had much of the churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears most decidedly as an incessant warrior, under whom the Latin domination in the East stretched, as Ibn al-Athir writes, in a long line from Mardin in the North to el-Arish on the Red Sea - a line only broken by the Mahommedan powers of Aleppo, Hamah, Horns and Damascus.
They occupied Ilauran, and about 85 B.C. their king Aretas (Ilaritha) became lord of Damascus and Coele-Syria.
The Roman arms were not very successful, and King Aretas retained his whole possessions, including Damascus, as a Roman ' See Edom, and (for the view that Mal.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
of the Damascus gate, followed a course first south-east and then west of south, and joined the two main valleys of Kidron and Er Rababi at Siloam.
The empress also erected a large church in honour of St Stephen north of the Damascus Gate, and is believed to have been buried therein.
On leaving Egypt he travelled by land to the Persian Gulf, disguised as a Mameluke, visiting Damascus, and entering the great mosque undetected.
of Syria assaulted it in the reign of Ahab, but was repulsed and obliged to allow the Israelite traders to establish a quarter in Damascus, as his predecessor Ben-Hadad I.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
In the West the Church enters the medieval stage of its history with the death of Gregory, while in the East even John of Damascus is rather a compiler of patristic teaching than a true "father."
The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventysix with the Latin fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.2 For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred to the articles which deal with them separately.
Here the roads from Damascus, by way of Palmyra, and from Mosul, by way of the Khabur, reach the Euphrates, and here there must always have been a town of considerable commercial and strategic importance.
The city, frequently called the "Damascus of the North," spreads over a narrow valley, closed on the east by a semicircle of rugged hills.
It evidently suffered in the bloody conflicts of Damascus with Israel (1 Kings xv.
John of Damascus >>
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
His reign is noteworthy for the entrance of Damascus into Palestinian politics.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
In 842 Shalmaneser records a campaign against Hazael of Damascus; no coalition is mentioned, although a battle was fought at Sanir (Hermon, Deut.
9), and the cities of Hauran to the south of Damascus were spoiled.
[OLD Testament History show that Damascus was neither crushed nor helpless, but thenceforth for a number of years Assyria was fully occupied elsewhere and the west was left to itself.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
Damascus, Israel and Judah.
Hazael of Damascus, Jehu of Israel and Elisha the prophet are the three men of the new age linked together in the words of one writer as though commissioned for like ends (1 Kings xix.
Ben-hadad) of Damascus and recognized Hazael as its future ruler.
It is a natural assumption that Damascus could still count upon Israel as an ally in 842; not until the withdrawal of Assyria and the accession of Jehu did the situation change.
Certain traditions, it is true, indicate that Israel had been at war with the Aramaeans from before 854 to 842, and that Hazael was attacking Gilead at the time when Jehu revolted; but in the midst of these are other traditions of the close and friendly relations between Israel and Damascus !
In the present narratives, however, the stories in which he possesses influence with king and court are placed before the rise of Jehu, and some of them point to a state of hostility with Damascus before he foresees the atrocities which Hazael will perpetrate.
princes, and sent the spoil to the king of Damascus; the disaster is.
At this stage it is necessary to notice the fresh invasion of Syria by Hadad (Adad)-nirari, who besieged Mari, king of Damascus, and exacted a heavy tribute (c. Boo B.C.).
Assyria and Damascus would realize the recuperative power of the latter, and would perceive the danger of the short-sighted policy of Joash.
There are no signs of an extensive coalition as in the days of Shalmaneser; Ammon is probably included under Damascus; the position of Moab - which had freed itself from Jehoram of Israel - can hardly be calculated.
The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
(against Damascus, 773 B.C.) the situation cannot be safely gauged.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
Israel was once more in league with Damascus and Phoenicia, and the biblical records must be read in the light of political history.
8) to his subjugation of Ammon - the natural allies of Damascus - for three years.
Either in the natural course of events - to preserve the unity of his empire - or influenced by the rich presents of gold and silver with which Ahaz accompanied his appeal for help, Tiglathpileser intervened with campaigns against Philistia (734 B.C.) and Damascus (733-732).
But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.
Another revolt was planned in 720 in which the province of Samaria joined with Hamath and Damascus, with the Phoenician Arpad and Simura, and with Gaza and " Egypt."
