A war broke out with King Edward the Elder in 913; in 921 a king whose name is unknown was killed at the fall of Tempsford, and in the same year the Danes of East Anglia submitted to Edward the Elder.
over the Danes in 1010.
The parish church of Greenwich, in Church Street, is dedicated to St Alphege, archbishop, who was martyred here by the Danes in 1012.
The town was several times plundered by the Danes in the 9th century; it was laid waste by Dermot O'Brien in 1071, and was burned in 1137.
In the 9th and beginning of the 10th centuries the town was repeatedly plundered by the Danes, and in 978 the town and abbey were burned by the men of Ossory.
After some years' absence in England, fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the Uplands.
The succeeding years of disunion and misrule under the Danes explain the belated affection with which his countrymen came to regard him.
After a ferocious contest, the Danes were practically annihilated.
In the following year, Charles with 9000 men routed 12,000 Danes near Malmo (July 15, 1678).
This proved to be the last pitched battle of the war, the Danes never again venturing to attack their once more invincible enemy in the open field.
DANNEWERK, or Danewerk (Danish, Dannevirke or Danevirke, " Danes' rampart"), the ancient frontier rampart of the Danes against the Germans, extending 102 m.
From 1850 onwards it was again repaired and strengthened at great cost, and was considered impregnable; but in the war of 1864 the Prussians turned it by crossing the Schlei, .and it was abandoned by the Danes on the 6th of February without a blow.
At the sack of Canterbury by the Danes in 1011 ZElfheah was captured and kept in prison for seven months.
In 868 the Mercian king appealed to Ã†thelred and Alfred for assistance against the Danes, who were in possession of Nottingham.
The armies of Wessex and Mercia did no serious fighting, and the Danes were allowed to remain through the winter.
In 874 the march of the Danes from Lindsey to Repton drove Burgred from his kingdom.
In the reign of Alfred the abbey was destroyed by the Danes, but it was restored by Edred, and an imposing list of possessions in the Domesday survey evidences recovered prosperity.
There can be no doubt that the establishment of the Norman power in England was, like the establishment of the Danish power, greatly helped by the essential kindred of Normans, Danes and English.
In 870 Edmund, king of East Anglia, was killed by the Danes under I'varr and Ubbi, the sons of Ragnar Lol brok.
4 Principally Frenchmen, with Englishmen, Italians, Norwegians, Danes, Dutchmen and Spaniards.
Finding himself unable to resist the Muscovites, the grand master of the Order put himself under Polish protection, and this led to a seven years' war (1563-70) with Poland, during which the Swedes and Danes intervened on their own account.
This victory was followed by the foundation of Reval and the occupation of Harrien and Wirland, the northern districts of Esthonia, by the Danes.
Southwark witnessed various episodes during the invasions of the Norsemen, and was fortified by the Danes against the City in the reign of Ethelred the Unready.
It was probably about this time that Ã†thelred fell ill, and the Norwegians and Danes from Ireland unsuccessfully besieged Chester.
Ã†thelflaed won the support of the Danes against the Norwegians, and seems also to have entered into an alliance with the Scots and the Welsh against the pagans.
In 917 Derby was captured from the Danes, and in the next year Leicester and York both submitted to her.
Grimsby (Grimesbi) is supposed to have been the landing-place of the Danes on their first invasion of Britain towards the close of the 8th century.
In the 9th century the district suffered frequently from the ravages of the Danes, who in 874 wintered at Repton and destroyed its famous monastery, the burial-place of the kings of Mercia.
The early chroniclers declare that St Aldhelm founded a church near Wareham about 701, and perhaps the priory, which is mentioned as existing in 876, when the Danes retired from Cambridge to a strong position in this fort.
Further incursions made by the Danes in 998 and in 1015 under Canute probably resulted in the destruction of the priory, on the site of which a later house was founded in the 12th century as a cell of the Norman abbey of Lysa, and in the decayed condition of Wareham in 1086, when 203 houses were ruined or waste, the result of misfortune, poverty and fire.
Built on the horns of a sheltered bay, Hartlepool (Hertepull, Hertipol), grew up round the monastery founded there in 640, but was destroyed by the Danes in Soo and rebuilt by Ecgred, bishop of Lindisfarne.
The Danes returned to the struggle with increased forces under the command of King Christian in person, but they were again defeated - their admiral being killed and his ship taken.
No sustained effort was made to ward off the inroads of the Danes and others, who were constantly attacking the borders of the Empire.
The abolition of the cropping of the ears of Great Danes, bull terriers, black and tan terriers, white English terriers, Irish terriers and toy terriers, in 1889 gained the approval of all humane lovers of dogs, and although attempts have been made to induce the club to modify the rule which prohibits the exhibition of cropped dogs, the practice has not been revived; it is declared, however, that the toy terriers and white English terriers have lost such smartness by the retention of the ears that they are becoming.
During William's absence in 1067, Fitz-Osbern was left as his deputy in central England, to guard it from the Welsh on one side, and the Danes on the other.
As correct a notion as can be obtained of the numbers annually exported from the continent about the year 1790 by traders cf the several European countries engaged in the traffic is supplied by the following statement: - " By the British, 38,000; by the French, 20,000; by the Dutch, 4000; by the Danes, 2000; by the Portuguese, 10,000; total 74,000."
This was destroyed by the Danes but refounded as a priory by Earl Leofric in 1017.
Framlingham (Frendlingham, Framalingaham) in early Saxon times was probably the site of a fortified earthwork to which St Edmund the Martyr is said to have fled from the Danes in 870.
The Danes captured the stronghold after the escape of the king, but it was won back in 921, and remained in the hands of the crown, passing to William I.
6 In 1883-1885 the Danes G.
The town, rebuilt after this disaster, was again more than once devastated by invading Danes and Sla y s.
In 1685, at the invitation of the popular leaders, the Danes appeared before Hamburg demanding the traditional homage; they were repulsed, but the internal troubles continued, culminating in 1708 in the victory of the democratic factions.
The Danes are said to have burned the town in 1012.
Charles's invasion of Poland (July 1654) came as a distinct relief to the Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to Denmark.
The Danes had only three days' warning of the approaching danger; and the vast and dilapidated line of defence had at first but 2000 regular defenders.
In 1001 Ã†thelred gave this monastery and the town of Bradford to the nunnery of Shaftesbury, in order that the nuns might have a safe refuge against the insults of the Danes.
In any case, the antiquity of the town is undisputed, and it served as the seat of government for Ystrad Tywi until the year 877, when Prince Cadell of South Wales abandoned Carmarthen for Dinefawr, near Llandilo, probably on account of the maritime raids of the Danes and Saxons.
Joining forces, the Danes and English captured York, although it was defended by two Norman castles.
Marching rapidly on York he drove the Danes to their ships; and the city was then reduced by a blockade.
Polite Danes were wont to say that a man wrote Latin to his friends, talked French to the ladies, called his dogs in German, and only used Danish to swear at his servants.
This triumph was only obtained, however, after a fierce struggle of ten years, in which the Danes were much hampered by the uncertain and selfish co-operation of their German allies, chief among whom was Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, who appropriated the lion's share of the spoil.
