How to use Da in a sentence
I wanted to talk to Da … my father.
In 1752 its capital was situated on the right bank of the Guapore river and was named Villa Bella da Santissima Trindade de Matto Grosso, but in 1820 the seat of government was removed to Cuyaba and Villa Bella has fallen into decay.
The cathedral contains other 14th-century and early Renaissance paintings, the former including some Passion scenes, the only certain work of Barna da Siena, and some fine choir stalls.
In the famiglio da spesa the tiller receives a small wage and a proportion of certain products.
He received the first elements of his artistic education from Cosimo Roselli; and after leaving him, devoted himself to the study of the great works of Leonardo da Vinci.Advertisement
The severe west front is relieved by three rows of semicircular arches, and has a central porch (there were at one time three) supported by huge red marble lions, sculptured no doubt with the rest of the façade by Giovanni Bono da Bissone in 1281.
In 1307 the city became a lordship for Giberto da Correggio, who laid the basis of its territorial power by conquering Reggio, Brescello and Gaustalla, and was made commander-in-chief of the Guelphs by Robert of Apulia.
Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
San Pietro de' Cassinensi (outside the Porta Romana) is a basilica with nave and aisles, founded in the beginning of the i 1th century by San Pietro Vincioli on the site of a building of the 6th century, and remarkable for its conspicuous spire, its ancient granite and marble columns, its walnut stall-work of 1535 by Stefano de' Zambelli da Bergamo, and its numerous pictures (by Perugino, &c.).
Thus there was quite as much important solo music for the flute as for the violin; and almost more music for the viola da gamba than for the violoncello.Advertisement
In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
The first Italian who formed an exclusively Italian company was Alberico da Barbiano, a nobleman of Romagna, and founder of the Milanese house of Belgiojoso.
In his school the great condottieri Braccio da Montone and Sforza Attendolo were formed; and henceforth the battles of Italy were fought by Italian generals commanding native troops.
Da Bormida, the minister for foreign affairs, resigned nab rather than agree to the proposal, and other statesmen ana the were equally opposed to it.
The direct line of Portuguese exploration resulted in the discovery of the Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama (1498), and in 1500 to the independent discovery of South America by Pedro Alvarez Cabral.Advertisement
The voyages of Columbus and of Vasco da Gama were so important that it is unnecessary to detail their results in this place.
See Columbus, Christopher; Gama, Vasco Da.
The three voyages of Vasco da Gama (who died on the scene of his labours, at Cochin, in 1524) revolutionized the commerce of the East.
He started on the 21st of September 1519, entered the strait which now bears his name in October 1520, worked his way through between Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and entered on Vasco da Gama.
In April 1520 Vasco da Gama, as viceroy of the Indies, took a fleet into the Red sea, and landed an embassy consisting of Dom Rodriguez de Lima and Father Francisco Alvarez, a priest whose detailed narrative is the earliest and not the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia.Advertisement
It was not until 1526 that the embassy was dismissed; and not many years afterwards the negus entreated the help of the Portuguese against Mahommedan invaders, and the viceroy sent an expeditionary force, commanded by his brother Cristoforo da Gama, with 450 musketeers.
Da Gama was taken prisoner and killed, but his followers enabled the Christians of Abyssinia to regain their power, and a Jesuit mission remained in the country.
The Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilham visited Calicut in 14,87 and described its possibilities for European trade; and in May 1498 Vasco da Gama, the first European navigator to reach India, arrived at Calicut.
Vasco da Gama tried to establish a factory, but he met with persistent hostility from the local chief (zamorin), and a similar attempt made by Cabral two years later ended in the destruction of the factory by the Moplahs.
In 1462 de Sintra returned with another Portuguese captain, Sueiro da Costa, and penetrated as far as Cape Palmas and the Cavalla river.Advertisement
The Romanesque cathedral contains some interesting examples of native art (by Giovanni Martini da Udine, a pupil of Raphael, and others).
It was the birthplace of the painter Cima da Conegliano, a fine altarpiece by whom is in the cathedral (1492).
It was begun by the architect Antonio da San Gallo the younger in 1527 for Clement VII., who fled to Orvieto after the sack of Rome, and was finished by Simone Mosca under Paul III.
South-east of this chain, between the headwaters of the Parana and Sao Francisco, are the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde, an irregular chain of moderate elevation running north and south.
The highest elevations in the state, so far as known, are Itatiaya (8898 ft.) in the Serra da Mantiqueira, and Caraga (6414 ft.), near Ouro Preto, in the Serra do Espinhago.
The latter rises on the western slopes of the Serra da Matta da Corde, and one of its northern tributaries has its source in a "knot" of the Serra dos Pyreneos, from which streams flow eastward to the Sao Francisco and northward to the Tocantins.
Its source is in the Serra da Canastra, and its general course across the state is north by east, during which it receives the Paracatu, Urucuia, Pardo and Carinhanha from the west and the Verde Grande and das Velhas from the east.
Only one was executed, a poor, uneducated subaltern militia officer Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, nicknamed 0 Tiradentes (the Tooth-puller), the others being imprisoned or banished.
The present bridge, the work of Antonio or Giovanni Contino, whose nickname was da Ponte, dates from 1588-91, and cost 250,000 ducats.
Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.
Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.
The corner towards the Ponte della Puglia was also restored, and the hideous device of walling up the five last arches, adopted in the 16th century by the architect Da Ponte, was removed without prejudice to the stability of the structure.
In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the Cross on their breasts."
In 1395 Niccolo da Martoni, a pilgrim from the Holy Land, visited Athens and wrote a description of a portion of the city.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
But a promise of French help at once forced the confederates to come to terms, and Cesare by an act of treachery seized the ringleaders at Senigallia, and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death (Dec. 31, 1502).
Mozambique was discovered by Vasco da Gama in 1498.
A chart, in French, is called carte hydrographique, marine or des cotes; in Spanish or Portuguese carta de marear, in Italian carta da navigare, in German Seekarte (to distinguish it from Landkarte), in Dutch Zeekaart or Paskaart.
Ducarla, published his La France consideree da p s les dijferentes hauteurs de ses plaines (1791), upon which equidistant contours at intervals of 16 toises found a place.
Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles.
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.
Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
Leonardo da Vinci, the famous artist, while in the service of Cesare Borgia as military engineer, made surveys of several districts in central Italy.
Leonardo da Vinci's rough map of the world in 8 segments (c. 1513) seems likewise to have been intended for a globe.
