The Roman arms were not very successful, and King Aretas retained his whole possessions, including Damascus, as a Roman ' See Edom, and (for the view that Mal.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
of the Damascus gate, followed a course first south-east and then west of south, and joined the two main valleys of Kidron and Er Rababi at Siloam.
Hazael of Damascus, Jehu of Israel and Elisha the prophet are the three men of the new age linked together in the words of one writer as though commissioned for like ends (1 Kings xix.
sovereigns resolved to attack Damascus.
They occupied Ilauran, and about 85 B.C. their king Aretas (Ilaritha) became lord of Damascus and Coele-Syria.
The attack was impolitic: Damascus was the one ally which could help the Franks to stem the advance of Nureddin.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
From him Damascus passed to Malik-alSalih Ayyub of Egypt at the battle of Gaza.
had much of the churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears most decidedly as an incessant warrior, under whom the Latin domination in the East stretched, as Ibn al-Athir writes, in a long line from Mardin in the North to el-Arish on the Red Sea - a line only broken by the Mahommedan powers of Aleppo, Hamah, Horns and Damascus.
The empress also erected a large church in honour of St Stephen north of the Damascus Gate, and is believed to have been buried therein.
On leaving Egypt he travelled by land to the Persian Gulf, disguised as a Mameluke, visiting Damascus, and entering the great mosque undetected.
of Syria assaulted it in the reign of Ahab, but was repulsed and obliged to allow the Israelite traders to establish a quarter in Damascus, as his predecessor Ben-Hadad I.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
In the West the Church enters the medieval stage of its history with the death of Gregory, while in the East even John of Damascus is rather a compiler of patristic teaching than a true "father."
The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventysix with the Latin fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.2 For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred to the articles which deal with them separately.
Here the roads from Damascus, by way of Palmyra, and from Mosul, by way of the Khabur, reach the Euphrates, and here there must always have been a town of considerable commercial and strategic importance.
The city, frequently called the "Damascus of the North," spreads over a narrow valley, closed on the east by a semicircle of rugged hills.
It evidently suffered in the bloody conflicts of Damascus with Israel (1 Kings xv.
John of Damascus >>
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
His reign is noteworthy for the entrance of Damascus into Palestinian politics.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
In 842 Shalmaneser records a campaign against Hazael of Damascus; no coalition is mentioned, although a battle was fought at Sanir (Hermon, Deut.
9), and the cities of Hauran to the south of Damascus were spoiled.
[OLD Testament History show that Damascus was neither crushed nor helpless, but thenceforth for a number of years Assyria was fully occupied elsewhere and the west was left to itself.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
Ben-hadad) of Damascus and recognized Hazael as its future ruler.
It is a natural assumption that Damascus could still count upon Israel as an ally in 842; not until the withdrawal of Assyria and the accession of Jehu did the situation change.
Certain traditions, it is true, indicate that Israel had been at war with the Aramaeans from before 854 to 842, and that Hazael was attacking Gilead at the time when Jehu revolted; but in the midst of these are other traditions of the close and friendly relations between Israel and Damascus !
In the present narratives, however, the stories in which he possesses influence with king and court are placed before the rise of Jehu, and some of them point to a state of hostility with Damascus before he foresees the atrocities which Hazael will perpetrate.
princes, and sent the spoil to the king of Damascus; the disaster is.
At this stage it is necessary to notice the fresh invasion of Syria by Hadad (Adad)-nirari, who besieged Mari, king of Damascus, and exacted a heavy tribute (c. Boo B.C.).
Assyria and Damascus would realize the recuperative power of the latter, and would perceive the danger of the short-sighted policy of Joash.
There are no signs of an extensive coalition as in the days of Shalmaneser; Ammon is probably included under Damascus; the position of Moab - which had freed itself from Jehoram of Israel - can hardly be calculated.
The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
(against Damascus, 773 B.C.) the situation cannot be safely gauged.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
Israel was once more in league with Damascus and Phoenicia, and the biblical records must be read in the light of political history.
8) to his subjugation of Ammon - the natural allies of Damascus - for three years.
But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.
Another revolt was planned in 720 in which the province of Samaria joined with Hamath and Damascus, with the Phoenician Arpad and Simura, and with Gaza and " Egypt."
Ahaz had recognized the sovereignty of Assyria and visited Tiglath-pileser at Damascus.
But, when Pompey himself arrived at Damascus, Antipater, who pulled the strings and exploited the claims of Hyrcanus, realized that Rome and not the Arabs, who were cowed by the threats of Scaurus, was the ruler of the East.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
At length Augustus summoned the representatives of the nation and Nicholaus of Damascus, who spoke for Archelaus, to plead before him in the temple of Apollo.
Such incidents were the Damascus charge of ritual murder (1840), the forcible baptism of the Italian child Mortara (1858), and the Russian pogroms at various dates.
The Caliphate under the Omayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.
War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.
Two hundred and forty years after the appearing of the false Messiah there came to the world sixty thousand saints out of Pharaoh's world to take the place of the Mandaeans, who had been completely extirpated; their high priest had his residence in Damascus.
of Damascus and five days' camel journey from the Euphrates, in an oasis of the Syrian desert, 1,300 ft.
There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of Syria by the Babylonian Empire (6th century B.C.).
In 1095 two brothers, Ridwan and Dekak, ruled in Aleppo and Damascus respectively; but they were at war with one another, and Yagi-sian, the ruler of Antioch, was a party to their dissensions.
When Godfrey died in July 1100 (after successful forays against the Mahommedans which took him as far as Damascus), it might seem as if a theocracy were after all to be established in Jerusalem, in spite of the events of 1099.
control the routes of the caravans, especially the route from Damascus to Egypt and the Red Sea.
Lying to the east of the Euphrates, at once in close contact with the Armenians, and in near proximity to the great route of trade which came up the Euphrates to Rakka, and thence diverged to Antioch and Damascus, the county of Edessa had an eventful if brief life.
There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin (1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,, represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr about i 101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.1 But the greatest of the atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris - Maudud, who died in 1113; Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself, who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.
Baldwin conquered part of the territory of Aleppo (in 1121 and the following years), and extorted a tribute from Damascus (1126).
4 But there were two powers which aided Fulk, and impeded the progress of Zengi - the amirate of Damascus and the emperors of Constantinople.
The position of Damascus is a position of crucial importance from 1130 to 1154.
and from its position on the great route of commerce from the Euphrates to Egypt, Damascus became the arbiter of Syrian politics.
During the greater part of the period between 1130 and 11 54 the policy of Damascus was guided by the vizier Muin eddin Anar, who ruled on behalf of the descendants of the atabeg Tughtigin.
He saw the importance of finding an ally against the ambition of Zengi, who had already attacked Damascus in 1130.
One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.
Their sideboards were covered with the copper and silver work of Eastern smiths and the confectioneries of Damascus.
to allow the hope of gaining two small towns to induce them to break the vital alliance with Damascus.
