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darwin

darwin

darwin Sentence Examples

  • Empedocles tries to explain the genesis of organic beings, and, according to Lange, anticipates the idea of Darwin that adaptations abound, because it is their nature to perpetuate themselves.

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  • As Darwin has pointed out, this response may be direct or indirect.

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  • It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.

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  • The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.

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  • Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.

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  • The government maintains schools and travelling teachers; the Falkland Islands Company also maintains a school at Darwin, and there is one for those of the Roman Catholic faith in Stanley.

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  • Francis Darwin later demonstrated that the tips of the plumules of grasses were sensitive parts.

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  • This was first suggested by Edward Forbes in I846, though the idea had earlier suggested itself to Darwin (Life, i.

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  • Darwin succeeded in estab .

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  • Francis Darwin later demonstrated that the tips of the plumules of grasses were sensitive parts.

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  • He soon, however, turned his attention to metaphysics and psychology, and for the North American Review and later for the National he wrote philosophical essays on the lines of Mill, Darwin and Spencer.

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  • These structures were believed by C. Darwin to be explicable by sexual selection.

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  • " Adventure" and " Beagle" (1839); Darwin, Voyage of a Naturalist round the World (1845); S.

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  • Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.

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  • To Darwin and those who believed with him scarcely any discovery could have been more welcome; but that is beside our present business.

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  • " Adventure" and " Beagle" (1839); Darwin, Voyage of a Naturalist round the World (1845); S.

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  • The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the general import trade.

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  • away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.

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  • It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."

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  • Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.

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  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

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  • general acceptance of evolution; but it seems established as a historical fact that the world has come to accept evolution, first, because of Darwin's theory of natural selection, and second, because of Darwin's exposition of the evidence for the actual occurrence of organic evolution.

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  • The balance of these tendencies has been against the attachment of great importance to sexual selection, and in favour of attaching a great importance to natural selection; but the dominant feature in the recent history of the theory has been its universal acceptance and the recognition that this general acceptance has come from the stimulus given by Darwin.

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  • The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.

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  • by Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.

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  • With regard to the causation of variation Darwin says (Origin of Species, ch.

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  • Sir George Darwin finds a possible explanation of these in the screwing motion which the earth would suffer in its plastic state.

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  • Darwin doubted, however, whether they ought to be separated (Life, iii.

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  • only exist, as Darwin has said, where they must, not where they can.

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  • Darwin attributes this to the fact that the northern forms were the more powerful (Origin of Species, 5th ed., p.458).

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  • The - - study of tidal strain in the earth's crust by Sir George Darwin has led that physicist to indicate the possibility of the triangular form and southerly direction of the continents being a result of the differential or tidal attraction of the sun and moon.

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  • For this he wrote the first adequate account in German of the Darwinian theory of natural selection, which drew a warm letter of appreciation from Darwin himself.

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  • These stridulating organs were mentioned by C. Darwin as probable examples of the action of sexual selection; they are, however, frequently present in both sexes, and in some families also in the larvae.

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  • See also C. Darwin's Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London, 1871).

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  • See Darwin's Fertilization of Orchids and similar works.

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  • Of economic students, many are unaware of the fact that he wrote any other book than the Essay on the Principle of Population, and what is of permanent importance in that work is contained in the generalization which it suggested to Darwin.

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  • Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.

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  • The writings of Darwin himself and of A.

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  • There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.

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  • Thus the prominent school of criticism which appraised Wagner in the 10th century by his approximation to Darwin and Herbert Spencer, appraises him in the aoth by his approximation to Bernard Shaw; with the absurd result that Gatterdammerung is ruled out as a reactionary failure.

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  • Brown wrote a criticism of Darwin's Zoonomia (1798), and was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review, in the second number of which he published a criticism of the Kantian philosophy, based entirely on Villers's French account of it.

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  • Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.

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  • As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.

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  • Darwin brings together the records of several cases, not only of gradations between peaches and nectarines, but also of intermediate forms between the peach and the almond.

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  • Darwin m.

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  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.

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  • It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.

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  • The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.

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  • It is one of Darwin's great merits to have made use of these observations and to have formulated their results to a large extent as the laws of variation and heredity.

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  • Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.

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  • Darwin's theory had as one of its results the reformation and rehabilitation of teleology.

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  • Darwin himself spent a large part of the later years of his life in thus extending the new teleology.

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  • Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.

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  • and Spence, Wallace and Darwin.

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  • Spencer and Darwin.

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  • Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.

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  • But erroneous theories, when they are supported by facts, do little harm, since every one takes a healthy pleasure in proving their falsity " (Darwin).

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  • A name which is apt to be forgotten in the period between Cuvier and Darwin, because its possessor occupied an isolated position in England and was not borne up by any j.

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  • We now arrive at the period when the doctrine of organic evolution was established by Darwin, and when naturalists, being convinced by him as they had not been by the transmutationists of fifty years' earlier date, were compelled to take an entirely new view of the significance of all attempts at framing a " natural " classification.

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  • The whole position was changed by the acquiescence, which became universal, in the doctrine of Darwin.

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  • The facts of the relationships of animals to one another, which had been treated as the outcome of an inscrutable law by most zoologists and glibly explained by the transcendental morphologists, were amongst the most powerful arguments in support of Darwin's theory, since they, together with all other vital phenomena, received a sufficient explanation through it.

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  • 1834), who in 1866, seven years after the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, published his suggestive Generelle Morphologic. Haeckel introduced into classification a number of terms intended to indicate the branchings of a genealogical tree.

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  • But it was only after Darwin that the cell-theory of Schwann was extended to the embryology of the animal kingdom generally, and that the knowledge of the development of an animal became a knowledge of the way in which the millions of cells of which its body is composed take their origin by fission from a smaller number of cells, and these at last from the single egg-cell.

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  • Fritz Muller, by his studies on Crustacea (Fiir Darwin, 1864), showed the way in which genealogical theory may be applied to the minute study of a limited group.

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  • One result of the introduction of the new conceptions dating from Darwin was a healthy reaction from that attitude of mind which led to the regarding of the classes and orders recognized by authoritative zoologists as sacred institutions which were beyond the criticism of ordinary men.

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  • General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • On the other hand, the studies which occupied Darwin himself so largely subsequently to the publication of the Origin of Species, viz.

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  • The most important work in this direction has been done by Fritz Muller (Filr Darwin), by Herman Muller (Fertilization of Plants by Insects), Grade b.

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  • It is no discovery that this latter kind of variation is not hereditable, and it is not the fact that the small variations, to which Darwin attached great but not exclusive importance as the material upon which natural selection operates, are of this latter kind.

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  • Another important development of Darwin's conclusions deserves special notice here, as it is the most distinct advance in the department of bionomics since Darwin's own writings, and at the same time touches questions of fundamental interest.

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  • Darwin's great merit was that he excluded from his theory of development any necessary assumption of the transmission of acquired characters.

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  • Whatever its causes, Darwin showed that it is all-important.

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  • Darwin himself, influenced by the consideration of certain classes of facts which seem to favour the Iamarckian hypothesis, was of the opinion that acquired characters are in some cases transmitted.

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  • The new attitude which has been taken since Darwin's writings on this question is to ask for evidence of the asserted transmission of acquired characters.

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  • Thus the occurrence of blind animals in caves and in the deep sea was a fact which Darwin himself regarded as best explained by the atrophy of the organ of vision in successive generations through the absence of light and 1 Weismann, Vererbung, &c. (1886).

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  • Hardly any theoretical system is of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), the grandfather of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception.

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  • Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.

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  • It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.

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  • In pathology, indeed, Virchow's (1821-1902) influence in the transfiguration of this branch of science may almost be compared to that of Darwin and Pasteur in their respective domains.

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  • Before Darwin - if the name of Darwin may be used to signify the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer - natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult for us to realize.

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  • It is worth noting, however, that Herder in his provokingly tentative way of thinking comes now and again very near ideas made familiar to us by Spencer and Darwin.

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  • chap. ii., which unmistakably foreshadows Darwin's idea of a struggle for existence, we read: " Among millions of creatures whatever could preserve itself abides, and still after the lapse of thousands of years remains in the great harmonious order.

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  • Herbert Spencer's significance in the history of English thought depends on his position as the philosopher of the great scientific movement of the second half of the 19th century, and on the friendship and admiration with which he was regarded by men like Darwin, G.