Pseudo-Joachimite treatises sprang up on every hand, and, finally, in 1254, there appeared in Paris the Liber introductorius ad Evangelium aeternum, the work of a Spiritual Franciscan, Gherardo da Borgo San Donnino.
This book, probably published after the death of its author and probably interpolated by his disciples, contains, besides Joachimite principles, an affirmation even clearer than that of Gherardo da Borgo of the elect character of the Franciscan order, as well as extremely violent attacks on the papacy.
He went at once to Rome, and entered the school of Pietro da Cortona.
Wellesley began to land his troops, unopposed, near Figueira da Foz at the mouth of the Mondego; and the Spanish victory of Baylen having relieved Cadiz from danger, Spencer now joined him, and, without waiting for Moore the army, under 15,000 in all (which included some Portuguese)"with 18 guns, advanced towards Lisbon.
At daylight on the 7th of October 1813 he crossed the Bidassoa in seven columns, and attacked the entire French position, which stretched in two heavily entrenched lines from north 1 Duque da Victoria, often incorrectly duke of Vitoria.
There are four navigable rivers in the state - the Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, which forms the boundary line with the United States, the Conchas or Presas, the Soto da Marina, and the Tamesi.
His pupil, Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1428), was a painter of considerably greater skill and wider knowledge; but there are no important works of his at Fabriano.
In the preface it is stated that Howel, "seeing the laws and customs of the country violated with impunity, summoned the archbishop of Menevia, other bishops and the chief of the clergy, the nobles of Wales, and six persons (four laymen and two clerks) from each comot, to meet at a place called Y Ty Gwyn ar Da y, or the white house on the river Tav, repaired thither in person, selected from the whole assembly twelve of the most experienced persons, added to their number a clerk or doctor of laws, named Bllgywryd, and to these thirteen confided the task of examining, retaining, expounding and abrogating.
The Mau5, railway was opened to the foot of the serra (Raiz da Serra) in 1854, and the macadamized road up the serra to the town in 1856.
Petronio, the massive Palazzo Comunale, dating from 1245, the Palazzo del Podesta, completed in the same year, and the fine bronze statue of Neptune by Giovanni da Bologna (Jean Bologne of Douai).
The islands were discovered (at least in part) by the Portuguese Diego da Rocha in 1527, and called by him the Sequeira Islands.
The inland range, which is separated from the Coast Range in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro by the valley of the Parahyba do Sul river, is known as the Serra da Mantiqueira, and from the point where it turns northward to form the eastern rim of the Sao Francisco basin, as the Serra do Espinhaco.
The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the Paracatu, a western tributary of the Sao Francisco, is called the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde.
Its culminating point is toward its southern extremity in the Serra da Canastra, 4206 ft.
There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the city of Sao Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north of that point.
It is traversed by two mountain chains, the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar, and the broad, fertile valley of the Parahyba do Sul which lies between them, and which slopes gently toward the east from a general elevation exceeding 2000 ft.
North of the Sao Francisco the watershed projecting from the plateau eastward toward Cape St Roque, known as the Serra da Borborema in Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte where its direction becomes north-east, leaves a triangular section of the easterly slope in which the river courses are short and much broken by rapids.
The cold south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator, and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a tempo da friagem (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the upper Amazon region.
There are winter winds from the Andes, but in the summer season there are cold currents of air from up-river (ventos da cima) which are usually followed by downpours of rain.
Another Brazilian historian of recognized merit is Joao Manoel Pereira da Silva, whose historical writings cover the first years of the empire, from its foundation to 1840.
Up to 1906 the Caixa da Amortisacdo (redemption bureau), which has charge of the service of the internal funded debt, superintended the redemption of the currency, but in that year (December 6, 1906) a Caixa de Conyers-do (conversion bureau) was created for this special service.
Jorge de Figueiredo, Escrivam da Fazenda, was the first donatory of the captaincy Ilheos, 140 m.
For the sake of increasing his capital, he divided his grant with Fernao, Alvares de Andrade and Aires da Cunha.
Nine hundred men, of whom one hundred and thirteen were horsemen, embarked in ten ships under the command of Aires da Cunha.
Next year Sousa was succeeded by Duarte da Costa, who brought with him a reinforcement of Jesuits, at the head of whom was Luis de Gran, appointed, with Nobrega the chief of the first mission, joint provincial of Brazil.
On the expiration of his power, which was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenco da Veiga was appointed governor.
Under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into existence, and continued till February 1891, when a national congress assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of Brazil.
General da Fonseca and General Floriano Peixoto were elected to fill the offices of president and vice-president until the 15th of November 1894.
In view of the discontent, conspiracies and revolutionary movements, President da Fonseca declared himself dictator.
In November Admiral Mello left Rio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser " Aquidaban " and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Rio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause.
Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro.
In the meantime the ships bought by President Peixoto arrived off Rio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama from escaping.
When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama reached Gumercindo Saraiva, then at Curitiba in Parana, he proceeded to retire to Rio Grande do Sul.
These were joined by Admiral da Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the government troops.
Above the Piazza della Signoria, at the highest point of the town, is the Palazzo Ducale, erected by the dukes of Urbino in 1474-1480; the architect was, in all probability, Lucio da Laurana, to whom is due the palace at Urbino, which this palace resembles, especially in its fine colonnaded court.
In 1387, after various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in 1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope.
Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.
This time they were actively aided by Charles IV., who, having returned from Rome, sent his militia, commanded by the imperial vicar Malatesta da Rimini, to attack the public palace.
In the 13th century we find Guido (da Siena), painter of the wellknown Madonna in the church of S Domenico in Siena.
Once he had defended the monastic orders, advocating their reform and not their suppression, supported the rural clergy and idealized the village priest in his Parocho da Aldeia, after the manner of Goldsmith in the Vicar of Wakefield.
Vasco da Gama on his voyage to India sighted the bluff at the entrance to the bay now forming the harbour of Durban on Christmas Day 1497 and named the country Terra Natalis.
Da Gama made no landing here and, like Discovery the rest of South Africa, Natal was neglected by the and early g Y his tory.
At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
His parents, Joao Mendes da Silva and Louren9a Coutinho, were descended from Portuguese Jews who had emigrated to Brazil to escape the Inquisition, but in 1702 that tribunal began to persecute the Marranos in Rio, and in October 1712 Lourenca Coutinho fell a victim.
Kohnt, "Bibliography of Works relating to Antonio Jose da Silva and Bibliography of Don Antonio's Compositions" in the Publ.