2 This body of crusaders ultimately reached the Holy Land, where it joined Conrad (who had lost his own original forces), and helped in the fruitless siege of Damascus.
attempted to make head against these troubles, partly by renewing the old alliance with Damascus, partly by drawing closer to Manuel of Constantinople.
In' 154 fell Damascus, and the crescent closed perceptibly in the north: the most valuable ally of the kingdom was lost, and the way seemed clear from Aleppo (the peculiar seat of Nureddin's power) into Egypt.
Damascus he acquired as early as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.
Driven from the Red Sea by Saladin, he turned from buccaneering to brigandage, and infested the great trade-route from Damascus to Egypt, which passed close by his seignory.
They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
The first of these was Damascus.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
Saladin had united Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among: the members of his family,' which more than once led to wars between Damascus and Cairo.
Malik-al-Kamil, Malik-al-Muazzam, Sultan of Egypt, Sultan of Damascus, t 1238.
al-din Ayyub, sultan of Egypt, and after 1244 of Damascus, t 1249.
Malik-al-Ashraf, ruler of Khelat, and after 1227 of Damascus, t 1237.
Malik-al-Salih Isma'il, sultan of Damascus, 1237-1244.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
In that year Hulagu, the khan of Persia, invaded Syria and captured Damascus.
His general, a Christian named Kitboga, marched southwards to attack the Mamelukes of Egypt, but he was beaten by Bibars (who in the same year became sultan of Egypt), and Damascus fell into the hands of the Mamelukes.
An Balieh CIP (Lity Aleppo O F A Tioch Rakka Emirate Of oDamascus Damascus 0103-1554) 'Caesare o Krak of the Desert ntreal =I Cairo ila prestige in the eyes of Europe.
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
(3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.
The others, which terminate streams, are the Bahr el-Ateiba, which receives the waters of Damascus; the Mat, into which the Kuwaik flows below Kinnesrin; and the Ak Deniz, or Bahrat Antakia, the ancient Lake of Antioch, which collects the waters of the Kara Su and Afrin, the southward from the watershed which shuts off Commagene.
The heat at Damascus and Aleppo is great, the cooling winds being kept off by the mountains.
Of these the principal are Karietein and Tadmor (Palmyra), through which passes the trade from Damascus to the east.
The political status of the country is controlled by the Ottoman Empire, of which Syria makes part, divided into the vilayets of Aleppo, Sham or Syria (Damascus), the Lebanon (q.v.) and Beirut, and the separate sanjaks or mutessarifliks of Zor and Jerusalem.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
There are carriage roads radiating from Aleppo to the sea at Alexandretta, and to Aintab; and Antioch is also connected with Alexandretta; Beirut and Horns with Tripoli; Damascus with Beirut; and Nazareth with Haifa.
The caravan trade with the East has almost entirely ceased, and the great trade routes from Damascus northwards to Aleppo and eastwards through the wilderness are quite abandoned.
The traffic with Arabia has ceased to be important, being limited to the time of the going and returning of the great pilgrimage to Mecca, which continues to have its musteringplace at Damascus, but leaves mainly by rail.
the territory of the ancient city of Damascus; it was brought into subjection for a short time under David.
That Zobah was situated within Syria is certain, though how far to the west or north of Damascus is not known; in any case it was not far from IIamath (IIamah).
compassed the overthrow of the kingdom of Damascus; he also took Arpad (Tel Arfad), an important place three hours to the north of Aleppo.
It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
To this division Damascus and Palmyra belonged; occasionally they were reckoned to Coelesyria, the middle strip of coast being designated Syrophoenicia.
Moawiya, the first Omayyad caliph, chose Damascus for his residence; but in 750 the capital of the empire was removed by the Abbasids to Bagdad.
(3) Damascus, a district which included Baalbek, Tripoli and Beirut, and also the I;Iauran.
Porter, Five Years in Damascus (1855); J.
von Kremer, Mittelsyrien and Damascus (1853); W.
In 1400 he was sent to Damascus, in connexion with the expedition intended to oppose Timur or Tamerlane.
The mosque of the Omayyads in Damascus was built by the Caliph Walid in A.D.
After Baha-uddin's death in 1231, Jalal-uddin went to Aleppo and Damascus for a short time to study, but, dissatisfied with the exact sciences, he returned to Iconium, where he became by and by professor of four separate colleges, and devoted himself to the study of mystic theosophy.
- The Life of John of Damascus was written by John, patriarch of Jerusalem in the 10th century (Migne, Patrol.
1 as in the territory of Philip the tetrarch) adjoined the territory of Damascus, Auranitis and Batanaea.
Porter, Five Years in Damascus (2 vols., 1855); The Giant Cities of Bashan (out of date, but some of the descriptions good, 1865); J.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
The headquarters of the ordus are I., Constantinople; II., Adrianople; III., Salonica; IV., Erzerum; V., Damascus; VI., Bagdad; VII., Yemen; 15th division, Tripoli; 16th division, Hejaz.
P Europe, after the suppression of a revolt of the governor of Damascus, who had thought to take advantage of the new sultan's accession to restore the independent rule of the Circassian chiefs.
Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.
1, 1831), nominally in order to punish his enemy Abdullah, pasha of Acre, really in order to take by force of arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus promised as a reward for his services in Greece.
Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream, by the sultan's orders, and advanced on Damascus.
Formerly the British government maintained a camel-post across the desert to Damascus.
marched against north Syria, and among his tributaries mentions Menahem 2 together with Rezin of Damascus, and kings of Tyre, Gebal, &c. (c. 738 B.C.).
They number about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are under the immediate rule of -the patriarch of Damascus and twelve bishops.
It is also a road centre, the roads from the Mediterranean to Bagdad by way of Aleppo and Damascus respectively meeting here.
Of its seven books, the first two survey the history of the Jews from the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the outbreak of war in 67, and here Josephus relies upon some such general history as that of Nicolaus of Damascus.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
7 0 5-7 1 5) who, out of hatred to Christianity, replaced Greek by Arabic as the language of official documents at Damascus.
The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Amon-Ra.
At Damascus Greek medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and Christian teachers.
writers of this century need not be mentioned here; but the next, the 11th century, is given as the probable though uncertain date of a writer who had a great influence on European medicine, Mesua the younger of Damascus, whose personality is obscure, and of whose very existence some historians have doubted, thinking that the name was assumed by some medieval Latin writer.
In the 8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decoration of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by Romanus II.
The craft survived and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus.
In inventories of the 14th century both in England and in France mention may frequently be found of glass vessels of the manufacture of Damascus.
Enamel and gilding were freely used, in imitation no doubt of the muchadmired vessels brought from Damascus.
In 804 B.C. Damascus was captured by his successor Hadad-nirari IV., to whom tribute was paid by Samaria.
In spite of their efforts and subsequent attempts made by Tyrwhitt Drake and Richard Burton, when consul at Damascus, proper copies could not be obtained; and it was not till the end of 1872 that, thanks to W.
Wright of Beirut, casts were taken and the stones themselves sent to Constantinople by Subhi Pasha of Damascus.