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  • This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.

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  • some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition approximates too closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to suit a modern ear.

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  • His work in this department made him an enthusiastic adherent of the views of Darwin.

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  • ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802), English man of science and poet, was born at Elton, in Nottinghamshire, on the 12th of December 1731.

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  • The fame of Erasmus Darwin as a poet rests upon his Botanic Garden, though he also wrote The Temple of Nature, or the Origin of Society, a Poem, with Philosophical Notes (1803), and The Shrine of Nature (posthumously published).

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  • Erasmus Darwin's mind was in fact rather that of a man of science than that of a poet.

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  • His most important scientific work is his Zoonomia (1794-1796), which contains a system of pathology, and a treatise on generation, in which he, in the words of his famous grandson, Charles Robert Darwin, "anticipated the views and erroneous grounds of opinions of Lamarck."

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  • In 1799 Darwin published his Phytologia, or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening (1799), in which he states his opinion that plants have sensation and volition.

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  • Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), his third son by his first marriage, a doctor at Shrewsbury, was the father of the famous Charles Darwin; and Violetta, his eldest daughter by his second marriage, was the mother of Francis Galton.

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  • See Anna Seward, Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804); and Charles Darwin, Life of Erasmus Darwin, an introduction to an essay on his works by Ernst Krause (1879).

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  • The products of the decay of the organisms thus A, Bladder of Utricularia neglecta (after Darwin), enlarged.

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  • The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.

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  • Darwin's experiments in reference to the movements of climbing and twining plants, and of leaves in insectivorous plants, have opened up a wide field of inquiry as to the relation between plants and the various external factors, which has attracted numerous workers.

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  • The question of the mode in which the floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to important speculations by such eminent botanical travellers as Charles Darwin, Sir J.

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  • 7 Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication, ii.

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  • The former, which is a somewhat less favourable method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a (From Darwin's by permission.) FIG.

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  • Sprengel's work, which had been almost forgotten, was taken up again by Charles Darwin, who concluded that no organic being can fertilize itself through an unlimited number of generations; but a cross with other individuals is occasionally - perhaps at very long intervals - indis pensable.

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  • Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertilization of orchids gave powerful support to this statement.

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  • The study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called "pollination," of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the brothers Fritz and Hermann Muller.

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  • In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.

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  • The great philosophical impulse was that given by Darwin in 1859 through his demonstration of the theory of descent, which gave tremendous zest to the search for pedigrees (phylogeny) of the existing and extinct types of animal and plant life.

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  • - Although preevolutionary, this was the heroic period of the science, extending from the close of the 18th century to the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859.

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  • - Third Historic Period Beginning with the publication of Darwin's great works, " Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S.

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  • - A review of the two first classic works of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) and of their influence proves that he was the founder of modern palaeontology.

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  • Both laws were of paramount importance, as direct evidence of Darwin's theory of descent, which, it will be remembered, was at the time regarded merely as an hypothesis.

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  • He especially pointed out the laws of the " extinction of the specialized " and " survival of the non-specialized " forms of life, and challenged Darwin's principle of selection as an explanation of the origin of adaptations by saying that the " survival of the fittest " does not explain the " origin of the fittest."

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  • Then the stage of novelty suddenly shifted to South America, where after the pioneer labours of Darwin, Owen and Burmeister, the field of our knowledge was suddenly and vastly extended by explorations by the brothers Ameghino (Carlos and Florentino).

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  • The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.

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  • Starting with the stem forms the descendants of which have passed through either persistent or changed habitats, we reach the underlying idea of the branching law of Lamarck or the law of divergence of Darwin, and find it perhaps most clearly expressed in the words "adaptive radiation" (Osborn), which convey the idea of radii in many directions.

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  • It is stated by Darwin that the pigs which have run wild in Jamaica and New Granada have resumed this aboriginal character, and produce longitudinally striped young; these being the descendants of domestic animals introduced from Europe since the Spanish conquest, as before that time there were no true pigs in the New World.

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  • Among his works are: Darwinism and Politics (1889); Principles of State Interference (1891); Darwin and Hegel (1893); Natural Rights (1895); a translation with R.

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  • A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.

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  • Passing from Moleschott to Lyell's view of the evolution of the earth's crust and later to Darwin's theory of natural selection and environment, he reached the general inference that, not God but evolution of matter, is the cause of the order of the world; that life is a combination of matter which in favourable circumstances is spontaneously generated; that there is no vital principle, because all forces, non-vital and vital, are movements; that movement and evolution proceed from life to consciousness; that it is foolish for man to believe that the earth was made for him, in the face of the difficulties he encounters in inhabiting it; that there is no God, no final cause, no immortality, no freedom, no substance of the soul; and that mind, like light or heat, electricity or magnetism, or any other physical fact, is a movement of matter.

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  • (b) He contends that, when matter ascends to the evolution of organic life, the unconscious has a power, over and above its atomic volitions, of introducing a new element, and that in consequence the facts of variation, selection and inheritance, pointed out by Darwin, are merely means which the unconscious uses for its own ends in morphological development.

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  • He follows Fechner closely in his answer to Darwin.

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  • But here he fails exactly as Darwin himself failed.

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  • Darwin said, given that organisms are fit, they will tend to survive; but he failed to show how they become fit.

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  • With Darwin and Huxley his name is inseparably connected with the battle which began in the middle of the 19th century for making the new standpoint of modern science part of the accepted philosophy in general life.

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  • The few works which have since appeared, before the rise of the physiological school of Sir Charles Bell and Charles Darwin, are undeserving of notice, the development of phrenology having given to pure physiognomy the coup de grace by taking into itself whatever was likely to live of the older science.

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  • The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.

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  • To deal with the former belief first, we have the remarkable case cited by Charles Darwin on the authority of Professor I.

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  • I and 2; Charles Darwin, Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vols.

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  • Their work among the Fuegians drew a warm tribute from Charles Darwin.

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  • Charles Robert Darwin >>

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  • Erasmus Darwin, B.

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  • The physiology of the fungi comes under the head of that of plants generally, and the works of Pfeffer, Sachs, Vines, Darwin and Klebs may be consulted for details.

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  • Darwin Swift (Oxford, 1894).

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  • Charles Darwin found the conception of species so definite and fixed that he chose for the title of his great book (1859) the words On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, although his exposition of evolution applied equally to every grade in classification.

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  • Poulton, in an admirable discussion of contemporary views regarding species (presidential address to the Entomological Society of London 1904), has shown that Darwin did not believe in the objective existence of species, not only because he was led to discard the hypothesis of special creation as the explanation of the polymorphism of life, but because in practice as a working systematist he could neither find for himself nor ascertain from other systematists any settled criteria by which a group of specimens could be elevated into a genus, accepted as a species, or regarded as a variety.

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  • Darwin believed that man advanced to his present high condition through such a struggle, consequent on his rapid multiplication.

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  • Darwin (Journ.

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  • In 1874, with his brother Alexander Forrest (born 1849), he explored eastwards from Champion Bay, following as far as possible the 26th parallel, and striking the telegraph line between Adelaide and Port Darwin; a distance of about 2000 m.

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  • An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.

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  • Darwin, Scientific Papers, vol.

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  • Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.

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  • Osborn have made careful studies of preDarwinian writers on evolution, but the results of their inquiries only serve to show the greatness of the departure made by Darwin.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • Although the pre-Darwinian writers amongst them invoked nearly every principle that Darwin or his successors have suggested, they failed to carry conviction with regard to evolution, and they neither propounded a coherent philosophy of variation nor suggested a mechanism by which variations that appeared might give rise to new species.

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  • The anticipations of Darwin were little more than formal and verbal.

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  • C. Darwin opened his argument by consideration of plants and animals under domestication.

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  • Comparing domesticated varieties with species and varieties in nature, Darwin showed that the distinction between varieties and species was chiefly a matter of opinion, and that the discovery of new linking forms often degraded species to varieties.

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  • Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the Darwinian principles, had sent to Darwin early in 1858 an outline of a theory of the origin of species.

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  • Darwin found that it was, in all essential respects, identical with his own theory at the exposition of which he had been working for many years.

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  • With an unselfish generosity which must always shine in the history of science, and indeed of the human race, Darwin proposed at once to communicate his correspondent's essay to the Linnaean Society of London, but was persuaded by his friends to send with it an outline of his own views.