In 991 the Danes burned Ipswich, and defeated and slew the East Saxon ealdorman Brihtnoth at Maldon.
Despite the treachery of Elfric, the English were victorious; and the Danes sailed off to ravage Lindsey and Northumbria.
The Danish attacks were repeated in 997, 99 8, 999 and in 1000 !Ethelred availed himself of the temporary absence of the Danes in Normandy to invade Cumberland, at that time a Viking stronghold.
In io05 the Danes were absent in Denmark, but came back next year, and emboldened by the utter lack of resistance, they ranged far inland.
In Ioio the Danes returned, to find the kingdom more utterly disorganized than ever.
While it was being collected, the Danes sacked Canterbury and barbarously slew the archbishop Alphege.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
A change, however, came about towards the end of the century, when the Scandinavian freebooters known as Danes began to harry the coasts.
The Saxons had become law-abiding, and the fierce Danes treated them in the same way as in former days they had treated the Britons.
In 871 the chronicler affirms that Alfred fought nine great battles against the Danes in the kingdom south of the Thames, and that the West Saxons made peace with them.
In the next year the Danes went from Reading to London, and there took up their winter quarters.
In 896 the Londoners came off victorious in their encounters with the Danes.
93 7) the Danes ceased to trouble the country.
In the reign of Ã†thelred II., called the Unready (but more correctly the Redeless), the Danes were more successful in their operations against London, but the inhabitants resisted stoutly.
Snorre the Icelander tells us that the Danes fortified Southwark with ditch and rampart, which the English assailed in vain.
The Danes went from the town and ravaged the neighbourhood, so that in the end the king and his witan agreed to give sixteen thousand pounds to be relieved of the presence of the enemy.
In the year 1009 the Danes frequently attacked London, but they had no success, and fared ill in their .attempts.
The Danes at once set to work to dig a great ditch by Southwark, and then dragged their ships through to the west side of the bridge.
In spite of all this, after fighting obstinately both by land and by water, the Danes had to raise the siege of London and take the ships to the river Orwell.
Reference has already been made to a Danish settlement, and there seems some reason for placing it on the ground now occupied by the parishes of St Clement Danes and Aldwich.
The church of St Editha, originally founded in the 8th century, was rebuilt, after being burned by the Danes, by Edgar, who made it collegiate, but the existing Decorated building, was erected after a fire in 1345.
It was burned by the Danes and restored in 913 by Aethelflead, lady of the Mercians, who built the fort which was the origin of the later castle.
The town was again destroyed by the Danes in 943.
Practically the entire code of 7Ethelberht, for instance, is a tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and Eadric, Ine and Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edward the Elder, lEthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and Ethelred.
After the treaties with the Danes, the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the lines of an opposition between twelvehynd-men and twyhyndmen, paving the way towards the feudal distinction between the free and the unfree.
The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes.
There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
Jordanes says that they had been expelled from their territories by the Danes, from which it may be inferred that they belonged either to what is now the kingdom of Denmark, or the southern portion of the Jutish peninsula.
Walafrid's poetical works also include a short life of St Blaithinaic, a high-born monk of Iona, murdered by the Danes in the first half of the 9th century; a life of St Mammas; and a Liber de visionibus Wettini.
Armagh, together with Louth, Monaghan and some smaller districts, formed part of a territory called Orgial or Urial, which was long subject to the occasional incursions of the Danes.
The antiquities consist of cairns and tumuli; the remains of the fortress of Emain near the city of Armagh, once the residence of the kings of Ulster; and Danes Cast, an extensive fortification in the south-east of the county, near Poyntzpass, extending into Co.
The cemetery contains the remains of the Danish soldiers who fell at the battle of Idstedt (25th of July 1850), but the colossal Lion monument, erected by the Danes to commemorate their victory, was removed to Berlin in 1864.
Pop. (1890) 3305; (1900) 4500; (1905, state census) 5657, of whom 1206 were foreign-born, including 461 Norwegians, 411 Danes and 98 Swedes.
Wapentakes are not found outside the parts of England which were settled by the Danes.
During almost the whole of his reign the Danes were engaged in a political struggle between the "Right" and the "Left," the party of order and the party of progress, the former being supported in general by the Landsting, and the latter by the Folketing.
In 923 he had bought a truce for ten years with the Hungarians, by a promise of tribute, but on its expiration he gained a great victory over these formidable foes in March 933 The Danes were defeated, and territory as far as the Eider secured for Germany; and the king sought further to extend his influence by entering into relations with the kings of England, France and Burgundy.
In 808 the Frankish authority over the Obotrites was interfered with by Gudrod (Godfrey), king of the Danes, who ravaged the Frisian coasts and spoke boastfully of leading his troops to Aix.
On the retirement of the Swedes from Cracow and Warsaw, and the conclusion of the treaty of Copenhagen with the Danes, he commanded the army corps sent to drive the troops of Charles X.
About the year 870 Essex passed into the hands of the Danes and was left to them by the treaty between Alfred and Guthrum.
Of the total foreign-born population of 88,508, 19,788 were Norwegians, 17,873 Germans, 12,365 Russians, 59 06 English Canadians, 5038 Danes, 3862 English and 3298 Irish.
Englishmen number about boo; Germans, 190; Danes, 160; Americans, 150, and other nationalities are represented in smaller numbers.
The policing of the seventeen montons is provided for by a gendarmerie of over 7000 men and officers (many of the latter Danes), a well-equipped and well-disciplined force.
The navy, many of the officers of which are Danes and Norwegians, comprises a steel twin-screw cruiser of 2500 tons which serves as the royal yacht, four steel gunboats of between 500 and 700 tons all armed with modern quick-firing guns, two torpedo-boat destroyers and three torpedo boats, with other craft for river and coast work.
Boston (Icanhoe, St Botolph or Botolph's Town) derives its name from St Botolph, who in 654 founded a monastery here, which was destroyed by the Danes, 870.
The earliest known inhabitants were of Celtic origin, and the names of the townlands or subdivisions, supposed to have been made in the 13th century, are pure Celtic. Antrim was exposed to the inroads of the Danes, and also of the northern Scots, who ultimately effected permanent settlements.
In 1600 he was sent on an embassy, with others, to Embden, for the purpose of settling certain matters in dispute between the English and the Danes.
All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
In the 10th century a fortress was maintained here against the invading Danes.
In the following year Bogislav did homage to Canute on the deck of his long-ship, off Jomsborg in Pomerania, Canute henceforth styling himself king of the Danes and Wends.
lEthelred's reign was one long struggle against the Danes.
In 871 the Danes encamped at Reading, where they defeated !Ethelred and his brother, but later in the year the English won a great victory at "lEscesdun."
A fortnight later they were defeated at Basing, but partially retrieved their fortune by a victory at "Ma retun" (perhaps Marden in Wiltshire), though the Danes held the field.
In the Easter of this year !Ethelred died, perhaps of wounds received in the wars against the Danes, and was buried at Wimborne.
The cathedral of Christ Church, or Holy Trinity, the older of the two Protestant cathedrals in the possession of which Dublin is remarkable, was founded by Sigtryg, a Christ Christianized king of the Danes of Dublin, in 1038, Church.