In 613 and 614 Damascus and Jerusalem were taken by the general Shahrbaraz, and the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph.
above the valley, the fortress and palace of the imams, now replaced by the Turkish military hospital, the suburb of Bir el Azab with its scattered houses and gardens, the Jews' quarter and the village of Rauda, a few miles to the north in a fertile, irrigated plain which Niebuhr compares to that of Damascus.
Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.
In his company the Blunts set out from Damascus, and travelled across the Syrian desert by the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf.
Euting, followed the same route from Damascus.
Sirhan is continuous with the depression known as the Jauf, situated on the northern edge of the Nefud or Nafud, and the halfway station between Damascus and Hail; and it is possible that this depression continues eastward towards the Euphrates along a line a little north of the thirtieth parallel, where wells and pasturages are known to exist.
In the present day the Syrian pilgrim route, or Darb el Haj, from Damascus to Medina and Mecca is the most used.
The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.
Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.
In the same year Damascus fell into the hands of the Arabs under Abu `Ubaida.
After the battle of Siffin (657) arbitration was resorted to for the settlement of the rival claims. By a trick `Ali was deposed (658), and the Omayyad dynasty was established with its capital at Damascus.
With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
The accession of Abul 'Abbas (of the house of Hashim) and the transference of the capital of the caliphate from Damascus to Kufa, then Anbar and soon after (in 760) to Bagdad meant still further degradation to Arabia and Arabs.
Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
It is told, however, that Moawiya summoned an old man named `Abid ibn Sharya from Yemen to Damascus to tell him all he knew about ancient history and that he induced him to write down his information.
c. 1038) wrote, inter alia, a well-known History of the Poets of his Time, published at Damascus, 1887; Biruni (d.
1176) a History of Damascus and her Scholars, which is of great value, and exists in whole or in part in several libraries.
5) could only increase the hostility, and preparations were made by Israel for an alliance with Damascus which culminated in an attack upon Judah in the time of Jotham's son, Ahaz.
He died in Damascus, whither he had gone with his patron.
Sword-blades have been made here since the early middle ages, and tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by smiths from Damascus.
It was not till 1860 that he settled in London, when he took up his quarters at 2 Orme Square, Bayswater, where he stayed till, in 1866, he moved to his celebrated house in Holland Park Road, with its Arab hall decorated with Damascus tiles.
He was at Damascus for a short time in 1873.
Between this group and the more southerly Jebel Keniseh (about 6700 ft.) lies the pass (4700 ft.) traversed by the French post road between Beirut and Damascus.
Pursuing an easterly course, this stream receives the waters of the romantic `Ain Fije (which doubles its volume), and bursts out by a rocky gateway upon the plain of Damascus, in the irrigation of which it is the chief agent.
Lebanon on its way to Damascus, and the excellent roads and mule-paths made since 1883.
With the poor exceptions of one or two names like those of Theodore of Mopsuestia and John of Damascus, the Eastern Church produced no preachers of distinction.
But he had virtu as well as fortuna; and on his tombstone it was written that he was "a second Judas Maccabaeus, whom Kedar and Egypt, Dan and Damascus dreaded."
Text of Kings) reads: "how he fought with Damascus and how he turned away the wrath of Yahweh from Israel"; see also Ency.
According to one rather obscure narrative, Abram's sole heir was the servant, who was over his household, apparently a certain Eliezer of Damascus' (xv.
Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, 2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being Apollodorus of Damascus.
It is not certain that `Amr assisted Khalid in the siege of Damascus, but very probable that he took part in the decisive battle of Yarmuk, 10th of August 636.
At Tyre the year was counted from the 19th of our October, at Gaza from the 28th of the same month, and at Damascus from the vernal equinox.
erected images of Anaitis in Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Bactra, Damascus, Sardis.
The region of Damascus, hitherto a dependency, and the last remaining fragment of the Jewish kingdom, were incorporated with Syria; Bostra and Petra were permanently occupied, and a great portion of the Nabataean kingdom was organized as the Roman province of Arabia.
and N.E., converging at Antioch, follow the course of the stream up to Homs, where they fork to Damascus and to Coele-Syria and the S.; and along its valley have passed the armies and traffic bound to and from Egypt in all ages.
NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS, Greek historian and philosopher of Damascus, flourished in the time of Augustus and Herod the Great, with both of whom he was on terms of friendship. He instructed Herod in rhetoric and philosophy, and had attracted the notice of Augustus when he accompanied his patron on a visit to Rome.
Navet, Nikolaus von Damascus (1853), containing an account of his life and writings, and translation of the fragments.
This story is much amplified in the account given by St John of Damascus in the homilies In dormitionem Mariae, which are still read in the Roman Church as the lesson during the octave of the feast.
6) find their sequel in the alliance of Samaria and Damascus against Ahaz, when Edom recovered its independence (so read for " Syria " in 2 Kings xvi.
6, and, for the part played by Damascus, the later vicissitudes under the Nabataeans (Josephus, Ant.
Again, the Aramaean attack upon Israel by Hazael of Damascus leads to the capture of Gath (2 Kings xii.
When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place after the Moslem capture of Damascus (A.D.
It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great slaughter.
In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.
Richard Burton, when consul-general at Damascus in 1870, cleared an Arab screen out of the vestibule, and in consequence the exquisite doorway leading into the cella can now be well seen.
The tragic interest which distinguishes the annals of Israel from the forgotten history of Moab or Damascus lies wholly in that long contest.
6 sqq.), deserted his lord, raised a band of followers and eventually captured Damascus, where he established a new dynasty.
If these situations can with difficulty find a place in our picture of Solomon's might, it is clear that some of them form the natural introduction to the subsequent history, when his death brought internal discontent to a head, when the north under Jeroboam refused allegiance to the south, and when the divided monarchy enters upon its eventful career by the side of the independent states of Edom, Damascus and Phoenicia.
In 734 B.C. he was called to the help of Yahu-khazi (Ahaz) of Judah, who had been attacked by Pekah of Israel and Rezon (Rasun) of Damascus.
In 732 B.C. Damascus fell; Rezon was put to death, and an Assyrian satrap appointed in his stead.
103 by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus.
Again, the form of the word Tophet and Ahaz's association with Damascus might point to an Aramaean origin for the cult; but it would not be safe to support this view by the statements and names in 2 Kings xvii.
In the same passage of Luke mention is made of Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene near Damascus, in the valley of the B arada.
The Bazaar 3 of Heraclides of Damascus.
The great dogmatist of the Eastern Church, John of Damascus (ca.
The delightful gardens of Denizli have obtained for it the name of the "Damascus of Anatolia."
The amir then took up his residence in Brusa, removing in 1855 to Damascus.
He died at Damascus on the 26th of May 1883.
His armies penetrated to Lake Van and Tarsus, the Hittites of Carchemish were compelled to pay tribute, and Hamath (Hamah) and Damascus were subdued.
The territory of Damascus was devastated, and Jehu of Samaria (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisk now in the British Museum) sent tribute along with the Phoenician cities.
Some of them were derived from the wars with the Meunim; others from the campaign with Rezin of Damascus.
