The Danish captain Jens Arnold Dietrich Jensen reached, in 1878, the Jensen Nunataks (5400 ft.
There are generally in a coloni three or four Danish houses, built of wood and pitched over, in addition to storehouses and a blubber-boiling establishment.
There are generally in a coloni three or four Danish houses, built of wood and pitched over, in addition to storehouses and a blubber-boiling establishment.
For the next eighteen years its freedom from Danish attack made Sherborne the capital of Wessex.
In 1751 Lars Dalager, a Danish trader, took some steps in this direction from Frederikshaab.
That is the actual phrase used by the Vienna cabinet, said the Danish charge d'affaires.
Later on he attempted to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest, and, as a major in the service of the SchleswigHolstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850.
The Danish residents may include, besides a coloni-bestyrer and his assistant, a missionair or clergyman, at a few places also a doctor, and perhaps a carpenter and a schoolmaster.
By 9:00 and after four aspirins, he had stretched the worst of the pain away, filled his stomach with some fresh Danish and was beginning to feel pretty good.
Greenwich is first noticed in the reign of Ethelred, when it was a station of the Danish fleet (1011-1014).
The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
HERMANN JOACHIM BANG (1858-), Danish author, was born of a noble family in the island of Zealand.
Helmfeld routed a Danish division, was the first gleam of good luck, and on the 4th of December, on the tableland of Helgonaback, near Lund, the young Swedish monarch defeated Christian V.
DANNEWERK, or Danewerk (Danish, Dannevirke or Danevirke, " Danes' rampart"), the ancient frontier rampart of the Danes against the Germans, extending 102 m.
He also negotiated treaties for the purchase of the Danish West Indies, the Bay of Samana, and for American control of the isthmus of Panama; but these were not ratified by the Senate.
" National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
(the Unready) as a means of raising the tribute which was the price of the temporary cessation of the Danish ravages.
With the accession of the Danish king Canute, the original raison d'être of the tax ceased to exist, but it continued to be levied, though for a different purpose, assuming now the character of an occasional war-tax.
Arabia received very careful attention, in the 18th century, from the Danish scientific mission, which included Carsten Niebuhr among its members.
In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools.
It stands in relation to Danish history somewhat as Westminster Abbey does to English, containing the tombs of most of the Danish kings from Harold I.
There can be no doubt that the establishment of the Norman power in England was, like the establishment of the Danish power, greatly helped by the essential kindred of Normans, Danes and English.
To all outward appearance the Norman conquest of England was an event of an altogether different character from the Danish conquest.
The Norman settlers in England felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers in England.
In fact the Normans met with the steadiest resistance in a part of England which was largely Danish.
After the death of Ragnar LObrok's sons East Anglia was occupied by the Danish king Guthrum, who made a treaty with Alfred settling their respective boundaries, probably about 880.
Two Danish kings, Frederick II.
Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.
An attempt by Otto in 1215 to recover Northalbingia was easily frustrated by Valdemar, who henceforth devoted himself to the extension of the Danish empire over the eastern Baltic shores.
The south-western Baltic was a Danish Mediterranean, and Danish territory extended from the Elbe to lake Peipus.
On the other hand Valdemar, by prudent diplomacy, contrived to retain the greater portion of Danish Esthonia (compact of Stensby, 1238).
His noblest achievement in this respect is the codification of the Danish laws known as the Jydske Lov (Jutland Code), which he lived to see completed a few days before his death at Vordingborg on the 28th of March 1241.
On his accession, King George signed an act resigning his right of succession to the Danish throne in favour of his younger brother Prince Waldemar.
In 924 Edward the Elder fortified Bakewell, and in 942 Edmund regained Derby, which had fallen under the Danish yoke.
JOHAN FRIIS (1494-1570), Danish statesman, was born in 1 494, and was educated at Odense and at Copenhagen, completing his studies abroad.
Few among the ancient Danish nobility occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the realm during the reign of three kings.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
He encouraged Hans Svaning to complete Saxo's history of Denmark, and Anders Vedel to translate Saxo into Danish.
To this scheme he turned with a zeal whetted by consciousness of his failure respecting the Danish fleet.
The timidity of the Danish admiral Ulrik C. Gyldenldve, and the daring of Charles, who forced his nervous and protesting admiral to attempt the passage of the eastern channel of the Sound, the dangerous flinterend, hitherto reputed to be unnavigable, enabled the Swedish king to effect a landing at Humleback in Sjaelland (Zealand), a few miles north of Copenhagen (Aug.
4 The treatises of the two Bartholinis and Borrichius published at Copenhagen deserve mention if only to record the activity of Danish anatomists in those days.
In 1764 Briinnich published at Copenhagen his Ornithologia borealis, a compendious sketch of the birds of all the countries then subject to the Danish crown.
After serving as a volunteer in the campaign of 1814 he went to Copenhagen to edit the posthumous papers of the Danish archaeologist Georg Zoega (1755-1809), and published his biography, Zoegas Leben (Stutt.
Havelberg was formerly a strong fortress, but in the Thirty Years' War it was taken from the Danish by the imperial troops in 1627.
In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more recent surveys.
When Edwards wrote (1791), the number of European factories on the coasts of Africa was 40; of these 14 were English, 3 French, 15 Dutch, 4 Portuguese and 4 Danish.
It was also one of the chief Danish boroughs, and Earl Siward is said to have died there in 1055.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
GREENLAND (Danish, &c., Gronland), a large continental island, the greater portion of which lies within the Arctic Circle, while the whole is arctic in character.
Greenland is a Danish colony, inasmuch as the west coast and also the southern east coast belong to the Danish crown.
(Danish).3 It was, however, ascertained that there is a great difference between the velocities of the glaciers in winter and in summer.
9 There is a common belief that during quite recent times the west and southwest coast, within the Danish possessions, has been sinking.
Upper Silurian, having a strong relation to the Wenlock group of Britain, but with an American facies, and Lower Silurian, with a succession much the same as in British North America, are found on the shores of Smith Sound, and Nathorst has discovered them in King Oscar Fjord, but not as yet so far south as the Danish possessions.
The Danish expeditions of 1899-1900 have added considerably to our knowledge of the Jurassic rocks of East Greenland.
The prices to be paid for European and native articles are fixed every year, the prices current in Danish and Eskimo being printed and distributed by the government.
A Danish coloni in Greenland might seem to many not to be :a cheerful place at best; though in the long summer days they would certainly find some of those on the southern fjords comparatively pleasant.
For ecclesiastical purposes Danish Greenland is reckoned in the province of the bishop of Zeeland.
The Danish mission in Greenland has a yearly grant of £ 2000 from the trading revenue of the colony, besides a contribution of £880 from the state.
The trade of Greenland has on the whole much decreased in modern times, and trading and missions cost the Danish state a comparatively large sum (about £i i,000 every year), although this is partly covered by the income from the royalty of the cryolite mines at Ivigtut.
The area of the entire Danish colony is estimated at 45,000 sq.
The Eskimo population of Danish Greenland (west coast) seems to have decreased since the middle of the 18th century.
The often-quoted Meddelelser om Gronland is of especial value; it is published in parts (Copenhagen) since 1879, and is chiefly written in Danish, but each part has a summary in French.
Rink, Danish Greenland (London, 1877); H.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
of Denmark by Henry of Schwerin, it once more exchanged the Danish over-lordship for that of the counts of Schauenburg, who established themselves here and in 1231 built a strong castle to hold it in check.
In his youth and early manhood there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany.
During the disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces.
This was Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust.
The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 first opened to him the prospect of succeeding to the Danish throne, but the question was still unsettled when Christian IV.
The effect of this unheard-of achievement on the Danish government was crushing.
at once sued for peace; and, yielding to the persuasions of the English and French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with mutilating instead of annihilating the Danish monarchy (treaties of Taastrup, February 18th, and of Roskilde, February 26th, 1658).
None had anticipated the possibility of such a sudden and brutal attack, and every one knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately fortified and garrisoned.
By the beginning of September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound.
Thus the Danish capital had saved the Danish monarchy.
The traditional loyalty of the Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusiasm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found himself the most popular man in his kingdom.
in the Danish islands and was in close attendance upon him till the monarch's death in 1660.
It was translated into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch and Danish.
British tonnage held the first place, German the second and Danish the third.