In the 9th century the Danes attacked Dublin and took it.
(832), though the Danes had appeared in the country as early as the close of the previous century.
The Irish, however, won the battle, but the Danes reoccupied the city.
The Danes were finally ousted by the Anglo-Normans in 1171.
In 1900 i~hese two countries represented of the total only 52.7%; add the Dutch, the Danes, Swedes, Norwegians and Swiss to the latter and the share was 65.1%.
In 1788 when the Danes unexpectedly invaded Sweden and threatened Gothenburg, it was Armfelt who under the king's directions organized the Dalecarlian levies and led them to victory.
It granted to the burgesses all privileges and free customs such as they held in the time of Edward the Elder, with many additional exemptions, in return for help rendered against the Danes.
Founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1619, Gothenburg was from the first designed to be fortified, a town of the same name founded on Hisingen in 1603 having been destroyed by the Danes during the Calmar war.
Here, in 1848, the Danes directed their main attack against Field-marshal Wrangel's army.
He it was who made the peace of Brdmsebro between the Danes and the Swedes, and turned the latter once again against the empire; he it was who sent Lionne to make the peace of Castro, and combine the princes of North Italy against the Spaniards, and who made the peace of Ulm between France and Bavaria, thus detaching the emperor's best ally.
He was then employed in the expedition against Copenhagen, in which he defeated the Danes in the action of Kjoge (29th Oct.).
The lan of Halland formed part of the territory of Denmark in Sweden, and accordingly, in 1534, during his war with the Danes, Gustavus Vasa assaulted and took its chief town.
The first conspiracy was easily suppressed, and in 974 an attempt on the part of Harold III., king of the Danes, to throw off the German yoke was also successfully resisted; but an expedition against the Bohemians led by the king in person in 975 was a partial failure owing to the outbreak of further trouble in Bavaria.
His sons allied themselves with the Danes, but were invariably defeated by Haakon, who was successful in everything he undertook except in his attempt to introduce Christianity, which aroused an opposition he did not feel strong enough to face.
A monastery formerly stood on the high ground west of Padstow, and according to tradition was founded by St Petrock in the 6th and razed by the Danes in the 10th century.
Padstow was plundered by the Danes in 981.
About 950 the monastery and town were destroyed by King Edred during his expedition against the Danes, but the monastery was rebuilt by the archbishops of York, and about the time of the Conquest was changed to a collegiate church.
On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and maintained their position against the Danish gunboats.
In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 50o Danes in the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by the same sculptor.
On the outbreak of the war of 1864, the fortress was again strengthened by new works and an entrenched camp; but the Danes suddenly evacuated it on the 28th of April after a siege of six weeks.
the Spaniards, the Danes and the Hansa together, the Italians, the English, the Portuguese and the Germans, were named at Antwerp, and over 1000 foreign merchants were resident in the city.
After destruction by the Danes in 997 it was restored, and among its famous abbots, were Lyfing, friend of Canute, and Aldred, who crowned Harold II.
Both town and abbey were sacked by the Danes in 997, but were shortly afterwards rebuilt, and the latter at the time of the Conquest ranked as the wealthiest house in Devon, including the hundred and manor of Tavistock among its possessions.
The conquest of Hamburg by the Danes, and the death of John of England, were further blows to his cause.
In the war with Sweden, generally known as the "Kalmar War," because its chief operation was the capture by the Danes of Kalmar, the eastern fortress of Sweden, Christian compelled Gustavus Adolphus to give way on all essential points (treaty of Knared, 10th of January 1613).
Fortunately too for him, the Swedish government delayed hostilities in Scania till February 1644, so that the Danes were able to make adequate defensive preparations and save the important fortress of Malmo.
In 1658, the States-General interfered to save the Danes from Charles Gustavus of Sweden.
It was called Long Friday by the Anglo-Saxons 1 and Danes, possibly in allusion to the length of the services which marked the day.
On the 23rd he returned with the refusal of the Danes.
Nelson urged immediate attack, and recommended, as an alternative, that part of the British fleet should watch the Danes while the remainder advanced up the Baltic to prevent the junction of the Russian Reval squadron with the ships in Kronstadt.
Sir Hyde Parker was, however, unwilling to go up the Baltic with the Danes unsubdued behind him, or to divide his force.
Here the Danes had placed their strongest ships.
During the nights of the 30th and 31st of March the channel between the Middle Ground and Saltholm Flat was sounded by the boats of the British fleet, the Danes making no attempt to interfere with them.
The Danes could bring into action 375 guns in all.
The other ships passed between the "Bellona" and "Russel" and the Danes.
Nelson astutely and legitimately seized the opportunity to open negotiations with the Danes.
Thesiger ashore to the crown prince of Denmark (then regent of the kingdom), to say that unless he was allowed to take possession of the hulks which had surrendered he would be compelled to burn them, a course which he deprecated on the ground of humanity and his tenderness of "the brothers of the English the Danes."
Fire was suspended by the Danes to allow of time to receive Sir Hyde Parker's answer.
The Swedes, who like the Danes had entered the coalition under pressure from Russia, did not send their ships to sea.
The early abbey was probably destroyed by the Danes in the reign of i z Ethelred the Unready (978-1015), for in 1043 Edward the Confessor founded here a college of secular canons.
Moreover he was in constant fear of the Danes.
Necessity compelled him indeed (1534-1536) to take part in Grevens fejde (Counts' War) (see Denmark, History), as the ally of Christian III., but his exaggerated distrust of the Danes was invincible.
"We advise and exhort you," he wrote to the governor of Kalmar, "to put no hope or trust in the Danes, or in their sweet scribbling, inasmuch as they mean nothing at all by it except how best they may deceive and betray us Swedes."
They say that the Danes and Swedes rushed at the front of Olaf's line without success.
Moreover, that grain unsown grows there abundantly [fruges ibi non seminatas abundare] ' is not a fabulous fancy, but is based on trustworthy accounts of the Danes."
The discovery of new lands in the West by the Norsemen came in the course of the great Scandinavian exodus of the 9th, 10th and firth centuries - the Viking Age - when Norsemen, Swedes and Danes swarmed over all Europe, conquering kingdoms and founding colonies.
His reign was marked by two serious attacks on the part of the Danes, who destroyed Winchester in 860, in spite of the resistance of the ealdormen Osric and Ã†thelwulf with the levies of Hampshire and Berkshire, while in 865 they treacherously ravaged Kent.
Until 1658 it belonged to Denmark, and it was again occupied by the Danes in 1676 and 1677.
of Denmark in November 1709, but on the 28th of February 1710 the Danes were defeated in the neighbourhood, and the town came finally into the possession of Sweden, though in 1711 it was again bombarded by the Danes.
A statue was erected in St Paul's in 1825, and there are commemorative tablets in Lichfield Cathedral, St Nicholas (Brighton), Uttoxeter, St Clement Danes (London), Gwaynynog and elsewhere.
On this northern line the Germans come in contact with the Danes who inhabit the northern parts of Schleswig within the limits of the German empire.