He has no claim to be regarded as a genius; but, as SainteBeuve has said, he well deserves a place "da p s la classe des esprits infiniment distingues" - distinguished, however, it ought to be added by intelligence rather than by intellect, and less by the power of saying much than by the power of saying a little well.
Emiliano has a group of three altars decorated with fine sculptures by Rocco da Vicenza (1521).
In the interior were Coropissus (Da Bazar), Olba (Uzunjaburj), and, in the valley of the Calycadnus, Claudiopolis (Mut) and Germanicopolis (Ermenek).
Thus, if a thrust OP lb acts on a small plane area DA ft.
Suppose the ship turns about an axis through F in the water-line area, perpendicular to the plane of the paper; denoting by y the distance of an element dA if the water-line area from the axis of rotation, the change of displacement is EydA tan 8, so that there is no change of displacement if EydA = o, that is, if the axis passes through the C.G.
The righting couple of the wedges of immersion and emersion will be ZwydA tan 8.y =w tan 0Zy 2 dA =w tan 0.Ak 2 ft.
As soon as order was restored a balia was appointed to reform the government, in which task it was assisted by the Sienese and Perugian ambassadors and by Simone da Battifolle.
During the war the Eight had been practically rulers of the city, but now the parte Guelfa, led by Lapo da Castiglionchio and Piero degli Albizzi, attempted to reassert itself by illicit interference in the elections and by a liberal use of "admonitions "(ammonizioni).
The aristocratic faction headed by Maso degli Albizzi, a wise and popular statesman, had remained predominant, and at Maso's death in 1417 he was succeeded in the leadership of the party by Niccolo da Uzzano.
The cathedral, which is Italian Gothic, dating mainly from the 13th century, consists of a nave with eight chapels on each side, and a very high Renaissance domed choir; it contains examples of the Montagnas and of Lorenzo da Venezia.
Within these bays are beaches of white sand, called praias, such as the Praia da Icarahy, Praia das Flechas and Praia Grande, upon which face low tile-covered residences surrounded with gardens.
There is a small, rocky and picturesque island nearer the harbour entrance, which is crowned by a small chapel, dedicated to Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem.
The settlement did not become a village until 1819, when it was named Villa Real da Praia Grande.
Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.
At the same time Yemen, which since the 9th century had been in the power of a number of small dynasties ruling in Zubed, San`a, Sa`da and Aden, passed into the hands of the Turk.
Hansen (1813-1891), finished in 1858; the Minorite church, a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, containing an admirable mosaic of Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper" by Raffaeli, executed in 1806-14 by order of Napoleon and placed here in 1846.
The museum and cathedral and some of the other churches contain pictures by the da Ponte family (16th and early 17th century), surnamed Bassano from their birth-place; Jacopo is the most eminent of them.
On the piazza in front of the church is Donatello's magnificent equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni, the Venetian general (1438-1441).
The Eremitani is an Augustinian church of the 13th century, distinguished as containing the tombs of Jacopo (1324) and Ubertino (1345) da Carrara, lords of Padua, and for the chapel of SS James and Christopher, illustrated by Mantegna's frescoes.
At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of water-way on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta - so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and selfreliance, while, on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D'Este and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them.
The interior of the Church is decorated with sculptures by pupils of Desiderio da Settignano.
These include Liberale da Verona, Domenico and Francesco Morone, Girolamo dai Libri (1 474- 1 55 6), &c. Domenico del Riccio, usually nicknamed Brusasorci (1 4941567), was a prolific painter whose works are very numerous in Verona.
Verona had previously fallen under the power of a less able despot, Ezzelino da Romano, who died in 1259.
Innocenzo Francucci (Innocenzo da Imola), a painter of the Bolognese school (1494-1549), was a native of Imola, and two of his works are preserved in the Palazzo del Com.une.
Domenico; Pietro Berettini (Pietro da Cortona, 1596-1669) is hardly represented here at all.
The facade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.
Agostino, the Palazzo Benincasa, and the Loggia dei Mercanti, all by Giorgio Orsini, usually called da Sebenico (who worked much at Sebenico, though he was not a native of it), and the prefecture, which has Renaissance additions.
For some years she was closely associated with the romanticist Gabriele d'Annunzio, and several of his plays, notably La Cittd morta (1898) and Francesca da Rimini (1901), provided her with important parts.
The Hospital da Misericordia (1569) was rebuilt in 1640.
Vittorino dei Rambaldoni da Feltre (1378-1446) was a famous educator and philosopher of his time.
And when Vasco da Gama went on his voyage from Mozambique northwards he began to hear of "Preste Joham" as reigning in the interior - or rather, probably, by the light of his preconceptions of the existence of that personage in East Africa he thus interpreted what was told him.
The word as spelled represents the pronunciation of the Cape Dutch milje, an adaptation of milho (da India), the millet of India, the Portuguese name for millet, used in South Africa for maize.
King Francis encouraged the ill-recorded and disputed voyages of the Florentine Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and the undoubted explorations of Jacques Cartier.
New York Bay and the Hudson river were discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and were probably seen by Estevan Gomez in 1525; for many years following French vessels occasionally ascended the Hudson to trade with the Indians.
The queen now sent Sforza to re-establish her authority in Rome, whence the Neapolitans had been expelled after the death of Ladislaus; Sforza entered the city and obliged the condottiere Braccio da Montone, who was defending it in the pope's name, to depart (1416).
His tragedy Francesca da Rimini, was brought out with success by Carlotta Marchionni at Milan in 1818.
Its publication was followed by that of the tradegy Eufemio da Messina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden.
His chief work during this part of his imprisonment was the tragedy Leoniero da Dertona, for the preservation of which he was compelled to rely on his memory.
In 1832 appeared his Gismonda da Mendrizio, Erodiade and the Leoniero, under the title of Tre nuovi tragedie, and in the same year the work which gave him his European fame, Le Mie prigioni, an account of his sufferings in prison.
The Rialto bridge at Venice, with a span of 91 ft., was built in 1588 by Antonio da Ponte.
Mariae were published at Bologna in 1734, as also twelve Sonate d'intavolatura; six Sonate per l'organo ed it cembalo in 1747; and Duetti da camera in 1763.
It was begun in 1474 by Giuliano da Maiano; the façade is, however, incomplete.
Savinus with reliefs showing scenes from his life, of fine and fresh execution, by Benedetto da Maiano; and later tombs by P. Bariloto, a local sculptor.
The municipal art gallery contains an altar-piece by Girolamo da Treviso (who also painted a fresco in the Chiesa della Commenda), a wooden St Jerome by Donatello, and a bust of the young St John by Antonio Rossellino (?), and some fine specimens of majolica, a variety of which, faience, takes its name from the town.