Ahaz had recognized the sovereignty of Assyria and visited Tiglath-pileser at Damascus.
But, when Pompey himself arrived at Damascus, Antipater, who pulled the strings and exploited the claims of Hyrcanus, realized that Rome and not the Arabs, who were cowed by the threats of Scaurus, was the ruler of the East.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
At length Augustus summoned the representatives of the nation and Nicholaus of Damascus, who spoke for Archelaus, to plead before him in the temple of Apollo.
Such incidents were the Damascus charge of ritual murder (1840), the forcible baptism of the Italian child Mortara (1858), and the Russian pogroms at various dates.
The Caliphate under the Omayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.
War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.
Two hundred and forty years after the appearing of the false Messiah there came to the world sixty thousand saints out of Pharaoh's world to take the place of the Mandaeans, who had been completely extirpated; their high priest had his residence in Damascus.
of Damascus and five days' camel journey from the Euphrates, in an oasis of the Syrian desert, 1,300 ft.
There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of Syria by the Babylonian Empire (6th century B.C.).
In 1095 two brothers, Ridwan and Dekak, ruled in Aleppo and Damascus respectively; but they were at war with one another, and Yagi-sian, the ruler of Antioch, was a party to their dissensions.
When Godfrey died in July 1100 (after successful forays against the Mahommedans which took him as far as Damascus), it might seem as if a theocracy were after all to be established in Jerusalem, in spite of the events of 1099.
With all its length, the territory had but little breadth: towards the north it was bounded by the amirate of Damascus; in the centre, it spread little, if at all, beyond the Jordan; and it was only in the south that it had any real extension.
control the routes of the caravans, especially the route from Damascus to Egypt and the Red Sea.
Lying to the east of the Euphrates, at once in close contact with the Armenians, and in near proximity to the great route of trade which came up the Euphrates to Rakka, and thence diverged to Antioch and Damascus, the county of Edessa had an eventful if brief life.
There was an atabeg dynasty in Damascus founded by Tughtigin (1103-1128): there was another to the N.E., that of the Ortokids,, represented by Sokman, who established himself at Kaifa in Diarbekr about i 101, and by his brother Ilghazi, who received Mardin from Sokman about 1108, and added to it Aleppo in 1117.1 But the greatest of the atabegs were those of Mosul on the Tigris - Maudud, who died in 1113; Aksunkur, his successor; and finally, greatest of all, Zengi himself, who ruled in Mosul from 1127 onwards.
Baldwin conquered part of the territory of Aleppo (in 1121 and the following years), and extorted a tribute from Damascus (1126).
4 But there were two powers which aided Fulk, and impeded the progress of Zengi - the amirate of Damascus and the emperors of Constantinople.
The position of Damascus is a position of crucial importance from 1130 to 1154.
and from its position on the great route of commerce from the Euphrates to Egypt, Damascus became the arbiter of Syrian politics.
During the greater part of the period between 1130 and 11 54 the policy of Damascus was guided by the vizier Muin eddin Anar, who ruled on behalf of the descendants of the atabeg Tughtigin.
He saw the importance of finding an ally against the ambition of Zengi, who had already attacked Damascus in 1130.
One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.
Their sideboards were covered with the copper and silver work of Eastern smiths and the confectioneries of Damascus.
to allow the hope of gaining two small towns to induce them to break the vital alliance with Damascus.
2 This body of crusaders ultimately reached the Holy Land, where it joined Conrad (who had lost his own original forces), and helped in the fruitless siege of Damascus.
sovereigns resolved to attack Damascus.
The attack was impolitic: Damascus was the one ally which could help the Franks to stem the advance of Nureddin.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
attempted to make head against these troubles, partly by renewing the old alliance with Damascus, partly by drawing closer to Manuel of Constantinople.
In' 154 fell Damascus, and the crescent closed perceptibly in the north: the most valuable ally of the kingdom was lost, and the way seemed clear from Aleppo (the peculiar seat of Nureddin's power) into Egypt.
Damascus he acquired as early as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.
Driven from the Red Sea by Saladin, he turned from buccaneering to brigandage, and infested the great trade-route from Damascus to Egypt, which passed close by his seignory.
They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
The first of these was Damascus.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
Saladin had united Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among: the members of his family,' which more than once led to wars between Damascus and Cairo.