Alsatians, Guelphs and Danes i8 5
By this time all the country east of the lower Elbe seems to have been Slavonic. In the north, perhaps in the province of Schleswig, we hear now for the first time of the Danes.
The great overthrow of the Saxons took place about 772773, and by the end of the century Charlemagne had extended his conquests to the border of the Danes.
While the Magyars had been troubling Germany on the east and south, the Danes had been irritating her on the north.
Charlemagne had established a~ march between the Eider and the Schlei; but in course of time the Danes had not only seized this territory, but had driven the German population beyond the Elbe.
Margrave Billung, who looked after th Abotrites on the lower Elbe, was less fortunate, mainly becaus of the neighborhood of the Danes, who, after the death of King Henry, often attacked the hated Germans, but some progress was made in bringing this district under German influence.
Otto, having profound faith in the power of the church to reconcile conquered peoples to his rule, provided for the benefit of the Danes the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ripen and Aarhus; and among those which he established for the Slays were the important bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg.
The Saxons were able to cope with the Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but the Slays fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of the emperors Otto II.
The Danes, who were supported by Russia, responded by blockading the Baltic ports, which Germany, having no navy, was unable effectually to defend.
A considerable army was despatched against the Danes by the Frankfort government, but on the 10th of July an armistice was signed at Berlin for six months, and a year afterwards Prussia concluded peace.
His main fear was that the Danes might refuse to fight and appeal instead to a European congress; and, to prevent this, he led the Copenhagen government to believe that Great Britain had threatened to intervene in the event of Prussia going to war, though, as a matter of fact, England did nothing of the kind.
This sufficed to provoke the defiance of the Danes, and on the 1st of February 1864 the Austrian and D h Prussian troops crossed the Eider.
conclusion; the famous rampart of the Dannewerk, on which the Danish defence chiefly relied, was turned, and after a short campaign, in which the Danes fought with distinguished courage, peace was concluded by the treaty of Vienna (August I, 1864), by which Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg were ceded to Austria and Prussia jointly.
Compared with the Polish question, that of the Danes in North Schleswig is of minor importance; they number less than.
It appeared a small compensation that Great Britain surrendered to Germany the island of Heligoland, which she had taken from the Danes in the Napoleonic wars.
Some of the Conservative leaders, especially Baron von Stumm, the great manufacturer (one of Bismarcks chief advisers on industrial matters), demanded protection against the teaching of some of the professors with whose economic doctrines they did not agree; pastors who took part in the Christian-Social movement incurred the displeasure of the government; and Professor Delbruck was summoned before a disciplinary court because, in the Preussisc/~e Ja/zrbcher, which he edited, he had ventured to criticize the policy of the Prussian government towards the Danes in Schleswig.
Amongst the best-known theodolite determinations of height are those made at Bossekop in Norway by the French Expedition of 1838-1839 (16) and the Norwegian Expedition of 1882-1883, and those made in the latter year by the Swedes at Cape Thorsden and the Danes at Godthaab.
It has belonged to Mecklenburg-Schwerin since 1695; in 1712 it was taken by the Swedes, in 1715 by the Danes and in 1716 by the Russians.
There is a tradition that it was visited by St Patrick in the 5th century, but it is first authentically known as a settlement of the Danes, who sacked it in 812 and afterwards made it the principal town of their kingdom of Limerick, but were expelled from it towards the close of the 10th century by Brian Boroimhe.
Bandhotm aPPet A Danes are a yellow-haired and blue-eyed Teutonic race of middle stature, bearing traces of their kinship with the northern Scandinavian peoples.
The separation from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than half German, intensified the national character; the Danes are intensely patriotic; and there is no portion of the Danish dominions except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where a Scandinavian language is not spoken.
1 5), a part of them made their way across the " desert of the Sla y s," through the lands of the Warni and the Danes to Thoule (i.e.
This is the first recorded use of the name " Danes."
Jutland was acquired by Dan, the eponymous ancestor of the Danes.
This Hygelac is undoubtedly to be identified with the Chochilaicus, king of the Danes (really Gotar) who, as mentioned above, made a raid against the Franks c. 520.
Fifty years later the Danes begin to be mentioned with comparative frequency in continental annals.
From 777-798 we have mention of a certain Sigifridus as king of the Danes, and then in 804 his name is replaced by that of one Godefridus.
In 836 we find one Hone as king of the Danes; he was probably a son of Godefridus.
At some date after 916 we find mention of one "Hardecnuth Urm " ruling among the Danes.
Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."
The Danes, the southernmost branch of the Scandinavian family, referred to by Alfred (c. 890) as occupying Jutland, the islands and Scania, were, in 777, strong enough to defy the Frank empire by harbouring its fugitives.
About the same time Willibrord, from his see at Utrecht, made an unsuccessful attempt to convert the " wild Danes."
The rovers who first chastened and finally colonized southern England and Normandy were certainly Danes.
Part of Norway was first seized after the united Danes and Swedes had defeated and slain King Olaf Trygvesson at the battle of Svolde (1000); and between 1028 and 1035 Canute the Great added the whole kingdom to his own; but the union did not long survive him.
Favourable circumstances had, from the first, given the Danes the lead in Scandinavia.
Numerous Danes, lay as well as clerical, regularly frequented the university of Paris.
Surprised and unprepared though they were, the Danes, nevertheless, on the 2nd of April 180t, offered a gallant resistance; but their fleet was destroyed, their capital bombarded, and, abandoned by Russia, they were compelled to submit to a disadvantageous peace.
(1848-1863), on the 28th of January 1848, led to the armed intervention of Prussia, at the instance of the new German parliament at Frankfort; and though with the help P l g P of Russian and British diplomacy, the Danes were ultimately successful, they had to submit, in 1851, to the government of Holstein by an international commission consisting of three members, Prussian, Austrian and Danish respectively.
Pram (1756-1821), author of Staerkodder, a romantic epic, based on Scandinavian legend, and Edvard Storm (1749-1794), were associates and mainly fellowstudents at Copenhagen, where they introduced a style peculiar to themselves, and distinct from that of the true Danes.
This group of writers is now claimed by the Norwegians as the founders of a Norwegian literature; but their true place is certainly among the Danes, to whom they primarily appealed.
Jens Baggesen is the greatest comic poet that Denmark has produced; and as a satirist and witty lyrist he has no rival among the Danes.
The principal theatres are liberally open to fresh dramatic talent of every kind, and the great fondness of the Danes for this form of entertainment gives unusual scope for experiments in halls or private theatres; nothing is too eccentric to hope to obtain somewhere a fair hearing.
But in history the Danes have been very active.
But with the accession of the third brother Ã†thelred (866) the public life of Alfred begins, and he enters on his great work of delivering England from the Danes.
The same year the two brothers made an unsuccessful attempt to relieve Mercia from the pressure of the Danes.
While he was busied with his brother's exequies, the Danes defeated the English in his absence at an unnamed spot, and once more in his presence at Wilton in May.
After this peace was made, and for the next five years the Danes were occupied in other parts of England, Alfred merely keeping a force of observation on the frontier.
But in 876 part of the Danes managed to slip past him and occupied Wareham; whence, early in 877, under cover of treacherous negotiations, they made a dash westwards and seized Exeter.