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  • When Wallace found how much more fully Darwin was equipped for expounding the new views, he exhibited an unselfish modesty that fully repaid Darwin's generosity, henceforth described himself as a follower of Darwin, entitled his most important publication on the theory of evolution Darwinism, and did not issue it until 1889, long after the world had given full credit to Darwin.

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  • In most respects his ideas were closely parallel with those of Darwin.

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  • Wallace, however, brought into his scheme a factor excluded by Darwin.

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  • The theory of evolution is supported by a great range of evidence, much of which was first collected by Darwin, and which has been enormously increased by subsequent workers excited by his genius.

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  • Darwin was well aware that variation ranged from differences so minute as to become apparent only on careful measurement to those large departures from the normal which may be called abnormalities, malformations or monstrosities.

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  • De Vries gave the name "mutations" to such considerable variations (it is to be noted that a further concept, that of the mode of origin, has been added to the word mutation, and that the conception of relative size is being removed from it), and Bateson, de Vries and other writers have added many striking cases to those recorded by Darwin.

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  • Darwin was careful to insist that we did not know the laws of variation, and that when variation was attributed to "chance" no more should be read into the statement than an expression of our ignorance of the causation.

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  • When Darwin and Wallace framed their theories it was practically assumed that acquired characters were inherited, and the continuous slow action of the environment, moulding each generation to a slight extent in the same direction, was readily accepted by a generation inspired by Sir C. Lyell's doctrine of uniformi tarianism in geological change, as a potent force.

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  • Darwin and his generation were deeply imbued with the Butlerian tradition, and regarded the organic world as almost a miracle of adaptation, of the minute dovetailing of structure, function and environment.

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  • Darwin certainly was impressed with the view that natural selection and variation together formed a mechanism, the central product of which was adaptation.

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  • Both sides concur in the position assumed by Darwin, that the word "chance" in such a phrase as "chance variation" does not mean that the occurrences are independent of natural causation and so far undetermined, but covers in the first place our ignorance of the exact causation.

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  • Darwin himself showed that different species in a genus, or varieties in a species, tended to show parallel variations, whilst comparative anatomy has made known a multitude of cases where allied series of animals or plants show successive stages of parallel but independent variations of important organs and functions.

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  • Although knowledge of variation has become much wider and more definite, the estimation in which natural selection is held has changed very little since Darwin and Wallace first expounded their theories.

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  • We have still to admit with Darwin that it is difficult or impossible to assign utility to all the characters that distinguish species, and particularly to those characters by which systematists identify species.

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  • This is what Darwin especially intended to denote by the term "sexual selection."

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  • Cope, Origin of the Fittest (London, 1887); C. Darwin, Origin of Species (London), Variation of Plants and Animals (London); E.

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  • Darwin, Zoonomia (London, 1794); J.

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  • Osborn, From the Greeks to Darwin (New York, 1894); E.

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  • Poulton, Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species (London, 1909); J.

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  • One of these daughters was the mother of the famous naturalist Charles Darwin.

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  • Bentley died in 1780 and Wedgwood remained sole owner of the Etruria works until 1790, when he took some of his sons and a nephew, named Byerley, into partner - ship. He died on the 3rd of January 1795, rich in honours and in friends, for besides being a great potter he was a man of high moral worth, and was associated with many noted men of his time, amongst whom should be mentioned Sir Joseph Banks, Joseph Priestley and Erasmus Darwin.

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  • Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.

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  • The struggle for life may deal hardly with the individual, but it results - to quote Darwin's well-known title - in "the preservation of favoured races."

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  • Small grains of an unknown variety have been found in the ancient tombs of Peru, and Darwin found heads of maize embedded on the shore in Peru at 85 ft.

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  • With a liberal Scotsman, Dr William Small, then of the faculty of William and Mary and later a friend of Erasmus Darwin, and George Wythe (1726-1806), a very accomplished scholar and leader of the Virginia bar, Jefferson was an habitual member, while still in college, of a partie carree at the table of Francis Fauquier (c. 1720-1768), the accomplished lieutenant-governor of Virginia.

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  • Darwin Swift (Clarendon Press, 1894), in which are many references to authorities.

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  • Darwin and H.

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  • They are of special interest from the important place assigned to them in the arguments of Darwin and the Evolutionists.

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  • Keane's Ethnology (1896); Darwin's Descent of Man (1871; pop. ed., 1901); Haeckgs Anthropogeny (Leipzig, 1874, 1903; Paris, 1877; Eng.

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  • The main doctrine of evolutional or biological ethics is stated with admirable clearness in the third chapter of Darwin's Descent of Man (pub.

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  • Theological and political utilitarianism alike had been individualistic. But Darwin shows how the moral sense or conscience may be regarded as derived from the social instincts, which are common to men and animals.

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  • C. Darwin believed, however, that there were indications that it occasionally occurred in plants, where it can be best observed, owing to the circumstance that so many plants are propagated by cuttings or buds, which really continue the existence of the same individual almost indefinitely.

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  • The following cases are given by C. Darwin: - Among the numerous fruit-trees raised in North America some are well adapted to the climate of the northern States and Canada, while others only succeed well in the southern States.

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  • In C. Darwin's garden two rows of scarlet runners were entirely killed by frost, except three plants, which had not even the tips of their leaves browned.

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  • The peach is believed to have been tender, and to have ripened its fruit with difficulty, when first introduced into Greece; so that (as Darwin observes) in travelling northward during two thousand years it must have become much hardier.

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  • C. Darwin adduced the following examples.

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  • C. Darwin collected a large number of cases in his Animals and Plants under Domestication.

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  • In a state of nature, every recurring severe winter or otherwise unfavourable season weeds out those individuals of tender constitution or imperfect structure which may have got on very well during favourable years, and it is thus that the adaptation of the species to the climate in which it has to exist is kept up. Under domestication the same thing occurs by what C. Darwin has termed "unconscious selection."

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  • A more or less close adaptation to local conditions is thus brought about, and breeds or races are produced which are sometimes liable to deterioration on removal even to a short distance in the same country, as in numerous cases quoted by C. Darwin (Animals and Plants under Domestication).

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  • It has been recommended by C. Darwin, and at one of the early meetings of the Societe Zoologique d'Acclimatation, at Paris, Isodore Geoffroy St Hilaire insisted that it was the only method by which acclimatization was possible.

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  • The domestic birds have comparatively seldom become feral, doubtless, as C. Darwin points out, from the reduction of their powers of flight in many cases.

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  • (After Darwin.) B, glands from surface of leaf (X300) by which the sticky liquid is secreted and by means of which the products of digestion are absorbed.

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  • from Concepcion, and Charles Darwin declares, in describing that disaster, that " there can be no doubt that the land round the bay of Concepcion was upraised two or three feet."

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  • Parrots are found as far south as Tierra del Fuego, where Darwin saw them feeding on seeds of the Winter's bark.

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  • Writing of a journey inland from Iquique, Charles Darwin says (Journal of Researches, &c., p. 444) "Excepting the Vultur aura,..

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  • In science, nearly all the important work has been done by foreigners, among whom are Charles Darwin, Claude Gay, Eduard Pdppig, Rudolph A.

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  • This was tried largely in the case of smallpox, and once at least by Dr Erasmus Darwin in the case of scarlet fever.

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  • The birds flap their wings on rising from the ground, but after attaining a moderate elevation they seem to sail on the air, Charles Darwin having watched them for half an hour without once observing a flap of their wings.

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  • tuberosum and the origin of the cultivated forms. This species was also found by Darwin in Chile, and was considered by him, as by Sabine before him, to be the wild potato.

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  • Darwin observed that Ae.

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  • Always himself on the unpopular side and an able but thoroughly fair critic of the majority, he habitually under-estimated his own worth; he was not only an anti-slavery leader when abolition was not popular even in New England, and a radical and rationalist when it was impossible for him to stay conveniently in the Unitarian Church, but he was the first president of the National Free Religious Association (1867) and an early and ardent disciple of Darwin and Spencer.

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  • His grandfather was the poet-naturalist Erasmus Darwin, and Charles Darwin was his cousin.

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  • From the Royal Society, of which he was elected a fellow in 1860, he received a royal medal in 1886 and the Darwin medal in 1902, and honorary degrees were bestowed on him by Oxford (1894) and Cambridge (1895).