The apostle tells us that on his conversion he retired from Damascus into Arabia, and thence returned to Damascus; then after three years (from his conversion) he went up to Jerusalem, but stayed only a fortnight, and went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
Whether the same is the case with Ramman, identical with Rimmon, known to us from the Old Testament as the chief deity of Damascus, is not certain though probable.
(1899), Gustav Adolf (1900), and Gustav Vasa (1899); Till Damascus (1898) indicated a return in the direction of religion; Folkungasagan (1899) was represented in 1901; and the OA plays Avent (" Advent ") and Brott och brott (" Crime for Crime "), printed together in 1899, were successfully represented in 1900, both in Sweden and Germany.
Nur-ed-din, his son, had continued his work by further conquests in Syria and Damascus, by the organization of his conquered lands, and, in 1157, by "publishing everywhere the Holy War."
In 1139 Ayyub received Baalbek from Zengi, in 1146 he moved, on Zengi's death, to the court of Damascus.
In 1154 his influence secured Damascus to Nur-ed-din and he was made governor.
In 1174 he entered Damascus, Emesa and Hamah; in 1175 Baalbek and the towns round Aleppo.
In 1177 he returned by Damascus to Cairo, which he enriched with colleges, a citadel and an aqueduct.
Richard returned to Europe, and Saladin returned to Damascus, where on the 4th of March 1193, after a few days' illness, he died.
He was buried in Damascus and mourned by the whole East.
John of Damascus (c. 750) believed the bread to be mysteriously changed into the Christ's body, just as when eaten it is changed into any human body; and he argued that it is wrong to say, as Irenaeus had said, that the elements are mere antitypes after as before consecration.
The war with the Turks and Egyptians which succeeded the return from India was rendered notable by the capture of Aleppo and Damascus, and especially by the defeat and imprisonment of Sultan Bayezid I.
19 are John of Damascus (De haeres.
He subsequently became governor of Damascus and, in 1589, after the great revolt of the Janissaries, was appointed grand vizier for the second time.
Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.
1113); the younger, Duqaq, took possession of Damascus, and died in 1103.
On the other hand, it was natural for Nureddin to attempt to secure Egypt, both because it was the terminus of the trading route which ran from Damascus and because the acquisition of Egypt would enable him to surround the Latin kingdom.
67, 11), &c. John of Damascus, the great exponent of dogma in the 8th century, gave expression to the result of a uniform development which had been going on for centuries when he taught that Christ offers the relics to Christians as means of salvation.
found it defended by a castle built by a king of Damascus; but at the beginning of the following century the Arabian geographer Yaqut speaks of it as deserted and overthrown.
Aram-Damascus, which means, the Damascus portion of the Aramaic domain; and har-Ephraim, which means, the Ephraim portion of the (Israelitish) highlands - EV "Mount Ephraim."
and think of the rivers of Damascus, has not met with favour.
Henceforth it looked to Damascus and to Kufa and Basra, instead of to Constantinople or Ctesiphon.
was keen in Mesopotamia, where M erwan in fact got a footing, and when the troubles increased after he became caliph he abandoned Damascus in favour of his seat at Harran.
Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship. Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g.
It was always a strong border fortress and a place of commercial importance, in many respects the southern counterpart of Damascus.
NAWAWI [ABU] (1233-1278), Arabian writer, was born at Nawa near Damascus.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
Meanwhile Raynald of Krak took advantage of the position of his fortress, which lay on the great route of trade from Damascus and Egypt, to plunder the caravans (1182), and thus helped to precipitate the inevitable attack by Saladin.
A threefold commission was laid upon him: he was to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king of Syria; he was to anoint Jehu, the son of Nimshi, 5 The definition of time by the stated oblation (xviii.
See Skinner, Century Bible, " Kings," ad loc. 2 The geographical indications imply that in one account the journey to Damascus and the anointing of Hazael and Jehu must have intervened, and were omitted because another account ascribed these acts to Elisha (2 Kings viii.
(2) A disciple at Damascus who figures in the story of the conversion and baptism of Paul (Acts ix.
During Ahab's reign Moab, which had been conquered by his father, remained tributary; Judah, with whose king, Jehoshaphat, he was allied by marriage, was probably his vassal; only with Damascus is he said to have had strained relations.
25), and trading facilities between Damascus and Samaria were granted.
Besides a valuable account of the principal sacred sites of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee as they existed in the 7th century, he also gives important information as to Alexandria and Constantinople, briefly describes Damascus and Tyre, the Nile and the Lipari volcanoes, and refers to the caliph Moawiya I .
532) part of Sicily was plundered, and its inhabitants carried to Damascus.
Thyatira, Damascus and Samaria.
His court, at the same time, welcomed Greek men of letters like Nicolaus of Damascus.
(" The Romans are overcome in the nearest neighbouring land ") refers to the defeat of the Byzantines by the Persians, not far from Damascus, about the spring of 614, it would follow that the third group, to which this passage belongs, covers the greater part of the Meccan period.
These three manuscripts will therefore be those which the caliph, according to trustworthy tradition, sent in the first instance as standard copies to Damascus, Basra and Kufa to the warriors of the provinces of which these were the capitals, while he retained one at Medina.
Of the four exemplars of Othman's Koran, one was kept in Medina, and one was sent to each of the three metropolitan cities, Kufa, Basra, and Damascus.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
His realm enjoyed peace till his death in 896, when he fell a victim to some palace intrigue at Damascus.
~ughj, son of a Tulunid prefect of Damascus, was sent by the caliph to restore order; he had to force his entrance into the country by an engagement with one of the pretenders, Ibn Kaighlagh, in which he was victorious, and entered Fostat in August 935.
In a later battle he was himself defeated by the Ikshid, when an arrangement was made permitting Saif addaula to retain most of Syria, while a prefect appointed by the Ikshid was to remain in Damascus.
The Buyid ruler, who was now slinreme nt Ba2dsd, nermitte,d the Tkshlil to remsin in possession of his viceroyalty, but shortlya after receiving this confirmation he died at Damascus in 946.
The Ikshldl governor of Damascus, a cousin of Abul-Fawaris Al3mad, endeavoured to save Syria, but was defeated at Ramleh by a general sent by Jauhar and taken prisoner.
Almost immediately after the conquest of Egypt, Jauhar found himself engaged in a struggle with the Carmathians (q.v.), whom the Ikshidi prefect of Damascus had pacified by a promise of tribute; this promise was of course not held binding by the Fatimite general (Jafa.r b.
Fall3) by whom Damascus was taken, and the C~rmathian leader al-Hasan b Ahmad al-Asam received aid from Bagdad for the purpose of recovering Syria to the Abbasids.
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
During this time, however, Syria was overrun by an invader in league with the SeljUk Malik Shah, and Damascus was permanently lost to the Fg~imites; other cities were recovered by Badr himself or his officers.
Abbs was killed by the Franks near Ascalon, his son sent in a cage to Cairo where he was executed, while lJsmah escaped to Damascus, The infant Fgiz, who had been permanently incapacitated by the scenes of violence which accompanied his accession, died in i16o.