The baptistery belongs to the 13th century; the font is by Andrea Sansovino, and the ciborium by Mino da Fiesole.
Persius the satirist and the painter Daniele da Volterra were both natives of the town.
The Palazzo del Capitano, by Giuliano da Maiano (1472), has been entirely altered.
The first great school of the Renaissance was that established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, where he resided for the last twenty-two years of his life (1424-1446).
Among other works of art may be mentioned the clay statue of the Madonna dell' Ulivo by Benedetto da Maiano.
This church, by Giuliano da Sangallo (1485-1491), is a Greek cross, with barrel vaults over the arms, and a dome; it is a fine work, and the decoration of the exterior in marble of different colours (unfinished) is of a noble simplicity.
As early as the middle of the 15th century Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) recognized in seashells as well as in the teeth of marine fishes proofs of ancient sea-levels on what are now the summits of the Apennines.
The cathedral of St John the Baptist is a cruciform Renaissance building dating from 1492-1498, by the Florentine lIeo da Caprina.
He was also made Duque da Victoria by the Portuguese regency, and before the opening of the campaign of 1813, which was to crown his work, he was given both the Garter and the Golden Fleece.
Dante was perhaps too severe on Robert, whom he described as a re da sermone (word king), and contemporary critics accused him of covetousness, a fault partly excused by his pressing need of money to pay the expenses of his perpetual wars.
The public parks and gardens are numerous and include the Botanical Garden with its famous avenue of royal palms (Oreodoxa regia); the Passeio Publico (dating from 1783), a small garden on the water-front facing the harbour entrance; the Jardim d'Acclamacao, forming part of the Praca da Republica (once known as the Campo de Sant' Anna) with its artistic walks and masses of shrubbery; the Praca Tiradentes (the old Largo do Rocio, afterwards rechristened Praca da Constituicao) with its magnificent equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.
The British residents have an unpretentious chapel in Rua Evaristo da Veiga, the Methodists a more modern structure on the Largo do Cattete and the Presbyterians a chapel near Praga Tiradentes.
The Itamaraty palace near the Praga da Republica, a typical private residence of the better class, was purchased for and occupied by the first presidents and is now occupied by the ministry of foreign affairs.
The ministry of war has its offices in the immense military quartet (barracks) on the north side of the Praga da Republica, and the ministry of marine in the naval arsenal at the foot of Sao Bento Hill.
The Senate occupies a plain unattractive building on the west side of the Praga da Republica, and the Chamber of Deputies an ugly colonial building in Rua da Misericordia, originally used as a city hall and jail.
Another important school, partly of this class, is the Instituto Benjamin Constant, located in a fine new edifice on the Praia da Saudade, Botafogo.
Most prominent among the asylums is the Hospicio Nacional for the insane, on the Praia da Saudade, Botafogo, which was erected 1842-52, and is one of the most completely equipped institutions of its class in the world.
In the work of improving the city, the national government assumed the expense of the commercial quays, the filling of the Sao Christovao bay, the opening of the Mangue canal and its embellishment, the opening of the Avenida Central, the extension of the sewage system and the addition of new sources to the water supply, while the city was responsible for the Avenida Beira-Mar, the opening of a new avenue from the Largo da Lapa westward to Rua Frei Caneca, the removal of the Morro do Senado, the widening of some streets crossing the Avenida Central and the opening and straightening of other streets.
On the 15th of November 1889 a military revolt in the city under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca led to the declaration of a republic and the expulsion of the imperial family, which was accomplished without resistance or loss of life.
Disorders followed, a naval revolt in 1891 causing the resignation of President Deodoro da Fonseca, and another in 1893-94 causing a blockade of the port for about six months and the loss of many lives and much property from desultory bombardments.
The railway from Porto Alegre to Uruguayana is completed from Margem da Taquary to Cacequy, 232 m.
Its starting point, Margem da Taquary, is about 80 m.
An extension of the railway is projected from Margem da Taquary to Neustadt on the Novo Hamburgo line, and will give the city direct railway connexion with the principal cities of western and southern Rio Grande do Sul.
There are several public squares and gardens, the more important being the Praca Harmonia, the Pra9a d'Alfandega, Pra9a da Independencia and the Parque, where an exposition was held in 1901.
It is dominated by the ducal palace erected by Luciano da Laurana, a Dalmatian architect, in 1460-82, for Federigo Montefeltro, and regarded by the contemporaries of the founder as the ideal of a princely residence.
Some are by Domenico Rosselli of Florence, others by Ambrogio d'Antonio da Milano.
In the crypt there is a fine pieta in marble by Giovanni da Bologna.
On the walls of the chapel of the gild or confraternity of San Giovanni Battista are some valuable early frescoes, painted by Lorenzo and Giacomo Salimbene da San Severino in 1416.
Of this by far the most important member was Federigo da Montefeltro, lord of Urbino from 1444 to 1482, one of the most successful condottieri chiefs of his time, and not only a man of great military and political ability, but also an enthusiastic patron of art and literature, on which he lavished immense sums of money.
Besides the silver altar it contains many fine works of sculpture; the chief are the monument of Cino da Pistoia, lawyer and poet, Dante's contemporary (1337), by Cellino di Nese, surrounded by his scholars, and Verrocchio's finest work in marble, the monument to Cardinal Forteguerra (1474), with a large figure of Christ, surrounded by angels, in high relief.
The date of the erection of the cathedral is probably about 1179; it retains some traces of Norman architecture, and the facade has a fine figured cornice by Bartolommeo da Foggia; the crypt has capitals of the 11th (?) century.
Da Buti, the Dante commentator, in 1380 says the sailors use a compass at the middle of which is pivoted a wheel of light paper to turn on its pivot, on which wheel the needle is fixed and the star (wind-rose) painted.
The conferring of the imperial crown by the Roman populace, the deposition of the pope by the same body, and the election of an anti-pope in the person of the Minorite Pietro da Corvara, translated into acts the doctrines of the defensor pacis.
To repair the ravages of neglect, and, more especially, to restore the decayed churches, Martin at once expended large sums; while, later, he engaged famous artists, like Gentile da Fabriano and Masaccio, and encouraged all forms of art by every means within his power.
He utilized his power by rejecting the innovations of Antonio da Sangallo, saved the plan of Bramante, and left behind him sufficient drawings to serve the completion of the famous cupola.