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  • The theory was thought out during the rest of the ague fit, drafted the same evening, written out in full in the two succeeding evenings, and sent to Darwin by the next post.

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  • Darwin in England at once recognized his own theory in the manuscript essay sent by the young and almost unknown naturalist in the tropics, then a stranger to him.

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  • Under the advice of Sir Charles Lyell and Sir Joseph Hooker, the essay was read, together with an abstract of Darwin's own views, as a joint paper at the I.innean Society on the 1st of July 1858.

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  • In this work, and in many of his subsequent publications, Wallace differs from Darwin on certain points.

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  • More recently he expressed his dissatisfaction with the hypothesis of "sexual selection" by which Darwin sought to explain the conspicuous characters which are displayed during the courtship of animals.

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  • The expression of his opinion on both these points of divergence from Darwin will be found in Darwinism (1889), a most valuable and lucid exposition of natural selection, as suited to the later period at which it appeared as the Essays were to the ealier.

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  • Darwin died some years before the controversy upon the possibility of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters arose over the writings of Weismann, but Wallace has freely accepted the general results of the German zoologist's teaching, and in Darwinism has presented a complete theory of the causes of evolution unmixed with any trace of Lamarck's use or disuse of inheritance, or Buffon's hereditary effect of the direct influence of surroundings.

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  • One of the greatest of his publications was the Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876), a monumental work, which every student will maintain fully justifies its author's hope that it may bear "a similar relation to the eleventh and twelfth chapters of the Origin of Species as Mr Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication bears to the first."

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  • The first Darwin medal of the Royal Society was awarded to A.

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  • It is noteworthy that even at this late date the Cirripedia (Thyrostraca) were still excluded from the Crustacea, though Darwin's Monograph (1851-1854) was soon to make them known with a wealth of anatomical and systematic detail such as was available, at that time, for few other groups of Crustacea.

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  • The new impulse given to biological research by the publication of the Origin of Species bore fruit in Fritz Muller's Filr Darwin, in which an attempt was made to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the class.

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  • While the great majority are simple hermaphrodites, capable of cross and self fertilization, it was discovered by Darwin that, in certain species, minute degraded males exist, attached within the mantle-cavity of the ordinary individuals.

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  • Since these dwarf males pair, not with females, but with hermaphrodites, Darwin termed them " complemental " males.

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  • Small "males" are in some species constantly associated with large hermaphrodites, but according to Beard there are in some cases true dwarf males, comparable to the complementary males described by Darwin in the Cirripedia.

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  • 2 The figures are repeated by Darwin (Descent of Man, &c., ii.

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  • In the 19th century, however, Lamarck's theory of the development of new species by habit and circumstance led through Wallace and Darwin to the doctrines of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the fittest, and natural selection.

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  • The full evidence of this correspondence will be found in such works as Brehm's Thierleben; and some of the salient points are set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter on " Mental Powers," in his Descent of Man.

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  • The result of Charles Darwin's application of this theory to man may be given in his own words (Descent of Man, part i.

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  • Darwin is moderate in his estimation of the changes produced on races of man by climate and mode of life within the range of history (Descent of Man, part i.

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  • Darwin's summing-up of the evidence as to unity of type throughout the races of mankind is as distinctly a monogenist argument as those of Blumenbach, Prichard or Quatrefages " Although the existing races of man differ in many respects, as in colour, hair, shape of skull, proportions of the body, &c., yet, if their whole organization be taken into consideration, they are found to resemble each other closely in a multitude of points.

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  • - (Darwin, Descent of Man, part i.

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  • It would be premature to judge how far the problem of the origin of races may be capable of exact solution; but the experience gained since 1871 countenances Darwin's prophecy that before long the dispute between the monogenists and the polygenists would die a silent and unobserved death.

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  • Agassiz, C. Darwin, W.

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  • Darwin says, "It is worth notice that farmers in south Brazil.

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  • Darwin and others having regarded Lord Morton's mare as affording very strong evidence in support of the infection hypothesis, it was considered some years ago desirable to repeat Lord Morton's experiment as accurately as possible.

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  • Some peaks of Tertiary granite break the uniformity, such as Mt Sarmiento (7200 ft.), Mt Darwin, of which two peaks have been measured (6201 and 7054 ft.), and Mt Olivaia (4324 ft.).

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  • At its west end Beagle Channel takes the name of Darwin Sound, which leads to the Pacific at the Londonderry and Stewart Islands.

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  • On the authority of Charles Darwin they have been held by many to be cannibals, but they are not, although those suffering from incurable ailments are often put to death.

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  • The latter expedition (Voyage of the " Beagle ") was accompanied by Charles Darwin, then a young man.

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  • Weddell, A Voyage towards the South Pole and to Tierra del Fuego (London, 1825); Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches, &c., during the Voyage of the " Beagle " round the World (London, 1845); W.

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  • The island is under the rule of the admiralty, and was likened by Darwin to "a huge ship kept in first-rate order."

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  • Though they are thus the most aquatic of lizards, Darwin, who studied their habits during his visit to those islands, states that when frightened they will not enter the water.

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  • "SIR GEORGE HOWARD DARWIN (1845-1912), English astronomer, was born at Down, Kent, July 9 1845.

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  • Originally, the name was given to the stalked barnacles (Lepadidae of C. Darwin), which attach themselves in great numbers to drift-wood and other objects floating in the sea and are one of the chief agents in the fouling of ships' bottoms during long voyages.

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  • Scalpellum rostratum, Darwin, Philippine Islands.

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  • An international committee was formed for the purpose of erecting a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey; and there, in May 1895, a portrait medallion, by Albert Bruce Joy, was placed near the grave of Newton, and adjoining the memorials of Darwin and of Joule.

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  • Savage, who has found his guides in Darwin and Spencer.

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  • At present, however, the theory of heredity is usually held in conjunction with Darwin's theory of natural selection; according to which different kinds of living things in the course of a series of generations come gradually to be endowed with organs, faculties and habits tending to the preservation of the individual or species under the conditions of life in which it is placed.

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  • Nevertheless the application of the historical method to inquiries concerning the facts of morality and the moral life - itself part of the great movement of thought to which Darwin gave the chief impetus - has caused moral problems to be presented in a novel aspect; while the influence of Darwinism upon studies which have considerable bearing upon ethics, e.g.

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  • Darwin himself seems never to have questioned, in the sceptical direction in which his followers have applied his principles, the absolute character of moral obligation.

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  • The group furnished Charles Darwin with the typical example of an atoll or lagoon island.

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  • Forbes's and Guppy's investigations go to show that, contrary to Darwin's belief, there is no evidence of upheaval or of subsidence in either of the Keeling groups.

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  • See C. Darwin, Journal of the Voyage of the "Beagle," and Geological Observations on Coral Reefs; also Henry O.

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  • In the course of the memorable voyage of the "Beagle," C. Darwin came to hear of another kind of rhea, called by his informants Avestruz petise, and at Port Desire on the east coast of Patagonia he obtained an example of it, the imperfect skin of which enabled J.

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  • Besides the works above named and those of other recognized authorities on the ornithology of South America such as Azara, Prince Max of Wied, Professor Burmeister and others, more or less valuable information on the subject is to be found in Darwin's Voyage, Dr Bdcking's "Monographie des Nandu" in (Wiegmann's) Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte (1863, i.

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  • The work of earthworms in aiding in the production of the subsoil and in levelling the surface was first studied by C. Darwin, and has since been investigated by others.

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  • White not only notes the homes and ways, the times and seasons, of plants and animals - comparing, for instance, the different ways in which the squirrel, the fieldmouse and the nuthatch eat their hazel-nuts - or watches the migrations of birds, which were then only beginning to be properly recorded or understood, but he knows more than any other observer until Charles Darwin about the habits and the usefulness of the earthworms, and is certain that plants distil dew and do not merely condense it.

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  • The encyclopaedic interest in nature, although in White's day culminating in the monumental synthesis of Buffon, was also disappearing before the analytic specialism inaugurated by Linnaeus; yet the catholic interests of the simple naturalist of Selborne fully reappear a century later in the greater naturalist of Down, Charles Darwin.

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  • It is with these that Darwin's classical treatises (Ray Soc. and Palaeont.