Malik-al-Kamil, Malik-al-Muazzam, Sultan of Egypt, Sultan of Damascus, t 1238.
al-din Ayyub, sultan of Egypt, and after 1244 of Damascus, t 1249.
Malik-al-Ashraf, ruler of Khelat, and after 1227 of Damascus, t 1237.
Malik-al-Salih Isma'il, sultan of Damascus, 1237-1244.
From him Damascus passed to Malik-alSalih Ayyub of Egypt at the battle of Gaza.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
In that year Hulagu, the khan of Persia, invaded Syria and captured Damascus.
His general, a Christian named Kitboga, marched southwards to attack the Mamelukes of Egypt, but he was beaten by Bibars (who in the same year became sultan of Egypt), and Damascus fell into the hands of the Mamelukes.
An Balieh CIP (Lity Aleppo O F A Tioch Rakka Emirate Of oDamascus Damascus 0103-1554) 'Caesare o Krak of the Desert ntreal =I Cairo ila prestige in the eyes of Europe.
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
(3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.
The others, which terminate streams, are the Bahr el-Ateiba, which receives the waters of Damascus; the Mat, into which the Kuwaik flows below Kinnesrin; and the Ak Deniz, or Bahrat Antakia, the ancient Lake of Antioch, which collects the waters of the Kara Su and Afrin, the southward from the watershed which shuts off Commagene.
The heat at Damascus and Aleppo is great, the cooling winds being kept off by the mountains.
Of these the principal are Karietein and Tadmor (Palmyra), through which passes the trade from Damascus to the east.
Phoenicia and the Lebanon have the densest population, over 70 to the square mile, while Palestine, the north part of the western plateau east of Jordan, the oases of Damascus and Aleppo, the Orontes valley, and parts of Cornmagene, are well peopled.
The political status of the country is controlled by the Ottoman Empire, of which Syria makes part, divided into the vilayets of Aleppo, Sham or Syria (Damascus), the Lebanon (q.v.) and Beirut, and the separate sanjaks or mutessarifliks of Zor and Jerusalem.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
There are carriage roads radiating from Aleppo to the sea at Alexandretta, and to Aintab; and Antioch is also connected with Alexandretta; Beirut and Horns with Tripoli; Damascus with Beirut; and Nazareth with Haifa.
The caravan trade with the East has almost entirely ceased, and the great trade routes from Damascus northwards to Aleppo and eastwards through the wilderness are quite abandoned.
The traffic with Arabia has ceased to be important, being limited to the time of the going and returning of the great pilgrimage to Mecca, which continues to have its musteringplace at Damascus, but leaves mainly by rail.
the territory of the ancient city of Damascus; it was brought into subjection for a short time under David.
That Zobah was situated within Syria is certain, though how far to the west or north of Damascus is not known; in any case it was not far from IIamath (IIamah).
compassed the overthrow of the kingdom of Damascus; he also took Arpad (Tel Arfad), an important place three hours to the north of Aleppo.
It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
To this division Damascus and Palmyra belonged; occasionally they were reckoned to Coelesyria, the middle strip of coast being designated Syrophoenicia.
Moawiya, the first Omayyad caliph, chose Damascus for his residence; but in 750 the capital of the empire was removed by the Abbasids to Bagdad.
(3) Damascus, a district which included Baalbek, Tripoli and Beirut, and also the I;Iauran.
Porter, Five Years in Damascus (1855); J.
von Kremer, Mittelsyrien and Damascus (1853); W.
In 1400 he was sent to Damascus, in connexion with the expedition intended to oppose Timur or Tamerlane.
The mosque of the Omayyads in Damascus was built by the Caliph Walid in A.D.
After Baha-uddin's death in 1231, Jalal-uddin went to Aleppo and Damascus for a short time to study, but, dissatisfied with the exact sciences, he returned to Iconium, where he became by and by professor of four separate colleges, and devoted himself to the study of mystic theosophy.
- The Life of John of Damascus was written by John, patriarch of Jerusalem in the 10th century (Migne, Patrol.
1 as in the territory of Philip the tetrarch) adjoined the territory of Damascus, Auranitis and Batanaea.
Porter, Five Years in Damascus (2 vols., 1855); The Giant Cities of Bashan (out of date, but some of the descriptions good, 1865); J.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
The headquarters of the ordus are I., Constantinople; II., Adrianople; III., Salonica; IV., Erzerum; V., Damascus; VI., Bagdad; VII., Yemen; 15th division, Tripoli; 16th division, Hejaz.