PEDER OXE (1520-1575), Danish Finance Minister, was born in 1520.
The others are the C. campestris, C. nemorivagus, C. rufus and a small species or variety called C. nanus by the Danish naturalist Dr P. W.
But the English leaders were treated with politic clemency, and the Danish leader, Jarl Osbiorn, was bribed to withdraw his fleet.
If the Swedish Church has preserved the episcopal succession, it does not make much of that advantage, for it is in communion with the Danish and Norwegian bodies, which can advance no such claim.
The serio-comic epic of Peder Paars, the earliest of the great classics of the Danish language, appeared in 1719.
During the next two years he published five shorter satires, all of which were well received by the public. The great event of 1721 was the erection of the first Danish theatre in GrOnnegade, Copenhagen; Holberg took the direction of this house, in which was played, in September 1722, a Danish translation of L'Avare.
Until this time no plays had been acted in Denmark except in French and German, but Holberg now determined to use his talent in the construction of Danish comedy.
But in spite of this unprecedented blaze of dramatic genius the theatre fell into pecuniary difficulties, and had to be closed, Holberg composing for the last night's performance, in February 1727, a Funeral of Danish Comedy.
The only poem he published at this time was the famous Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (1741), afterwards translated into Danish by Baggesen.
Holberg was not only the founder of Danish literature and the greatest of Danish authors, but he was, with the exception of Voltaire, the first writer in Europe during his own generation.
When he arrived in the country, the Danish language was never heard in a gentleman's house.
Polite Danes were wont to say that a man wrote Latin to his friends, talked French to the ladies, called his dogs in German, and only used Danish to swear at his servants.
The Iter subterraneum has been three several times translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish, thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into Russian and once into Hungarian.
The first efforts of the new monarch were directed against the Wendish pirates who infested the Baltic and made not merely the political but even the commercial development of the Danish state impossible.
We may form some idea of the extent and the severity of their incursions from the fact that at the beginning of the reign of Valdemar the whole of the Danish eastern coast lay wasted and depopulated.
Both places were captured in 1169 by a great expedition under the command of Valdemar and Absalon; the hideous colossal idol of Riigievit was chopped into firewood for the Danish caldrons, and the Wends were christened at the point of the sword and placed beneath the jurisdiction of the see of Roskilde.
The year after his accession the Danish invasions, long unintermitted under Edgar the Peaceful, recommenced; though as yet their object was plunder only, not conquest, and the attacks were repeated in 981, 982 and 988.
Next year !Ethelred himself broke the peace by an attack on the Danish ships.
The Danish attacks were repeated in 997, 99 8, 999 and in 1000 !Ethelred availed himself of the temporary absence of the Danes in Normandy to invade Cumberland, at that time a Viking stronghold.
Orders were issued commanding the slaughter on St Brice's day (December 2) of "all the Danish men who were in England."
The tribute was paid soon afterwards; and about the same time the Danish leader Thurkill entered the English service.
From 1013 an important change is discernible in the character of the Danish attacks, which now became definitely political in their aim.
HANS NANSEN (1598-1667), Danish statesman, son of the burgher Evert Nansen, was born at Flensburg on the 28th of November 1598.
He made several voyages to the White Sea and to places in northern Russia, and in 1621 entered the service of the Danish Icelandic Company, then in its prime.
member of the university of Kiev, and of the Prussian, Bavarian and Danish academies; he received the Prussian order Pour le Write, and was corresponding member of the Academie des sciences morales et politiques of the French Institute.
The town is mentioned as early as 874 in connexion with a Danish invasion.
In Gothic it is Guth; Dutch has the same form as English; Danish and Swedish have Gud, German Gott.
Then, as the chronicler writes, " all the Angle race turned to him (Alfred) that were not in bondage of the Danish men."
From this time there appears to have been a permanent Danish settlement in London, probably Aldwich, referred to below.
Reference has already been made to a Danish settlement, and there seems some reason for placing it on the ground now occupied by the parishes of St Clement Danes and Aldwich.
About this time (the exact chronology is uncertain) Ethelstan expelled Sihtric's brother Guthfrith, destroyed the Danish fortress at York, received the submission of the Welsh at Hereford, fixing their boundary along the line of the Wye, and drove the Cornishmen west of the Tamar, fortifying Exeter as an English city.
Traces of Kentish speech may be detected, however, in the Textus Roffensis, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbrian dialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions, while Danish words occur only as technical terms. At the conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations made to meet the demand for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still applied in practice.
As regards status, the most elaborate enactments fall into the period preceding the Danish settlements.
It is mentioned in the Domesday Survey as subject to a reduced assessment on account of its exposed position and liability to Danish attacks.
HANS LASSEN MARTENSEN (1808-1884), Danish divine, was born at Flensburg on the 19th of August 1808.
He studied in Copenhagen, and was ordained in the Danish Church.
of Kiel on the railway from Hamburg to Vamdrup, on the Danish frontier.
At the partition of 1544 the old château of Gottorp, originally built in 1160 for the bishop, became the residence of the Gottorp line of the Schleswig-Holstein family, which remained here till expelled by the Danish king Frederick IV.
From 1731 to 1846 it was the seat of the Danish governor of the duchies.
The story of modern exploration begins with the despatch of C. Niebuhr's mission by the Danish government in 1761.
The town grew up around three forts established in close proximity - St James (British), Crevecoeur (Dutch) and Christiansborg (Danish).
Vessels set out to the fisheries, as far as Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea; and trade is brisk, not only Norwegian and Danish but British, German and particularly Russian vessels engaging in it.
FLENSBURG (Danish, Flensborg), a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, at the head of the Flensburg Fjord, 20 m.
The cemetery contains the remains of the Danish soldiers who fell at the battle of Idstedt (25th of July 1850), but the colossal Lion monument, erected by the Danes to commemorate their victory, was removed to Berlin in 1864.
It attained municipal privileges in 1284, was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643, and in 1848 became the capital, under Danish rule, of Schleswig.
The choice of his governor, the patriotic historiographer Hans Svaning, was so far fortunate that it ensured the devotion of the future king of Denmark to everything Danish; but Svaning was a poor pedagogue, and the wild and wayward lad suffered all his life from the defects of his early training.
The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, Frederick and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, dividing the land between them.
No other Danish king was ever so beloved by his people.
The word, as applied to the animal here described, occurs in most Germanic and Romanic languages: German, marder; Dutch, marter; Swedish, mard; Danish, maar; English, marteron, martern, marten, martin and martlett; French, marte and martre; Italian, martora and martorella; Spanish and Portuguese, marta.
There he was introduced to Professor Reinhold, and in his house met the Danish poet Baggesen.
1831), a direct descendant of the Danish king Christian III.
At this time it became imperative that satisfactory provision should be made for the succession to the Danish throne.
Des Moines is the seat of Des Moines College, a Baptist institution, co-educational, founded in 1865 (enrolment, 1907-1908, 21 4); of Drake University (co-educational; founded in 1881 by the Disciples of Christ; now non-sectarian), with colleges of liberal arts, law, medicine, dental surgery and of the Bible, a conservatory of music, and a normal school, in which are departments of oratory and commercial training, and having in 1907-1908 -1764 students, of whom 520 were in the summer school only; of the Highland Park College, founded in 1890; of Grand View College (Danish Lutheran), founded in 1895; and of the Capital City commercial college (founded 1884).
The Copenhagen post gave him, as well as some other diplomats, an exceptional opportunity of watching the principal moving powers of European politics from a point of vantage, as the matrimonial alliances of the Danish royal family occasionally brought together in a friendly family circle the widow of Alexander III, Nicholas II and the Prince of Wales who was to become King Edward VII.
Tsar Nicholas's reply to this letter shows in what esteem Count Benckendorff was held by his sovereign: - "Benckendorff went by my permission as my mother invited him to come as a friend of the Danish family.
in Poland that it was with extreme satisfaction that he received the tidings of the Danish declaration of war (June 1, 1657).
The Danish army at once dispersed and the duchy of Bremen was recovered by the Swedes, who in the early autumn swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies.
But the fortress of Fredriksodde (Fredericia) held Charles's little army at bay from mid-August to mid-October, while the fleet of Denmark, after a stubborn two days' battle, compelled the Swedish fleet to abandon its projected attack on the Danish islands.
