brain lacked.
Any time you can move data collection from humans to computers, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
In this book, I maintain the future will be without ignorance, disease, hunger, poverty, and war, and I support those assertions with history, data, and reason.
Such archaeological evidence as can be connected with the linguistic data will there be discussed.
Such archaeological evidence as can be connected with the linguistic data will there be discussed.
We will be completely insulated from the collecting and researching of data so that we can focus entirely on turning data into knowledge.
More and more data about each customer will be available.
But I do think we will see an end to any effective constraints relating to computers' ability to process data and transfer information.
I think to the extent the data is not identifiable to a person and is only used to make suggestions to others, people will participate.
The data shows pockets where radish efficacy is substantially higher and others where it is nonexistent.
I think it is likely that the answers to almost all our medical problems could be found in the data we may already be collecting.
Any time you can move data processing from intellects to CPUs, you get vast improvements in efficiency.
Not long from now, computers will systematically look through trillions upon trillions of pieces of data for these associations.
The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
Imagine a computer culling through this massive amount of data, inconceivably large, and pulling out patterns.
These features weren't on the site when it was first launched because the necessary data did not yet exist.
Armed with this data, it will suggest different products to me than to you.
And no one is concerned or even notices much, because your association with that data is so removed from you.
This gives me confidence that, in the wisdom-seeking systems of the future, people will be willing to share data to make the algorithms better.
Every other metric is still climbing: data throughput, mobile phone usage, messages sent, websites created, amount of information online, data transfer speed, and CPU speed.
Well, obviously, Amazon is able to collect this data as they make sales.
1861), who made important investigations concerning clouds, and attracted attention by his use of kites for obtaining meteorological data.
There is virtually no limits to the types of data a CD business card can store.
Brady waited impatiently as his friend manipulated the data.
I got nada, even in historical data.
Also it requires a long series of years to give thoroughly representative results for any element, and few stations possess more than a year or two's dissipation data.
Notwithstanding the proximity of the two countries, there is not much parallelism between the data.
His own observation, and the reports of Mersenne, furnished his data.
Strictly, however, it is contrasted with "perception," and implies the mental reconstruction and combination of sensegiven data.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
There are no data for estimating Measures.
Hess (18 4 o) were the first who systematically investigated thermochemical effects in solution, and arrived at conclusions from their experimental data which still possess validity.
It is to these two investigators and their pupils that most of our exact thermochemical data are due.
Except for technological purposes, thermochemical data are not referred to unit quantity of matter, but to chemical quantities - i.e.
Since heats of formation afford such convenient data for calculation on the above method, they have been ascertained for as many compounds as possible.
With these perplexing data the position of Judah is inextricably involved.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
Only from an exhaustive comparison of controlling data can the scattered hints be collected and classified.
Their relationship to the Babylonians and Jews is indicated by linguistic and ethnological data.
The large sacs which have been termed vagina are suggestive of the large coelomic spermathecae in Eudrilids, a comparison which needs, however, embryological data, not at present forthcoming, for its justification.
She supplied Bishop Heber in 1732 with other biographical data of doubtful authenticity.
- From these and other data the outlines of primitive history in the Aegean may be sketched thus.
Though the state papers of Venice have suffered from fire and the series begins comparatively late, yet their fullness and the world-wide sweep of Venetian interests render this collection an inexhaustible storehouse of data for students.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
The data are not numerous and distinct enough to settle the question beyond determining general limits: for reasons given above the book can hardly have been composed before about zoo B.C., and if, as is probable, a Septuagint translation of it was made (though the present Septuagint text shows the influence of Aquila), it is to be put earlier than 50 B.C. Probably also, its different parts are of different dates.
To-day, however, fuller data are available than when Wallace wrote, and the more generally accepted theory is that the Malayan race is distinct, and came from the south, until it was stayed by the Mongolian races living on the mainland of southern Asia.
This, and the inclination of the orbit being given, we have all the geometrical data necessary to compute the coordinates of the planet itself.
On the biblical data, see also E.
with the adoption of simple rules as a first attempt at representing a compound, he availed himself of other data in order to gain further information as to the structure of compounds.
The gradual accumulation of data referring to organic compounds brought in its train a revival of the discussion of atoms and molecules.
The prism formula also received support from the following data: protocatechuic acid when oxidized by nitrous acid gives carboxytartronic acid, which, on account of its ready decomposition into carbon dioxide and tartronic acid, was considered to be HO C(COOH) 3.
Physico-chemical properties have also been drawn upon to decide whether double unions are present in the benzene complex; but here the predilections of the observers apparently influence the nature of the conclusions to be drawn from such data.
Stohmann of Leipzig; and the new data and the conclusions to be drawn from them formed the subject of much discussion, Briihl endeavouring to show how they supported Kekule's formula, while Thomsen maintained that they demanded the benzene union to have a different heat of combustion from the acetylene union.
(Ber., 18 95, 28, p. 2 776) attempted a solution from the following data.
For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.
The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive relations.
Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary.
The critical volume of oxygen can be deduced from the data of the above table, and is found to be 29, whereas the experimental value is 25.
The insufficiency of this argument, however, is shown by the data for arsenious and antimonious oxides, and also for the polymorphs of calcium carbonate, the more symmetrical polymorphs having a lower density.
were too peculiar for us to generalize upon these data as to the Seleucid and Antigonid realms. That the Seleucid kings drew in a principal part of their revenues from tribute levied upon the various native races, distributed in their village communities as tillers of the soil goes without saying.
But there are no authentic data before the 9th century concerning his history.
The population is estimated at about 1,roo,000, .but no trustworthy data are available.
The following data may be considered: Climate (A) allows, in what is a great ranching district, cattle and horses to run at large through the whole winter.
Without resorting to this exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the " enormous space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed even by the cloacae or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions.
Also: Leandro Garcia y Gragitena, Guia del empleado de hacienda (Havana, 1860), with very valuable historical data; Carlos de Sedano y Cruzat, Cuba desde 18 5 0 a 1873.
The Data of Analysis.
The evolution of mathematical thought in the invention of the data of analysis has thus been completely traced in outline.
The figures obtainable with respect to shipping are approximate, the statistical data not being altogether complete.
Meanwhile the mathematical mind, with its craving for accurate data on which to found its plans (the most difficult of all to obtain under the conditions of warfare), had been searching for expedients which might serve him to better purpose, and in 1805 he had recourse to the cavalry screen in the hope of such results.
de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
Clark, Data of Geochemistry, Bulletin No.
Climatological Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 1849-1899.
Apart altogether from the facts that this investigation is still in its infancy and that the conditions of experiment are insufficiently understood, its ultimate success is rendered highly problematical by the essential fact that real scientific results can be achieved only by data recorded in connexion with a perfectly nortnal subject; a conscious or interested subject introduces variable factors which are probably incalculable.
Of these thirteen sections, the first contains a simple description of the more prominent phenomena, without mathematical symbols or numerical data.
All the data required for standardizing the galvanometer can in this way be determined with accuracy.
In a valuable collection of magnetic data (Proc. Inst.
22, the earlier portions of the curves being sketched in from other data.
From data contained in Joule's paper it may be calculated that the strongest external field Ho produced by his coil was about 126 C.G.S.
Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.
The largest of the Amazon forest trees are the massaranduba (Mimusops data), called the cow-tree because of its milky sap, the samadma (Eriodendron samauma) or silk-cotton tree, the pdu d'arco (Tecoma speciosa), pdu d'alho (Catraeva tapia), bacori (Symphonea coccinea), sapucaia (Lecythis ollaria), and castanheira or brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa).
The claim of reason has been recognized to manipulate the data of faith, at first blindly and immediately received, and to weld them into a system such as will satisfy its own needs.
This is also shown by the data relating to the percentage of members of other Hungarian races speaking this language.
The various reports of the Central Statistical Office at Budapest contain all the necessary statistical data.
Delambre from the data there supplied marked the profit derived from the investigation by practical astronomy.
(iii.) The table might be regarded as constructed by successive applications of (9) and (4); the initial data being (r6) and (Io).
It will be admitted by philological students that the exegetical data supplied by (at any rate) Isa.
We cannot know things-in-themselves: they exist for us only in our cognition of them, through the medium of sense-given data.