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  • Hansen (Die Cirripedien der Plankton-Expedition, 1899) states that Cryptophialus minutus, for which the order Abdominalia was founded, has, like Alcippe and other Genuina, its cirrhi on the thorax, not, as Darwin wrongly supposed, on the abdomen.

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  • These, with Darwin's three families above mentioned, complete the section of genuine cirripedes now existing.

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  • The horizontal distribution of barnacles over all seas is fully explained by Darwin.

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  • Studer (Crustacea of the Gazelle, 1882) records Balanus amphitrite (Darwin?) from roots and stems of mangroves in the Congo, where, he says, " it follows the mangroves as far as their vegetation extends along the stream, to six sea-miles from the mouth."

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  • Darwin notes B.

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  • In the same treatise Dr Hoek has useful chapters on the anatomy, development and sexes of the group, with references to the important researches since Darwin by Krohn, Claus, Kossmann and others.

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  • Francis Darwin, in the life of his father (1888, iii.

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  • This section comprises Darwin's Apoda, the footless, Lilljeborg's Suctoria, called by Fritz Muller the Rhizocephala or rootlet-headed, and the group to which Lacaze-Duthiers gave the alternative names Ascothoracida, sac-bodied or Rhizothoracida, rootlet-bodied.

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  • The first is still limited to the single genus and species Proteolepas bivincta (Darwin), parasitic within the sac of another cirripede.

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  • The Cordillera of the Andes in Tierra del Fuego is formed of crystalline schists, and culminates in the snowcapped peaks of Mount Darwin and Mount Sarmiento (7200 ft.), which contains glaciers of greater extent than those of Mont Blanc. The extent of the glaciers is considerable in this region, which, geographically, is more complex than was formerly supposed.

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  • The imperfection of the geological record, considered from the point of view of evolution, has been rendered familiar by Darwin's remarkable chapter in the Origin of Species.

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  • For more detailed treatment of his importance in science, reference may be made to Zollner's essay on "Kant and his Merits on Natural Science" contained in the work on the Nature of Comets (pp. 426-484); to Dietrich, Kant and Newton; Schultze, Kant and Darwin; Reuschle's careful analysis of the scientific works in the Deutsche Vierteljahrs-Schrift (1868); W.

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  • Next, according to notes discovered by Frances Darwin, his father temporarily abandoned his work in order to visit Ascot.

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  • Empathy shown by Emma Darwin, who had lost a daughter ten years earlier, formed a lasting bond between the two women.

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  • Darwin College offers some self-catering accommodation in the Darwin Houses.

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  • anthropomorphic figures an allusion to Darwin's theory?

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  • Synopsis Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker is remembered as an eminent Victorian botanist and traveler, and one of Charles Darwin's closest collaborators.

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  • cadgel science was Newton staring at the sun, Galileo dropping weights from some tower, Darwin cadging a ride.

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  • Charles Darwin had.

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  • In 1846 Darwin bought a compound microscope because of his need for higher magnifications (shown left ).

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  • Deep-water corals such as Lophelia pertusa live in the cold, dark waters of the Atlantic, the Darwin Mounds are 1,000 meters down.

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  • Darwin's achievement was to have destroyed so called ' natural religion ', which was something like 18 th century deism.

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  • Evening arrival in Darwin, where we'll enjoy a farewell dinner.

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  • Much more to the point, given his father's early disapproval I think Darwin faced two basic options in his life.

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  • disproved by the fact that the articles pre-dated Darwin's first ' species question ' notebook.

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  • disproved by the fact that the articles pre-dated Darwin's first ' species question ' notebook.

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  • Forthcoming: Fully annotated edition of Erasmus Darwin's The Temple of Nature, in preparation with Romantic Circles website.

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  • entomology building is now in the early stages of demolition to make way for Darwin Center Phase Two.

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  • epigenetic inheritance without violating the basic concepts of Darwin's theory.

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  • An idea first expounded by Darwin in On The Origin of Species.

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  • gradualism: Intrinsically bound up with Darwin's theory is the notion of gradualism in evolution at all scales.

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  • The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist.

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  • Darwin replied that a deity who did that would have to foresee everything in evolutionary history, leading to a very heterodox theology.

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  • What lay behind Darwin's seemingly inexplicable reluctance to publish his views on this subject?

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  • lacy sphr Shari in darwin it's is best holiday insurance long stay by eating three to five.

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  • The Darwin Awards Do you find it refreshing to enjoy tales of other people's misfortunes?

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  • His grandfather was Erasmus Darwin, an eminent naturalist and poet.

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  • Darwin communicated one of Scott's papers on the orchid oncidium to the Linnean Society in 1864 (Scott 1864b ).

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  • pelicans nest in the mangroves, and there are boobies & nine species of Darwin's finches.

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  • Darwin credited her with inventing a poetic form, the epic elegy and she is clearly a major contributor to romantic poetry.

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  • Botany became a major preoccupation of Darwin's during the course of 1861.

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  • Darwin had just propounded his Origin of the Species and his theory of the survival of the fittest.

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  • Darwin will be able to separate the bright starlight from the faint planet light by performing a technique called ' nulling interferometry ' .

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  • In 30 years worms buried every stone in a once very stony field near Darwin's home, Down House.

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  • This is why island animals, as Darwin noted on the Galapagos, are often remarkably tame.

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  • Along with other publications in the 1860s, Wallace's 1864 paper stimulated Darwin's thinking on human transmutation.

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  • uniformitarian evolution as the brain child of Thomas Lyell, first of all, followed by Darwin, followed by Huxley.

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  • Darwin, already well-disposed toward Bates, became increasingly convinced of his worth and talent as the year progressed.

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  • Falckenberg, Hermann Lotze (Stuttgart, 1901); Henry Jones, A Critical Account of the Philosophy of Lotze (Glasgow, 1895); Paul Lange, Die Lehre vom Instincte bei Lotze and Darwin (Berlin, 1896); A.

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  • He soon, however, turned his attention to metaphysics and psychology, and for the North American Review and later for the National he wrote philosophical essays on the lines of Mill, Darwin and Spencer.

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  • Of these, the former endeavours to explain the most elaborate psychical activities of men as developments of elementary forms of conscious processes in the animal kingdom as a whole; the latter is a defence of the theory of natural selection against the attacks of St George Mivart, and appeared in an English edition on the suggestion of Darwin.

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  • 61, p. 444), and the instrument contains many elegant mechanical and optical details due to Horace Darwin and Messrs Zeiss respectively.

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  • Serpents are numerous, but only two are described as poisonous, the cascavel (rattlesnake) and the " vibora de la cruz " (Trigonocephalus alternatus).1 ' Interesting detail g of the Argentine fauna may be found in Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle; W.

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  • The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle."

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  • Very complete collections have therefore, as a result of these expeditions, been brought together; but their examination does not materially change the facts upon which the conclusions arrived at by Darwin, from the evidence of the birds and plants, were based; though he "no doubt would have paid more attention to [the evidence afforded by Land-tortoises], if he had been in possession of facts with which we are acquainted now" (Gunther).

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  • Darwin, Voyage of the "Beagle"; O.

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  • away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.

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  • These islands are opposite Port Darwin, and to the westward of the large inlet known as Van Diemen's Gulf.

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  • That line of more than 1800 m., having its southern extremity at the head of Spencer Gulf, its northern at Port Darwin, in Arnheim Land, passes Central Mount Stuart, in the middle of the continent, S.

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  • In life, however, its appearance must be wholly unlike, for it rarely flies, hops actively on the ground or among bushes, with its tail erect or turned towards its head, and continually utters various and strange notes, - some, says Darwin, are "like the cooing of doves, others like the bubbling of water, and many defy all similes."

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  • It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."

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  • Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.

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  • For example, the notion of conflict (7r6Xeµos) as the father of all things and of harmony as arising out of a union of discords, and again of an endeavour by individual things to maintain themselves in permanence against the universal process of destruction and renovation, cannot but remind one of certain fundamental ideas in Darwin's theory of evolution.

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  • Empedocles tries to explain the genesis of organic beings, and, according to Lange, anticipates the idea of Darwin that adaptations abound, because it is their nature to perpetuate themselves.

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  • As we arrive at the r 9th century, though yet before the days of Darwin, biology is already beginning to affect the general aspect of thought.

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  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

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  • Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.