P Europe, after the suppression of a revolt of the governor of Damascus, who had thought to take advantage of the new sultan's accession to restore the independent rule of the Circassian chiefs.
Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.
1, 1831), nominally in order to punish his enemy Abdullah, pasha of Acre, really in order to take by force of arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus promised as a reward for his services in Greece.
Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream, by the sultan's orders, and advanced on Damascus.
Formerly the British government maintained a camel-post across the desert to Damascus.
marched against north Syria, and among his tributaries mentions Menahem 2 together with Rezin of Damascus, and kings of Tyre, Gebal, &c. (c. 738 B.C.).
They number about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are under the immediate rule of -the patriarch of Damascus and twelve bishops.
It is also a road centre, the roads from the Mediterranean to Bagdad by way of Aleppo and Damascus respectively meeting here.
Of its seven books, the first two survey the history of the Jews from the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the outbreak of war in 67, and here Josephus relies upon some such general history as that of Nicolaus of Damascus.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
7 0 5-7 1 5) who, out of hatred to Christianity, replaced Greek by Arabic as the language of official documents at Damascus.
The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Amon-Ra.
At Damascus Greek medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and Christian teachers.
writers of this century need not be mentioned here; but the next, the 11th century, is given as the probable though uncertain date of a writer who had a great influence on European medicine, Mesua the younger of Damascus, whose personality is obscure, and of whose very existence some historians have doubted, thinking that the name was assumed by some medieval Latin writer.
In the 8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decoration of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by Romanus II.
The craft survived and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus.
In inventories of the 14th century both in England and in France mention may frequently be found of glass vessels of the manufacture of Damascus.
Enamel and gilding were freely used, in imitation no doubt of the muchadmired vessels brought from Damascus.
In 804 B.C. Damascus was captured by his successor Hadad-nirari IV., to whom tribute was paid by Samaria.
In spite of their efforts and subsequent attempts made by Tyrwhitt Drake and Richard Burton, when consul at Damascus, proper copies could not be obtained; and it was not till the end of 1872 that, thanks to W.
Wright of Beirut, casts were taken and the stones themselves sent to Constantinople by Subhi Pasha of Damascus.
In 613 and 614 Damascus and Jerusalem were taken by the general Shahrbaraz, and the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph.
above the valley, the fortress and palace of the imams, now replaced by the Turkish military hospital, the suburb of Bir el Azab with its scattered houses and gardens, the Jews' quarter and the village of Rauda, a few miles to the north in a fertile, irrigated plain which Niebuhr compares to that of Damascus.
Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.
In his company the Blunts set out from Damascus, and travelled across the Syrian desert by the Wadi Sirhan to Jauf.
Euting, followed the same route from Damascus.
Sirhan is continuous with the depression known as the Jauf, situated on the northern edge of the Nefud or Nafud, and the halfway station between Damascus and Hail; and it is possible that this depression continues eastward towards the Euphrates along a line a little north of the thirtieth parallel, where wells and pasturages are known to exist.
In the present day the Syrian pilgrim route, or Darb el Haj, from Damascus to Medina and Mecca is the most used.
The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.
Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.
In the same year Damascus fell into the hands of the Arabs under Abu `Ubaida.
After the battle of Siffin (657) arbitration was resorted to for the settlement of the rival claims. By a trick `Ali was deposed (658), and the Omayyad dynasty was established with its capital at Damascus.
With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
The accession of Abul 'Abbas (of the house of Hashim) and the transference of the capital of the caliphate from Damascus to Kufa, then Anbar and soon after (in 760) to Bagdad meant still further degradation to Arabia and Arabs.
Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
It is told, however, that Moawiya summoned an old man named `Abid ibn Sharya from Yemen to Damascus to tell him all he knew about ancient history and that he induced him to write down his information.
c. 1038) wrote, inter alia, a well-known History of the Poets of his Time, published at Damascus, 1887; Biruni (d.
1176) a History of Damascus and her Scholars, which is of great value, and exists in whole or in part in several libraries.
5) could only increase the hostility, and preparations were made by Israel for an alliance with Damascus which culminated in an attack upon Judah in the time of Jotham's son, Ahaz.
He died in Damascus, whither he had gone with his patron.