The practical bearings of a science, it will be granted, are simply, as it were, the summation of its facts, with the legitimate conclusions from them, the natural application of the data ascertained, and have not necessarily any direct relationship to its pursuit.
70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.
Where the deposit is a regular one and the mineral is of fairly uniform richness, the taking of a few samples from widely separated parts of the mine will often furnish sufficient data to determine the value of the deposit.
Harlacher (1842-1890) contained valuable measurements of this kind, together with a comparison of the experimental results with the formulae of flow that had been proposed up to the date of its publication, and important data were yielded by the gaugings of the Mississippi made for the United States government by A.
This variety of opinion is due to the fact that the data available for settling the chronology often conflict with one another, or are capable of more than one interpretation.
In addition to the Kings' List, other important chronological data consist of references in the classical authorities to the chronological system of Berossus; chronological references to earlier kings occurring in the later native inscriptions, such as Nabonidus's estimate of the period of Khammurabi (or Hammuribi); synchronisms, also furnished by the inscriptions, between kings of Babylon and of Assyria; and the early Babylonian date-lists.
Others have attempted to reconcile the conflicting data by emendations of the figures and other ingenious devices.
The first group, comprising the second to the sixth names, obtains its results by selecting the data on which it relies and ignoring others.
The second group, comprising the next four names, attempts to reconcile the conflicting data by emending the figures.
Having first fixed the date of the close of Dynasty III., they employed the figures of the Kings' List unemended for defining the earlier periods, and did not attempt to reconcile their results with other conflicting data.
A second group of systems may be said to consist of those proposed by Lehmann-Haupt, Marquart, Peiser, and Rost, for these writers attempted to get over the discrepancies in the data by emending some of the figures furnished by the inscriptions.
The balance of opinion was in favour of those of the first group of writers, who avoided emendations of the figures and were content to follow the Kings' List and to ignore its apparent discrepancies with other chronological data; but it is now admitted that the general principle underlying the third group of theories was actually nearer the truth.
The publication of fresh chronological material in 1906 and 1907 placed a new complexion on the problems at issue, and enabled us to correct several preconceptions, and to reconcile or explain the apparently conflicting data.
New data have also been discovered bearing upon the period before the rise of Babylon.
2 This discovery in itself suggests that all chronological data are not to be treated as of equal value and arranged mechanically like the pieces of a Chinese puzzle; and further, that no more than a provisional acceptance should be accorded any statement of the later native chronologists, until confirmed by contemporary records.
B.-Beet sugar (compiled from data furnished by the Statistisches Bureau fur die Riibenzucker Industrie des Deutschen Reiches, of Mr F.
There is, therefore, no absolute knowledge, for every man has different perceptions, and, further, arranges and groups his data in methods peculiar to himself; so that the sum total is a quantity with a purely subjective validity.
For the mapping of the whole vast interior, except in rare cases, no data exist beyond the itineraries of explorers, travelling as a rule under conditions which precluded the use of even the simplest surveying instruments.
Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.
For data concerning the conductivity of the organic bases see G.
His attention was directed to the question of the flow of glaciers in 1840 when he met Louis Agassiz at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association, and in subsequent years he made several visits to Switzerland and also to Norway for the purpose of obtaining accurate data.
So late as the 16th century, Bossuet delivered a panegyric upon her, and it was the action of Dom Deforis, the Benedictine editor of his works, in criticizing the accuracy of the data on which this was based, that first discredited the legend.
The following table affords data for comparing the climatesof Peking, Shanghai, Hakodate, Tokyo and San Francisco:
iii., Ecclesiastical Institutions, 1885, completed 1896.1879, The Data of Ethics (part i.
The problem was not solved, but the inadequate solutions were excluded, and the data to be considered in any adequate solution were affirmed.
There are no reliable data as to the population of Yedo during the shogunate.
The meagre data given by ancient writers are collected by Busolt and Marshall.
It has now become obvious that the data afforded by the Hebrew writings should never have been regarded as sufficiently accurate for the purpose of exact historical computations: that, in short, no historian working along modern scientific lines could well have made the mistake of supposing that the genealogical lists of the Pentateuch afforded an adequate chronology of world-history.
A fresh volume of evidence required to be gathered, and a new controversy to be waged, before the old data for the creation of man could be abandoned.
Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins.
A careful discussion of the Biblical data referring to Ephraim is given by H.
The pipette having been carefully dried, the process is repeated with pure alcohol or with proof spirits, and the strength of any admixture of water and spirits is determined from the corresponding number of drops, but the formula generally given is not based upon sound data.
In order to arrive at the date here implied, we can begin the reckoning from Julius Caesar or Augustus, we can include or exclude Galba, Otho and Vitellius, and, finally, when we have drawn our conclusions from these data, there remains the possibility that the book was after all not written under the sixth emperor, but was really a vaticinium ex eventu.
Before entering on the chief data which help towards the determination of this question, we shall first state the author's standpoint.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
In the course, of investigating this special problem great improvements were made in the methods of observing in the deep sea, and also in the representation and discussion of the data obtained, and a powerful stimulus was given to the study of oceanography in all the countries of Europe.
Our knowledge of the Pacific in this respect is still very imperfect, but it appears to be less salt than the other oceans at depths below 800 fathoms, as on the surface, the salinity at considerable depths being 34.6 to 34.7 in the Western part of the ocean, and about 34.4 to 34.5 in the eastern, so that, although the data are by no means satisfactory, it is impossible to assign a mass-salinity of more than 34.7 per mille for the whole body of Pacific water.
27), data which fix the year as 1177.
His method of estimating the relative lunar and solar distances is geometrically correct, though the instrumental means at his command rendered his data erroneous.
The new method abbreviates the time, since an electric current can tally almost simultaneously the data, the tallying of which by hand would be separated by appreciable intervals.
Data of this kind, which are by other means inaccessible to the astronomer, are obviously indispensable to any adequate conception of the stellar system as a whole or in its parts.
the direct measurement of certain magnitudes (usually lengths) in terms of a unit, and the application of a formula for determining the area or volume from these data.
It might, therefore, be described as that branch of mathematics which deals with formulae for calculating the numerical measurements of curved lengths, areas and volumes, in terms of numerical data which determine these measurements.
Mensuration, then, is mainly concerned with quadratureformulae and cubature formulae, and, to a not very clearly defined extent, with the methods of obtaining such formulae; a quadrature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of an area, and a cubature-formula being a formula for calculating the numerical representation of a volume, in terms, in each case, of the numerical representations of particular data which determine the area or the volume.
The numerical result obtained by applying a formula to particular data will generally not be exact.
(ii) The data may be such that an exact result is impossible.
(b) It must, however, be remembered that in all practical applications of formulae the data have first to be ascertained by direct or indirect measurement; and this measurement involves a certain margin of error.
(iii) In dealing with cases where actual measurements are involved, the error (i) due to inaccuracy of the formula will often be negligible in comparison with the error (ii) due to inaccuracy of the data.
For this reason, formulae which will only give approximate results are usually classed together as rules, whether the inaccuracy lies (as in the case of Huygens's rule) in the formula itself, or (as in the case of Simpson's rule) in its application to the data.
If the data for any of these figures are other than those given above, trigonometrical ratios will usually be involved.
If, for instance, the data for the triangle are sides a and b, enclosing an angle C, the area is lab sih C.
37 The mensuration of earthwork involves consideration of quadrilaterals whose dimensions are given by special data, and of prismoids whose sections are D such quadrilaterals.
The processes which have to be performed in the mensuration of figures of this kind are in effect processes of integration; the distinction between mensuration and integration lies in the different natures of the data.
This would involve p and q; but, for our purposes, the data are the sides pa+q and pb+q and the base b - a, and the expression of the integral in terms of these data would require certain eliminations.
The province of mensuration is to express the final result of such an elimination in terms of the data, without the necessity of going through the intermediate processes.
The data are then either the bounding ordinates uo, ui, ...
The data are usually the breadths H and K and either (i) the edges of the minor briquettes, viz.
In some cases the data for a trapezette or a briquette are not only certain ordinates within or on the boundary of the figure, but also others forming the continuation of the series outside the figure.