Here Alfred blockaded them, and a relieving fleet having been scattered by a storm, the Danes had to submit and withdrew to Mercia.
The Danes on their side moved out of Chippenham, and the two armies met at Edington in Wiltshire.
The Danes submitted.
And though for the present the north-eastern half of England, including London, remained in the hands of the Danes, in reality the tide had turned, and western Europe was saved from the danger of becoming a heathen Scandinavian power.
For the next few years there was peace, the Danes being kept busy on the continent.
A landing in Kent in 884 or 885, 1 though successfully repelled, encouraged the East Anglian Danes to revolt.
The Danes, finding their position on the continent becoming more and more precarious, crossed to England in two divisions, amounting in the aggregate to 330 sail, and entrenched themselves, the larger body at Appledore and the lesser under Haesten at Milton in Kent.
attempt, in concert with the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes, to conquer England.
While he was negotiating with Haesten the Danes at Appledore broke out and struck north-westwards, but were overtaken by Alfred's eldest son, Edward, and defeated in a general engagement at Farnham, and driven to take refuge in Thorney Island in the Hertfordshire Colne, where they were blockaded and ultimately compelled to submit.
Alfred had been on his way to relieve his son at Thorney when he heard that the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes were besieging Exeter and an unnamed fort on the coast of North Devon.
And early in 8 94 (895) want of food obliged the Danes to retire once more to Essex.
At the end of this year and early in 895 (896) the Danes drew their ships up the Thames"and Lea and fortified themselves twenty miles above London.
The Danes realized that they were out-manoeuvred.
After the final dispersal of the Danish invaders Alfred turned his attention to the increase of the navy, and ships were built according to the king's own designs, partly to repress the ravages of the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes on the coasts of Wessex, partly to prevent the landing of fresh hordes.
Much, too, was needed in the way of civil re-organization, especially in the districts ravaged by the Danes.
The legislation of Alfred probably belongs to the later part of the reign, after the pressure of the Danes had relaxed.
To the ruin of learning and education wrought by the Danes, and the practical extinction of the knowledge of Latin even among the clergy, the preface to Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care bears eloquent testimony.
Though the Danish party won a signal victory at the outset, by obtaining the insertion in the charter of provisions stipulating that only native-born Danes should fill the highest dignities of the state, the king's German counsellors continued paramount during the earlier years of his reign.
The Italian occupation of Rhodes put an end to the important work of the Carlsberg Expedition, and caused the loss of much of the material which had been collected at Lindos by the Danes, but the valuable finds from the archaic town and cemetery at Vroulia were fortunately recorded by K.
In 1228 the castle was taken by the Livonian Knights, but nine years later it returned to the Danes.
A great conflagration in 1433, the pestilence of 1532, the bombardment by the Danes in 1569, and the Russo-Livonian War, destroyed its trade.
It was formerly isolated by marshes and accessible only by boat or artificial causeway, and under these conditions it gained its historical fame as the retreat of King Alfred in 8 8-87 when he was unable to withstand the incursions of the Danes.
We cannot to-day determine the exact homes or provenance of these freebooters, who were a terror alike to the Frankish empire, to England and to Ireland and west Scotland, who only came into view when their ships anchored in some Christian harbour, and who were called now Normanni, now Dacii, now Danes, now Lochlannoch; which last, the Irish name for them, though etymologically " men of the lakes or bays," might as well be translated " Norsemen," seeing that Lochlann was the Irish for Norway.
impulse which was driving part of the Norse and Danish peoples to piracies in the west was also driving the Swedes and perhaps a portion of the Danes to eastward invasion, which resulted in the establishment of a Scandinavian kingdom (GarOariki) in what is now Russia, with its capital first at Novgorod, afterwards at Kiev.
There the Danes very early settled on the island of Walcheren, which had in fact been given by the emperor Louis the Pious in fief to a Danish fugitive king, Harald by name, who sought the help of Louis, and adopted Christianity.
The settlement of Danes under Rollo or Rolf on the lower Seine, i.e.
Much was retrieved by the victory of Aethandune; yet even after the peace of Wedmore as large a part of the land lay under the power of the Danes as of the English.
In England under Edward the Elder and Aethelflaed, Mercia recovered a great portion of what had been ceded to the Danes.
The Danes were specially renowned for their axes; but about the sword the most of northern poetry and mythology clings.
Normandy was the best-governed part of France in the nth century; and the Danes in East Anglia and the Five Burgs were in many regards a model to their Saxon neighbours (Steenstrup, op. cit.
Off the little port of Kjiige in the south the Danes under Nils Juel defeated the Swedes in 1677, and in another engagement in 1710 the famous Danish commander Hvitfeldt sank with his ship. (3) Holbaek, west of Kjobenhavn.
Sigebert, king of the East Angles, founded a monastery here about 633, which in 903 became the burial place of King Edmund, who was slain by the Danes about 870, and owed most of its early celebrity to the reputed miracles performed at the shrine of the martyr king.
In the direct language of reproach and advice, with no disingenuous loading of the Crown's policy upon its agents, these resolutions attacked the errors of the king, and maintained that "the relation between Great Britain and these colonies was exactly the same as that of England and Scotland after the accession of James and until the Union; and that our emigration to this country gave England no more rights over us than the emigration of the Danes and Saxons gave to the present authorities of their mother country over England."
Danes and Swedes battled for the possession of the Sound and for its heavy dues.
Though the Danes temporarily occupied the town in 1801, it preserved its freedom and gained some of the chapter lands when the imperial constitution of Germany was broken up by the act of February 1803, while trade and commerce prospered for a few years.
Lubeck joined the North German Confederation in 1866, profiting by the retirement from Holstein and Lauenburg of the Danes, whose interference had prevented as long as possible a direct railway between Lubeck and Hamburg.
Another remarkable indication of the decay of the ceorl's estate is afforded by the fact that in the treaties with the Danes the twihynde ceorls are equated with the Danish leysings or freedmen.
Heide in 1 447 became the capital of the Ditmarsh peasant republic, but on the 13th of June 1559 it was the scene of the complete defeat of the peasant forces by the Danes.
A priory was founded here as a nunnery by St Milburg, granddaughter of Penda, about 680, and after being destroyed by the Danes was refounded by Leofric in 1(D1 7.
The exploration of Greenland has been continued, with few exceptions, by Danes who, besides throwing much light on problems in physical geography and Eskimo ethnography, have practically completed the map of the coasts.
Similar methods have been employed with equal success by Rasmussen and other Danes in Greenland.
Under the year 848 the Annals of the Four Masters record the burning of the island of Lough Gabhor (the crannog of Lagore), and the same stronghold is noticed as again destroyed by the Danes in 933.
Beowulf, with fourteen companions, sails to Denmark, to offer his help to Hrothgar, king of the Danes, whose hall (called " Heorot ") has for twelve years been rendered uninhabitable by the ravages of a devouring monster (apparently in gigantic human shape) called Grendel, a dweller in the waste, who used nightly to force an entrance and slaughter some of the inmates.
At night the Danes withdraw, leaving the strangers alone.