Sword-blades have been made here since the early middle ages, and tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by smiths from Damascus.
It was not till 1860 that he settled in London, when he took up his quarters at 2 Orme Square, Bayswater, where he stayed till, in 1866, he moved to his celebrated house in Holland Park Road, with its Arab hall decorated with Damascus tiles.
He was at Damascus for a short time in 1873.
Between this group and the more southerly Jebel Keniseh (about 6700 ft.) lies the pass (4700 ft.) traversed by the French post road between Beirut and Damascus.
Pursuing an easterly course, this stream receives the waters of the romantic `Ain Fije (which doubles its volume), and bursts out by a rocky gateway upon the plain of Damascus, in the irrigation of which it is the chief agent.
Lebanon on its way to Damascus, and the excellent roads and mule-paths made since 1883.
With the poor exceptions of one or two names like those of Theodore of Mopsuestia and John of Damascus, the Eastern Church produced no preachers of distinction.
But he had virtu as well as fortuna; and on his tombstone it was written that he was "a second Judas Maccabaeus, whom Kedar and Egypt, Dan and Damascus dreaded."
Text of Kings) reads: "how he fought with Damascus and how he turned away the wrath of Yahweh from Israel"; see also Ency.
According to one rather obscure narrative, Abram's sole heir was the servant, who was over his household, apparently a certain Eliezer of Damascus' (xv.
Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, 2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being Apollodorus of Damascus.
It is not certain that `Amr assisted Khalid in the siege of Damascus, but very probable that he took part in the decisive battle of Yarmuk, 10th of August 636.
At Tyre the year was counted from the 19th of our October, at Gaza from the 28th of the same month, and at Damascus from the vernal equinox.
erected images of Anaitis in Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Bactra, Damascus, Sardis.
The region of Damascus, hitherto a dependency, and the last remaining fragment of the Jewish kingdom, were incorporated with Syria; Bostra and Petra were permanently occupied, and a great portion of the Nabataean kingdom was organized as the Roman province of Arabia.
and N.E., converging at Antioch, follow the course of the stream up to Homs, where they fork to Damascus and to Coele-Syria and the S.; and along its valley have passed the armies and traffic bound to and from Egypt in all ages.
NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS, Greek historian and philosopher of Damascus, flourished in the time of Augustus and Herod the Great, with both of whom he was on terms of friendship. He instructed Herod in rhetoric and philosophy, and had attracted the notice of Augustus when he accompanied his patron on a visit to Rome.
Navet, Nikolaus von Damascus (1853), containing an account of his life and writings, and translation of the fragments.
This story is much amplified in the account given by St John of Damascus in the homilies In dormitionem Mariae, which are still read in the Roman Church as the lesson during the octave of the feast.
6) find their sequel in the alliance of Samaria and Damascus against Ahaz, when Edom recovered its independence (so read for " Syria " in 2 Kings xvi.
6, and, for the part played by Damascus, the later vicissitudes under the Nabataeans (Josephus, Ant.
Again, the Aramaean attack upon Israel by Hazael of Damascus leads to the capture of Gath (2 Kings xii.
When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place after the Moslem capture of Damascus (A.D.
It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great slaughter.
In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.
Richard Burton, when consul-general at Damascus in 1870, cleared an Arab screen out of the vestibule, and in consequence the exquisite doorway leading into the cella can now be well seen.
The tragic interest which distinguishes the annals of Israel from the forgotten history of Moab or Damascus lies wholly in that long contest.
6 sqq.), deserted his lord, raised a band of followers and eventually captured Damascus, where he established a new dynasty.
If these situations can with difficulty find a place in our picture of Solomon's might, it is clear that some of them form the natural introduction to the subsequent history, when his death brought internal discontent to a head, when the north under Jeroboam refused allegiance to the south, and when the divided monarchy enters upon its eventful career by the side of the independent states of Edom, Damascus and Phoenicia.
In 734 B.C. he was called to the help of Yahu-khazi (Ahaz) of Judah, who had been attacked by Pekah of Israel and Rezon (Rasun) of Damascus.
In 732 B.C. Damascus fell; Rezon was put to death, and an Assyrian satrap appointed in his stead.
103 by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus.
Again, the form of the word Tophet and Ahaz's association with Damascus might point to an Aramaean origin for the cult; but it would not be safe to support this view by the statements and names in 2 Kings xvii.