The result of treating this area as if it were the ordinate of a trapezette leads to special formulae, when the data are of the kind mentioned in § 44.
If m = 4, and the data are ul, u2, Us, U4, we have area = h (7 u o + 3 2u 2 -112/42 + 3 2u 3 + 7u4).
There are two classes of cases, according as m is even or odd; it will be convenient to consider them first for those cases in which the data are the bounding ordinates of the strips.
The general principle is that the numerical data from which a particular result is to be deduced are in general not exact, but are given only to a certain degree of accuracy.
The relation between the inaccuracy of the data and the additional inaccuracy due to substitution of another figure is similar to the relation between the inaccuracies in mensuration of a figure which is supposed to be of a given form (§ 20).
The data are the same in both cases.
In the case of a trapezette, for instance, the data are the magnitudes of certain ordinates; the problem of interpolation is to determine the values of intermediate ordinates, while that of mensuration is to determine the area of the figure of which these are the ordinates.
In the case of mathematical functions certain conditions of continuity are satisfied, and the extent to which the value given by any particular formula differs from the true value may be estimated within certain limits; the main inaccuracy, in favourable cases, being due to the fact that the numerical data are not absolutely exact.
In the case of statistical data there is the further difficulty that there is no real continuity, since we are concerned with a finite number of individuals.
It is only necessary to consider the trapezette and the briquette, since the cases which occur in practice can be reduced to one or other of these forms. In each case the data are the values of certain equidistant ordinates, as described in §§ 43-45.
The terms quadratureformula and cubature-formula are sometimes restricted to formulae for expressing the area of a trapezette, or the volume of a briquette, in terms of such data.
If the data are uo, u 1,.
If the data are u;, U I, ...
This means that, if the minor trapezette consists of k strips, v will be of degree k or k - I in x, according as the data are the bounding ordinates or the mid-ordinates.
Suppose, for instance, that m=6, and that we consider the trapezette as a whole; the data being the bounding ordinates.
- The above methods can be applied, as in §§ 59 and 60, to finding the moments of a trapezette, when the data are a series of ordinates.
There is, however, a certain set of cases, occurring in statistics, in which the data are not a series of ordinates, but the areas A I, A I,.
The formulae of § 82 can be extended to the case of a briquette whose top has close contact with the base all along its boundary; the data being the volumes of the minor briquettes formed by the planes x =x0, x = x i,
If the data of the briquette are, as in § 86, the volumes of the minor briquettes, but the condition as to close contact is not satisfied, we have y "`x P u dx dy = K + L + R - X111010-0,0 f xo yo i'?
are obtained from the data by summation and multiplication; and the ordinary methods then apply for calculation of its volume.
d The second and third expressions on the right-hand side represent areas of trapezettes, which can be calculated from the data; and the fourth expression represents the volume of a briquette, to be calculated in the same way as R above.
When the sequence of differences is not such as to enable any of the foregoing methods to be applied, it is sometimes possible to amplify the data by measurement of intermediate ordinates, and then apply a suitable method to the amplified series.
For the ancient church the data are collected in T.
(1869-1880) contains abundant data; while for more detailed study reference may be made to various county histories, such as T.
Its conditions were investigated from photometric data, by Professor E.
From the data thus obtained an isobaric map and a report are prepared for each day; and weather warnings are telegraphed to any part of the coast when necessary.
Computation from modern data shows that 235 lunations are 6939 days, 16.5 hours; and 19 solar years, 6939 days, 14.5 hours.
Hence the formula is more useful in the form w = (w i +w2)1 2 / (Kd -1 2) = (wl +w 2)lr/ (K -lr) where k= (wl+w2-1-w3)lr/w3 is to be deduced from the data of some bridge previously designed with the same working stresses.
From the first he appreciated the importance of accurate measurement, and all through his life the attainment of exact quantitative data was one of his chief considerations.
It is not possible from the available data to fix the exact date of any of these topes, but it may be stated that the smaller topes are probably of different dates both before and after Asoka, and that it is very possible that the largest was one of three which we are told was erected by Asoka himself.
The data afforded by Eudoxus, however, are far too vague to serve as the basis of any chronological conclusion.
datum, data, given, used at the beginning of a letter, &c., to show time and place of writing, e.g.
For the collection of data he necessarily relied upon the labours of a corps of assistants, and the publications named represent, properly speaking, an encyclopaedia rather than a unified history; but as a storehouse of material their value is great and is likely to be enduring.
But our experimental data are not confined to free space.
As every attempt to rationalize nature implies a certain process of criticism and interpretation to which the data of sense are subjected, and in which they are, as it were, transcended, the antithesis of reason and sense is formulated early in the history of speculation.
We possess no certain historical data relating to Poland till the end of the 10th century.
He further induced the government to print his observations annually, thereby securing the prompt dissemination of a large mass of data inestimable from their continuity and accuracy.
But no formula has yet been invented, derived on theoretical principles from the physical data, which will assign by calculation a definite magnitude to 3.
Statistical data (lists of names, genealogies, and precise chronological notes) are a conspicuous feature in it.
consists mostly of tribal genealogies, partly based upon data contained in the older books (Gen.
it possible to determine this, even approximately, upon the basis of external data?
When the data of Fragm.
The main objection to this presentation, as also to that of the rationalists, is that it is very largely based not upon the historical data, but upon a pre-determined theory.
The data group themselves round three definite points and the intervals between them: the definite points are the Nativity, the Baptism and the Crucifixion; the age of Christ at the time of the Baptism connects the first two points, and the duration of his public ministry connects the second and third.
On the balance of evidence the only year which can possibly reconcile all the data appears to be A.D.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
The values here given are from some Persian buildings (25), which indicate 21.4, or slightly less; Oppert's value, on less certain data, is 21.52.
There is also a great amount of medieval and other data showing this cubit of 21.6 to have been familiar to the Jews after their captivity; but there is no evidence for its earlier date, as there is for the 25 in.
There is great uncertainty as to the exact values of all ancient standards of volume -- the only precise data being those resulting from the theories of volumes derived from the cubes of feet and cubits.
Such theories, as we have noticed, are extremely likely to be only approximations in ancient times, even if recognized then; and our data are quite inadequate for clearing the subject.
All the actual monumental data that we have are alluded to here, with their amounts.
Beside the equivalence of the hon to 5 utens weight of water, the mathematical papyrus (35) gives 5 besha = (2/3)cubic cubit (Revillout's interpretation of this as 1 cubit cubed is impossible geometrically; see Rev. Eg., 1881, for data); this is very concordant, but it is very unlikely for 3 to be introduced in an Egyptian derivation, and probably therefore only a working equivalent.
Here there are no monumental data known; and the literary information does not distinguish the closely connected, perhaps identical, units of these lands.
There are two better data (2) of Epiphanius and Theodoret -- Attic medimnus = 3/2 baths, and saton (1/3 bath) = 1+3/8 modii; these give about 2240 and 2260 cub.
The absolute data are all dependent on the Attic and Roman systems, as there are no monumental data.
The best data are three stone slabs, each with several standard volumes cut in them (11, 18), and two named vases.
-- For these we have far more complete data than for volumes or even lengths, and can ascertain in many cases the nature of the variations, and their type in each place.
Data with regard to the frequency with which individual species occur, in any kind of host, are as yet somewhat scanty; in one or two cases the parasites are fairly common, T.
It is perhaps safest to say that the science of religions has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the original form of the objects of religious emotion; in this connexion it must be remembered that not only is it very difficult to get precise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people of low culture, perhaps for the simple reason that the ideas themselves are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed out above, the conception of spiritual often approximates very closely to that of material.
The same scholar traces back the account by Turbo in the Acts, and the historical data given in the fourth section, to the writings of Turbo, a Mesopotamian, who is assumed to have been a Manichaean renegade and a Christian.
Much interest attaches to estimates of time based on data afforded by the consequences of glaciation.
For the exact determination of the last element the census affords no precise data, but affords material for various approximations, based either upon the elimination of the probable progeny of immigrants since 1790; on the known increase of the whites of the South, where the foreign element has always been relatively insignificant; on the percentage of natives having native grandfathers in Massachusetts in 1905; or upon the assumed continuance through the 19th century of the rate of native growth (one-third decennially) known to have prevailed down at least to 1820.