During the Venetian period it was ruled first by the Da Corogna family and after 1456 by the Gazzadini, who were expelled by the Turks in 1617.
This "Brut" is unknown; but the reference has been held by some to be to (3) a Troy-book, based on Guido da Colonna's Historia Destructionis Troiae.
On the other hand, while phonetically the above explanation was not inconsistent with such cases as rka dkah, bkah, bska, and nga, rnga, ngag, sngags, lnga, ngad and brtse, brdzun, dbyar, &c., where the italicized letters are pronounced in full and the others are left aside, it failed to explain other cases, such as dgra, mgron, spyod, snyan, sbrang, sbrul, bkra, k'ri, krad, k'rims, k'rus, &c., pronounced da, don, cod, or swod, cen, Bang, deu, ta, t'i, tad or teh, tim, tu, &c., and many others, where the spoken forms are obviously the alteration by wear and tear of sounds originally similar to the written forms. Csoma de Koros, who was acquainted with the somewhat archaic sounds of Ladak, was able to point to only a few letters as silent.
Domenico near it has Norman cloisters, and several of the other churches contain paintings by Andrea Sabbatini da Salerno, one of the best of Raphael's scholars.
A fine port constructed by Giovanni da Procida in 1260 was destroyed when Naples became the capital of the kingdom, and remained blocked with sand till after the unification of Italy, when it was cleared; but it is now unimportant.
The Palazzo della Ragione, erected in the Piazza dei Mercanti, just west of the Piazza del Duomo, the central point of the medieval city, in1223-1238by the podesta, Oldrado da Tresseno, whose equestrian portrait in high relief adorns it, still exists in fine preservation.
Leading from the fine cloisters, also the work of Bramante, is the former refectory, on the walls of which Leonardo da Vinci painted his celebrated "Last Supper," a work which is unfortunately in a bad state of preservation.
Subsequently, towards the close of the 15th century, the refined court of Lodovico Sforza attracted such celebrated men as Bramante, the architect, Gauffino Franchino, the founder of one of the earliest musical academies, and Leonardo da Vinci, from whose school came Luini, Boltraffio, Gaudenzio Ferrari, Marco d'Oggiono, &c. Later, Pellegrino Tibaldi and Galeazzo Alessi of Genoa (the former a man of very wide activity) were the chief architects, and Leone Leoni of Arezzo the chief sculptor.
Several of the rooms occupied by the archaeological museum bear traces of the decorations executed under Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico it Moro, and one of them has a splendid ceiling with trees in full foliage, painted so as to cover the whole vaulting, ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.
In the upper rooms is placed a large collection of Milanese and central Italian ceramics, stuffs, furniture, bronzes, ivories, enamels, glass and historical relics; together with a picture gallery containing works by Vincenzo Foppa, Gianpietrino, Boltraffio, Crivelli, Pordenone, Morone, Cariani, Correggio, Antonello da Messina, Tiepolo, Guardi, Potter, Van Dyck and Ribeira.
In the middle of the neighbouring Piazza della Scala stands Magni's monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1872).
The nobles, who had gathered round the Visconti, and who threatened to bring Ezzelino da Romano, the Ghibelline tyrant of Padua, into the, city, were defeated by Martino, and 900 of their number were -captured.
Praeneste was the native town of Aelian, and in modern times of the great composer (Giovanni) Pierluigi da Palestrina.
He received a scholar's training, studying Latin at Rome under Gasparino da Verona, and Greek at Ferrara under Guarino da Verona.
It is said to have been copied from Petrarch's handwriting, and was cast under the direction of Francesco da Bologna, who has been identified by Panizzi with.
In the latter, especially at Sao Joao da Chapada, the minerals accompanying the diamond are scarcely worn at all; in the terraces and the river beds they are more worn and more abundant; the terraces, therefore, are to be regarded as a first concentration of the plateau material by the old rivers; and the cascalho as a second concentration by the modern rivers.
At Sao Joao da Chapada, in Minas Geraes, diamonds occur in a clay interstratified with the itacolumite, and are accompanied by sharp crystals of rutile and haematite in the neighbourhood of decomposed quartz veins which intersect the itacolumite.
He learned Latin from Vittorino da Feltre, and made such rapid progress that in three years he was able to teach Latin literature and rhetoric. His reputation as a teacher and a translator of Aristotle was very great, and he was selected as secretary by Pope Nicholas V., an ardent Aristotelian.
Vasco da Gama founded a factory in 1502, and Albuquerque built a fort, the first European fort in India, in 1503.
The belfry, which rises above the right-hand doorway, was erected about 1520 by the doge, Ottaviano da Campofragoso, and the cupola was erected after the designs of the architect Galeazzo Alessi in 1567.
In Rome, in 1844, his eldest da q ghter, Julia Romana (afterwards the wife of Michael Anagnos, Dr Howe's assistant and successor), was born, and in September the travellers returned to America, and Dr Howe resumed his activities.
The church contains fine inlaid choir stalls by Fra Giovanni da Verona.
The sacristy of St Francesco contains two 14th-century pictures, one by Roberto da Oderisio of Naples.
To the left of the choir is an octagonal chapel by Antonio da Sangallo the younger (1527).
Contemporary documents prove that the interior was begun in 1508 by Cola Matteuccio da Caprarola, and the exterior completed in1516-1524by Ambrogio da Milano and Francesco di Vito Lombardo; the slender dome was not added till .1606; its plan is a Greek cross.
Among its notable public buildings and institutions are the old government palace in Santo Antonio built upon the foundations of the official residence of Prince Maurice of Nassau, with a pretty garden attached; a theatre facing upon the Praga da Republica, dating from the second empire; the palace of the Provincial Assembly in Boa Vista, built in 1860-66, surmounted by a high dome; the municipal palace, or prefecture, on Rua do Imperador, with the public library (Biblioteca Publica) occupying its third floor and containing about 30,000 volumes; the Gymnasium, a large plain building of two floors standing near the legislative palace; the Pedro II.
One of the most attractive churches is that of Nossa Senhora da Penha, surmounted by two slender spires and a dome.
Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting.
Along with Gozzoli already mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and Gentile da Fabriano are named as pupils of the Beato.
Facing the cathedral is the Della Rovere palace erected by Cardinal Giulio della Rovere (Julius II.) from the plans of Giuliano da Sangallo as a kind of university, and now occupied by the prefecture, the post-office and law-courts.
He was sent on a number of special scientific missions, among which may be mentioned one to England, on which he wrote a notable Memoire sur le travail des femmes et des enfants da p s les manufactures de l'Angleterre (1867).