They include many particulars of what purports to be the history of the royal houses, not only of the Gautar and the Danes, but also of the Swedes, the continental Angles, the Ostrogoths, the Frisians and the Heathobeards, besides references to matters of unlocalized heroic story such as the exploits of Sigismund.
It begins by celebrating the ancient glories of the Danes, tells in allusive style the story of Scyld, the founder of the " Scylding " dynasty of Denmark, and praises the virtues of his son Beowulf.
Gregory of Tours, who died in 594, relates that in the reign of Theodoric of Metz (511 - J34) the Danes invaded the kingdom, and carried off many captives and much plunder to their ships.
The Franks then defeated the Danes in a naval battle, and recovered the booty.
There is really nothing to forbid the supposition; nor is there any unlikelihood in the view that the persons mentioned as belonging to the royal houses of the Danes and Swedes had a real existence.
There are other points of contact between Beowulf on the one hand and the Scandinavian records on the other, confirming the conclusion that the Old English poem contains much of the historical tradition of the Gautar, the Danes and the Swedes, in its purest accessible form.
For all we know, the intercourse of the Angles with Scandinavia, which enabled their poets to obtain new knowledge of the legends of Danes, Gautar and Swedes, may not have ceased until their conversion to Christianity in the 7th century.
In the 9th century it was destroyed by the Danes, but being refounded became the centre of a Danish colony, and until laid waste by the Conqueror was the most prosperous town in the district.
The early history of Bridgnorth is connected with IEthelfleda, lady of the Mercians, who raised a mound there in 912 as part of her offensive policy against the Danes of the five boroughs.
In the time of Edward the Confessor the town seems to have consisted of the mill and a fortification or earthwork which was probably thrown up by Alfred as a defence against the Danes; but it had increased in importance before the Conquest, and appears in Domesday as a thriving borough and port.
In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his realm.
Its nucleus was a castle, built in 809 by Egbert, one of Charlemagne's counts, against the Danes.
Olaf was driven from Norway by the Danes, but returning in 1030 he raised a small army in Sweden and marched through Jamtland to Trondhjem only to meet his death at the battle of Stiklestad.
able the Swedish people elected Gustavus Eriksson Vasa, who as president had already driven out the Danes (see Denmark: History), king of Sweden at Strengnas (June 6, 1523).
In 1675 Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen were overrun by the Brandenburgers, Austrians and Danes.
It was only by a breach of his own constitution that he had been able to declare war against Russia (April 1788); the conspiracy of Anjala (July) had paralysed all military operations at the very opening of the campaign; and the sudden invasion of his western provinces by the Danes, almost simultaneously (September), seemed to bring him to the verge of ruin.
The Dutch East India Company cared nought for the progress of the colony - provided only that they had a refreshment station for their richly laden fleets, and that the English, French, Danes and Portuguese had not.
In the year 991 he was associated with archbishop Sigeric in the conclusion of a peace with the victorious Danes from Maldon, and in 994 he was sent with Bishop 2Elfheah (Alphege) of Winchester to make peace with Olaf at Andover.
In the 10th century it was the scene of a defeat of the Irish by the Danes.
This theory was attacked by Dr Charleton (1725), one of the physicians of Charles II., who maintained that it was erected by the Danes, and consequently after the departure of the Romans from Britain.
Gregory interfered to prevent a national conspiracy against the Langobards, like that of St Brice's day in England against the Danes, or that later uprising against the French, the Sicilian Vespers.
over the Danes (1676), which extinguished the Danish claim to suzerainty over this district.
Rendsburg came into existence under the shelter of a castle founded by the Danes about the year 1100 on an island of the Eider, and was an object of dispute between the Danish kings and the counts of Holstein.
On the departure of the German troops in 1852 the Danes demolished the fortifications on the north side.
According to the Annals of the Four Masters a fleet burned Cork in 821; in 846 the Danes appear to have been in possession of the town, for a force was collected to demolish their fortress; and in 1012 Cork again fell in flames.
The Danes then appear to have founded the new city on the banks of the Lee as a trading centre.
William Dampier (c. 1688) and others speak of the number of foreign merchants settled there - English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, &c. Dampier says the anchorage was rarely without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins and opium.
Of the foreign-born by far the largest number, 18,879, were natives of England, 9132 were Danes, 7025 were Swedes; and natives of Scotland, Germany, Wales and Norway were next in numbers.
In 837 it was the scene of an action against the Danes, and in 1052 it was plundered by Earl Godwine.
The first recorded historical event relating to the town is a victory won here by ZEthelred and Alfred over the Danes in 871.
AEthelwulf's reign was chiefly occupied with struggles against the Danes.
In 851 Ceorl, with the men of Devon, defeated the Danes at Wigganburg, and AEthelstan of Kent was victorious at Sandwich, in spite of which they wintered in England that year for the first time.
On the 24th of July 1677 a great naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood in which the Swedes defeated the Danes.
The sons of Sebert relapsed into idolatry and left the church to the mercy of the Danes.
in 1004 to celebrate his victory there over the Danes, but in 1137 David I.
DANELAGH, the name given to those districts in the north and north-east of England which were settled by Danes and other Scandinavian invaders during the period of the Viking invasions.
The real settlement of England by Danes began in the year 866 with the appearance of a large army in East Anglia, which turned north in the following year.
The Danes captured York and overthrew the Northumbrian kingdom, setting up a puppet king of their own.
This was terminated by the peace of Wedmore in 878, when the Danes withdrew from Wessex and settled finally in East Anglia under their king Guthrum.
Thus Northern Mercia, East Anglia, the greater part of Essex and Northumbria were handed over to the Danes and henceforth constitute the district known as the Danelagh.
In 914 Buckingham was fortified and the Danes of Bedfordshire submitted.
In the same year after a keen struggle all the Danes belonging to the "borough" of Northampton, as far north as the Welland (i.e.
the border of modern Northamptonshire), submitted to Edward and at the same time Colchester was fortified; a large portion of Essex submitted and the whole of the East Anglian Danes came in.
Stamford was the next to yield, soon followed by Nottingham, and in 920 there was a general submission on the part of the Danes and the reconquest of the Danelagh was now complete.
Though the independent occupation of the Danelagh by Viking invaders did not last for more than fifty years at the outside, the Danes left lasting marks of their presence in these territories.
It is probable that a small religious house had existed here before the time of Alfred, and that it and the town were destroyed by the Danes, being both rebuilt about 888.
Assembling in greater and ever greater confederacies, the Danes fell upon the northern kingdoms, no longer merely to harry but to conquer and occupy them.
The terms were that they should give hostages, that they should depart for ever from Wessex, and that their king Guthrum should do homage to Alfred as overlord, and submit to be baptized, with thirty of his chiefs, Not only were all these conditions punctually fulfilled, but (what is more astonishing) the Danes had been so thoroughly cured of any desire to try their luck against the great king that hey left him practically unmolested for fourteen years (878892).
rhe boundary between English and Danes established by the eace of 8~8 is not perfectly ascertainable, but a document of a few years later, called 0 Alfred and Guthrums frith, gives the border as lying from Thames northward up the Lea to its source, then across to Bedford, and then along the Ouse to Watling Street, the old Roman road from London to Chester.