The data gathered by the Federal census have never made possible a satisfactory and trustworthy calculation of the birthrate, and state and local agencies possess no such data Birth-rate for any considerable area.
But even supposing $1,000,000,000 to be a juster estimate according to present-day values, it is probable that the increase of this since 1790 has been more than a hundredfold and since 1850 (since when such data have been gathered by the census) about fifteenfold.
Nor were the data secured in 1820 and 1840 of much value.
But exact data for comparison do not exist for other countries than the United States.
Although the data are in general incomplete upon which might be based a comparison of the relative standing of different countries in the production of minerals of lesser importance than those just mentioned, it was estimated by M.
The grade of precious ores hafidled has generally and greatly decreased in recent yearsaccording to the census data of 1880 and 1902, disregarding all base metallic contentsfrom an average commerical value of $29.07 to one of $8.29; nevertheless the product of gold and silver has greatly increased.
According to the census data for 1889 and 1902 there was an in Zinc crease in value of product of 184.1% in the interval, and of 109.5% in the quantity of ore produced.
The magnitude of these items is so great as to defy exact determination; data for the formation of some idea of them can be found in the account of the mineral, forest and agricultural resources of the country.
P. Austin, chief of the national bureau of statistics, using data of 1903, that the internal commerce of the United States exceeds in magnitude the total international commerce of the world., (F.
Data: radius = a.
- Data: radius=a; 0= circular measure of angle subtended at centre by arc; c = chord of arc; c 2 = chord of semi-arc; c 4 = chord of quarter-arc.
- Data: a, 8, c, c 2, as in (2); height of segment, i.e.
Each of these was divided into two books, and, with the Data, the Porisms and Surface-Loci of Euclid and the Conics of Apollonius were, according to Pappus, included in the body of the ancient analysis.
Unfortunately, The Imperfect Data On Which It Is Based, And The Too Exclusively Patriotic Spirit In Which It Is Written, Prevent It From Being An Authoritative History: The Author Himself Declares " Vous Verrez Si La Defaite De Nos Ancetres Ne Vaut Pas Toutes Les Victoires."
From other sources we obtain no information whatever about Phraortes; but the data of the Assyrian inscriptions prove that Assur-banipal (see Babylonia And Assyria), at least during the greater part of his reign, maintained the Assyrian supremacy in Western Asia, and that in 645 he conquered Susa.
's7raapos, skilled in, from ii-apa, experiment), in philosophy, the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-given data.
In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.
The widening of lines does not lend itself easily to accurate measurements; more precise numerical data are obtainable by the study of the displacements consequent on increased density which were discovered and studied by W.
He therefore concluded that all we know from the data of psychological idealism is impressions or sensations, ideas, and associations of ideas, making us believe without proof in substances and causes, together with " a certain unknown, inexplicable something as the cause of our preceptions."
The noumenal idealists of Germany assumed, like all psychological idealists, the unproved hypothesis that there is no sense of body, but there is a sense of sensations; and they usually accepted Kant's point, that to get from such sensations to knowledge there is a synthesis contributing mental elements beyond the mental data of sense.
They saw also the logic of Kant's deduction, that all we can know from such mental data and mental categories must also be mental.
But they disagreed with Kant, and agreed with Fichte about things in themselves or noumena, and contended that the mental things we know are not mere phenomena of sense, but noumena, precisely because noumena are as mental as phenomena, and therefore can be known from similar data: this was the central point of their noumenal idealism.
Phenomenal Idealism In Germany Phenomenal idealism is the metaphysics which deduces that, as we begin by perceiving nothing but mental phenomena of sense, so all we know at last from these data is also phenomena of sense, actual or possible.
Lange thus transmuted inconsistent Kantism into a consistent Neo-Kantism, consisting of these reformed positions: (1) we start with sensations in a priori forms; (2) all things known from these data are mental phenomena of experience; (3) everything beyond is idea, without any corresponding reality being knowable.
Its consistency, as deduced by Lange, was to reduce all use of reason, speculative and practical, to its logical use of proceeding from the assumed mental data of outer and inner sense, arranged a priori, to mental phenomena of experience, beyond which we can conceive ideas but postulate nothing.
He accepts the Kantian positions that unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori synthesis, and that therefore all that natural science knows about matter moving in space is merely phenomena of outer sense; and he agrees with Kant that from these data we could not infer things in themselves by reason.
He supposes that the conscious content is partly a posteriori, or consisting of given data of sense, and partly a priori, or consisting of categories of understanding, which, being valid for all objects, are contributed by the common consciousness.
He allows, in fact, no a priori forms except categories of the understanding, and these he reduces, considering that the most important are identity with difference and causality, which in his view are necessary to the judgments that the various data which make up a total impression (Gesammteindruck, Totaleindruck) are each different from the others, together identical with the total impression, and causally connected in relations of necessary sequence and coexistence.
At the same time, true: to the hypothesis of " immanence," he rigidly confines these categories to the given data, and altogether avoids the inconsistent tendency of Kant to transfer causality from a necessary relation between phenomena to a neces-' sary relation between phenomena and things in themselves as their causes.
If knowledge is experience of ideas distinguished by inner will of apperception into subject and object in inseparable connexion, if the starting-point is ideas, if judgment is analysis of an aggregate idea, if inference is a mediate reference of the members of an aggregate of ideas to one another, then, as Wundt says, all we can know, and all reason can logically infer from such data, is in our ideas, and consciousness without an object of idea is an abstraction; so that reason, in transcending experience, can show the necessity of ideas and " ideals," but infer no corresponding reality beyond, whether in nature, or in Man, or in God.
When we combine his view of Nature under the first head that whatever is inferred in the natural sciences is ideas, with his view of knowledge under the second head that knowledge is experience, and experience, individual or universal, is of duality of subject and object in the unity of experience, it follows that all we could know from the data would be one experience of the race, one subject consisting of individual subjects, and in Nature single objects in the unity of this universal experience; and beyond we should be able to form conceptions dependent on the perceptions of individual experience in the unity of universal experience: that is all.
There can be no doubt that Mach, Schuppe and Wundt drew the right phenomenalistic conclusions from such phenomenalistic data.
Here you would expect him to stop, as the German Neo-Kantism of Lange stops, with the consistent conclusion that all we know of Nature from such data is these complexes of sensation-elements, or phenomena in the Kantian meaning.
Whatever its origin may be, it could not, any more than a Kantian category of cause, justify us in concluding anything more than a relation of perceptions as conditions of one another, seeing that they were supposed to be the whole data, and matter itself to be " sensation-elements."
On this assumption of a sense of sensations, but not of causality, he deduces that we could not from such data infer any particular kind of cause, or a bodily cause, e.g.
Apart from his sophistical defence of Spanish colonial policy, Acosta deserves high praise as an acute and diligent observer whose numerous new and valuable data are set forth in a vivid style.
But he was by no means a practical geographer, and the record of his travels loses greatly in value from the want of precise scientific data.
From the imperfect and conflicting data which are alone available one positive result can be gathered, viz.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
When data of this character have been obtained the compass deviations may be mechanically corrected to within i° - always adhering to the principal that "like cures like."
A little knowledge about its sources above these points was given by the savages to de la Fuente in 1759 and to Mendoza in 1764, and we are also indebted to Humboldt for some vague data.
It should be noticed that the verification was begun without any data as to the masses of the celestial bodies, these being selected and adjusted to fit the observations.
We have, however, good reasons for regarding it as not absolutely perfect, and there are some astronomical data the tendency of which is to confirm this view.
The slowly accumulating data have not yet made it possible to determine precisely the probably varying relations of these various names.
But whether this north-east Scots author is Barbour is a question which we cannot answer by means of the data at present available.
The distinguishing feature of these explorations, led by Russian officers, is their high scientific value and the contributions they have offered to the botany, natural history, geology and meteorology of the regions under investigation in addition to the actual geographical data attained.
Now the velocities u and v of the opposite ions under unit potential gradient, and therefore U and V under unit force, are known from electrical data.
A priori concepts there are, but if they are to lead to the amplification of knowledge, they must be brought into relation with empirical data.