The Portuguese under Tristao da Cunha and Albuquerque seized Sokotra in 1507 in pursuance of the design to control all the trade routes between Europe and the East, Sokotra being supposed to command the entrance to the Red Sea.
A certain dependence (at least of places on the coast) on some sovereign of the Arabian coast had endured before the occupation of Tamarida by da Cunha, and on the withdrawal of the Portuguese this dependence on Arabia was resumed.
The cathedral of St John Baptist is the principal object of interest; Theodelinda's basilica of 59 0 was enlarged at the close of the 13th century by throwing the atrium into the main building, and the present fine blackand-white marble façade was erected about the middle of the 14th by Matteo da Campione, and restored in 1899-1901.
The interior has been modernized; there is a fine relief by Matteo da Campione in the organ-loft, representing the coronation of a king, and some 15th-century frescoes with scenes from the life of Theodelinda.
From the time of Alexander to that of Vasco da Gama, Europe had enjoyed little direct intercourse with the East.
The expedition under Vasco da Gama started from Lisbon five years later, and, doubling the Cape of Good Hope, cast anchor off the city of Calicut on the 10th of May 1498, after a prolonged voyage of nearly eleven months.
From the first da Gama encountered hostility from the " Moors," or rather Arabs, who monopolized the sea-borne trade; but he seems to have found favour with the zamorin, or Hindu raja of Malabar.
The arrival of da Gama at Lisbon was celebrated with national rejoicings scarcely less enthusiastic than had greeted the return of Columbus.
In that year Vasco da Gama sailed again to the East, with a fleet numbering twenty vessels.
In 1524 Vasco da Gama came out to the East for the third time, and he too died at Cochin.
The malcontents were led by the Salernitan noble Giovanni da Procida, a friend of the emperor Frederick and of Manfred, who had taken refuge at the court of Peter III.
Then, in Dhu `1 Qa`da 72 (March 25th, 692) Mecca was invested.
In the month of Dhu`l-ga`da 131 (June 749) Nehawend (Nehavend) surrendered, and thereby the way to Irak lay open to Qahtaba.
The upper cadi Ibn abi Da`ud, the leader of the movement against orthodoxy, who had stood in great esteem with Mamun and had fulfilled his high office under the reigns of Motasim and Wathiq, had a stroke of paralysis in the year 848.
Moti was compelled to abdicate, and Bakhtiyar was driven out of Bagdad Dhu`1-ga`da 363 (August 974).
Mostadi died in the month of Dhu`l-ga`da 575 (March 1180).
Let da be the deviation of angular velocity to be produced in the interval dt, and I the moment of the inertia of the body about an axis through its centre of gravity; then 1/8Id(&) = Iada is the variation of the bodys actual energy.
Let M be the moment of the unbalanced couple required to produce the deviation; ther by equation 57, 104, the energy exerted by this couple in tht interval dt is Macit, which, being equated to the variation of energy gives da R2W da -
The academy established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua under the protection of Gian Francesco Gonzaga for the training of pupils of both sexes, might be chosen as the type of this Italian method.
The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci of to America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated the modern age more decisively than any other series of events has done.
It has recently been maintained that modern European history is chiefly an affair of competition between confederated states for the possession of lands revealed by Columbus and Da Gama.
Among these, Del Rosso, Primaticcio, Del Sarto and Da Vinci are the most famous.
Ba da explains that his version represents the sense only, not the arrangement of the words, because no poetry, however excellent, can be rendered into another language, without the loss of its beauty of expression.
This poor fragment is all that can with confidence be affirmed to remain of the voluminous works of the man whom Ba da regarded as the greatest of vernacular religious poets.
Title to the territory was claimed by the English on the basis of its alleged exploration by the Cabots in 1498, and by the French on the basis of its exploration by Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524.
The cathedral was erected between 1122 and 1233, in the Lombard Romanesque style, under the direction of Santo da.
The castle erected by Antonio da Sangallo the younger has been demolished.
Few of these survived after the exploration of the Atlantic by Columbus, Vasco da Gama and others in the 15th century; but in literature More's Utopia set a new fashion.
The judicial organization consists of the tribunal da Relaga6 at the state capital and subordinate courts in the comarcas and termos.
It was with this intention that Bartholomew Diaz, sailing southwards, discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.1 Nine years after the discovery of the Cape by Diaz another Portuguese expedition was fitted out under Vasco da Gama.
Da Gama entered Table Bay, but did not land.
Baini held a higher place, however, as a musical critic and historian than as a composer, and his Life of Palestrina (Memorie storico-critiche della vita e delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, 1828) ranks as one of the best works of its class.
The bleak and desolate heights of the Serra da Estrella and the ranges of the northern frontier are almost alpine in character, although they nowhere reach the limit of perpetual snow.
North of the Mondego it includes Montemuro (4534 ft.), separating the Douro from the upper waters of its left-hand tributary the Paiva; Gralheira (3681 ft.) between the Paiva and the Vouga; the Serra do Caramullo (35 11 ft.), between the Vouga and the Dao; and the Serra da Lapa (3215 ft.), which gives rise to the Paiva, Tavora, Vouga and ado.
South of these ranges, but nominally included in the same system, is the Serra da Estrella, the loftiest ridge in Portugal (6532 ft.).
The greater part of the Serra da Estrella constitutes the watershed between the Mondego and Zezere.
The Serra da Arrabida (1637 ft.) rises between Cape Espichel and Setubal.
Between the Minho and Douro the chief rivers are the Lima (Spanish Limia or Antela), which also rises in Galicia, and reaches the sea at Vianna do Castello; the Cavado, which receives the Homem on the right, and forms the port of Espozende in its estuary; and the Ave, which rises in the Serra da Cabreira and issues at the port of Villa do Conde.
Between the Douro and Tagus the Vouga rises in the Serra da Lapa and reaches the sea through the lagoon of Aveiro; the Mondego flows north-east through a long ravine in the Serra da Estrella, and then bends back so as to flow west-south-west.
Its estuary contains the important harbour of Figueira da Foz; its chief tributaries are the Dao on the right, and the Alva, Ceira and Arunca on the left; its length is 125 m.
The rainfall is heaviest in the north and on the Serra da Estrella; it is least in Algarve.
Wolves are found in the wilder parts of the Serra da Estrella, and wild boars are preserved in some districts.
The Serra da Estrella has a rich alpine flora, and the lagoon of Aveiro contains a great number of aquatic plants.