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  • The conception of evolution was henceforward irrespressible, and it incessantly reappears, in one shape or another, 2 up to the year 1858, when Charles Darwin and A.

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  • In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.

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  • But the pregnant suggestions of these writers remained practically unnoticed and forgotten, until the theory was independently devised and promulgated by Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace in 1858, and the effect of its publication was immediate and profound.

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  • Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.

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  • Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.

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  • A closer scrutiny of the writers of all ages who preceded Charles Darwin, and, in particular, the light thrown back from Darwin on the earlier writings of Herbert Spencer, have made plain that without Darwin the world by this time might have come to a.

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  • general acceptance of evolution; but it seems established as a historical fact that the world has come to accept evolution, first, because of Darwin's theory of natural selection, and second, because of Darwin's exposition of the evidence for the actual occurrence of organic evolution.

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  • The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.

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  • The balance of these tendencies has been against the attachment of great importance to sexual selection, and in favour of attaching a great importance to natural selection; but the dominant feature in the recent history of the theory has been its universal acceptance and the recognition that this general acceptance has come from the stimulus given by Darwin.

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  • It is plain that we have moved far from the connotation and denotation of the word species at the time when Darwin began to discuss the origin of species, and that the movement, on the one hand, tends to simplify the problem philosophically, and, on the other, to make it difficult for the amateur theorist.

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  • It is well known that Darwin was deeply impressed by differences in flora and fauna, which seemed to be functions of locality, and not the result of obvious dissimilarities of environment.

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  • The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.

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  • 7; Pearson, Grammar of Science; Romanes, Darwin and after Darwin; Sedgwick, Presidential Address to Section Zoology, Brit.

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  • The perception of the changes, or, in other words, the reception of the stimulus, is associated for example, with the tips of roots and the apices of stems. The first recognition of a specially receptive part was made by Charles Darwin, who identified the perception of stimulation with the tip of the young growing root.

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  • Recently some investigations by Haberlandt, Noll, Darwin and others have suggested an explanation which has much to recomrtiend it.

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  • by Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.

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  • With regard to the causation of variation Darwin says (Origin of Species, ch.

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  • As Darwin has pointed out, this response may be direct or indirect.

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  • Summary.The general theory of differentiation propounded in this article is an attempt at an analysis of the factors termed by Darwin the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions.

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  • These considerations preclude the possibility of solving difficulties in geographical distribution by the construction of hypothetical land-surfaces, an expedient which Darwin always stoutly opposed (Life and Letters, ii.

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  • Sir George Darwin finds a possible explanation of these in the screwing motion which the earth would suffer in its plastic state.

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  • Darwin doubted, however, whether they ought to be separated (Life, iii.

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  • This was first suggested by Edward Forbes in I846, though the idea had earlier suggested itself to Darwin (Life, i.

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  • Darwin thought that the migration southwards would always be preponderant (Origin of Species, 5th ed., 458).

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  • only exist, as Darwin has said, where they must, not where they can.

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  • Darwin attributes this to the fact that the northern forms were the more powerful (Origin of Species, 5th ed., p.458).

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  • The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.

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  • The - - study of tidal strain in the earth's crust by Sir George Darwin has led that physicist to indicate the possibility of the triangular form and southerly direction of the continents being a result of the differential or tidal attraction of the sun and moon.

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  • For this he wrote the first adequate account in German of the Darwinian theory of natural selection, which drew a warm letter of appreciation from Darwin himself.

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  • (c) Evolution came down from the clouds when C. Darwin and A.

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  • These stridulating organs were mentioned by C. Darwin as probable examples of the action of sexual selection; they are, however, frequently present in both sexes, and in some families also in the larvae.

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  • These structures were believed by C. Darwin to be explicable by sexual selection.

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  • See also C. Darwin's Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London, 1871).

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  • Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.

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  • The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the general import trade.

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  • The government maintains schools and travelling teachers; the Falkland Islands Company also maintains a school at Darwin, and there is one for those of the Roman Catholic faith in Stanley.

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  • He did much, by the thoroughness of his learning and the lucidity of his style, to spread a knowledge of Darwin and Spencer in America.

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  • See Darwin's Fertilization of Orchids and similar works.

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  • Of economic students, many are unaware of the fact that he wrote any other book than the Essay on the Principle of Population, and what is of permanent importance in that work is contained in the generalization which it suggested to Darwin.

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  • Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.

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  • That this was the case is undeniably shown by some remarks of Canon Tristram, who, in treating of the Alaudidae and Saxicolinae of Algeria (whence he had recently brought a large collection of specimens of his own making), stated (Ibis, 18 59, pp. 4 2 9-433) that he could " not help feeling convinced of the truth of the views set forth by Messrs Darwin and Wallace," adding that it was " hardly possible, I 'should think, to illustrate this theory better than by the larks and chats of North Africa."

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  • To Darwin and those who believed with him scarcely any discovery could have been more welcome; but that is beside our present business.

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  • Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.

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  • After the publication of C. Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) a fresh impetus was given to entomology as to all branches of zoology, and it became generally recognized that insects form a group convenient and hopeful for the elucidation of certain problems of animal evolution.

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  • The writings of Darwin himself and of A.

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  • There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.

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  • Thus the prominent school of criticism which appraised Wagner in the 10th century by his approximation to Darwin and Herbert Spencer, appraises him in the aoth by his approximation to Bernard Shaw; with the absurd result that Gatterdammerung is ruled out as a reactionary failure.

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  • Brown wrote a criticism of Darwin's Zoonomia (1798), and was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review, in the second number of which he published a criticism of the Kantian philosophy, based entirely on Villers's French account of it.

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  • Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.

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  • As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.

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  • Darwin brings together the records of several cases, not only of gradations between peaches and nectarines, but also of intermediate forms between the peach and the almond.

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  • Darwin m.

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  • The theories of Darwin, Agassiz, Dana, Semper, Murray and others had led to apparently interminable discussion, and the great boring experiments at Funafuti atoll, which were expected to be crucial, gave results that backed both the rival theories of Darwin and Murray.

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  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.

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  • It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.

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  • Darwin succeeded in estab .

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  • The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.

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  • It is one of Darwin's great merits to have made use of these observations and to have formulated their results to a large extent as the laws of variation and heredity.

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  • Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.

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  • It cannot be said that previously to Darwin there had been any very profound study of teleology, but it had been the delight of a certain type of mind - that of the lovers of nature or naturalists par excellence, as they were sometimes termed - to watch the habits of living animals and plants, and to point out the remarkable ways in which the structure of each variety of organic life was adapted to the special circumstances of life of the variety or species.

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  • Darwin's theory had as one of its results the reformation and rehabilitation of teleology.

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  • Darwin himself spent a large part of the later years of his life in thus extending the new teleology.

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  • The old doctrine of types, which was used by the philosophically minded zoologists (and botanists) of the first half 1 A very subtle and important qualification of this generalization has to be recognized (and was recognized by Darwin) in the fact that owing to the interdependence of the parts of the bodies of living things and their profound chemical interactions and peculiar structural balance (what is called organic polarity) the variation of one single part (a spot of colour, a tooth, a claw, a leaflet) may, and demonstrably does in many cases entail variation of other parts - what are called correlated variations.

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  • Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.

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  • and Spence, Wallace and Darwin.

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  • Spencer and Darwin.

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  • It will be more appropriate here, without giving what would be a needless repetition of considerations, both historical and theoretical, which appear in other articles, to confine ourselves to two general questions, (I) the history of the various schemes of classification, or Morphography, and (2) the consideration of the main tendencies iii the study of zoology since Darwin.

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  • This climax was reached at the very moment when Darwin was publishing the Origin of Species (1859), by which universal opinion has been brought to the position that species, as well as genera, orders and classes, are the subjective expressions of a vast ramifying pedigree in which the only objective existences are individuals, the apparent species as well as higher groups being marked out, not by any distributive law, but by the interaction of living matter and its physical environment, causing the persistence of some forms and the destruction of vast series of ancestral intermediate kinds.

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  • Schelling, " das ganze System der Naturlehre von dem Gesetze der Schwere bis zu den Bildungstrieben der Organismus als ern organisches Ganze darzustellen," which has ultimately been realized through Darwin, was a general one among the scientific men of the year 1800.

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  • Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.

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  • But erroneous theories, when they are supported by facts, do little harm, since every one takes a healthy pleasure in proving their falsity " (Darwin).