The uncertainty of sensible data applies equally to the conclusions of reason, and therefore man must be content with probability which is sufficient as a practical guide.
He registered and classified almost every known language, and from these data worked out a system of ethnology.
This work, which contained only the first six and the eleventh and twelfth books, and to which in its English version he added the Data in 1762, was for long the standard text of Euclid in England.
I), was supported by the etymologies and other data supplied by the early chapters of Genesis.
Hayden (1829-1887) made a large collection of specimens and photographs, and with these data, together with the reports of this and the Washburn-Doane expedition, Congress was induced to reserve the area from settlement, which was done by an act approved the 1st of March 1872.
Harnack has tabulated the results which our scanty data allow us to reach in his Expansion of Christianity.
An opportunity, however, presented itself: being required to work out from data supplied to him the "defilement" of a proposed fortress (an operation then only performed by a long arithmetical process), Monge, substituting for this a geometrical method, obtained the result so quickly that the commandant at first refused to receive it - the time necessary for the work had not been taken; but upon examination the value of the discovery was recognized, and the method was adopted.
The most important are :- Euclid's Elements; Euclid's Data; Optical Lectures, read in the public school of Cambridge; Thirteen Geometrical Lectures; The Works of Archimedes, the Four Books of Apollonius's Conic Sections, and Theodosius's Spherics, explained in a New Method; A Lecture, in which Archimedes' Theorems of the Sphere and Cylinder are investigated and briefly demonstrated; Mathematical Lectures, read in the public schools of the university of Cambridge.
In illustration of the very different estimates that have been made, however, may be mentioned that of De Bary in 1872 of 150,000 species, and that of Cooke in 1895 of 40,000, and Massee in 1899 of over 50,000 species, the fact being that no sufficient data are as yet to hand for any accurate census.
Ideas are secondary in nature, copies of data supplied we know not whence.
For a complete treatment of this portion of the theory of knowledge, there require to be taken into consideration at least the following points: (a) the exact nature and significance of the space and time relations in our experience, (b) the mode in which the primary data, facts or principles, of mathematical cognition are obtained, (c) the nature, extent and certainty of such data, in themselves and with reference to the concrete material of experience, (d) the principle of inference from the data, however obtained.
(b) How then are the primary data of mathematical cognition to be derived from an experience containing space and time relations in Hume, in regard to this problem, distinctly separates geometry from algebra and arithmetic, i.e.
The rough appearances of physical facts, their outlines, surfaces and so on, are the data of observation, and only by a method of approximation do we gradually come near to such propositions as are laid down in pure geometry.
He definitely repudiates a view often ascribed to him, and certainly advanced by many later empiricists, that the data of geometry are hypothetical.
The identical relation between the ideas of space and time and the impressions corresponding to them apparently leads him to regard judgments of continuous and discrete quantity as standing on the same footing, while the ideal character of the data gives a certain colour to his inexact statements regarding the extent and truth of the judgments founded on them.
Any exactitude attaching to the conclusions of geometrical reasoning arises from the comparative simplicity of the data for the primary judgments.
Upon the nature of the reasoning by which in mathematical science we pass from data to conclusions, Hume gives no explicit statement.
sacrifices on the house roofs) and from a survey of epigraphical and other data from the Greek, Roman, and later periods, allowance being made for contamination.
Owing to the completeness of the recorded data, and the great experimental skill with which the research was conducted, the results are probably among the most valuable hitherto available.
There exist absolutely no data, and it is doubtful whether such can ever be gathered, for forming trustworthy estimates.
The statistics given are taken as far as possible from official returns, and where such are unavailable they have been carefully compiled from reliable data.
Meyer (Berichte, 1880, 13, p. 1780) from the data of L.
It has been needful to cite so much of the evidence proving that our Homilies and Recognitions are both recensions of a common basis, at first known as the Circuits of Peter and later by titles connecting it rather with Clement, its ostensible author, because it affords data also for the historical problems touching (a) the contents and origin of the primary Clementine work, and (b) the conditions under which our extant recensions of it arose.
In the southern hemisphere there is comparatively little inhabited land in high latitudes and observational data are few; thus little is known as to how the frequency varies with latitude and longitude.
The Godthaab data in Table I.
Paulsen (6) as observed by Kleinschmidt in the winters of 1865 to 1882, supplemented by Lovering's data for summer.
The Scandinavian data, from the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.
Lovering's general formula suggests that the 4-month term is really less important than the 3-month term, but he gives no data for the latter at individual stations.
The data under A refer to Cape Thorsden (78° 28' N.
The data under C are given by H.
The method of counting frequencies was fairly alike, at least in the case of A and B, but in comparing the different stations the data should be regarded as relative rather than absolute.
The Jan Mayen data refer really to GÃ¶ttingen mean time, but this was only twenty-three minutes late on local time.
gives contemporaneous data for the frequency of sun-spots and of auroras seen in Scandinavia.
The sun-spot data prior to 1902 are from A.
Zeitschrift for 1902, p. 1 95; the more recent data are from his quarterly lists.
The auroral data are from Table E of Tromholt's catalogue (5), with certain modifications.
In Tromholt's yearly data the year commences with July.
This being inconvenient for comparison with sun-spots, use was made of his monthly values to obtain corresponding data for years commencing with January.
The Tromholt-Schroeter data for Scandinavia as a whole commenced with 1761; the figures for earlier years were obtained by multiplying the data for Sweden by 1.356, the factor being derived by comparing the figures for Sweden alone and for the whole of Scandinavia from July 1761 to June 1783.
Wolfer's frequencies with data obtained by other observers for areas of sun-spots, and his figures show unquestionably that the unit in one or other set of data must have varied appreciably from time to time.
Rubenson (14), from whom Tromholt derives his data for Sweden, seems to accept this view, assigning the apparent increase in auroral frequency since 1860 to the institution by the state of meteorological stations in 1859, and to the increased interest taken in the subject since 1865 by the university of Upsala.
gives complete data, we obtain as yearly means 1 7491 7 81..
It is shown, for instance, in Loomis's auroral data, which are based on observations at a variety of European and American stations (Ency.
Paulsen also gives data from two other stations in Greenland, viz.
Birkeland (19), who has made a special study of magnetic disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents, asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc, he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.
The following data for the apparent angular width of arcs were obtained at Cape Thorsden, the arcs being grouped according to the height of the lower edge above the horizon.
Capital data are possibly waiting there under ground - the Kabul valley for instance is almost virgin soil for the archaeologist - and any conclusion we can arrive at is merely provisional.
The bulk of Greek historical literature having perished, and in the absence of both archaeological data from Iran, we can only speculate on the inner life of these Greek cities under a strange sky.
The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.
Taking an opinion based on such data for what it is worth, we may note that Darmesteter believed in the influence of the later Greek philosophy (Philonian and Neo-platonic) as one of those which shaped the Avesta as we have it (Sacred Books of the East, iv.
But in such an undertaking one is always apt to take subjective assumptions or mere fancies for established data.
A scrap of annals has been found extending from the earliest times to the Vth Dynasty, as well as a very fragmentary list of kings reaching nearly to the end of the Middle Kingdom, to help out the scattered data of the other monuments.
In temples of Ptolemaic and Roman age the full series is figured presenting their tribute to the god, and this series approximately agrees with the scattered data of early monuments.
(4) Astronomical data, especially the heliacal risings of Sothis recorded by dates of their celebration in the vague year.
There remain the astronomical data.
With certain of these it stands associated most closely, namely, with the vestibular, representing the sense organs which furnish data for appreciation of positions and movements of the head, and with the channels, conveying centripetal impressions from the apparatus of skeletal movement.
As an historian his style was terse and brilliant, his spirit philosophical, and his data singularly accurate.
Ove Malling (1746-1829) was an untiring collector of historical data, which he annotated in a lively style.
Logical analysis, after assuming that truth is independent and not of our making, has to confess that all logical operations involve an apparently arbitrary interference with their data (Bradley).
The former based his opinion largely on historical evidence, and the latter trusted principally to geological data.
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But a good deal of work is still required before the harvest of historical data contained in these texts shall have been made acceptable to students of philosophy and sociology.
These are full of important historical data on the social, as well as the religious, life of India during the periods of which they treat.