Shawars flight was directed to Damascus, where he was favorably received by the prince Nureddin, who sent with him to Cairo a force of Kurds under Asad al-din Shirguh.
During the whole of it Damascus rather more than Cairo counted as the metropolis of the empire.
The division was not satisfactory to the heirs, and after three years (beginning_of 1196) the Egyptian sultan conspired with his uncle Malik al-Adil to deprive Saladins son al-Af~al of Damascus, which had fallen to his lot.
The war between the brothers was continued with intervals of peace, duringwhich al-Adil repeatedly changed sides: eventually he with al-AzIz besieged and took Damascus, and sent al-Aflal to Sarkhad, while al-Adil remained in possession of Damascus.
So soon as al-Aflal had got possession of his nephews person, he started on an expedition for the recovery of Damascus: al-Adil not only frustrated this, but drove him back to Egypt, where on the 25th of January 1200 a battle was fought between the armies of the two at Bilbeis, resulting in the defeat of al-Aflal, who was sent back to Sarkhad, while aI-Adil assumed the regency, for which after a few months he substituted the sovereignty, causing his nephew to be deposed.
His death occurred at Alikin (1218), a village near Damascus, while the Franks were besieging Damiettathe firs~ operation of the Fifth Crusadewhich was defended by al-Kamil~ to whom his father kept sending reinforcements.
as the price of his help against the son of Muazzam Isa, who reigned at Damascus with the title of Malik al-Nalir.
At his death (May 8th, 1238) at Damascus, his son Abfl Bakr was appointed to succeed with the title Malik al-AdilSaif al-din; but his elder brother Malik al-Salil~t Najm al-dIn Ayyub, having got possession of Damascus, immediately started for Egypt, with the view of adding that country to his dominions: meanwhile his uncle Ismail, prince of Hamath, with the prince of Horns, seized Damascus, upon hearing which the troops of Najm al-din deserted him at Nablus, when he fell into the hands of Malik al-N~ir, prince of Kerak, who carried him off to that city and kept him a prisoner there for a time; after which he was released and allowed to return to Nablus.
The accession of Kalun was also marked by an attempt on the part of the governor of Damascus to form Syria into an independent kingdom, an attempt frequently imitated on similar occasions.
He was dethroned in 1296, and one of the murderers of Khalil, IJusm al-dIn Ljin, son-in-law of the sultan Bibars and formerly governor of Damascus, installed in his palace (November 26th, 1296).
The 7th Ilkhan, Ghazan Mahmud, took advantage of the disorder in the Mameluke empire to invade Syria in the latter half of 1299, when his forces inflicted a severe defeat on those of the new sultan, and seized several cities, including the capital Damascus, of which, however, they were unable to storm the citadel; in 1300, when a fresh army was collected in Egypt, the Mongols evacuated Damascus and made no attempt to secure their other conquests.
Like other Egyptian sultans he made considerable use of the Assassins, 124 of whom were sent by him into Persia to execute Kara Sonkor, at one time governor of Damascus, and one of the murderers of Malik al-Ashraf; but they were all outwitted by the exile, who was finally poisoned by the Ilkhan in recompense for a similar service rendered by the Egyptian sultan.
His taste for building and street improvement led to the beautifying of Cairo, and his example was followed by the governors of other great cities in the empire, notably Aleppo and Damascus.
haul was restored, when on the 1st of June 1389 Cairo was taken by Yelbogha, governor of Damascus, and Barkuk expelled; I~Ijji reigned at first under the guardianship of Yelbogha, who was then overthrown by Mintash; Barkak, who had been relegated to Kerak, succeeded in again.
He proceeded to take Hamah, Homs (Emesa) and other towns, and on the 20th of December started for Damascus.
to relieve Damascus, but the news of an insurrection.
On the 23rd of May 1412, after being defeated and shut up in Damascus, he was compelled by Sheik Mabrnudi to abdicate, and an Abbasid caliph, Mostain, was proclaimed sultan, only to be forced to abdicate on the 6th of November of the same year in Sheiks favor, who took the title Malik al-Muayyad, his colleague Newruz having been previously sent to Syria, where he was to be autocrat by the terms of their agreement.
In the struggle which naturally followed between the two, Newruz was shut up in Damascus, defeated and slain.
of Kasrawah, governor of Damascus, whom he had been sent to reduce to subjection, ousted Jan Belgt, and was himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al- Adil (January 25th, 1501).
~ahir Pasha of Acre, to whom was sent official information of the step taken by Au Bey, promised his aid and kept his word by compelling an army sent by the pasha of Damascus against Egypt to retreat.
Reinforced by All Beys ally ~Ahir, he easily took the chief cities, ending with Damascus; but at this point he appears to have entered into secret negotiations with the Porte, by which he undertook to restore Egypt to Ottoman suzerainty.
A double expedition shortly after Bonapartes departure was sent by the Porte for the recovery of Egypt, one force being despatched by sea to Damietta, while another under Yflsuf Pasha took tle land route from Damascus by al-Arish.
The pan-Islamic press, allowed full licence by the Cairo authorities, spread abroad rumours that the Egyptian government intended to construct fortifications in the Sinai peninsula with the design of menacing the railway, under construction by Turkey, from Damascus to Mecca.
DAMASCIUS, the last of the Neoplatonists, was born in Damascus about A.D.
of Damascus, situated at the foot of Mt.
The brilliant days are past when the universities of Damascus, Bagdad, Nishapur, Cairo, Kairawan, Seville, Cordova, were thronged by thousands of students of theology, when a professor had often hundreds or even, like Bukhari, thousands of hearers, and when vast estates in the hands of the clergy fed both masters and scholars.
1-6), which is out of its chronological order, Elisha is represented as at Damascus (viii.
The geographical character of the district north and north-east of the elbow of Orontes makes it the natural centre of Syria, so long as that country is held by a western power; and only Asiatic, and especially Arab, dynasties have neglected it for the oasis of Damascus.
He travelled past Naples to Syracuse, then on shipboard by Cos and Samos to Ephesus, and thence through Asia Minor to Damascus and Jerusalem.
Mail Communications.-The Persian Gulf was at the end of the 18th century the most rapid route between Europe and India, and it was not until 1833 that the Red Sea route was adopted by the East India Co.; from this date until 1862 the Gulf fell into an extraordinary state of inaccessibility-letters for India being sent from Bagdad and Basra via Damascus, and correspondence from Bushire for Bagdad via Teheran.
After staying there eleven days, he set out for Europe by Beyrout, but at Nazareth he was attacked by fever; and he died at Damascus on the 29th of May 1862.
JOHN OF DAMASCUS (JOHANNES DAMASCENUS) (d.
before 754), an eminent theologian of the Eastern Church, derives his surname from Damascus, where he was born about the close of the 7th century.
John of Damascus has sometimes been called the "Father of Scholasticism," and the "Lombard of the Greeks," but these epithets are appropriate only in a limited sense.
Perhaps the line of the pilgrim road from Damascus to Mecca is the most convenient possible boundary.