The crushing effect of this unheard-of achievement on the Danish government found expression in the treaties of Taastrup (Feb.
Sir Thomas Teddemaii, who was sent by Sandwich to attack the Dutch at Bergen, was suspected by the Danish governor of intending to play false, was fired on by the batteries, and was beaten off.
Her voyage to Scotland was interrupted by a violent storm - for the raising of which several Danish and Scottish witches were burned or executed - which drove her on the coast of Norway, whither the impatient James came to meet her, the marriage taking place at Opslo (now Christiania) on the 23rd of November.
In his last years he passed most of his days at Aix, though he had sufficient energy to take the field for a short time during the Danish War.
Malmo, 1534), drawn up in Danish, serves in some cases to complete the earlier work.
Recent levellings along the Swedish and Danish coasts have confirmed the higher level of the Baltic; and the level of the Mediterranean has also been determined by exact measurements to be from 15 to 24 in.
Instead of the expensive mile-long stout hemp lines used and since 1887 those of the prince of Monaco in his yachts, as by Ross, Maury introduced a ball of strong twine attached to a well as numerous Danish vessels in the sea between Iceland and cannon shot, which ran it out rapidly; when the bottom was Greenland, conspicuous amongst which were the expeditions reached the twine was cut and the depth deduced from the length in1896-1898on board the " Ingolf."
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
He was an indefatigable worker and speaker, and in order to facilitate his efforts in other countries and other literatures he learnt Arabic, Norse, Danish and Dutch.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
Pictorial representations in early manuscripts, and the rude effigies on their coins, are not very helpful in deciding as to the form of crown worn by the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings of England before the Norman Conquest.
By the North Road, south of the town, is a row of six large barrows, considered to be of Danish construction.
This monopoly had been abolished in 1787, and the trade had been declared free to all Danish subjects, but practically the old arrangement was continued under disguised forms. Jon Sigurbsson began a hard struggle against the Danish government to obtain a reform.
To this the Danish government was vehemently opposed; it convoked an Icelandic National Assembly in 1851, and brought before that body a bill granting Iceland small local liberties, but practically incorporating Iceland in Denmark.
The Danish governor-general then dissolved the assembly, but Jon SigurOsson and all the members with him protested to the king against these unlawful proceedings.
The struggle continued with great bitterness on both sides, but gradually the Danish government was forced to grant many important reforms. High schools were established at Reykjavik, and efforts made to better the trade and farming of the country.
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became de facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark.
On the 13th of December 1839 he ascended the Danish throne as Christian VIII.
It is probable that after the Danish invasions of the 1 rth century the modern Southampton (Hantune, Suhampton) gradually superseded the Saxon Hantune as the latter did the Roman settlement, the site being chosen for its stronger position and greater facilities for trade.
In 1131 the king led an expedition into Denmark, where one of his vassals had been murdered by Magnus, son of the Danish king, Niels, and where general confusion reigned; but no resistance was offered, and Niels promised to pay tribute to Lothair.
Reiske died on the 14th of August 1774, and his MS. remains passed, through Lessing's mediation, to the Danish minister Suhm, and are now in the Copenhagen library.
The order, having purchased the Danish part of Esthonia, in 1347, began a war against the bishop of Riga, as well as against Lithuania, Poland and Russia.
He was at once elected a member of the Prussian Lower House, and during the next three years was one of the most active members of that assembly: in several important debates he led the attack on the government, and opposed the policy of Bismarck, not only on financial but also on the Polish and Danish affairs.
CAMILLE PISSARRO (1831-1903), French painter, was born at St Thomas in the Danish Antilles, of Jewish parents of Spanish extraction.
PEDER GRIFFENFELDT, Count (Peder Schumacher) (1635-1699), Danish statesman, was born at Copenhagen on the 24th of August 1635, of a wealthy trading family connected with the leading civic, clerical and learned circles in the Danish capital.
The king was struck with the lad's bright grey eyes and pleasant humorous face; and Brokman, proud of his pupil, made him translate a chapter from a Hebrew Bible first into Latin and then into Danish, for the entertainment of the scholarly monarch.
Nevertheless it is indisputable that, under the single direction of this master-mind, the Danish state was now able, for a time, to utilize all its resources as it had never done before.
He published in 1810 a translation of the Parthenais of the Danish poet Baggesen, with a preface on the various kinds of poetry; in 1823 translations of two tragedies of Manzoni, with a preface "Sur la the orie de l'art dramatique"; and in 1824-1825 his translation of the popular songs of modern Greece, with a "Discours preliminaire" on popular poetry.
the conquest of Rugen, engaged Henry's activity until June 1 17 1, when, in pursuance of a treaty which restored peace, Henry's daughter, Gertrude, married the Danish prince, Canute.
" " Dutch florins 20.6 " " Danish .kroner 7.9 " " Swedish kroner 3.6 " Bulgarian levas.
His leanings were strongly German, so that he became somewhat obnoxious to the Danish government, a fact which made an invitation in 1847 to become professor of history at GÃ¶ttingen peculiarly acceptable.
When the German party in the northern duchies rose against the Danish government, Waitz hastened to place himself at the service of the provisional government.
His first authentic act is the storm and sacking of Peterborough in 1070, in company with outlaws and Danish invaders.
An energy which never slackened, a doggedness which no adversity could crush, a fiery ambition coupled with the coolest calculation, and a diplomatic unscrupulousness which looked always to the end and never to the means, these were the salient qualities of the reconstructor of the dismembered Danish state.
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
This flourishing industry, which fully occupied 40,000 boats and 300,000 fishers assembled from all parts of Europe to catch and salt the favourite Lenten fare of the whole continent, was the property of the Danish crown, and the innumerable tolls and taxes imposed by the king on the frequenters of the market was one of his most certain and lucrative sources of revenue.
In July 1361 Valdemar set sail from Denmark at the head of a great fleet, defeated a peasant army before Visby, and a few days later the burgesses of Visby made a breach in their walls through which the Danish monarch passed in triumph.
Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.
and peace was finally concluded with the towns by Podbusk and the Danish Council of State at the congress of Stralsund, 1370.
Yet no other Danish king did so much for his country.
Having in 842 crushed a rising in Saxony, he compelled the Abotrites to own his authority, and undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, the Moravians and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of Danish pirates.
Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Spanish languages.
Moody's sermons were sold widely in English, and in German, Danish and Swedish versions.
ABSALON (c. 1128-1201), Danish archbishop and statesman, was born about 1128, the son of Asser Rig of Fjenneslev, at whose castle he and his brother Esbjorn were brought up along with the young prince Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar I.
The same year (1158) which saw Valdemar ascend the Danish throne saw Absalon elected bishop of Roskilde.
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
3 a till 1168 that the chief Wendish fortress, at Arkona in Rugen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was surrendered, the Wends agreeing to accept Danish suzerainty and the Christian religion at the same time.
But the unexpected fall of Arkona had terrified the garrison, which surrendered unconditionally at the first appearance of the Danish ships.
The destruction of this chief sally-port of the Wendish pirates enabled Absalon considerably to reduce the Danish fleet.
It was he who held the first Danish Synod at Lund in 1167.
In 1808, as governor of the Hanse towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to nought because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
This victory led two years later to the voluntary submission of the two Abodrite princes Niklot and Borwin to the Danish crown, whereupon the bulk of the Abodrite dominions, which extended from the Trave to the Warnow, including modern Mecklenburg, were divided between them.
North Albingia, as the district between the Eider and the Elbe was then called, now became Danish territory.
In the year of his succession a large Danish force landed in East Anglia, and in the year 868 !Ethelred and his brother Alfred went to help Burgred, or Burhred, of Mercia, against this host, but the Mercians soon made peace with their foes.
After quitting the university he became private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, Danish minister of finance.
Constant struggles with the Irish resulted in intermissions of the Danish supremacy from 1052 to 1072, at various intervals between 1075 and r r 18 and from 1124 to 1136.
The town probably owed its origin to the suitability of its position for defence, and it was the site of a Danish fort, later replaced by a Saxon settlement.
There are also three German versions, and one Danish; the best is by J.
He took part in the negotiations with Catherine IL (1783) and with the Danish government (1787), and during the Russian war of 1788-90 he was one of the king's most trusted and active counsellors.