- The attention of the few scholars at work on the subject being directed to the necessary first step of publishing the ancient authorities, the work of exploring them, of analysing and classifying the data they contain, has as yet been very imperfectly done.
His Statistique Internationale des grandes villes and Bulletin annuel des finances des grandes villes give valuable comparative data.
The official estimate (La Republique de l'Equateur et sa participation al'Exposition Universelle de 1900) gives the data for the provinces and their capitals, which are shown on the next page.
The chronological scrupulosity of the earlier writer has made no impression on his follower; he has either wholly omitted or inaccurately repeated the chronological data.
The dates of the various parts of the book must be determined by the character of the contents, there being no decisive external data.
The order of the categories is in the main outlines fixed; but in the minor details much depends upon the philosopher, who has to fill in the gaps between ideas, with little guidance from the data of experience, and to assign to the stages of development names which occasionally deal hardly with language.
sense-given data, or (2) the doctrine that all known things are phenomena, i.e.
The most important data bearing upon the first great period are given elsewhere in this work, and it is proposed to offer here a more general survey.5 To the prehistoric ages belong the palaeolithic and neolithic flints, from the distribution of which an attempt might be made to give a synthetic sketch of early Palestinian man.6 A burial cave at Gezer has revealed the existence of a race of slight build and stature, muscular, with elongated crania, and thick and heavy skull-bones.
Torn by mutual jealousy and intrigue, and forming little confederations among 1 For fuller treatment of the data see R.
The external evidence does not point to any intervening hiatus, and the archaeological data from the excavations do not reveal any dislocation of earlier conditions; earlier forms have simply developed and the evolution is a progressive one.
Pentateuchal law is relatively unprogressive, it is marked by a characteristic simplicity, and by a spirit of reform, and the persisting primitive social conditions implied do not harmonize with other internal and external data.
The scanty political data in the annalistic notices of the north kingdom are supplemented by more detailed narratives of a few years leading up to the rise of the last dynasty, that of Jehu.
(See Jews, § 22.) These data lead to the fundamental problem of Old Testament history.
Hence to weave the data into a single historical outline or into an orderly evolution of thought is to overlook the probability of bona J.
the remarkable Arabian stories of their predecessors, or the mingling of accurate and inaccurate data in Manetho and Ctesias.
He, therefore, abandoned the purely intellectual sphere and proposed an inquiry into the data given by the senses, from which he held that all true knowledge really comes.
He further held that all knowledge is sensation ("non ratione sed sensu") and that intelligence is, therefore, an agglomeration of isolated data, given by the senses.
Strabo follows up the topographical data with a few brief historical statements - "OaKot €t ov Kai raur'v Kai 111v e0-js no,u?rniav.
The Caraballos Occidentales range is very complex; the central ridge is in some parts a rolling plateau, but it rises in Mt Data to 7364 ft., and numerous lofty spurs project from it.
Especial importance attaches to the unexpected discovery by Whitehead of a new and peculiar mammalian fauna, inhabiting a small plateau on the top of Mt Data, in north Luzon, at an altitude of more than 7000 ft.
The Method of Mixture consists in imparting the quantity of heat to be measured to a known mass of water, or some other standard substance, contained in a vessel or calorimeter of known thermal capacity, and in observing the rise of temperature produced, from which data the quantity of heat may be found as explained in all elementary text-books.
The gas current is simultaneously observed by a suitable meter, which, with subsidiary corrections for pressure, temperature, &c., gives the necessary data for deducing calorific value.
The First Experiments Of Any Value Were Those Of Regnault In 1847 On The Specific Heat Of Water Between 110° C. And 192° C. They Were Conducted On A Very Large Scale By The Method Of Mixture, But Showed Discrepancies Of The Order Of 0.5%, And The Calculated Results In Many Cases Do Not Agree With The Data.
We have necessarily to turn to binary systems for our data.
In the table are collected the parallaxes and other data of all stars for which the most probable value of the parallax exceeds 0.20".
ii., 1906) constitutes a very important addition to the available data.
Although his data were the proper motions of only seven stars, he indicated a point near X Herculis not very far from that found by modern researches.
From the data of his Preliminary General Catalogue (1910), L.
By the addition of the data for southern stars, so as to obtain a distribution fairly symmetrical over the whole sphere, S.
8 and II), and though much of his work is provisional, and perhaps liable to considerable revision of the when more extensive data are obtainable, it probably Stars.
When Erigena starts with such propositions, it is clearly impossible to understand his position and work if we insist on regarding him as a scholastic, accepting the dogmas of the church as ultimate data, and endeavouring only to present them in due order and defend them by argument.
Among the dialecticians, Socrates had used inductive arguments to obtain definitions as data of deductive arguments against his opponents, and Plato had insisted on the processes of ascending to and descending from an unconditional principle by the power of giving and receiving argument.
The ministration to memory, aided by registering and arranging the data, of observation and experiment in tables of instances of agreement, difference and concomitant variations.
Conceptual logicians were, indeed, from the first aware that sense supplies the data, and that judgment and therefore inference contains belief that things are or are not.
Lastly, the science of inference is not indeed the science of sensation, memory and experience, but at the same time it is the science of using those mental operations as data of inference; and, if logic does not show how analogical and inductive inferences directly, and deductive inferences indirectly, arise from experience, it becomes a science of mere thinking without knowledge.
Judgment is consciousness of the identity or difference and of the causal relations of the given; naming the actual combinations of the data, but also requiring a priori categories of the understanding, the notions of identity, difference and causality, as principles of thought or laws, to combine the plurality of the given into a unity (Schuppe).
So far as it depends on memory, an inferential judgment presupposes memorial ideas in its data; and so far as it infers universal classes and laws, it produces general ideas.
Fortunately, we have more profound evidences, and at least three evidences in all: the linguistic expression of belief in the proposition; the consciousness of what we mentally believe; and the analysis of reasoning, which shows what we must believe, and have believed, as data for inference.
What they really are in the inferences proposed by Wundt is not premises for syllogism, but data for induction parading as syllogism.
According to both, again, the hypothesis of a law with which the process starts contains more than is present in the particular data: according to Jevons, it is the hypothesis of a law of a cause from which induction deduces particular effects; and according to Sigwart, it is a hypothesis of the ground from which the particular data necessarily follow according to universal laws.
This is like Aristotle's inductive syllogism in the arrangement of terms; but, while on the one hand Aristotle did not, like Wundt, confuse it with the third figure, on the other hand Wundt does not, like Aristotle, suppose it to be practicable to get inductive data so wide as the convertible premise, " All S is M, and all M is S," which would at once establish the conclusion, " All M is P."
In the former process, the given particulars are the data from which we infer the universal; in the latter, they are only the consequent facts by which we verify it.
The aim of logic in general is to find the laws of all inference, which, so far as it obeys those laws, is always consistent, but is true or false according to its data as well as its consistency; and the aim of the special logic of knowledge is to find the laws of direct and indirect inferences from sense, because as sense produces sensory judgments which are always true of the sensible things actually perceived, inference from sense produces inferential judgments which, so far as they are consequent on sensory judgments, are always true of things similar to sensible things, by the very consistency of inference, or, as we say, by parity of reasoning.
It is this unity of apperception which enables us to combine the data of more than one sense, to affirm reality, unreality, identity, difference, unity, plurality and so forth, as also the good, the beautiful and their contraries.
The data of sense are clearly not the principles in question here.
4 But once introduce the conception of division of labour as between the collector of data on the one hand and the expert of method, the interpreter of nature at headquarters, on the other, and Bacon's attitude to hypothesis and to negative reasoning is at least in part explained.
In the mathematics we determine complex problems by a construction link by link from axioms and simple data clearly and distinctly conceived.
Upon the analysis there results intuition of the simple data.
Locke, when Cartesianism had raised the problem of the contents of consciousness, and the spirit of Baconian positivism could not accept of anything that bore the ill-omened name of innate ideas, elaborated a theory of knowledge which is psychological in the sense that its problem is how the simple data with which the individual is in contact in sensation are worked up into a system.