A railway from Haifa to Damascus was opened in 2905; it runs across the Plain of Esdraelon, enters the Ghor at Beisan, then, turning northwards, impinges on the Sea of Galilee at Samakh, and runs up the valley of the Yarmuk to join, at ed-Der`a, the line of the third railway.
This was undertaken in 2901 to connect Damascus with Mecca; in 1906 it was finished as far as Ma'an, and in 1908 the section to Medina was completed.
This change was made on account of the trouble involved in referring all complications (arising from questions relating to the political standing of the holy places) to the superior officials of Beirut or Damascus, as had formerly been necessary.
Damascus is closely connected with Galilee and Gilead, and has always been in contact with Mesopotamia, Assyria, Asia Minor and Armenia.
Southern Asia Minor, Phoenicia, Ammon, the Syrian Desert and Israel (under Omri's son " Ahab the Israelite ") sent their troops to support Damascus which, in spite of the repeated efforts of tendency to identify them - was perhaps known in Palestine, as it certainly was in Egypt and among the Hittites.
The anti-Assyrian alliance was, as often in west Asia, a temporary one, and the inveterate rivalries of the small states are illustrated, in a striking manner, in the downfall of Omri's dynasty and the rise of that of Jehu (842-c. 745); in the bitter onslaughts of Damascus upon Israel, leading nearly to its annihilation; in an unsuccessful attack upon the king of Hamath by Damascus, Cilicia and small states in north Syria; in an Israelite expedition against Judah and Jerusalem (2 Kings xiv.
13 seq.); and finally in the recovery and extension of Israelite power - perhaps to Damascus - under Jeroboam II.
8, xxvii.), dealings with Israel and perhaps Damascus could probably be inferred.
(745-728): proand anti-Assyrian parties now make themselves felt, and when north Syria was taken in 738, Tyre, Sidon, nance of Damascus (under Rezin), " Samaria " (under Menahem) and a queen of Aribi were among the tributaries.
It is possible that Judah (under Uzziah and Jotham) had come to an understanding with Assyria; at all events Ahaz was at once encircled by fierce attacks, and was only saved by Tiglath-Pileser's campaign against Philistia, north Israel and Damascus.
With the siege and fall of Damascus (733-32) Assyria gained the north, and its supremacy was recognized by the tribes of the Syrian desert and Arabia (Aribi, Tema, Sheba).
In 722 Samaria, though under an Assyrian vassal (Hoshea the last king), joined with Philistia in revolt; in 720 it was allied with Gaza and Damascus, and the persistence of unrest is evident when Sargon in 715 found it necessary to transport into Samaria various peoples of the desert.
in references to Ammon, Damascus and Hamath, and in Judaean relations with Philistia, Moab and Edom.
The latter seized Bostra and proceeded to march to Damascus.
dynasty, transferred the seat of the caliphate from Abdalmali Mecca to Damascus, where it remained till the k,.
On behalf of their king, the Khwarizmian general Atsiz invaded Palestine and captured Jerusalem and Damascus, and then marched on Egypt to carry out his original purpose of destroying the Fatimites.
They were driven westward by pressure of the Tatars, and in 1228 had been called by the ruler of Damascus to his aid.
Under their leader Hulagu these tribes came by way of Bagdad, which they captured in 1258, and in 1260 they attacked and captured Damascus and ravaged Syria.
In 1860 occurred a sudden antiChristian outbreak in Damascus and the Lebanon, in which 14,000 Christians were massacred.
Even the Protestant churches are not exempt from blame in the matter; a small tomb near the Damascus Gate of Jerusalem has been fixed upon by a number of English enthusiasts as the true " Holy Sepulchre," an identification for which there is nothing to be said.
A process called by Europeans "damascening" (from Damascus, the chief seat of the export) was used to produce very delicate and rich surface ornament.
Kasim invaded and conquered the Hindus of Sind in the name of Walid I., caliph of Damascus, of the Omayyad line.
The attempt of his predecessor Pekah to take Jerusalem with the help of his ally Rasun (Rezin) of Damascus was frustrated by the intervention of Tiglath-Pileser IV.
Meanwhile, Damascus was besieged (733-73 2 B.C.), Rasun was slain and the inhabitants deported (2 Kings xvi.
The impending fate of Damascus is illustrated by Isaiah (vii.
He received them in Jerusalem in 1148; with them he planned the attack on Damascus and with them he signally failed in the attack.
He regulated affairs in Antioch, and tried to strengthen the north of Palestine generally against the arm of Zengi's successor, Nureddin, by renewing the old and politic alliance with Damascus interrupted since 1147, and by ceding Tellbashir, the one remnant of the county of Edessa, to Manuel of Constantinople.
Walled in by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bostra and Damascus in the north, to Elath and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.
from Damascus, 1150 ft.
When thirty-eight he travelled in Egypt, Arabia, Bagdad, Mosul and Asia Minor, after which he lived in Damascus for the rest of his life.
In 1187, after making the pilgrimage to Mecca, he visited Damascus.
His Laura long continued to be the most influential monastery in those parts, and produced several distinguished monks, among 1 hem St John of Damascus.
Damascus fell late in the summer of 635, and on the 10th of August 636 was fought the great decisive battle on the Hieromax (Yarmuk), which caused the emperor Heraclius finally to abandon Syria.'
The kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira, advanced posts hitherto, now became the headquarters of the Arabs; the new empire had its centres on the one hand at Damascus, on the other hand at Kufa and Basra, the two newly-founded cities in the region of old Babylonia.
He exhibited Othman's blood-stained garment in the mosque at Damascus, and incited his Syrians to vengeance.
If the caliph then, as the chroniclers tell, sent a message to Moawiya for help, his messenger could not have accomplished half the journey to Damascus when the catastrophe took place.
In the year 639 Omar named him governor of Damascus and Palestine; Othman added to this province the north of Syria and Mesopotamia.
On his return to Damascus, Moawiya charged Moghira b.
Sho`ba, eventually broke down the resistance of Ziyad, who came to Damascus to render an account of his administration, which the caliph ratified.
Ziyad then came himself, arrested the leader of the Shi`ites, and sent fourteen rebels to Damascus, among them several men of consideration.
All the evidence shows that, during the reign of the Omayyads, life in Damascus and the rest of Syria was austere and in striking contrast to the dissolute manners which prevailed in Medina.
Obaidallah sent the head of Hosain to Damascus, together with the women and children and Ali b.
The prefect of Damascus, Dahhak b.
684) ensued at Merj Rahit, near Damascus, in which Dahhak and Zofar, though they had the majority of troops, were utterly defeated.
Zobair, caliph of Mecca; that of the caliph of Damascus, Abdalmalik; that of Ali's son Mahommed b.
The garrison of Damascus took fright, and deserted their posts, so that `Amr Ashdaq was compelled to surrender.
His head was cut off, and sent by Hajjaj to Damascus.
Henceforward we shall find temporal interests, represented by Damascus, predominating over those of religion, and the centre of Islam, now permanently removed beyond the limits of Arabia, more susceptible to foreign influence, and assimilating more readily their civilizing elements.
His head was sent to Hajjaj and then to Damascus.