The chief towns of Portugal are Lisbon (pop. 1900, 356,009), the capital and principal seaport; Oporto (167,955), the capital of the northern provinces and, after Lisbon, the most important centre of trade; the seaports of Setubal (22,074), Ilhavo (12,617), Povoa de Varzim (12,623), Tavira (12,175), Faro (11,789),(11,789), Ovar (10,462), Olhao (10,009) Vianna do Castello (io,000), Aveiro (9975), Lagos (8291), Leixoes (7690) and Figueira da Foz (6221); and the inland cities or towns of Braga (24,202), Louie (22,478), Coimbra (18,144), Evora (16,020), Covilha (15,469), Elvas (13,981), Portalegre (11,820), Palmella (11,478), Torres Novas (10,746), Silves (9687), Lamego (9471), Guimaraes (9104), Beja (8885), Santarem (8628),(8628), Vizeu (8057), Estremoz (7920), Monchique (7345), Castello Branco (7288), Abrantes (7255), Torres Vedras (6900), Thomar (6888), Villa Real (6716), Chaves (6388), Guarda (6124), Cintra (5914), Braganza (5535), Mafra (4769), Leiria (4459), Batalha (3858), Almeida (2330), Alcobaga (2309), Bussaco (1661).
In all, rather more than 45% of the country is uncultivated, chiefly in Alemtejo, Traz-os-Montes and the Serra da Estrella.
The finest Caldas da Rainha china-ware, with its fantastic representations of birds, beasts and fishes, still commands a fair price in foreign markets; but the blue and white ware originally copied from Delft and later modified under the influence of Persian pottery is now only 'manufactured in small quantities, of inferior quality.
That prestige was enormously enhanced when, in 1497-1499, Vasco da Gama completed the voyage to India.
Joao da Nova discovered Ascension (1501) and St Helena (1502);(1502); Tristao da Cunha was the first to sight the archipelago still known by his name (1506).
In the Red Sea Massawa was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until 1541, when a fleet under Estevao da Gama penetrated as far as Suez.
Luiz Gongalves da Camara, became the tutor and, after 1568, the principal adviser of Sebastian.
Rodrigo da Cunha, archbishop of Lisbon, who was appointed lieutenantgeneral of Portugal.
On the 1st of August 1808 Sir Arthur Wellesley, with 9000 British troops, landed at Figueira da Foz.
Valuable assistance had been rendered by the Portuguese generals Antonio da Silveira and Manoel de Brito Mousinho - the first a leader, the second an organizer.
By this coup d'etat the constitution of 1822 was substituted for the charter of 1826; and a Septembrist ministry under the Viscount Sft da Bandeira replaced the Chartist ministry under Saldanha, Terceira and Palmella.
In 1839 a moderate ministry took office, with Antonio Bermudo da Costa Cabral as its real, though not its ostensible, head.
On this occasion the rebellion - known as the " War of Maria da Fonte " - proved formidable.
Relations with Great Britain, however, remained far from cordial until the celebration of the fourth centenary of Vasco da Gama's voyage to India, afforded the opportunity for a rapprochement in 1898.
Correa da Serra (I i vols., Lisbon, 1790-1804); Quadro elementar das relac es politicas e diplomatical de Portugal, ed.
The preAlphonsine period to which these men belong runs from 1200 to 1245 and produced little of moment, but in 1248 the accession of King Alphonso III., who had lived thirteen years in France, inaugurated a time of active and rich production which is illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Ajuda, the oldest collection of Peninsular verse.
Cruz de Coimbra, the Chronica da conquista do Algarve and the Livros dos Linhagens, aristocratic registers, portions of which,, like the story of King Arthur, have considerable literary interest..
King Edward (Duarte) collected a precious library composed of the ancient classics, some translated by his order, as well as medieval poems and histories, and he wrote a moral treatise Leal comselheiro, and hints on horsemanship, or Livro da ensinanra de bem cavalgar toda sella.
Pedro also wrote a moral treatise Da virtuosa Bemfeitoria, and caused 'Vegetius's' militari and Cicero's De ofciis to be turned into Portuguese.
The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, the translated Chronica da fundirao do moesteyro de Sam Vicente, and the Vida Fernao Lopes (q.v.), the father of Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey the best chronicler of any age or nation.
At home Portugal produced Andre de Resende, author of the Historia da antiguidade da cidade de Evora and De antiquitatibus Lusitaniae, and Francisco de Hollanda, painter, architect, and author of, inter alia, the Quatro dialogos da pintura antiga.
His Lusiads, cast in the Virgilian mould, celebrates the combination of faith and patriotism which led to the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese, and though the Epic voyage of Vasco da Gama occasioned its composition and formed the skeleton round which it grew, its true subject is the peito illustre lusitano.
After twenty years of investigation at Goa, Fernao Lopes de Castanheda issued his Historia do descobrimento e conquista da India pelos Portuguezes (Lisbon, 15521 554 and 1561), a book that ranks besides those of Barros and Couto.
Like the preceding writers, Gaspar Correia or Correa lived long years in India and embodied his intimate knowledge of its manners and customs in the picturesque prose of the Lendas da India, which embraces the events of the years 1497 to 1550.
Among other historical works dealing with the East are the Commentarios de Affonso d'Albuquerque, an account of the life of the great captain and administrator, by his natural son, and the Tratado das cousas da China e de Ormuz, by Frei Gaspar da Cruz.
Sebastiao by Frei Bernardo da Cruz, who was with the king at Al Kasr al Kebir, while Miguel Leitao de Andrade, who was taken prisoner in that battle, related his experiences and preserved many popular traditions and customs in his Miscellanea.
They include, to quote, the more noteworthy, the Descobrimento de Frolida, the Itinerario of Antonio Tenreiro, the Verdadeira informacao das terras do Preste Joao by Francisco Alvares,'and the Ethiopia oriental by Frei Joao dos Santos, both dealing with Abyssinia, the Itinerario da terra santa by Frei Pantaleao de Aveiro, and that much-translated classic, the Historia da vida do padre Francisco Xavier by Padre Joao de Lucena.
The historian Barros tried his youthful pen in a romance of chivalry, the Chronica do Imperador Clarimundo, while in another branch, and a popular one in Portugal, the Arthurian cycle, the dramatist Ferreira de Vasconcellos wrote Sagramor or Memorial das proesas da segunda Tavola Redonda.
The important part taken by Portuguese prelates and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cathecismo da doutrina Christa, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa and Sermoes, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit orators include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dom Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at the obsequies of King Sebastian.