The island was a Danish possession in 1807, when the English seized and held it until it was formally ceded to them in 1814.
From 1621, when it was first chartered, it steadily increased, though it suffered greatly in the Danish wars of the last half of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries, and from several extensive conflagrations (the last in 1813), which have destroyed important records of its history.
Salford also gives its name to the hundred of south-west Lancashire in which Manchester is situated; probably because when the district was divided into hundreds Manchester was in a ruinous condition from Danish ravages.
ALSEN (Danish Als), an island in the Baltic, off the coast of Schleswig, in the Little Belt.
It formerly belonged to Denmark, but, as a result of the Danish war of 1864, was incorporated with Germany.
Pop. (1900) 25,000, most of whom speak Danish.
In 1864 the Prussians under Herwarth von Bittenfeld took Alsen, which was occupied by 9000 Danish troops under Steinmann, thus bringing the Danish war to a close.
BERNHARD ERNST VON BULOW (1815-1879), Danish and German statesman, was the son of Adolf von Billow, a Danish official, and was born at Cismar in Holstein on the 2nd of August 1815.
In 1842 he became councillor of legation, and in 1847 Danish chargé d'affaires in the Hanse towns, where his intercourse with the merchant princes led to his marriage in 1848 with a wealthy heiress, Louise Victorine Rucker.
When the insurrection broke out in the Elbe duchies (1848) he left the Danish service, and offered his services to the provisional government of Kiel, an offer that was not accepted.
defeated near Halmstad a Danish army which was attempting to retake the district, and :since that time Halland has formed part of Sweden.
The regulation that every five or six hides should supply a warrior was not a product of the Danish invasions, as is sometimes stated, but goes back at least to the beginning of the 9th century.
Bows and arrows were certainly in use for sporting purposes, but there is no reason for believing that they were much used in warfare before the Danish invasions.
The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.
ancestor of the Danish royal family, who is not generally included in the Northern pantheon.
Nielsen, The History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1906), the scholarly and fascinating work of a Danish Lutheran bishop; A.
In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and maintained their position against the Danish gunboats.
In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 50o Danes in the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by the same sculptor.
His lectures in Copenhagen in 1802 were attended by many leading Danish thinkers, such as Oehlenschlager and Grundtvig.
The chief Danish islands are St Thomas, St Croix (q.v.) and St John, the total area being about 240 sq.
The Danish islands of St Thomas and St John were taken by the British in 1801, but restored in the following year.
PETER MARTIN ORLA LEHMANN (1810-1870), Danish statesman, was born at Copenhagen on the 15th of May 1810.
Although of German extraction his sympathies were with the Danish national party and he contributed to the liberal journal the Kjabenhavnsposten while he was a student of law at the university of Copenhagen, and from 1839 to 1842 edited, with Christian N.
The inhabitants (3500) are of Frisian origin, and the official language is German, though in the extreme north of the island, known as List, Danish is spoken.
It is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 605.The ealdorman, or sheriff, of the shire was probably charged with the duty of calling out and leading the fyrd, which appears always to have retained a local character, as during the time of the Danish invasions we read of the fyrd of Kent, of Somerset and of Devon.
The Danish navy, which in 1596 consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 16 10 rose to sixty, some of them being built after Christian's own designs.
He skilfully took advantage of the alarm of the German Protestants after the battle of White Hill in 1620, to secure the coadjutorship to the see of Bremen for his son Frederick (September 1621), a step followed in November by a similar arrangement as to Werden; while Hamburg by the compact of Steinburg (July 1621) was induced to acknowledge the Danish overlordship of Holstein.
Torstensson, too, was unable to cross from Jutland to Fiinen for want of a fleet, and the Dutch auxiliary fleet which came to his assistance was defeated between the islands of Sylt and Rdnno on the west coast of Schleswig by the Danish admirals.
Another attempt to transport Torstensson and his army to the Danish islands by a large Swedish fleet was frustrated by Christian IV.
of Kiel Bay, and Christian displayed a heroism which endeared him ever after to the Danish nation and made his name famous in song and story.
Darkness at last separated the contending fleets; and though the battle was a drawn one, the Danish fleet showed its superiority by blockading the Swedish ships in Kiel Bay.
The Order of the Dannebrog is, according to Danish tradition, of miraculous origin, and was founded by Valdemar II.
The badge of the order is, with variations for the different classes, a white enamelled Danish cross with red and gold borders, bearing in the centre the letter W (V) and on the fourarms the inscription Gud og Kongen (For God and King).
In Denmark, the Danish Missionary Society, founded by Pastor Bone Falck Ronne in 1821,.
A Danish society has a mission in South India.
The Jesuits came in the r6th century, but were more successful quantitatively than qualitatively; in the 18th century the Danish coast mission on the coast of Tranquebar made the first Protestant advance, Bartholomaus, Ziegenbalg (1683-1719), Plutschau and Christian Friedrich Schwartz (1726-1798) being its great names.
There is a tradition that the battle of Brunanburh was fought in the valley of the Axe, and that the bodies of the Danish princes who perished in action were buried in Axminster church.
COPENHAGEN (Danish Kjobenhavn), the capital of the kingdom of Denmark, on the east coast of the island of Zealand (Sjaelland) at the southern end of the Sound.
This consists of four sections, the Danish, ethnographical, antique and numismatic. It was founded in 1807 by Professor Nyerup, and extended between 1815 and 1885 by C. J.
It contains the chronological collection of Danish monarchs, including a coin and medal cabinet, a fine collection of Venetian glass, the famous silver drinking-horn of Oldenburg (1474), the regalia and other objects of interest as illustrating the history of Denmark.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
The landward defences of Copenhagen, it may be added, were left unprovided for after the Napoleonic wars until the patriotism of Danish women, who subscribed sufficient funds for the first fort, shamed parliament into granting the necessary money for others (1886-1895).
presented that part of the island to Axel Hvide, renowned in Danish history as Absalon, bishop of Roskilde, and afterwards archbishop of Lund.
In 1186, Bishop Absalon bestowed the castle and village, with the lands of Amager, on the see of Roskilde; but, as the place grew in importance, the Danish kings became anxious to regain it, and in 1245 King Eric IV.
The nominal strength of the Russian fleet was eighty-three sail of the line, of the Danish twenty-three, and of the Swedish eighteen.
Nicholas Vansittart, afterwards Lord Bexley, the British diplomatic agent entrusted with the message to the Danish government, was landed, and left for Copenhagen.
The British fleet then passed the Danish fort at Cronenburg, unhurt by its distant fire, and without being molested by the forts on the Swedish shore.
It was therefore resolved that an attack should be made on the Danish capital with the whole fleet in two divisions.
There were in all eighteen hulks or ships of the line in the Danish defence.
He therefore proposed that he should be detached with ten sail of the line, and the frigates and small craft, to pass between the Middle Ground and Saltholm Flat, and assail the Danish line at the southern end while the remainder of the fleet engaged the Trekroner battery from the north.
the British squadron weighed anchor, led by the "Amazon" frigate, commanded by Captain Riou, and began to pass along the front of the Danish line.
The place opposite the Danish fort which was to have been taken by him was occupied by Captain Riou and the frigates.
Until 1 o'clock there was no diminution of the Danish fire.
At about 2.30 the fire from the Danish hulks had been much beaten down, but as their crews fell, fresh men were sent from the shore and the fire was resumed.
The Danish government, which had entered the coalition largely from fear of Russia, was not prepared to make very great sacrifices, and now entered into negotiations for an armistice.
Gustavus's youthful experiences impressed him with a life-long distrust of everything Danish.
Such instructions were not calculated to promote confidence between Swedish and Danish negotiators.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
In 1557 he even wrote to the Danish king protesting against the placing of "the three crowns" in the royal Danish seal beneath the arms of Denmark.
replied that "the three crowns" signified not Sweden in especial, but the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and that their insertion in the Danish shield was only a reminiscence of the union of Kalmar.
This was the period of the great Danish invasion which culminated in the submission of Guthrum in 878.
Shortly afterwards the kingdom of the Mercians came to an end and their leading earl Ethelred accepted Alfred's overlordship. By 886 Alfred's authority was admitted in all the provinces of England which were not under Danish rule.