Lastly, a regular post service was instituted from Damascus to the provincial capitals, especially destined for governmental despatches.
He therefore proclaimed the caliph of Damascus as sole ruler of the whole peninsula.
Musa then continued the subjugation of Spain, till Walid recalled him to Damascus.
Abdalaziz consolidated his power by marrying the widow of the late king Roderic. Musa left Spain about August 714, and reached Damascus shortly before the death of Walid.
In the time of the conquest of Damascus, one half of the great church had been made a mosque, while the remaining half had been left to the Christians.
The real cause of the dismissal of Maslama was, that he did not send the revenue-quota to Damascus.
He settled at Damascus and made a noble return for his injuries by taking an active part in the war against the Greeks.
740, while he was in Asia Minor, a great fire broke out in Damascus, the guilt of which was attributed to Khalid.
His body was crucified in Kufa, his head sent to Damascus and thence to Medina.
A great many troops had been detached by Hisham to Africa and other provinces, the caliph himself was in one of his country places; the prefect of Damascus also was absent.
Without difficulty, Yazid made himself master of Damascus, and immediately sent his cousin Abdalaziz with 2000 men against Walid, who had not more than 200 fighting men about him.
His head was taken to Damascus and carried about the city at the end of a spear.
On the news of the murder of the caliph, the citizens of Horns (Emesa) put at their head Abu Mahommed as-Sofiani, a grandson of Yazid I., and marched against Damascus.
Merwan resolved to accept those conditions, and sent a deputation to Damascus, which, however, had just reached Manbij (Hierapolis) when Yazid died.
Hisham, at the head of 120,000 men, was defeated at `Ain al-Darr, between Baalbek and Damascus.
He then marched upon Damascus.
When Merwan entered Damascus this man testified that the sons of Walid II., who had just become adult, had named Merwan successor to the Caliphate, and was the first to greet him as Prince of the Believers.
He did not, however, wish to reside in Damascus, but transplanted the seat of government to his own town, Harran in Mesopotamia.
No`aim revolted in Palestine, Emesa (Horns) and Tadmor were turbulent, Damascus was besieged by Yazid b.
After the victory the walls were demolished, and likewise those of Baalbek, Damascus, Jerusalem and other towns.
Merwan retreated to Harran, thence to Damascus, and finally to Egypt, where he fell in a last struggle towards the end of 132 (August 750).
In 858 Motawakkil, hoping to escape from the arrogant patronage of Wasif, who had taken the place of Itakh as head of the Turkish guard, transferred his residence to Damascus.
conquered Damascus and other cities.
Having shared in the fruitiess attack on Damascus, he left Palestine in September 1148, and passed the ensuing winter at Constantinople, where he made fresh plans for an attack on Roger of Sicily.
The immediate price was the pashalik of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, that of the Morea to his son Ibrahim.
As for the pasha himself, he loudly disclaimed any such disloyal pretensions; his aim was to chastise Abdulla, pasha of Acre, who had harboured refugees from his "reforms"; to overthrow Khusrev, who had encouraged him in his refusal to surrender them; to secure the fulfilment of the sultan's promise with regard to Syria and Damascus.
Meanwhile, Ibrahim had occupied Gaza and Jerusalem as well as Jaffa; on the 27th of May, a few days after the publication of the ban, Acre was stormed; on the 15th of June the Egyptians occupied Damascus.
Meanwhile, Mehemet Ali had scornfully rejected the offers of the Porte; he would be content with nothing but the concession of his full demands - Syria, Icheli, Aleppo, Damascus and Adana.
France and Great Britain now urged the sultan to yield, and in March a Turkish agent was sent to Ibrahim to offer the pashaliks of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus.
The diplomacy of Guizot, backed now by Austria and Prussia, had succeeded in persuading Palmerston to concede the principle of allowing Mehemet Ali to receive, besides Egypt, the pashalik of Acre as far as the frontiers of Tripoli and Damascus (May 7).
The rock inscriptions in the wild district of Safah near Damascus which have been collected by Halevy are also written in an Arabic dialect, but, owing chiefly to their careless execution, they are to a large extent unintelligible.
After some stay at Cairo, then probably the greatest city in the world (excluding China), and an unsuccessful attempt to reach Mecca from Aidhab on the west coast of the Red Sea, he visited Palestine, Aleppo and Damascus.
On his way home he saw the great bird Rukh (evidently, from his description, an island lifted by refraction); revisited Sumatra, Malabar, Oman, Persia, Bagdad, and crossed the great desert to Palmyra and Damascus, where he got his first news of home, and heard of his father's death fifteen years before.
Diverging to Hamath and Aleppo, on his return to Damascus, he found the Black Death raging, so that two thousand four hundred died in one day.
At Aleppo at that date only ten families out of several hundred remained true to their old faith, and something like the same proportion at Damascus and Bagdad.
As late as 1850 there were 150 villages of them in the Jebel Toor to the north-east of Mardin, 50 in the district of Urfah and Gawar, and a few in the neighbourhoods of Diarbekr, Mosul and Damascus.
He visited Palestine in the reign of Baldwin I., Latin king of Jerusalem (1100-1118), and apparently soon after the crusading capture of Acre (1104); he claims to have accompanied Baldwin, who treated him with marked friendliness, on an expedition against Damascus (c. 1107).
The earliest examples of specific wines of which we have any record are the Chalybon wine, produced near Damascus, in which the Phoenicians traded in the time of Ezekiel (xxvii.
Eusebes, and held his court at Damascus.
(by E.) of Damascus.
Towards the end of the 18th century it seems to have revived under the comparatively beneficent rule of Dhahar el-Amir, the local sheikh: his successor, Jezzar Pasha, governor of Damascus, improved and fortified it, but by heavy imposts secured for himself all the benefits derived from his improvements.
16, read "Edom" for "Aram"), and Judah and Israel as well as Gaza and Damascus enjoyed the fruits of its commerce.
He rapidly passed on, through books like Inferno (1897), the diary of a semi-lunatic, up into the sheer mysticism of To Damascus (1898), where he reconciles himself at last to Christianity.
Apparently the most northerly limit of the ostrich's ordinary range at the present day is that portion of the Syrian Desert lying directly eastward of Damascus; and, within the limits of what may be called Palestine, H.
5, 65), first erected statues to Anaitis in Persepolis, Ecbatana, Bactria, Susa, Babylon, Damascus and Sardis.
The assassination of Maurice in 602 impelled him to a war of revenge against Rome, in the course of which his armiesin 6o8 and, again, in 615 and 626penetrated as far as Chalcedon opposite Constantinople, ravaged Syria, reduced Antioch (611), Damascus (613), and Jerusalem (614), and carried off the holy cross to Ctesiphon; in 619 Egypt was occupied.
Ghazan fought with success against Egypt (which country had already from 1293 to December 1294 been ruled by a Mongol usurper Kitboga), and even held Damascus for a few months.
south of Damascus.
A little later, however, he greatly improved his position by strengthening his alliance with the vizier of Damascus, who also had to fear the progress of Zengi (1140); and in this way he was able to capture the fort of Banias, to the N.