It appears that the relatively enormous deviations of CaC1 2 from Raoult's law are accounted for on the hypothesis that a=9, but there is a slight uncertainty about the degree of ionization of the strongest solutions at-50° C. Cane-sugar appears to require 5 molecules of water of hydration both at o° C. and at loo° C., whereas KC1 and NaCI take more water at loo° C. than at o° C. The cases considered by Callendar (loc. cit.) are necessarily limited, because the requisite data for strong solutions are comparatively scarce.
The vapourpressure equations are seldom known with sufficient accuracy, and the ionization data are incomplete.
But the agreement is very good so far as the data extend, and the theory is really simpler than Raoult's law, because many different degrees of hydration are known, and the assumption a = i (all monohydrates), which is tacitly involved in Raoult's law, is in reality inconsistent with other chemical relations of the substances concerned.
These formulae are important on account of the labour and ingenuity expended in devising the most suitable types, and also as a convenient means of recording the experimental data.
Taking for ice and water the following numerical data, L = 674.7, 6 74.7, L 1 =595.2, L r = 79.5, R = o 11 03 cal./deg., po = 4.61 mm., s-S = 519 cal./deg., and assuming the specific heat of ice to be equal to that of steam at constant pressure (which is sufficiently approximate, since the term involving the difference of the specific heats is very small), we obtain the following numerical formulae, by substitution in (23), Ice..
The most uncertain data are the variation of the specific heat of the liquid and the value of the small quantity b in the formula (13).
As an instance of the application of the method above described, the results in the table below are calculated for steam, starting from the following fundamental data: p = 760 mm.
A similar method of calculation might be applied to deduce the thermodynamical properties of other vapours, but the required experimental data are in most cases very imperfect or even entirely wanting.
The calorimetric data are generally the most deficient and difficult to secure.
The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.
ii., which has been transferred from some other place; it is in fact an anticipatory thanksgiving for the deliverance of Israel, mostly composed of phrases from other psalms. The other is that the narrative before us is not historical but an imaginative story (such as was called a Midrash) based upon Biblical data and tending to edification.
There exist, however, no data, not even any trustworthy tradition, from which to reconstruct the early history of Borneo.
Hence the problem becomes a dialectical a priori speculation wherein the laws of thought transcend the sense-given data of experience.
Experiments undertaken in India by two independent inquiries appeared to confirm the view, and their conclusions, together with the data on which they were based, were submitted with the report of the commission for examination and further experiment to the Lister Institute in London.
Two classes of aggregate combinations may be distinguished which, though not different in their actual nature, differ in the data which they present to the designer, and in the method of solution to be followed in questions respecting them.
There are given the following data:
Let us now compare these data with the account given in the Homeric poems. The word " rhapsode " does not yet exist; we hear only of the singer " (aoc56s), who does not carry a wand or laurel-branch, but the lyre (40pyry), with which he accompanies his "song."
In regard to the necessity of taking into consideration the factor of age in the return of marriage-rates, an example may be here given from the data for England.
This idea contains within it the germ of the modern idea of the subjectivity of sense-given data; perception is not merely a passive reflection of external objects.
This faculty is a priori, transcendental, and entirely separate from all the data of experience and sense-perception.
An example of this theory is the doctrine of the liberum arbitrium indifferentiae ("liberty of indifference"), according to which the choice of two or more alternative possibilities is affected neither by contemporaneous data of an ethical or prudential kind nor by crystallized habit (character).
The most famous of the systematic exponents of evolutional utilitarianism is, of course, Herbert Spencer, in whose Data of Ethics (1819) the facts of morality are viewed in relation with his vast conception of the total process of cosmic evolution.
The best feature of the Data of Ethics is its anti-ascetic vindication of pleasure as man's natural guide to what is physiologically healthy and morally good.
Joseph Glanvill, in his Scepsis Scientifica (dedication) says, " Solomon's house in the New Atlantis was a prophetic scheme of the Royal Society "; and Henry Oldenburg (c. 1615-1677), one of the first secretaries of the society, speaks of the new eagerness to obtain scientific data as " a work begun by the single care and conduct of the excellent Lord Verulam."
But in neither form is it free from later interpolation; and its untrustworthiness is shown by its conflicting with data 1 I is now generally recognized, thanks to Volquardsen and others, that Ephorus is the principal authority followed by Diodorus, except in the chapters relating to Sicilian history.
It was his purpose to show that the forms of thought (which he sought to isolate from the peculiarities incident to the organic body) were not merely customary means for licking into convenient shape the data of perception, but entered as underlying elements into the constitution of objects, making experience possible and determining the fundamental structure of nature.
This accounts for the surprising meteorological data obtained from Punta Arenas, in 53° 10' S., where the mean annual temperature is 43-2° and the annual rainfall only 22.5 in.
These constants are determined by the data of the system (radii, thicknesses, distances, indices, &c., of the lenses); therefore their dependence on the refractive index, and consequently on the colour, are calculable (the formulae are given in Czapski-Eppenstein, G'rundziige der Theorie der optischen Instrumente (1903, p. 166).
Zeno states that he was then thirteen, which is much more probable,2 and the several data available for reference are in favor of this supposition.
bhUmi (earth) bUmi bumi hum dhita (Orhc) data data dad gharma (heat) garema garma garm.
But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained.
But a certain exaggeration of emphasis may be pardoned in a writer seeking to attract the attention of an indifferent public. It was not, however, as a theorist dealing with the fundamental data of economic science, but as a brilliant writer on practical economic questions, that Jevons first received general recognition.
The words and phrases which are common to the pastorals and the rest of the Pauline epistles are neither so characteristic nor so numerous as those peculiar to the former, and the data of style may be summed up in the verdict that they point to a writer who, naturally reproducing Paul's standpoint as far as possible, and acquainted with his epistles, yet betrays the characteristics of his later milieu in expressions as well as in ideas.'
2 Determinatio superficiei minimae rotatione curvae data duo puncta jungentis circa datum axem ortae (GÃ¶ttingen, 1831).
Now that the length of a division has been estimated a priori, it is perhaps preferable to reverse Plateau's calculation, and to exhibit the frequency of vibration in terms of the other data of the problem.
- Curve of growth of a filament of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), constructed from data such as in fig.
fermentations induced by them, the resistance of their spores to dessication, heat, &c. - but it is worth while to ask how far these properties are really remarkable when all the data for comparison with other organisms are considered.
Notwithstanding the many attempts, both by excavations and speculative writings, to elucidate the history of this unique monument, the archaeological data available are insufficient to decide definitely between the conflicting opinions held with regard to the date of its construction and the purpose for which it was originally intended.
That the sun on midsummer day rises nearly, but not quite, in line with the "avenue" and over the Friar's Heel, has long been advanced as the chief argument in support of the theory that Stonehenge was a temple for sun-worship. On the supposition that this stone was raised to mark exactly the line of sunrise on midsummer's day when the structure was erected, it would naturally follow, owing to well-known astronomical causes, that in the course of time the direction of this line would slowly undergo a change, and that, at any subsequent date since, the amount of deviation would be commensurate with the lapse of time, thus supplying chronological data to astronomers for determining the age of the building.
Petty's Irish survey was based on a collection of social data which entitles him to be considered a real pioneer in the science of comparative statistics.
The entire data of xv.-xvi.
This was followed by English Men of Science, their Nature and Nurture, published in 1874; Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development, issued in 1883; Life-History Album (1884); Record of Family Faculties (1884) (tabular forms and directions for entering data, with a preface); and Natural Inheritance (1889).
Eusebius often fails to appreciate the significance of the events which he records; in many cases he draws unwarranted conclusions from the given premises; he sometimes misinterprets his documents and misunderstands men and movements; but usually he presents us with the material upon which to form our own judgment, and if we differ with him we must at the same time thank him for the data that enable us independently to reach other results.
Stillwell, Historical and Genealogical Miscellany (2 vols., New York, 1903-1906), containing data relating to the settlement and settlers of New York and New Jersey; R.
on the data afforded by comparative anatomy and embryology in attempting to reconstruct the probable phylogeny of the class.
Lancaster, the Belgian meteorologist, formulated, as the result of a study of all the available data, the following rule: - That the rainfall increases in the Congo basin (1) in proportion as one nears the equator from the south, (2) as one passes from the coast to the interior.
Thus we search vainly in the Avesta itself for any precise data to determine the period of its composition or the place where it arose.