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  • A name which is apt to be forgotten in the period between Cuvier and Darwin, because its possessor occupied an isolated position in England and was not borne up by any j.

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  • We now arrive at the period when the doctrine of organic evolution was established by Darwin, and when naturalists, being convinced by him as they had not been by the transmutationists of fifty years' earlier date, were compelled to take an entirely new view of the significance of all attempts at framing a " natural " classification.

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  • The whole position was changed by the acquiescence, which became universal, in the doctrine of Darwin.

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  • The facts of the relationships of animals to one another, which had been treated as the outcome of an inscrutable law by most zoologists and glibly explained by the transcendental morphologists, were amongst the most powerful arguments in support of Darwin's theory, since they, together with all other vital phenomena, received a sufficient explanation through it.

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  • 1834), who in 1866, seven years after the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, published his suggestive Generelle Morphologic. Haeckel introduced into classification a number of terms intended to indicate the branchings of a genealogical tree.

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  • But it was only after Darwin that the cell-theory of Schwann was extended to the embryology of the animal kingdom generally, and that the knowledge of the development of an animal became a knowledge of the way in which the millions of cells of which its body is composed take their origin by fission from a smaller number of cells, and these at last from the single egg-cell.

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  • Fritz Muller, by his studies on Crustacea (Fiir Darwin, 1864), showed the way in which genealogical theory may be applied to the minute study of a limited group.

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  • One result of the introduction of the new conceptions dating from Darwin was a healthy reaction from that attitude of mind which led to the regarding of the classes and orders recognized by authoritative zoologists as sacred institutions which were beyond the criticism of ordinary men.

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  • General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • On the other hand, the studies which occupied Darwin himself so largely subsequently to the publication of the Origin of Species, viz.

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  • The most important work in this direction has been done by Fritz Muller (Filr Darwin), by Herman Muller (Fertilization of Plants by Insects), Grade b.

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  • It is no discovery that this latter kind of variation is not hereditable, and it is not the fact that the small variations, to which Darwin attached great but not exclusive importance as the material upon which natural selection operates, are of this latter kind.

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  • Another important development of Darwin's conclusions deserves special notice here, as it is the most distinct advance in the department of bionomics since Darwin's own writings, and at the same time touches questions of fundamental interest.

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  • Darwin's great merit was that he excluded from his theory of development any necessary assumption of the transmission of acquired characters.

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  • Whatever its causes, Darwin showed that it is all-important.

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  • Darwin himself, influenced by the consideration of certain classes of facts which seem to favour the Iamarckian hypothesis, was of the opinion that acquired characters are in some cases transmitted.

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  • It should be observed, however, that Darwin did not attribute an essential part to this Lamarckian hypothesis of the transmission of acquired characters, but expressly assigned to it an entirely subordinate importance.

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  • The new attitude which has been taken since Darwin's writings on this question is to ask for evidence of the asserted transmission of acquired characters.

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  • Thus the occurrence of blind animals in caves and in the deep sea was a fact which Darwin himself regarded as best explained by the atrophy of the organ of vision in successive generations through the absence of light and 1 Weismann, Vererbung, &c. (1886).

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  • Hardly any theoretical system is of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), the grandfather of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception.

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  • Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.

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  • It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.

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  • In pathology, indeed, Virchow's (1821-1902) influence in the transfiguration of this branch of science may almost be compared to that of Darwin and Pasteur in their respective domains.

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  • Before Darwin - if the name of Darwin may be used to signify the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer - natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult for us to realize.

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  • It is worth noting, however, that Herder in his provokingly tentative way of thinking comes now and again very near ideas made familiar to us by Spencer and Darwin.

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  • chap. ii., which unmistakably foreshadows Darwin's idea of a struggle for existence, we read: " Among millions of creatures whatever could preserve itself abides, and still after the lapse of thousands of years remains in the great harmonious order.

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  • Herbert Spencer's significance in the history of English thought depends on his position as the philosopher of the great scientific movement of the second half of the 19th century, and on the friendship and admiration with which he was regarded by men like Darwin, G.

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  • This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.

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  • some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition approximates too closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to suit a modern ear.

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  • His work in this department made him an enthusiastic adherent of the views of Darwin.

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  • ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802), English man of science and poet, was born at Elton, in Nottinghamshire, on the 12th of December 1731.

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  • The fame of Erasmus Darwin as a poet rests upon his Botanic Garden, though he also wrote The Temple of Nature, or the Origin of Society, a Poem, with Philosophical Notes (1803), and The Shrine of Nature (posthumously published).

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  • Erasmus Darwin's mind was in fact rather that of a man of science than that of a poet.

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  • His most important scientific work is his Zoonomia (1794-1796), which contains a system of pathology, and a treatise on generation, in which he, in the words of his famous grandson, Charles Robert Darwin, "anticipated the views and erroneous grounds of opinions of Lamarck."

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  • In 1799 Darwin published his Phytologia, or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening (1799), in which he states his opinion that plants have sensation and volition.

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  • Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), his third son by his first marriage, a doctor at Shrewsbury, was the father of the famous Charles Darwin; and Violetta, his eldest daughter by his second marriage, was the mother of Francis Galton.

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  • See Anna Seward, Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804); and Charles Darwin, Life of Erasmus Darwin, an introduction to an essay on his works by Ernst Krause (1879).

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  • The products of the decay of the organisms thus A, Bladder of Utricularia neglecta (after Darwin), enlarged.

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  • The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.

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  • Darwin's experiments in reference to the movements of climbing and twining plants, and of leaves in insectivorous plants, have opened up a wide field of inquiry as to the relation between plants and the various external factors, which has attracted numerous workers.

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  • The question of the mode in which the floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to important speculations by such eminent botanical travellers as Charles Darwin, Sir J.

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  • 7 Darwin, Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication, ii.

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  • This is associated with the fact, so ably demonstrated by Darwin, that, at any rate in a large number of cases, cross-pollination yields better results, as measured by the number of seeds produced and the strength of the offspring, than self-pollination; the latter is, however, preferable to absence of pollination.

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  • The former, which is a somewhat less favourable method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a (From Darwin's by permission.) FIG.

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  • The subject of heterostyly was investigated by Darwin (see his Forms of Flowers) and later by Hildebrand.

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  • In the case of a dimorphic flower, such as Primula, four modes of pollination are possible, two distinguished by Darwin as legitimate, between anthers and stigmas on corresponding levels, and two so-called illegitimate unions, between anthers and stigmas at different levels (cf.

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  • Sprengel's work, which had been almost forgotten, was taken up again by Charles Darwin, who concluded that no organic being can fertilize itself through an unlimited number of generations; but a cross with other individuals is occasionally - perhaps at very long intervals - indis pensable.

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  • Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertilization of orchids gave powerful support to this statement.

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  • The study of the fertilization, or as it is now generally called "pollination," of flowers, was continued by Darwin and taken up by other workers, notably Friedrich Hildebrand, Federico Delpino and the brothers Fritz and Hermann Muller.

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  • In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.

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  • The great philosophical impulse was that given by Darwin in 1859 through his demonstration of the theory of descent, which gave tremendous zest to the search for pedigrees (phylogeny) of the existing and extinct types of animal and plant life.

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  • - Although preevolutionary, this was the heroic period of the science, extending from the close of the 18th century to the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species in 1859.

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  • His reactionary and retarding ideas as a special creationist and his advocacy of the cataclysmic theory of change exerted a baneful influence until overthrown by the uniformitarianism of James Hutton (1726-1797) and Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and the evolutionism of Darwin.

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  • - Third Historic Period Beginning with the publication of Darwin's great works, " Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S.

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  • - A review of the two first classic works of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) and of their influence proves that he was the founder of modern palaeontology.

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  • Both laws were of paramount importance, as direct evidence of Darwin's theory of descent, which, it will be remembered, was at the time regarded merely as an hypothesis.

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  • The impulse which Darwin gave to vertebrate palaeontology was immediate and unbounded, finding expression especially in the writings of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) in England, of Jean Albert Gaudry (b.

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  • He especially pointed out the laws of the " extinction of the specialized " and " survival of the non-specialized " forms of life, and challenged Darwin's principle of selection as an explanation of the origin of adaptations by saying that the " survival of the fittest " does not explain the " origin of the fittest."