In the same passage of Luke mention is made of Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene near Damascus, in the valley of the B arada.
The Bazaar 3 of Heraclides of Damascus.
The great dogmatist of the Eastern Church, John of Damascus (ca.
The delightful gardens of Denizli have obtained for it the name of the "Damascus of Anatolia."
The amir then took up his residence in Brusa, removing in 1855 to Damascus.
He died at Damascus on the 26th of May 1883.
His armies penetrated to Lake Van and Tarsus, the Hittites of Carchemish were compelled to pay tribute, and Hamath (Hamah) and Damascus were subdued.
The territory of Damascus was devastated, and Jehu of Samaria (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisk now in the British Museum) sent tribute along with the Phoenician cities.
Some of them were derived from the wars with the Meunim; others from the campaign with Rezin of Damascus.
The apostle tells us that on his conversion he retired from Damascus into Arabia, and thence returned to Damascus; then after three years (from his conversion) he went up to Jerusalem, but stayed only a fortnight, and went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
Whether the same is the case with Ramman, identical with Rimmon, known to us from the Old Testament as the chief deity of Damascus, is not certain though probable.
(1899), Gustav Adolf (1900), and Gustav Vasa (1899); Till Damascus (1898) indicated a return in the direction of religion; Folkungasagan (1899) was represented in 1901; and the OA plays Avent (" Advent ") and Brott och brott (" Crime for Crime "), printed together in 1899, were successfully represented in 1900, both in Sweden and Germany.
Nur-ed-din, his son, had continued his work by further conquests in Syria and Damascus, by the organization of his conquered lands, and, in 1157, by "publishing everywhere the Holy War."
In 1139 Ayyub received Baalbek from Zengi, in 1146 he moved, on Zengi's death, to the court of Damascus.
In 1154 his influence secured Damascus to Nur-ed-din and he was made governor.
In 1174 he entered Damascus, Emesa and Hamah; in 1175 Baalbek and the towns round Aleppo.
In 1177 he returned by Damascus to Cairo, which he enriched with colleges, a citadel and an aqueduct.
Richard returned to Europe, and Saladin returned to Damascus, where on the 4th of March 1193, after a few days' illness, he died.
He was buried in Damascus and mourned by the whole East.
John of Damascus (c. 750) believed the bread to be mysteriously changed into the Christ's body, just as when eaten it is changed into any human body; and he argued that it is wrong to say, as Irenaeus had said, that the elements are mere antitypes after as before consecration.
The war with the Turks and Egyptians which succeeded the return from India was rendered notable by the capture of Aleppo and Damascus, and especially by the defeat and imprisonment of Sultan Bayezid I.
19 are John of Damascus (De haeres.
He subsequently became governor of Damascus and, in 1589, after the great revolt of the Janissaries, was appointed grand vizier for the second time.
Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.
1113); the younger, Duqaq, took possession of Damascus, and died in 1103.
On the other hand, it was natural for Nureddin to attempt to secure Egypt, both because it was the terminus of the trading route which ran from Damascus and because the acquisition of Egypt would enable him to surround the Latin kingdom.
67, 11), &c. John of Damascus, the great exponent of dogma in the 8th century, gave expression to the result of a uniform development which had been going on for centuries when he taught that Christ offers the relics to Christians as means of salvation.
found it defended by a castle built by a king of Damascus; but at the beginning of the following century the Arabian geographer Yaqut speaks of it as deserted and overthrown.
Aram-Damascus, which means, the Damascus portion of the Aramaic domain; and har-Ephraim, which means, the Ephraim portion of the (Israelitish) highlands - EV "Mount Ephraim."
and think of the rivers of Damascus, has not met with favour.
Henceforth it looked to Damascus and to Kufa and Basra, instead of to Constantinople or Ctesiphon.
was keen in Mesopotamia, where M erwan in fact got a footing, and when the troubles increased after he became caliph he abandoned Damascus in favour of his seat at Harran.
Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship. Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g.
It was always a strong border fortress and a place of commercial importance, in many respects the southern counterpart of Damascus.
NAWAWI [ABU] (1233-1278), Arabian writer, was born at Nawa near Damascus.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
Meanwhile Raynald of Krak took advantage of the position of his fortress, which lay on the great route of trade from Damascus and Egypt, to plunder the caravans (1182), and thus helped to precipitate the inevitable attack by Saladin.