2500 as computed from modern data.
It is true that the schemes drawn up by chronologists differed widely, as was natural, considering the variety and inconsistency of their documentary data.
The comparative science of civilization thus not only generalizes the data of history, but supplements its information by laying down the lines of development along which the lowest prehistoric culture has gradually risen to the highest modern level.
But these topics have also been treated by philosophers and religious thinkers, without dependence on any historical data or special divine revelation, under the title of Natural Theology.
Such data as he displays may well have been derived from no authority more recondite than Temple's own essay.
The data given above refer to the mean reversing layer.
Summary of Numerical Data.
- Nearly all the chief data respecting the sun have lately been and still are under active revision, so that publications have tended to fall rapidly out of date.
It will be seen that the dates as adopted in Europe are approximate only, and liable to correction if better data are obtainable.
4 does not relieve the reader from any exercise of judgment, except as regards the net capacity of reservoirs when the necessary data have been obtained.
The ideas of this passage belong to the eschatological outlook of later centuries, but afford no data for chronology.
The list of the kings of Osroene is preserved in the Syrian chronicle of Dionysius of Tellmahre, which is checked by the coins and the data of the Greek and Roman authors; it has been reconstructed by A.
The daily activities of the great mass of the adult population, in countries where commodities are sold at definite prices for definite quantities, include calculations which have often to be performed rapidly, on data orally given, and leading in general to results which can only be approximate; and almost every branch of manufacture or commerce has its own range of applications of arithmetic. Arithmetic as a school subject has been largely regarded from this point of view.
But, in attempting the inverse processes of subtraction, division, and either evolution or determination of index, the data may be such that a process cannot be performed.
From these data a temperature as measured on one scale can be expressed on either of the other two scales.
These laws are inextricably mixed in consciousness with the data of volition and sensation, with free activity and fatal action or impression, and they guide us in rising to a personal being, a self or free cause, and to an impersonal reality, a not-me - nature, the world of force - lying out of us, and modifying us.
logical data that its special features were as follow: - The anterior coelomic cavity was wholly or partially divided, and from each half a duct led to the exterior, opening at a pore near the middle line of the back.
Here he is usually said (but on inadequate data) to have adopted the opinion then gaining ground in favour of the celibacy of the clergy, and to have separated from his wife Theosebia, who became a deaconess in the church.
The problem remains to sort out the older from the later, to distinguish between the earlier form of the faith and its subsequent developments, and to collect the numerous data for the general, social, industrial, religious and political history of India.
But the Trinity and the Hypostatic Union are vast speculative constructions reared upon slender biblical data.
neo-platonic) construction, but that in Christology the data or the methods proved less tractable.
Since the theory of geological cataclysms was abandoned, and that of slow modifications of the crust of the earth accepted, new data have been obtained in the Aral-Caspian region to show that the rate of modification after the close of the Glacial period, although still very slow, was faster than had been supposed from the evidence of similar changes now going on in Europe and America.
From the statements of older travellers, like the Venetian Marco Polo (13th century) and the Chinese pilgrim Hsiian Tsang (7th century), as well as from other data, it is perfectly evident, not only that this country is suffering from a progressive desiccation, but that the sands have actually swallowed up cultivated areas within the historical period.
In each case the data rest on an ultimate basis, undemonstrable, indeed, to any one who denies them (even if he be called mad for doing so), except by the continuous process of working out their own proofs, and showing their consistency with, or necessity in, the scheme of things terrestrial on the one hand, or the mind and happiness of man on the other.
later supplements to P. The narratives of J and E can no longer be distinguished except from slight linguistic data, perceptible only to Hebrew scholars; but the three stages of development are quite apparent even in translations.
Milne-Edwards and Huxley had satisfied themselves with discussing and establishing, according to the data at their command, the number of somites in the Arthropod head, but had not considered the question of the nature of the prae-oral somites.
The " verification " of this hypothesis, offered in the thirteenth and following chapters of the second book, goes to show in detail that even those ideas which are " most abstruse," how remote soever they may seem from original data of outward sense, or of inner consciousness, " are only such as the understanding frames to itself by repeating and joining together simple ideas that it had at first, either from perceiving objects of sense, or from reflection upon its own operations."
He thus relieves himself of the difficulty of having at the outset to explain how the immediate data of outward sense and reflection are accepted as " qualities " of things and persons.
The contrast and correlation of these two data of experience is suggested in the chapter on the " qualities of matter " in which we are introduced to a noteworthy vein of speculation (bk.
And the sense data are, he finds, partly (a) revelations of external things themselves in their mathematical relations, and partly (b) sensations, boundless in variety, which are somehow awakened in us through contact and collision with things relatively to their mathematical relations.
The hypothesis, that even our most profound and sublime speculations are all limited to data of the senses and of reflection, is crucially tested by the " modes " and " substances " and " relations " under which, in various degrees of complexity, we somehow find ourselves obliged to conceive those simple phenomena.
An essay composed by him in 1673 on the true and apparent diameters of the planets furnished Newton with data for the third book of the Principia, and he fitted numerical elements to J.
Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.
But when the data are admittedly so uncertain is a valid inductive argument of such a character possible?
The data relating to his whole history are scanty and obscure, and his memory has suffered materially from the fact that the chief chroniclers of his deeds and misdeeds were ecclesiastics.
system out of the heterogeneous data furnished by Scripture, the fathers, the church and Aristotle - equally unquestioned, if not equally venerated, authorities.
Nor is his attempt to construct a scientific criterion out of data derived from the biological sciences productive of satisfactory results.
He is hampered by a distinction between " absolute " and " relative " ethics definitely formulated in the last two chapters of The Data of Ethics.
Having these data, the position of the planet at any other time may be geometrically constructed by Kepler's laws.
In the analytic process these specific data, called elements of the distance.
Logically these data completely determine the orbit in which the planet shall move, because there is only one such orbit passing through P, a; planet moving in which would have the given speed.
Analytically the elements are determined from these data by solving the four equations just given, regarding a, b, c and d as unknown quantities, and x, y, x', y' and t as given quantities.
The annual mean motions, with the corresponding combinations, are as follows Jupiter: - n = 30° 349043 Saturn: - n' = 12.221133 2n=60 69809 5n'=61.10567 5n'-2n= o 40758 If we make a more accurate computation of the conjunctions from these data, we shall find that, in the general mean, the consecutive conjunctions take place when each planet has moved through an entire number of revolutions +242.7°.
In China, Egypt and Babylonia, strength and continuity were lent to this native tendency by the influence of a centralized authority; considerable proficiency was attained in the arts of observation; and from millennial stores of accumulated data, empirical rules were deduced by which the scope of prediction was widened and its accuracy enhanced.
The opposition of November 1900, though only moderately favourable, could not be neglected; an international photographic campaign was organized at Paris with the aid of 58 observatories; and the voluminous collected data imply, so far as they have been discussed, a parallax for the sun a little greater than 8.8".
The full realization of the method will doubtless provide adequate data for the detailed investigation of meteoric paths.
The high excellence of the s sle data collected by them was a combined result of their skill, and of the vast improvement in refracting telescopes due to the genius of Joseph Fraunhofer (1787-1826).
And the data thus arrived at are reassuringly self-consistent.
By taking three eclipses separated at short intervals, both the mean motion and the motion of the perigee would be known beforehand, from other data, with sufficient accuracy to reduce all the observations to the same epoch, and thus to leave only the three elements already mentioned unknown.
It was therefore surprising when, in 1877, Simon Newcomb found, by a study of the lunar eclipses handed down by Ptolemy and those observed by the Arabians - data much more reliable than the vague accounts of ancient solar eclipses - that the actual apparent acceleration was only about 8.3".
The third points out that the data of sense are relative to the sentient being, those of reason to the intelligent mind; that in different conditions things themselves are seen or thought to be different.
Calvin's own record of his "conversion" is so scanty and devoid of chronological data that it is extremely difficult to trace his religious development with any certainty.
It is enough to determine with something like probability the century or half-century which best fits its historical data; and these appear to point to the reign of Manasseh.
Even archaeology, which can often sketch the main outlines of a people's history, is here practically powerless, owing to the insufficiency of data.
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