In pursuit of historical study, Adam visited the Danish court during the reign of the well-informed monarch Svend Estridsson (1047-1076), and writes that the king "spoke of an island (or country) in that ocean discovered by many, which is called Vinland, because of the wild grapes [vites] that grow there, out of which a very good wine can be made.
The Danish antiquarian Rafn, in his monumental Antiquitates Ainericanae, published in 1837, and much discussed in America at that time, held for Rhode Island as Leif's landfall and the locality of Thorfinn's colony.
Their sale at home was very large; they were reprinted in England and translated immediately into Danish, Italian, German and French.
ANDREAS PETER, COUNT VON BERNSTORFF (1735-1797), Danish statesman, was born at Hanover on the 28th of August 17 3 5.
At his uncle's desire he rejected the Hanoverian for the Danish service, and in 1759 took his seat in the German chancery at Copenhagen.
He shared the disgrace of his uncle when Struensee came into power, but re-entered the Danish service after Struensee's fall at the end of 1772, working at first in the financial and economical departments, and taking an especial interest in agriculture.
The ensuing thirteen years were perhaps the best days of the old Danish absolutism.
In such noble projects of reform as the emancipation of the serfs (see Reventlow) Bernstorff took a leading part, and so closely did he associate himself with everything Danish, so popular did he become in the Danish capital, that a Swedish diplomatist expressed the opinion that henceforth Bernstorff could not be removed without danger.
Another, Count Joachim, was attached to his brother's fortunes so long as he remained in the Danish service, was associated with him in representing Denmark at the congress of Vienna, and in 1815 was appointed ambassador at that court.
SOLON HANNIBAL BORGLUM (1868-), American sculptor, was born in Ogden, Utah, on the 22nd of December 1868, the son of a Danish wood-carver.
JOHANN HARTWIG ERNST BERNSTORFF, COUNT VON (1712-1772), Danish statesman, who came of a very ancient Mecklenburg family, was the son of Joachim Engelke, Freiherr von Bernstorff, chamberlain to the elector of Hanover, and was born on the 13th of May 1712.
He was introduced into the Danish service by his relations, the brothers Plessen, who were ministers of state under Christian VI.
Ever since the conclusion of the Great Northern War, Danish statesmen had been occupied in harvesting its fruits, namely, the Gottorp portions of Schleswig definitely annexed to Denmark in 1721 by the treaty of Nystad, and endeavouring to bring about a definitive general understanding with the house of Gottorp as to their remaining possessions in Holstein.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
He protested that the king of Denmark was bound to defend Schleswig "so long as there was a sword in Denmark and a drop of blood in the veins of the Danish people."
He placed the best French general of the day at the head of the well-equipped Danish army.
But just as the Russian and Danish armies had come within striking distance, the tidings reached Copenhagen that Peter III.
It is remarkable, however, that though Bernstorff ruled Denmark for twenty years he never learnt Danish.
1867; Danish trans.
Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there were: Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679; Masuran, 142,049; Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305; Cassubian, 100,213; Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80,36,; Italian, 65,961; Moravian, 64,382; Czech, 43,016; Frisian, 20,677; English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841.
Since 1868 all German ships have carried a common flagblack, white, red; but formerly Oldenburg, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Mecklenburg and Prussia had each its own flag, and Schleswig-Holstein vessels sailed under the Danish flag.
Danish - - - 5917 1,589,346 5059 1,219,388
The Warni now disappear from history, and from this time the Teutonic peoples of the north as far as the Danish boundary about the Eider are called Saxons.
The Saxons had been slowly reconquering the lost ground, and now Henry, advancing with his victorious army into Jutland, forced Gorm, the Danish king, to become his vassal and regained the land between the Eider and the Schlei.
Thus ended the first stage of the Thirty Years War, although some desultory fighting continued between the League and Danish its opponents.
of Denmark had officially proclaimed that Schleswig and the greater part of Holstein were indissolubly connected with the Danish monarchy.
In 1848 the German party in the duchies, headed by Prince Frederick of Augustenburg, rose against the Danish government.
By the intervention of Austrian troops peace was restored; and when, early in 1852, the government of Denmark, in providing a constitution for the whole monarchy, promised to appoint separate ministers for Schleswig and Holstein, and to do equal justice to the German and the Danish populations, the two powers declared themselves satisfied and the Austrian~ forces were withdrawn.
of Denmark should be succeeded by Christian, duke of Glucksburg, aI~d that the duchies should be indissolubly united to the Danish monarchy.
mark (November 15, 1863), and his adhesion to the holstein new constitution, promulgated two days before, which question, embodied the principle of the inalienable union of the Elbe duchies with the Danish body politic. The news of this event caused vast excitement in Germany; and the federal diet was supported by public opinion in its decision to uphold the claims of Prince Frederick of Augustenburg to the succession of the duchies.
An agitation in his favor had already begun in Holstein and, after the promulgation of the new Danish constitution, this was extended to Schleswig.
conclusion; the famous rampart of the Dannewerk, on which the Danish defence chiefly relied, was turned, and after a short campaign, in which the Danes fought with distinguished courage, peace was concluded by the treaty of Vienna (August I, 1864), by which Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg were ceded to Austria and Prussia jointly.
These Danish subjects of Germany have elected one member to the Reichstag, whose duty is to demand that they should be handed over to Denmark.
Up to the year 1878 they could appeal to the treaty of Prague; one clause in it determined that the inhabitants of selected districts should be allowed to vote whether they should be Danish or German.
Since then the Prussian government, by prohibiting the use of Danish in the schools and public offices, and by the expulsion from the country of the numerous Danish optants who had returned to Schleswig, has used the customary means for compelling all subjects of the king to become German in language and feeling.1
2 The whole question is exhaustively treated from the Danish point of view in La Question de Slesvig (Copenhagen, 1906), a collective work edited by F.
Fjord's Danish experiments show that for fattening pigs i lb of ryeor barley-meal is equivalent to 6 lb of skim-milk or 12 lb of whey, and i lb of meal equivalent to 8 lb of mangolds or 4 lb of potatoes.
Its name is said to be derived from a camp formed here by the Danish king, Sweyn, and tradition fixes at this spot the meeting between William the Conqueror and the men of Kent, to whom was confirmed the possession of all their ancient laws and privileges.
long.) the Danish Arctic Expedition (10) of 1904 found seventy-five out of every hundred occurrences to take place before midnight.
Arctic observers, both Danish and British, have repeatedly reported displays of aurora unaccompanied by any special magnetic disturbance.
The Danish observers at Tasiusak (10) in 1898-1899 observed this phenomenon occasionally in a slightly altered form.
The Palatinate was conquered, the Danish king was overthrown, and it seemed that Austria would establish its predominance over the whole of Germany, and that the Baltic would become an Austrian lake.
in a straight line, as far as a larger camp, on Bury Down, and is of Danish or Saxon construction.
The impulse given by Alfred was continued under Edward, and we have what may be called an official continuation of the history of the Danish wars, which, in B, C, D extends to 915, and in A to 924.
From 983 to 1018 C, D and E are practically identical, and give a connected history of the Danish struggles under Ã†thelred II.
and between 8 ° 4' 54" and 12° 47' 25" E., exclusive of the island of Bornholm, which, as will be seen, is not to be included in the Danish archipelago.
The Danish portion is the northern and the greater, and is called Jutland (Dan.
The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden.
The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere formed by the so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish geologists call the Boulder Sand.
Much of the Danish chalk, including the wellknown limestone of Faxe, belongs to the highest or " Danian " subdivision of the Cretaceous period.
A fringe of ice generally lines the greater part of the Danish coasts on the eastern side for some time during the winter, and both the Sound and the Great Belt are at times impassable on account of ice.
The Danish forest is almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better in Denmark than in any other country of Europe.
The oak and ash are now rare, though in ancient times both were abundant in the Danish islands.
universal predominance of the beech is by no means of ancient origin, for in the first half of the 17th century the oak was still the characteristic Danish tree.
The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants.
The separation from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than half German, intensified the national character; the Danes are intensely patriotic; and there is no portion of the Danish dominions except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where a Scandinavian language is not spoken.
The main Danish lines are as follows.
The Danish government has assisted this development by granting money for experiments and by a rigorous system of inspection for the prevention of adulteration.
The Danish measure for land is a Tonde Land (Td.