Moreover, the settled Danes of eastern England broke their oaths and gave the invaders assistance.
The camps of the Danes were stormed, their fleet was destroyed in the river Lea in 895, and at last the remnant broke up and dispersed, some to seek easier plunder in France, others to settle down among their kinsmen in Northumbria or East Anglia.
The process was not so hard as might be thought; when once the Danes had settled down, had brought over wives from their native land or taken them from among their English vassals, had built themselves farmsteads and accumulated flocks and herds, they lost their old advantage in contending with the English.
It must also be remembered that in the greater part of the land which they possessed the Danes were but a small minority of the population.
the Humber subdued, but the Yorkshire Danes, the Welsh, and evenit is saidthe remote Scots of the North, did homage to Edward and became his men.
But this first conquest of the region beyond Humber had to be repeated over and over again; time after time the Danes rebelled and proclaimed a new king, aided sometimes by bands of their kinsmen from Ireland or Norway, sometimes by the Scots and Strathclyde Welsh.
~Ethelstans greatest and best-remembered achievement was his, decisive victory in 937 at Brunanburhan unknown spot, probably by the Solway Firth or the Ribbleover a great confederacy of rebel Danes of Yorkshire, Irish Danes from Dublin, the Scottish king, Constantine, and Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.
several risings 01 the Yorkshiremen, one of which was aided by a rebellion of the Midland Danes of the Five Boroughs.
For the two ealdormen whom he delighted to honor and placed at the head of his armies, ~lfric and Eadric Streona, are accused, the one of persistent cowardice, the other of underhand intrigue with the Danes.
The Danes hailed his son Canute, a lad of eighteen, as king, but many of the English, though they had submitted to a hard-handed conqueror like Sweyn, were not prepared to be handed over like slaves to his untried successor.
The witan chose Edmund Ironside, the late kings eldest son, to succeed him, and as he was a hard-fighting prince of that normal type of his house to which his father had been such a disgraceful exception, it seemed probable that the Danes might be beaten off.
The undisciplined hordes of the king of Ossory and the Danes of Wexford could not stand before the Anglo-Norman tacticsthe charge of the knights and the arrowflight of the archers, skilfully combined by the adventurous invaders.
lie took Waterford and Dublin from the Danes, and scattered Lhe hosts of the native princes.
As the Danes gave only a provisional assent to the demand, Prussian and Austrian troops entered Schleswig.
of St Mary has a massive tower possibly of pre-Norman date; there are a town-hall, an institute with library and lecture hall, and memorials to a victory gained by King Alfred over the Danes in the bay in 877, and to Albert, Prince Consort.
The modern Protestant cathedral of the Holy Trinity, generally called Christ Church, a plain structure with a lofty spire, occupies the site of the church built by the Danes in 1096, in the Mall.
It is supposed to have existed in very early times, but first acquired importance under the Danes, of whom it remained one of the principal strongholds until its capture by Strongbow in 1171.
The anger of the Danes was turned against the envoys of the Swedish sovereign; Coyet, it is true, succeeded in escaping, but the second minister, Steno Bjelke, and the whole suite were arrested and thrown into prison.
Norwegians, Danes and Swedes are more numerous in the western and northern counties.
In 1612 Gustavus Adolphus caused the inhabitants to destroy their town lest it should fall into the hands of the Danes; but it was rebuilt soon after, and in 1620 received special privileges from the king.
After his first English expedition Sweyn was content to blackmail England instead ofravaging it, till the ruthless massacre of the Danes on St Brice's day, the 3rd of November 1002, by Ethelred the Unready (Sweyn's sister was among the victims) brought the Danish king to Exeter (1003).
During each of the following eleven years, the Danes, materially assisted by the universal and shameless disloyalty of the Saxon ealdormen, systematically ravaged England, and from 991 to 1014 the wretched land is said to have paid its invaders in ransoms alone L158,000.
N.N.E., a sculptured stone commemorates the battle with the Danes in the 13th century, in which Richard de Moravia was killed.
He lodged in the College Fortet, reading Greek with Pierre Danes and beginning Hebrew with Francois Vatable.
Among them were At this period it is extremely difficult to distinguish between Norwegians and Danes on account of the close connexion between the ruling families of both countries.
The Danes are called in Irish Dubgaill, or black foreigners, as distinguished from the Findgaill, 2 or white foreigners, i.e.
At first the Danes and Norwegians appear to have made common cause, but two years later the new city of Dublin was stormed by the Danes.
In 851 the Dublin Vikings succeeded in vanquishing the Danes after a three days' battle at Snaim Aignech (Carlingford Lough), whereupon the defeated party under their leader Horm took service with Cerball, king of Ossory.
The obscure contest between the Norwegians and Danes for supremacy in Dublin appears to have made the former feel the need of a powerful leader.
Dermod joined them, and the Danes of Wexford soon submitted.
The natives did not understand that this invasion was quite different from those of the Danes.
While waiting for Strongbow's arrival, Raymond and Hervey were attacked by the Danes of Waterford, whom they overthrew.
The English began trading here in 1683, when they found both the Danes and the Portuguese already established.
Aquitaine bordered upon Mussulman Spain; the Avars of Hungary threatened Bavaria with their tireless horsemen; beyond the Elbe and the Saul the Slays were perpetually at war with the Saxons, and to the north of the Eider were the Danes.
Brittany; and carried on among the Danes the work of evangelization begun among the Slays.
Streatfield, Lincolnshire and the Danes (London, 1884); Chronicle of the Rebellion in Lincolnshire, 1470, ed.
by King Edgar, about a hundred years after its destruction by the Danes.
Austria continued to act with Prussia, and, after the defeat of the Danes, at the peace of Vienna the sovereignty of the duchies was surrendered to the two allies - the first step towards annexation by Prussia.
It was taken by the Swedes in 1658, but its possession was again given up to the Danes in 1660.
The most numerous individual races were Germans (65,506), Swedes (24,693), Bohemians (16,138), Danes (12,531), Irish (11,127), English (9757), Russians (8083) and English Canadians (801o).
At various times France, Denmark, Austria and Great Britain all had more or less shadowy rights to the islands, the Danes being the most persistent in their efforts to occupy the group, until in 1869 they relinquished their claims in favour of the British, who at once began to put down the piracies of the islanders, and established a penal settlement, numbering in all about 350 persons, in Nancowry harbour.
B.) Iethelbald, king of Wessex, was the son of Ã†thelwulf, with whom he led the West Saxons to victory against the Danes at Aclea, 851.
Aided by the imperialists and the Danes, he followed up this success, and cleared Brandenburg and Pomerania of the Swedes, capturing Stettin in 1677 and Stralsund in 1678, while an attack made by Sweden on Prussia was successfully repelled.
He then proceeded to clear Pomerania of the piebald imperial host composed of every nationality under heaven, and officered by Italians, Irishmen, Czechs, Croats, Danes, Spaniards and Walloons.
Again in 868 he called upon the West Saxon king !Ethelred for assistance against the Danes under L06brok's sons, who at this time invaded Mercia after their overthrow of the Northumbrians at York.