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  • Then the stage of novelty suddenly shifted to South America, where after the pioneer labours of Darwin, Owen and Burmeister, the field of our knowledge was suddenly and vastly extended by explorations by the brothers Ameghino (Carlos and Florentino).

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  • The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.

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  • Starting with the stem forms the descendants of which have passed through either persistent or changed habitats, we reach the underlying idea of the branching law of Lamarck or the law of divergence of Darwin, and find it perhaps most clearly expressed in the words "adaptive radiation" (Osborn), which convey the idea of radii in many directions.

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  • It is stated by Darwin that the pigs which have run wild in Jamaica and New Granada have resumed this aboriginal character, and produce longitudinally striped young; these being the descendants of domestic animals introduced from Europe since the Spanish conquest, as before that time there were no true pigs in the New World.

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  • Among his works are: Darwinism and Politics (1889); Principles of State Interference (1891); Darwin and Hegel (1893); Natural Rights (1895); a translation with R.

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  • A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.

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  • Passing from Moleschott to Lyell's view of the evolution of the earth's crust and later to Darwin's theory of natural selection and environment, he reached the general inference that, not God but evolution of matter, is the cause of the order of the world; that life is a combination of matter which in favourable circumstances is spontaneously generated; that there is no vital principle, because all forces, non-vital and vital, are movements; that movement and evolution proceed from life to consciousness; that it is foolish for man to believe that the earth was made for him, in the face of the difficulties he encounters in inhabiting it; that there is no God, no final cause, no immortality, no freedom, no substance of the soul; and that mind, like light or heat, electricity or magnetism, or any other physical fact, is a movement of matter.

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  • It appears also that Darwin, having extended his theory of evolution as far as the rational and moral nature of man, in the Descent of Man, ended in his Autobiography by declaring his attitude to first and final causes to be that of an agnostic. Not that he was a materialist, and shortly before his death, in a conversation with Buchner, he maintained his agnosticism against his opponent's atheism.

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  • (b) He contends that, when matter ascends to the evolution of organic life, the unconscious has a power, over and above its atomic volitions, of introducing a new element, and that in consequence the facts of variation, selection and inheritance, pointed out by Darwin, are merely means which the unconscious uses for its own ends in morphological development.

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  • He follows Fechner closely in his answer to Darwin.

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  • But here he fails exactly as Darwin himself failed.

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  • Darwin said, given that organisms are fit, they will tend to survive; but he failed to show how they become fit.

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  • With Darwin and Huxley his name is inseparably connected with the battle which began in the middle of the 19th century for making the new standpoint of modern science part of the accepted philosophy in general life.

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  • The few works which have since appeared, before the rise of the physiological school of Sir Charles Bell and Charles Darwin, are undeserving of notice, the development of phrenology having given to pure physiognomy the coup de grace by taking into itself whatever was likely to live of the older science.

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  • The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.

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  • To deal with the former belief first, we have the remarkable case cited by Charles Darwin on the authority of Professor I.

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  • I and 2; Charles Darwin, Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vols.

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  • Blackston; and Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol.

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  • Their work among the Fuegians drew a warm tribute from Charles Darwin.

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  • Charles Robert Darwin >>

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  • Erasmus Darwin, B.

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  • The physiology of the fungi comes under the head of that of plants generally, and the works of Pfeffer, Sachs, Vines, Darwin and Klebs may be consulted for details.

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  • Darwin Swift (Oxford, 1894).

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  • Charles Darwin found the conception of species so definite and fixed that he chose for the title of his great book (1859) the words On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, although his exposition of evolution applied equally to every grade in classification.

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  • Poulton, in an admirable discussion of contemporary views regarding species (presidential address to the Entomological Society of London 1904), has shown that Darwin did not believe in the objective existence of species, not only because he was led to discard the hypothesis of special creation as the explanation of the polymorphism of life, but because in practice as a working systematist he could neither find for himself nor ascertain from other systematists any settled criteria by which a group of specimens could be elevated into a genus, accepted as a species, or regarded as a variety.

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  • Darwin believed that man advanced to his present high condition through such a struggle, consequent on his rapid multiplication.

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  • Darwin (Journ.

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  • In 1874, with his brother Alexander Forrest (born 1849), he explored eastwards from Champion Bay, following as far as possible the 26th parallel, and striking the telegraph line between Adelaide and Port Darwin; a distance of about 2000 m.

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  • An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.

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  • Darwin, Scientific Papers, vol.

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  • Since the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, the theory of evolution of animals and plants (see Evolution) has rested on a linking of the conceptions of variation and selection.

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  • Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.

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  • Osborn have made careful studies of preDarwinian writers on evolution, but the results of their inquiries only serve to show the greatness of the departure made by Darwin.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • Although the pre-Darwinian writers amongst them invoked nearly every principle that Darwin or his successors have suggested, they failed to carry conviction with regard to evolution, and they neither propounded a coherent philosophy of variation nor suggested a mechanism by which variations that appeared might give rise to new species.

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  • The anticipations of Darwin were little more than formal and verbal.

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  • Huxley pointed out in his essay on the reception of the Origin of Species in the second volume of Darwin's Life and Letters, " The suggestion that new species may result from the selective action of external conditions upon the variations from their specific type which individuals present - and which we call ` spontaneous ' because we are ignorant of their causation - is as wholly unknown to the historian of scientific ideas as it was to biological specialists before 1858.

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  • C. Darwin opened his argument by consideration of plants and animals under domestication.

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  • Comparing domesticated varieties with species and varieties in nature, Darwin showed that the distinction between varieties and species was chiefly a matter of opinion, and that the discovery of new linking forms often degraded species to varieties.

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  • With regard to variation, Darwin was urgent in stating his opinion that the laws of variation were not understood and that the phrase "chance" variation was a wholly incorrect expression.

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  • Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the Darwinian principles, had sent to Darwin early in 1858 an outline of a theory of the origin of species.

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  • Darwin found that it was, in all essential respects, identical with his own theory at the exposition of which he had been working for many years.

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  • With an unselfish generosity which must always shine in the history of science, and indeed of the human race, Darwin proposed at once to communicate his correspondent's essay to the Linnaean Society of London, but was persuaded by his friends to send with it an outline of his own views.

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  • When Wallace found how much more fully Darwin was equipped for expounding the new views, he exhibited an unselfish modesty that fully repaid Darwin's generosity, henceforth described himself as a follower of Darwin, entitled his most important publication on the theory of evolution Darwinism, and did not issue it until 1889, long after the world had given full credit to Darwin.

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  • In most respects his ideas were closely parallel with those of Darwin.

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  • Wallace, however, brought into his scheme a factor excluded by Darwin.

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  • It is to be remembered that the origin of species by the modification of pre-existing species, - in fact, the doctrine of organic evolution, - although first made credible by Darwin.

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  • The theory of evolution is supported by a great range of evidence, much of which was first collected by Darwin, and which has been enormously increased by subsequent workers excited by his genius.

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  • Darwin was well aware that variation ranged from differences so minute as to become apparent only on careful measurement to those large departures from the normal which may be called abnormalities, malformations or monstrosities.

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  • De Vries gave the name "mutations" to such considerable variations (it is to be noted that a further concept, that of the mode of origin, has been added to the word mutation, and that the conception of relative size is being removed from it), and Bateson, de Vries and other writers have added many striking cases to those recorded by Darwin.

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  • Darwin was careful to insist that we did not know the laws of variation, and that when variation was attributed to "chance" no more should be read into the statement than an expression of our ignorance of the causation.

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  • When Darwin and Wallace framed their theories it was practically assumed that acquired characters were inherited, and the continuous slow action of the environment, moulding each generation to a slight extent in the same direction, was readily accepted by a generation inspired by Sir C. Lyell's doctrine of uniformi tarianism in geological change, as a potent force.

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  • Darwin and his generation were deeply imbued with the Butlerian tradition, and regarded the organic world as almost a miracle of adaptation, of the minute dovetailing of structure, function and environment.

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  • Darwin certainly was impressed with the view that natural selection and variation together formed a mechanism, the central product of which was adaptation.

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  • Both sides concur in the position assumed by Darwin, that the word "chance" in such a phrase as "chance variation" does not mean that the occurrences are independent of natural causation and so far undetermined, but covers in the first place our ignorance of the exact causation.

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