The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the population of the country, and on account of the export; but the good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent encroachments on territorial waters.
During the 19th century, however, several commercial treaties were concluded between Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the Danish tariff more regular and liberal.
In modern times the value of Danish commerce greatly increased, being doubled in the last twenty years of the 19th century, and exceeding a total of fifty millions sterling.
The value of the butter for export reaches nearly 40% of the total value of Danish exports.
Next to butter the most important article of Danish export is bacon, and huge quantities of eggs are also exported.
The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is.
The Faeroe islands, which form an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark in the wider sense, are represented in the Danish parliament, but not the other dependencies of the Danish crown, namely Iceland, Greenland and the West Indian islands of St Thomas, St John and St Croix.
The Danish treasury receives nothing from these possessions; on the contrary, Iceland receives an annual grant, and the West Indian islands have been heavily subsidized by the Danish finances to assist the sugar industry.
A peculiarity of the Danish system is that, with few exceptions, no civil cause can be brought before a court until an attempt has been made at effecting an amicable settlement.
The Mormon apostles for a considerable time made a special raid upon the Danish peasantry and a few hundreds profess this faith.
During the earlier part of the 19th century not a few men could be mentioned who enjoyed an exceptional reputation in various departments of science, and Danish scientists continue to contribute their full share to the advancement of knowledge.
Danish sculpture will be always famous, if only through the name of Thorvaldsen.
Annual publication, and other publications of Statens Statistiske Bureau, Copenhagen; Annuaire meteorologique, Danish Meteorological Institution, Copenhagen; E.
3) in connexion with an irruption of a GStish (loosely called Danish) fleet into the Netherlands (c. 520).
According to late Danish tradition Denmark now consisted of Vitheslaeth (i.e.
These three divisions always remained more or less distinct, and the Danish kings had to be recognized at Lund, Ringsted and Viborg, but Zealand was from time immemorial the centre of government, and Lejre was the royal seat and national sanctuary.
According to tradition this dates from the time of Skitildr, the eponymous ancestor of the Danish royal family of Skikildungar.
Skioldr), who was regarded as the ancestor of both the Danish and English royal families, and it represented him as coming as a child of unknown origin in a rudderless boat.
In Beowulf we hear of a Danish king Healfdene, who had three sons, Heorogar, Hrothgar and Halga.
Hrothgar and Halga correspond to Saxo's Hroar and Helgi, while Hrothwulf is the famous Rolvo or Hrolfr Kraki of Danish and Norse saga.
From the middle of the 6th to the beginning of the 8th century we know practically nothing of Danish history.
We have mention at the beginning of the 8th century of a Danish king Ongendus (cf.
Then come a Danish ruler Sigeric, followed by Hardegon, son of Swein, coming from Norway.
- Danish history first becomes authentic at the beginning of the 9 th century.
Five years later we find a Danish king, Sigf rid, among the princes who assembled at Lippe in 782 to make their submission to Charles the Great.
These three salient facts are practically the sum of our knowledge of early Danish history previous to the Viking period.
For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side.
Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.
Equally short-lived was the Danish dominion in England, which originated in a great Viking expedition of King Sweyn I.
(See Valdemar I., Ii., and Absalon.) Yet the age of the Valdemars was one of the most glorious in Danish history, and it is of political importance as marking a.
Danish territory extended over 60,000 sq.
gg g between the Danish kings and the Schleswig dukes; and of six monarchs no fewer than three died violent deaths.
Eastern Denmark was in the hands of one magnate; another magnate held Jutland and Fiinen in pawn; the dukes of Schleswig were practically independent of the Danish crown; the Scandian provinces had (1332) surrendered themselves to Sweden.
In a word, the natural cohesion of the Danish nation had been loosened and there was no security for law and justice.
Moreover, the old distinction between the king's private estate and crown property henceforth ceases; all such property was henceforth regarded as the hereditary possession of the Danish crown.
The deposition of Eric marks another turning-point in Danish history.
Unfortunately, too, for Norway's independence, the native gentry had gradually died out, and were succeeded by immigrant Danish fortune-hunters; native burgesses there were none, and the peasantry were mostly thralls; so that, excepting the clergy, there was no patriotic class to stand up for the national liberties.
(1448-1481) and Hans (1481-1513), whose chief merit it is to have founded the Danish fleet, were, during the greater part of their reigns, only nominally kings of Sweden.
It was during this war that a strong Danish fleet dominated the Baltic for the first time since the age of the Valdemars.
The position of the superintendents and of the reformed church generally was consolidated by the Articles of Ribe in 1542, and the constitution of the Danish church has practically continued the same to the present day.
Here were to be found men of ability proof against the eloquence of Hans Tausen or Peder Plad and quite capable of controverting their theories - men like Povl Helgesen, for instance, indisputably the greatest Danish theologian of his day, a scholar whose voice was drowned amidst the clash of conflicting creeds.
The possession of a full purse materially assisted the Danish government in its domestic administration, which was indeed epoch-making.
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.
Towards the south the boundaries of the Danish state remained unchanged.
Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief, in contradistinction to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire.
The Danish monarchy since the days of Margaret had continued to be purely elective; and a purely elective monarchy at that stage of the political development of Europe was a mischievous anomaly.
(1523), and lasted for nearly a century and a half, is known in Danish history as Adelsvaelde, or rule of the nobles.
In a word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far advanced in decadence.
The time was close at hand when a Danish magnate was to demonstrate that he preferred the utter ruin of his country to any abatement of his own personal dignity.
Yet, after all, the prospects of the burgesses depended mainly on economic conditions; and in this respect there was a decided improvement, due to the increasing importance of money and commerce all over Europe, especially as the steady decline of the Hanse towns immediately benefited the trade of Denmark-Norway; Norway by this time being completely merged in the Danish state, and ruled from Copenhagen.
There can, indeed, be no doubt that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the i 6th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and the Netherlands.
While in Sweden the free and energetic peasant was a salutary power in the state, which he served with both mind and plough, the Danish peasant was sinking to the level of a bondman.
While the Swedish peasants were well represented in the Swedish Riksdag, whose proceedings they sometimes dominated, the Danish peasantry had no political rights or privileges whatever.
The possession of the Sound enabled her to close the Baltic against the Western powers; the possession of Norway carried along with it the control of the rich fisheries which were Danish monopolies, and therefore a source of irritation to England and Holland.
The peace of Bromsebro was the first of the long series of treaties, extending down to our own days, which mark the progressive shrinkage of Danish territory into an irreducible minimum.
Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroachments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced.
The Danish national debt, too, had risen enormously, while the sources of future income and consequent recuperation had diminished or disappeared.
after the failure of Charles X.'s second war against Denmark, a failure chiefly owing to the heroic defence of the Danish capital (1658-60).
Anyhow, it confirmed the independence of the Danish state.
By their cowardice, incapacity, fished, egotism and treachery during the crisis of the struggle, the Danish aristocracy had justly forfeited the respect of every other class of the community, and emerged from the war hopelessly discredited.
On the contrary, the magnificent gift of the Danish nation to Frederick III.
Compared with the barbarous macaronic jargon of the contemporary official language it shines forth as a masterpiece of pure, pithy and original Danish.
With the disappearance of the Rigsraad, which, as representing the Danish crown, had hitherto exercised sovereignty over both kingdoms, Norway ceased to be a subject principality.
It is clear that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the revolution would give them an administration independent of the Danish government; but these expectations were not realised.
Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administration; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery.
The Enevaelde, or absolute monarchy, also distinctly benefited the whole Danish state by materially increasing its reserve of native talent.
But it would not have terminated advantageously for them at all, had not the powerful and highly efficient Danish fleet effectually prevented the Swedish government from succouring its distressed German provinces, and finally swept the Swedish fleets out of the northern waters.
Reactionary as the measure was it enabled the agricultural interest, on which the prosperity of Denmark mainly depended, to tide over one of the most dangerous crises in its history; but certainly the position of the Danish peasantry was never worse than during the reign of the religious and benevolent Christian VI.
(1766-1808), one of the 1808, most eventful periods of modern Danish history.
Moreover, until two years after Bernstorff's death in 1797, the Danish press enjoyed a larger freedom of speech than the press of any other absolute monarchy in Europe, so much so that at last Denmark became suspected of favouring Jacobin views.