No battle took place, and the Mercians subsequently made peace with the Danes.
In 872 the Danes occupied London on their return from invading Wessex, after which a truce was again made.
In 873 the Danes encamped at Torksey in Lincolnshire, and although another truce ensued, they advanced in the following year to Repton, and Burgred was driven from the kingdom.
In 874 Ceolwulf, a king's thegn or baron, was made king by the Danes, and definitely acknowledged their overlordship. In 877, after the second invasion of Wessex, the Danes seem to have taken the eastern part of Mercia into their own hands.
In 886 London, which had been recovered by Alfred from the Danes, was restored to !Ethelred.
During the invasion of 893-97 English Mercia was again repeatedly ravaged by the Danes; but in the last of these years, by the united efforts of Alfred and Ã†thelred, they were at length expelled.
The government was then carried on by Ã†thelflaed, who built a number of fortresses, and in conjunction with her brother, King Edward the Elder, succeeded in expelling the Danes from Derby and Leicester by the year 917-18.
anchoress martyred by the Danes at Thorney in England.
The English forces besieged the Danes on the island.
The Danes then left the area, flinging Edmund's head into thick brambles nearby.
duchythe 1840's the Danes attempted to claim Schleswig and Holstein as being part of Denmark, rather than them remaining as semi-independent duchies.
Traces of a Saxon settlement have been found from the seventh century, and in the tenth century the Danes constructed defensive earthworks here.
In 1967, an original lamp from the old firehouse was erected outside the Brigade's Danes Castle fire house.
frontier fort, it was raided by Danes in the 10th and 11th cent.
invadee garrisons could defend the localities, but they could also harass any invading Danes.
marauding Danes on the island around the year 875.
martyred by the Danes, together with other monks.
Here the gathered nobles allied themselves to fight the growing menace of the pagan Danes, the Vikings.
mercenaryt using mercenaries, he later built a large fleet of ships to a design superior to that used by the Danes.
responded with alacrity, marching into Mercia at the head of an army, but the Danes retained possession of the town.
sacked by the Danes in 988 (BF, p. 159 ).
Great Danes are like young colts, rather skittish and inclined to crash into things.
The Danes carry their chief on an improvised stretcher through Manchester.
After the union of Schleswig and Holstein under the Danish crown, the Danevirke fell into decay, but in 1848 it was hastily strengthened by the Danes, who were, however, unable to hold it in face of the superiority of the Prussian artillery, and on the 23rd of April it was stormed.
In 868 the Mercian king appealed to Ãƒâ€ thelred and Alfred for assistance against the Danes, who were in possession of Nottingham.
To reach the Baltic he had to overcome the resistance, not only of the Lithuanians and the Poles, but also of the Teutonic and Livonian military orders, the Swedes and the Danes, who all had possessions in the intervening territory and who all objected to the barbarous Muscovites, already sufficiently formidable, strengthening themselves by direct foreign trade with western Europe and especially by the importation of arms and cunning with foreign artificers.
Landing at Lyndantse (the modern Reval) in north Esthonia, Valdemar at once received the submission of the inhabitants, but three days later was treacherously attacked in his camp and only saved from utter destruction by his own personal valour and the descent from heaven, at the critical moment, of a red banner with a white cross on it, the Dannebrog (Danes' Cloth), of which we now hear for the first time, and which henceforth was to precede the Danish armies to victory till its capture by the Ditmarshers, three hundred years later.
A third conjecture is that it commemorates the expulsion of the Danes from Moray in 1014.
It was probably about this time that Ãƒâ€ thelred fell ill, and the Norwegians and Danes from Ireland unsuccessfully besieged Chester.
Ãƒâ€ thelflaed won the support of the Danes against the Norwegians, and seems also to have entered into an alliance with the Scots and the Welsh against the pagans.
In 1001 Ãƒâ€ thelred gave this monastery and the town of Bradford to the nunnery of Shaftesbury, in order that the nuns might have a safe refuge against the insults of the Danes.
The Danes were to desist from their ravages, but were allowed to stay in England.
Despite the treachery of lElfric, the English were victorious; and the Danes sailed off to ravage Lindsey and Northumbria.
In 886 Alfred overcame the Danes, restored London to its inhabitants, rebuilt its walls, reannexed the city to Mercia, and committed it to Ethelred, alderman of Mercia.
In the reign of Ãƒâ€ thelred II., called the Unready (but more correctly the Redeless), the Danes were more successful in their operations against London, but the inhabitants resisted stoutly.
During the war, which was marked by extraordinary ferocity throughout, the Danes were generally victorious on land owing to the genius of Daniel Rantzau, but at sea the Swedes were almost uniformly triumphant.
In addition to the large foreign-born population (4023 Germans, 3017 English, 2683 English Canadians, 1885 Chinese, 1720 Irish and smaller numbers of French, Mexicans, Swedes, Italians, Scots, Swiss, Austrians, Danes, French Canadians, Russians, Norwegians, Welsh and Japanese) 26,105 of the native white inhabitants were of foreign parentage (i.e.
During the Danish War of 1864, after suffering severely at the hands of the Danes, the island was occupied by the Prussians on the 13th of July (see Frisian Islands) .
How the dalesmen set Gustavus on the throne and how he and they finally drove the Danes out of Sweden (1521-1523) is elsewhere recorded (see Sweden: History).
The importance of the information, meagre as it is, lies in the fact that Adam received from the lips of kinsmen of the explorers (as the Danes in a sense were) certain characteristic facts (the finding of grapes and unsown grain) that support the general reliability of the Icelandic sagas which tell of the Vinland voyages (in which these same facts are prominent), but which were not put into writing by the Norsemen until later - just how much later it is not possible to determine.
His reign was marked by two serious attacks on the part of the Danes, who destroyed Winchester in 860, in spite of the resistance of the ealdormen Osric and Ãƒâ€ thelwulf with the levies of Hampshire and Berkshire, while in 865 they treacherously ravaged Kent.
As the Danes soon afterwards took possession of Schleswig again, thePrussians once more drove them back, but, in view of the threatening attitude of the powers, Frederick William summoned up courage to flout the opinion of the German parliament, and on the 26th of August, without the central government being consulted, an armistice of seven months was agreed upon at Malmoe.
In the Reichstag of 1907, Guelphs, Alsace-Lorrainers and Danes together could muster only five members.,
The events that followed; the occupation of the duchies by Austria and Prussia, the war of 1864, gallantly fought by the Danes against overwhelming odds, and the astute diplomacy by which Bismarck succeeded in ultimately gaining for Prussia the seaboard so essential for her maritime power, are dealt with elsewhere (see Schleswig-Holstein Question).
But with the accession of the third brother Ãƒâ€ thelred (866) the public life of Alfred begins, and he enters on his great work of delivering England from the Danes.
B.) Iethelbald, king of Wessex, was the son of Ãƒâ€ thelwulf, with whom he led the West Saxons to victory against the Danes at Aclea, 851.
During the invasion of 893-97 English Mercia was again repeatedly ravaged by the Danes; but in the last of these years, by the united efforts of Alfred and Ãƒâ€ thelred, they were at length expelled.