A threefold commission was laid upon him: he was to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king of Syria; he was to anoint Jehu, the son of Nimshi, 5 The definition of time by the stated oblation (xviii.
15-18).1 Leaving Horeb and proceeding northwards along the desert route to Damascus, Elijah met Elisha engaged at the plough probably near his native place, Abel-meholah, in the valley of the Jordan, and by the symbolical act of casting his mantle upon him, consecrated him to the prophetic office.
See Skinner, Century Bible, " Kings," ad loc. 2 The geographical indications imply that in one account the journey to Damascus and the anointing of Hazael and Jehu must have intervened, and were omitted because another account ascribed these acts to Elisha (2 Kings viii.
(2) A disciple at Damascus who figures in the story of the conversion and baptism of Paul (Acts ix.
During Ahab's reign Moab, which had been conquered by his father, remained tributary; Judah, with whose king, Jehoshaphat, he was allied by marriage, was probably his vassal; only with Damascus is he said to have had strained relations.
25), and trading facilities between Damascus and Samaria were granted.
Besides a valuable account of the principal sacred sites of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee as they existed in the 7th century, he also gives important information as to Alexandria and Constantinople, briefly describes Damascus and Tyre, the Nile and the Lipari volcanoes, and refers to the caliph Moawiya I .
532) part of Sicily was plundered, and its inhabitants carried to Damascus.
Thyatira, Damascus and Samaria.
His court, at the same time, welcomed Greek men of letters like Nicolaus of Damascus.
(" The Romans are overcome in the nearest neighbouring land ") refers to the defeat of the Byzantines by the Persians, not far from Damascus, about the spring of 614, it would follow that the third group, to which this passage belongs, covers the greater part of the Meccan period.
These three manuscripts will therefore be those which the caliph, according to trustworthy tradition, sent in the first instance as standard copies to Damascus, Basra and Kufa to the warriors of the provinces of which these were the capitals, while he retained one at Medina.
Of the four exemplars of Othman's Koran, one was kept in Medina, and one was sent to each of the three metropolitan cities, Kufa, Basra, and Damascus.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
His realm enjoyed peace till his death in 896, when he fell a victim to some palace intrigue at Damascus.
~ughj, son of a Tulunid prefect of Damascus, was sent by the caliph to restore order; he had to force his entrance into the country by an engagement with one of the pretenders, Ibn Kaighlagh, in which he was victorious, and entered Fostat in August 935.
In a later battle he was himself defeated by the Ikshid, when an arrangement was made permitting Saif addaula to retain most of Syria, while a prefect appointed by the Ikshid was to remain in Damascus.
The Buyid ruler, who was now slinreme nt Ba2dsd, nermitte,d the Tkshlil to remsin in possession of his viceroyalty, but shortlya after receiving this confirmation he died at Damascus in 946.
The Ikshldl governor of Damascus, a cousin of Abul-Fawaris Al3mad, endeavoured to save Syria, but was defeated at Ramleh by a general sent by Jauhar and taken prisoner.
Almost immediately after the conquest of Egypt, Jauhar found himself engaged in a struggle with the Carmathians (q.v.), whom the Ikshidi prefect of Damascus had pacified by a promise of tribute; this promise was of course not held binding by the Fatimite general (Jafa.r b.
Fall3) by whom Damascus was taken, and the C~rmathian leader al-Hasan b Ahmad al-Asam received aid from Bagdad for the purpose of recovering Syria to the Abbasids.
Damascus was taken by the Carmathians, and the name of the Abbasid caliph substituted for that of Moizz in public worship. IJasan al-A~am advanced from Damascus through Palestine to Egypt, encountering little resistance on the way; and in the autumn of 971 Jauhar found himself besieged in his new city.
During this time, however, Syria was overrun by an invader in league with the SeljUk Malik Shah, and Damascus was permanently lost to the Fg~imites; other cities were recovered by Badr himself or his officers.
Abbs was killed by the Franks near Ascalon, his son sent in a cage to Cairo where he was executed, while lJsmah escaped to Damascus, The infant Fgiz, who had been permanently incapacitated by the scenes of violence which accompanied his accession, died in i16o.
Shawars flight was directed to Damascus, where he was favorably received by the prince Nureddin, who sent with him to Cairo a force of Kurds under Asad al-din Shirguh.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.