But in September 1799 under strong pressure from the Russian emperor Paul, the Danish government forbade anonymity, and introduced a limited censorship.
In 1800 the Danish government was persuaded by the tsar to accede to the second Armed Neutrality League, which Russia had just concluded with Prussia and the Napo- Sweden.
It was the intention of the Danish government to preserve its neutrality to the last, although, on the whole, it preferred an alliance with Great Britain to a league with Napoleon, and was even prepared for a breach with the French emperor if he pressed her too hardly.
Taking this to be tantamount to a declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital was invested.
acceded thereto as duke of Holstein, but refused to allow Schleswig to enter it, on the ground that Schleswig was an integral part of the Danish realm.
But these consultative assemblies were regarded as insufficient by the Danish Liberals, and during the last years of Frederick VI.
This division of national sentiment within the monarchy, complicated by the approaching extinction of the Oldenburg line of the house of Denmark, by which, in the normal course under the Salic law, the succession to Holstein would have passed away from the Danish crown, opened up the whole complicated SchleswigHolstein Question with all its momentous consequences.
(1848-1863), on the 28th of January 1848, led to the armed intervention of Prussia, at the instance of the new German parliament at Frankfort; and though with the help P l g P of Russian and British diplomacy, the Danes were ultimately successful, they had to submit, in 1851, to the government of Holstein by an international commission consisting of three members, Prussian, Austrian and Danish respectively.
The Liberal Eiderdansk party was for dividing Schleswig into three distinct administrative belts, according as the various nationalities predomin ated (language rescripts of '85),but German sentiment was opposed to any such settlement and, still worse, the great continental powers looked askance on the new Danish constitution as far too democratic. The substance of the notes embodying the exchange of views, in 1851 and 1852, between the German great powers and Denmark, was promulgated, on the 28th of January 1852, in the new constitutional decree which, together with the documents on which it was founded, was known as the Conventions of 1851 and 1852.
The " legitimate " heir to the duchies, under the Salic law, Duke Christian of Sonderburg-Augustenburg, accepted the decision of the London conference in consideration of the purchase by the Danish government of his estates in Schleswig.
procured the insertion in the treaty of paragraph v., by which the northern districts of Schleswig were to be reunited to Denmark when the majority of the population by a free vote should so desire; but when Prussia at last thought fit to negotiate with Denmark on the subject, she laid down conditions which the Danish government could not accept.
The salient feature of Danish politics during subsequent years was the struggle between the two Tings, the Folketing or Lower House, and the Landsting, or Upper House of the Rigsdag.
The session of 1896-1897 was remarkable for a rapprochement between the ministry and the " Left Reform Party," caused by the secessions of the " Young Right," which led to an unprecedented event in Danish politics - the voting of the budget by the Radical Folketing and its rejection by the Conservative Landsting in May 1897; whereupon the ministry resigned in favour of the moderate Conservative Herring cabinet, which induced the Upper House to pass the budget.
The ministry was saved by a mere accident - the expulsion of Danish agitators from North Schleswig by the German government, which evoked a passion of patriotic protest throughout Denmark, and united all parties, the war minister declaring in the Folketing, during the debate on the military budget (January 1899), that the armaments of Denmark were so far advanced that any great power must think twice before venturing to attack her.
Various reforms were carried, but the proposal to sell the Danish islands in the West Indies to the United States fell through.
The effect of these revelations was profound not only politically, but also economically; the important export trade in Danish butter, especially, was adversely affected, as Herr Alberti had been interested in numerous dairy companies.
See also the special bibliographies appended to the biographies of the Danish kings and statesmen.
The influence of Low German first, and High German afterwards, has had the effect of drawing modern Danish constantly farther from this early type.
The first, which has been called Oldest Danish, dating from about 1 ioo and 1250, shows a slightly changed character, mainly depending on the system of inflections.
In the second period, that of Old Danish, bringing us down to 1400, the change of the system of vowels begins to be settled, and masculine and feminine are mingled in a common gender.
The first royal edict written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, written in 1397, is the most important piece of the vernacular of the 14th century.
In 1490, the first printing press was set up at Copenhagen, by Gottfried of Gemen, who had brought it from Westphalia; and five years later the first Danish book was printed.
These few productions appeared along with innumerable works in Latin, and dimly heralded a Danish literature.
The first edition of a Danish Reineke Fuchs, by Herman Weigere, appeared at Lubeck in 1555, and the first authorized Psalter in 1559.
The anonymous Ludus de Sancto Kanuto 3 (c. 1530) which in spite of its title, is written in Danish, is the earliest Danish national drama.
But the best of these old dramatic authors was a priest of Viborg, Justesen Ranch (1539-1607), who wrote Kong Salomons Hylding (" The Crowning of King Solomon ") (1585), Samsons Faengsel (" The Imprisonment of Samson "), which includes lyrical passages which have given it claims to be considered the first Danish opera, and a farce, Karrig Niding (" The Miserly Miscreant ").
The father of Danish poetry, Anders Kristensen Arrebo (1587-1637), was bishop of Trondhjem, but was deprived of his see for immorality.
In two spiritual poets the advancement of the literature of Denmark took a further step. Thomas Kingo 6 (1634-1703) was the first who wrote Danish with perfect ease and grace.
With these names the introductory period of Danish literature ends.
Ludvig Holberg (q.v.; 1684-1754) may be called the founder of modern Danish literature.
The university of Copenhagen, which had been destroyed by fire in 1728, was reopened in 1742, and under the auspices of the historian Hans Gram (1685-1748), who founded the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences, it inspired an active intellectual life.
In 1744 Jakob Langebek (1710-1775) founded the Society for the Improvement of the Danish Language, which opened the field of philology.
Tullin, a Norwegian by birth, represents the first accession of a study of external nature in Danish poetry; he was an ardent disciple of the English poet Thomson.
Johannes Ewald (q.v.; 1743-1781) was not only the greatest Danish lyrist of the 18th century, but he had few rivals in the whole of Europe.
It was now essential that every performance should be national, and in the Danish language.
Hartmann, set the dramas of Ewald and others, and thus the Danish school of music originated.
Bredal (1733-1778), who became director of the Royal Danish Theatre, and the writer of some mediocre plays.
Knud Lyne Rahbek (1760-1830) was a pleasing novelist, a dramatist of some merit, a pathetic elegist, and a witty song-writer; he was also a man full of the literary instinct, and through a long life he never ceased to busy himself with editing the works of the older poets, and spreading among the people a knowledge of Danish literature through his magazine, Minerva, edited in conjunction with C. H.
Since Ewald no one had written Danish lyrical verse so exquisitely as Schack von Staffeldt, and the depth and scientific precision of his thought won him a title which he has preserved, of being the first philosophic poet of Denmark.
They felt as though they heard Danish for the first time spoken in its fulness.
The poet Aarestrup (in 1848) declared that Blicher had raised the Danish language to the dignity of Icelandic. Blicher is a stern realist, in many points akin to Crabbe, and takes a singular position among the romantic idealists of the period, being like them, however, in the love of precise and choice language, and hatred of the mere commonplaces of imaginative writing.
Bernhard Severin Ingemann (q.v.; 1789-1862) contributed to Danish literature historical romances in the style of Sir Walter Scott.
Johan Ludvig Heiberg (q.v.; 1791-1860) was a critic who ruled the world of Danish taste for many years.
He introduced into the Danish literature of his time inestimable elements of lucidity and purity.
In his best pieces Hertz is the most modern and most cosmopolitan of the Danish writers of his time.
Christian Molbech (1783-1857) was a laborious lexicographer, author of the first good Danish dictionary, published in 1833.
Mention must also be made of two dramatists, Peter Thun Feorsom (1777-1817), who produced an excellent translation of Shakespeare (1807-1816), and Thomas Overskou (1798-1873), author of a long series of successful comedies, and of a history of the Danish theatre (5 vols., Copenhagen, 18J4-1864).
For many years he made the aspects of life at sea his particular theme, and he contrived to rouse the patriotic enthusiasm of the Danish public as it had never been roused before.
1861) has come into wide notoriety as the author, in particularly beautiful Danish, of a series of stories of a pronouncedly sexual type, among which Maria (1894) has been the most successful.
Between 1885 and 1892 there was a transitional period in Danish literature.
