Charac.), and built his residence Dara on a rock in a fertile valley in Apavarktikene (Justin xli.
Har Rai was charged with friendship for Dara Shikoh, the son of Shah Jahan, and also with preaching a religion di s tinct from Islam.
In 57 1 a new war with Rome broke out about Armenia, in which Chosroes conquered the fortress Dara on the Euphrates, invaded Syria and Cappadocia, and returned with large booty.
Of Shah Jahan's four sons, the eldest, Dara, a brave and honourable prince, but disliked by the Mussulmans on account of his liberality of thought, had a natural right to the throne.
Meanwhile Shah Jahan had recovered, and though Dara resigned the crown he had seized, the other brothers professed not to believe in their father's recovery, and still pressed on.
Dara in person took the field against his brothers, but was defeated and compelled to fly.
Dara, who again invaded Gujarat, was defeated and closely pursued, and was given up by the native chief with whom he had taken refuge.
(532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.
A-dara-kalama, 28 years.
With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms. The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.
He was obliged to surrender at Dara in December 1883, and was a prisoner, first at Obeid and then at Omdurman, until he escaped in 1895.
He forced back the Darfurians near Dara on the 26th of December, routed Zayid in a second battle, entered El Fasher, and, in 1888, became complete master of the situation, the two sultans being killed.
Haidar Shehab, third of the line, inflicted a notable defeat on the pasha of Saida (capital of an Ottoman eyalet since 1688) and the Yemenite Druses at Ain Dara, near Zahleh, in 1711, and proceeded to consolidate Shehab power, breaking up the old feudal society and substituting for the sheikhs mukatajis (tax-contractors), who had penal jurisdiction.