Abila was an important town on the imperial highway from Damascus to Heliopolis (Baalbek).
The site is indicated by ruins of a temple, aqueducts, &c., and inscriptions on the banks of the river Barada at Suk Wadi Barada, a village called by early Arab geographers Abil-es-Suk, between Baalbek and Damascus.
After subjugating the territory between Jerusalem and Damascus, he routed the generals of Demetrius on the plain of Hazor.
The Christian story first appears in Greek among the works of John of Damascus, who flourished in the early part of the 8th century, and who, before he adopted the monastic life, had held high office at the court of the caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur, as his father Sergius is said to have done before him.
There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later texts and translations.
After its appearance among the writings of John of Damascus, it was incorporated with Simeon Metaphrastes' Lives of the Saints (c. 950), and thence gained great vogue, being translated into almost every European language.
Corps) and reserve formations of Damascus, belonged to this II.
Corps and the Damascus and Smyrna reserves and scattered as it was, can hardly be credited with more than 200,000 of its nominal 340,000, of whom no more than 50,000 combatants were in fact ever assembled on one battlefield.
Having secured his chair for his brother he went to Damascus, Jerusalem, Hebron, Mecca, Medina and Alexandria, studying, meditating and writing in these cities.
ABANA (or Amanah, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR, the "rivers of Damascus" (2 Kings v.
"crooked") respectively, though if the reference to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern Taura.
Both streams run from west to east across the plain of Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the borders of the great Arabian desert.
those of Boethus of Sidon, Aristo of Alexandria, Staseas, Cratippus, and Nicolaus of Damascus.
32 he is described as ruler of Damascus at the time of Paul's conversion.
The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebel' (held by the patriarch himself ex officio).
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
ABULFEDA [Abu l-Fida' Isma`il ibn 'Alf `Imad-ud-Dni] (1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols.
It has been doubtfully suggested that for Hor we should here read Hadrach, the name of a northern country near Damascus, mentioned only once in the Bible (Zech.
The quarantine office keeps a record of arrivals by sea at Jidda (66,000 for 1904); but to these must be added those travelling by land from Cairo, Damascus The sacrifice is not indispensable except for those who can afford it and are combining the hajj with the omra.
John of Damascus and the schoolmen, including Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, held Nemesius in high esteem, believing his book to be the work of Gregory of Nyssa, with whom he has much in common.
Ahaziah son of Jehoram of Judah and Jehoram brother of Ahaziah of Israel had taken joint action against the Aramaeans of Damascus who were attacking Ramoth-Gilead under Hazael.
For some years after this Assyria was unable to interfere, and war broke out between Damascus and Israel.
HOMS, or Hums (anc. Emesa or Emessa, near the Hittite Kadesh), a town of Syria, on the right bank of the Orontes, and capital of a sanjak in the vilayet of Syria (Damascus).
The importance of the place arises from its command of the great north road from Egypt, Palestine and Damascus by the Orontes valley.
2.2) names Damascus; Ctesias, Babylon, which is absolutely impossible.
It was as a vassal that Ahaz presented himself to the Assyrian king at Damascus, and he brought back religious innovations (2 Kings xvi.
The view from Hermon is very extensive, embracing all Lebanon and the plains east of Damascus, with Palestine as far as Carmel and Tabor.
In 1614 the pasha of Damascus moved against him with a large force, and compelled him to fly from Syria.
The Shehab family, originally Hira Arabs, which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus, and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Kaisi faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain.
All, however, was in vain: the conflict was continued through 1858, 1859 and 1860; and the disturbance culminated in the famous Damascus massacre (see Syria).
Porter got possession of seven standard works of Druse theology while at Damascus.
It has developed since about 1890 into an important port, and is connected by railway with Damascus.
John of Damascus's theory of Enhypostasy (Christ's manhood not impersonal, but made personal only through union with His Godhead) is held by some to be the copingstone of this great dogmatic development.
With John of Damascus the progress of Greek divinity ends.
c. 52), and on the other hand Nicolaus of Damascus (apud Jos.
The town of Banias, with its castle, formed also a strong outpost against Damascus, and was the scene, in common with the other strongholds, of many desperate encounters between Moslems and Christians.
The scheme of doctrine of the first four general councils, in all its vagueness as to these points, was to be maintained; so far as the controversy had gone, the disputants on either side were to be held free from censure, but to resume it I The name seems to occur first in John of Damascus.
He took Acre after a severe siege on the 27th of May 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated a Turkish army at Homs on the 8th of July, defeated another Turkish army at Beilan on the 29th of July, invaded Asia Minor, and finally routed the grand vizier at Konia on the 21st of December.
Yet in the nature of the case there must have been a great store of local tradition accessible to some writers and at some periods.3 Interest is taken not in Phoenicia, Damascus or the northern tribes, but in the east and south, in Gilead, Ammon, Moab and Ishmael.
Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Cyril of Alexandria, John of Damascus).
He succeeded in breaking the power of Damascus, which had long been devastating his land, and extended his kingdom from Hamath on the Orontes to the Dead Sea.
26) to bribe the king of Damascus to renounce his league with Baasha and attack Israel.
But the instrument which, in the hands of John of Damascus (Damascenus), was made subservient to theological interests, became in the hands of others a dissolvent of the doctrines which had been reduced to shape under the prevalence of the elder Platonism.
From Cairo, Bagdad, Damascus and Alexandria, books both old and new were procured at any price for the library of the prince; twenty-seven free schools were opened in Cordova for the education of the poor; and intelligent knowledge was perhaps more widely diffused in Mahommedan Spain than in any other part of Europe at that day.
But the spirit of research, fostered by the fusion of races and the social and intellectual competition thus engendered, was not crushed by these proceedings; and for the next century and more the higher minds of Spain found in Damascus and Bagdad the intellectual aliment which they desired.
In 1895 a French company completed a railway across the Lebanon to Damascus, and connected it with Mezerib in the Hauran, whence now starts the line to the Hejaz.
During 713 and 714 the north was subdued to the foot of the mountains, and when Miis and Tank were recalled to Damascus by the caliph the progress of the Moslems was not delayed.
That the lieutenants of the caliph at Damascus should take the place of the Visigoth kings, their dukes and counts seemed to many no loss and to a still greater number a gain.
After lasting five hundred and five years, the dynasty came to an end in the person of Sadyattes, as he is called by Nicolas of Damascus, whose account is doubtless derived from Xanthus.
To enjoy the society of the learned, he went first to Mosul (1189), and afterwards to Damascus.
He taught medicine and philosophy at Cairo and at Damascus for a number of years, and afterwards, for a shorter period, at Aleppo.
endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus.
The khan of Asad Pasha at Damascus is a model of constructive skill and architectural beauty.
In Athanasius the relation of the work of Christ to Satan retires into the background, Gregory of Nazianzus and John of Damascus felt scruples about this view.
Meanwhile, inside the Arab empire, John of Damascus wrote his three dogmatic discourses against the traducers of images, arguing that their use was not idolatry but only a relative worship (1rpovKUVrlvns The next pope, Gregory III.