The Danish public, grown tired of realism, and satiated with pathological phenomena, returned to a fresh study of their own national characteristics.
1852) must also be mentioned as a poet and critic. Valdemar Rordam, whose The Danish Tongue was the lyrical success of 1901, may also be named.
Clausen (1793-1877), and still more Hans Larsen Martensen (1808-1884), lifted the prestige of Danish divinity to a high point.
1852) and Vilhelm Mollerup have all distinguished themselves in the excellent school of Danish historians.
Guthrum, the Danish king, and twenty-nine of his chief men accepted baptism.
A direct attack on the Danish lines failed, but later in the year Alfred saw a means of obstructing the river so as to prevent the egress of the Danish ships.
After the final dispersal of the Danish invaders Alfred turned his attention to the increase of the navy, and ships were built according to the king's own designs, partly to repress the ravages of the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes on the coasts of Wessex, partly to prevent the landing of fresh hordes.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
Naturally, a mutual confidence between a king who had conquered his kingdom and a people who had stood in arms against him was not attainable immediately, and the first six years of Christian III.'s reign were marked by a contest between the Danish Rigsraad and the German counsellors, both of whom sought to rule "the pious king" exclusively.
Though the Danish party won a signal victory at the outset, by obtaining the insertion in the charter of provisions stipulating that only native-born Danes should fill the highest dignities of the state, the king's German counsellors continued paramount during the earlier years of his reign.
The ultimate triumph of the Danish party dates from 1539, the dangers threatening Christian III.
convincing him of the absolute necessity of removing the last trace of discontent in the land by leaning exclusively on Danish magnates and soldiers.
The complete identification of the Danish king with the Danish people was accomplished at the Herredag of Copenhagen, 1542, when the nobility of Denmark voted Christian a twentieth part of all their property to pay off his heavy debt to the Holsteiners and Germans.
Exposed to the successive calamities of the Danish incursions, the English conquest and the English wars, and at last deserted by its bishops, who retired to Drogheda, the venerable city sank into an insignificant collection of cabins, with a dilapidated cathedral.
A popular but scholarly account of Delphi was translated into English from the Danish of F.
In 1219 the Danish king Valdemar II.
He allies himself with Cymric Strathclyde, and by constant raids, and thanks to English weakness caused by Danish invasions, he extends his power over English Lothian.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
impulse which was driving part of the Norse and Danish peoples to piracies in the west was also driving the Swedes and perhaps a portion of the Danes to eastward invasion, which resulted in the establishment of a Scandinavian kingdom (GarOariki) in what is now Russia, with its capital first at Novgorod, afterwards at Kiev.
789 by the appearance in England on our Dorset coast of three pirate ships " from Haerethaland " (Hardeland or Hardyssel in Denmark or Hdrdeland in Norway), which are said in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to be " the first ships of the Danish men " who sought the land of England.
There the Danes very early settled on the island of Walcheren, which had in fact been given by the emperor Louis the Pious in fief to a Danish fugitive king, Harald by name, who sought the help of Louis, and adopted Christianity.
As Rollo was to do in 912, the Danish leader Guthorm received baptism, taking the name of Aethelstan, and settled in his assigned territory, East Anglia, according to the terms of the peace of Wedmore.
In the eastern region the viking leaders seem to have been closely connected with one of the Danish royal families, the kings of Jutland.
We see them under command of two Danish " kings," Godfred and Siegfried, first in the country of the Rhine-mouth or the Lower Scheldt; afterwards dividing their forces and, while some devastate far into Germany, others extend their ravages on every side in northern France down to the Loire.
Holm, a Danish traveller, had made an exact replica of the tablet, which in 1908 was deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
The statement that he proceeded along the coasts of Europe "from Gades to the Tanais" is evidently based upon the supposition that this would be a simple and direct course along the northern shores of Germany and Scythia - Polybius himself, in common with the other Greek geographers till a much later period, being ignorant of the projection of the Danish or Cimbric peninsula, and the circumnavigation that it involved - of all which no trace is found in the extant notices of Pytheas.
The name is preserved in the abbreviated form Ebor in the official name of the archbishop of York, but the philological connexion between Eboracum and the modern name York is doubtful and has probably been complicated by Danish influence.
ZEALAND (also Sealand or Seeland; Danish Sjaelland), the largest island of the kingdom of Denmark.
Off the little port of Kjiige in the south the Danes under Nils Juel defeated the Swedes in 1677, and in another engagement in 1710 the famous Danish commander Hvitfeldt sank with his ship. (3) Holbaek, west of Kjobenhavn.
1754) and of some of the Danish kings.
ERIK PONTOPPIDAN (1698-1764), Danish author, was born at Aarhus on the 24th of August 1698.
Gjellerup in Danish Biografisk Lexikon (vol.
JUTLAND (Danish Jylland), though embracing several islands as well as a peninsula, may be said to belong to the continental portion of the kingdom of Denmark.
The northern portion only is Danish, and bears the name Jutland.
In the south the northernmost of the North Frisian Islands (Fanb) is Danish.
This admirable work quickly caused the population to increase at a more rapid rate in the districts where it was practised than in any other part of the Danish kingdom.
Having obtained pecuniary assistance from the Danish government, he travelled through all Iceland for scientific purposes in the years 1837-1842, and made many interesting geological observations.
Most of his writings on geology are in Danish.
The great Danish philologist and friend of Iceland, Rasmus Rask, and the poet Bjarni Thorarensen had done much to purify the language, but Jonas Hallgrimsson completed their work by his poems and tales, in a purer language than ever had been written in Iceland since the days of Snorri Sturlason.
In 1226 it was made a free city of the Empire by Frederick II., and its inhabitants took part with the enemies of the Danish king in the victory of Bornhdvede in July 1227.
Another remarkable indication of the decay of the ceorl's estate is afforded by the fact that in the treaties with the Danes the twihynde ceorls are equated with the Danish leysings or freedmen.
In November 1805 he was raised to the rank of admiral; and in the summer of 1807, whilst still a lord of the admiralty, he was appointed to the command of the fleet ordered to the Baltic, which, in concert with the army under Lord Cathcart, reduced Copenhagen, and enforced the surrender of the Danish navy, consisting of nineteen ships of the line, besides frigates, sloops, gunboats, and naval stores.
However that may be, he soon repudiated this Danish princess, for whom he seems to have conceived an unconquerable aversion on the very morrow of his marriage to her, and in 1196, in defiance of the pope, who had refused to nullify his union with Ingeborg, married Agnes daughter of Bertold IV., duke of Meran.
ADAM WILHELM MOLTKE, Count (1785-1864), Danish statesman, son of the minister Joachim Godske Moltke (1746-1818), and grandson of Adam Goctlob Moltke, was born at Einsiedelsborg in Funen, on the 25th of August 1785.
The manor house or palace of the bishops of London stands in grounds, beautifully planted and surrounded by a moat, believed to be a Danish work, near the river west of Putney Bridge.
In 879 Danish invaders, sailing up the Thames, wintered at Fulham and Hammersmith.
The Danish dependencies in the Antilles are but trifling in extent or importance.
On Arcona in Wit tow are the remains of an ancient fortress, enclosing a temple which was destroyed in 1168 by the Danish king Waldemar I., when he made himself master of the island.
Rugen was ruled then by a succession of native princes, under Danish supremacy, until 1218.
Wegener and a Danish seaman.
The first in 1915 met with an accident, and had to winter in North Star Bay; the second in 1916 failed to get through Melville Bay, but the third in 1917 brought back safely those members of the expedition who had not previously returned via the Danish settlements in Greenland.
The treaty transferring the Danish West Indies to the United States (1917) contained a clause recognizing Denmark's right to extend her economic and pojitical sphere over the whole of Greenland.
For other Danish work see K.
The Danish scholar L.
Without these suburbs the growth of the town may be seen from the following figures: - (1864, when it ceased to be Danish) 53,039; (1880) 91,049; (1885) 104,717; (1890) together with the four suburbs, 143,249; (1895) 1 48,944; (1900) 161,508; (1905) 168,301.
Its rise to its present position is mainly due to the fostering care of the Danish kings who conferred certain customs privileges and exemptions upon it with a view to making it a formidable rival to Hamburg.
All fear being now removed, the Danish king and his followers pass the night in Heorot, Beowulf and his comrades being lodged elsewhere.
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