Among the moralists of the time three at least deserve the title of masters of prose style, Heitor Pinto for his Imagens da vida Christa, Bishop Arraez for his Dialogos, and Frei Thome de Jesus for his noble devotional treatise Trabalhos de Jesus, while the maxims of Joanna da Gama, entitled Ditos da Freira, though lacking depth, form a curious psychological document.
The ranks of scientists include the cosmographer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), a famous mathematician, and the botanist Garcia da Orta, whose Colloquios dos simples e drogas was the first book to be printed in the East (1563), while the form of Aristotelian scholastic philosophy known as Philosophia conimbricensis had a succession of learned exponents.
Their names were among others Alexandre de Gusmao, the Cavalheiro de Oliveira, Ribeiro Sanches, Correa da Serra, Brotero and Nascimento.
The fifteen volumes of its Memorias, published from 1721 to 1756, show the excellent work done by its members, among whom were Caetano de Sousa, author of the colossal Historia da Casa Real portugueza, Barbosa Machado, compiler of the invaluable Bibliotheca Lusitana, and Soares da Silva, chronicler of the reign of King John I.
The Operas portuguezas of Antonio Jose da Silva, produced between 1733 and 1741, owe their name to the fact that arias, minuets and modinhas were interspersed with the prose dialogue, and if neither the plots, style, nor language are remarkable, they have a real comic force and a certain originality.
Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.
The historical bent thus given to the drama was continued by the versatile Mendes Leal, by Gomes da Amorim and by Pinheiro Chagas, who all however succumbed more or less to the atmosphere and machinery of ultra-Romanticism, while the plays of Antonio Ennes deal with questions of the day in a spirit of combative liberalism.
In the social drama, Ernesto Biester, and in comedy Fernando Caldeira, also no mean lyric poet, are two of the principal names, and the latter's pieces, A Mantilha da Renda and A Madrugada, have a delicacy and vivacity which justifies their success.
Rebello da Silva and the voluminous and brilliant publicists, Latino Coelho and Pinheiro Chagas, wrote at second hand and rank higher as stylists than as historians.
Gama Barros and Costa Lobo followed closely in the footsteps of Herculano, the first by a Historia da Administragao publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII.
Julio Cesar Machado and Fialho de Almeida made their mark by many humorous publications, and, in the domain of pure literary criticism, mention must be made of Antonio Pedro Lopes de Mendonga, Rebello da Silva, Dr Joaquim de Vasconcellos, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Silva Pinto, the favourite disciple of Castello Branco, and of Luciano Cordeiro, founder of the Lisbon Geographical Society, whose able monograph, Soror Marianna, vindicated the authenticity of the Letters of a Portuguese Nun and showed Marianna Alcoforado to be their authoress.
Borges Carneiro, but the most brilliant period was that of the first twenty-five years of constitutional government after 1834, and the historic names are those of Garrett, Manoel da Silva Passos, and the great tribune and apostle of liberty, Jose Estevao Coelho de Magalhaes.
Of one-volume books on the same subject, Dr Braga's Curso da Historia da Litteratura portugueza and his Theoria da Historia da Litteratura portugueza (3rd ed., 1881) may be recommended, though the plainer Historia da Litteratura portugueza, by Dr Mendes dos Remedios (3rd ed., 1908) has the considerable advantage for foreign students of including a large number of selected passages from the authors named.
For that period, see Lopes de Mendonga, Memoiras da litteratura contemporanea (1855); Romero Ortiz, La Literatura portugueza en el siglo XIX.
The painter Jacopo Chimenti (Jacopo da Empoli), 1554-1640, was born here.
Algoa Bay was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1488, and was by him named Bahia da Roca, probably with reference to the rocky islet in the bay, on which he is stated to have erected a cross (St Croix Island).
After the middle of the 16th century the bay was called by the Portuguese Bahia da Lagoa, whence its modern designation.
The first authenticated visit of a European to what is now New Jersey was made under French authority by Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, who in the spring of 1524 sailed within Sandy Hook and dropped anchor in the waters of upper New York Bay.
What he lacked was that insight into the best classical masterpieces, that command of the best classical diction, which is the product of successive generations of scholarship. To attain to this, Giovanni da Ravenna, Colluccio Salutato, Poggio and Filelfo had to labour, before a Poliziano and a Bembo finally prepared the path for an Erasmus.
There is a fine statue of Queen Victoria by Hamo Thornycroft, R.A., in the public gardens, and a memorial to Vasco da Gama at the Point.
During the 16th century and the early part of the 17th, the coast of Maine attracted various explorers, among them Giovanni da Verrazano (1524), Esteban Gomez (1525), Bartholomew Gosnold (1602), Martin Pring (1603), Pierre du Guast, Sieur De Monts (1604), George Weymouth (1605), and John Smith (1614), who explored and mapped the coast and gave to the country the name New England; but no permanent English settlement was established within what are now the borders of the state until some time between 1623 and 1629.
The chapel of St Hubert, said to contain the remains of Leonardo da Vinci, who was summoned to Amboise by Francis I., king of France, and died there in 1519, is in the late Gothic style; a delicately carved relief over the doorway represents the conversion of St Hubert.
Be that as it may, a Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen da Gama, was sent from India and arrived at Massawa in February 1541.
Here he received an ambassador from the negus beseeching him to send help against the Moslems, and in the July following a force of 450 musqueteers, under the command of Christopher da Gama, younger brother of the admiral, marched into the interior, and being joined by native troops were at first successful against the enemy; but they were subsequently defeated, and their commander taken prisoner and put to death (August 1542).
After this, quarrels arose between the negus and Bermudez, who had returned to Abyssinia with Christopher da Gama and who now wished the emperor publicly to profess himself a convert to Rome.
The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the da Gama expedition into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters at Fremona (near Adowa), were oppressed and neglected, but not actually expelled.
Her relations with Ser Piero da Vinci seem to have come to an end almost immediately upon the birth of their son.
The same year was one of special importance in the prodigiously versatile activities of Leonardo da Vinci.
Leonardo's own native Florentine manner had at first been not a little modified by that of the Milanese school as he found it represented in the works of such men as Bramantino, Borgognone and Zenale; but his genius had in its turn reacted far more strongly upon the younger members of the school, and exercised, now or later, a transforming and dominating influence not only upon his immediate pupils, but upon men like Luini, Giampetrino, Bazzi, Cesare da Sesto and indeed the whole Lombard school in the early 15th century.
It seems needless to give references to the voluminous discussion in newspapers and periodicals concerning the authenticity of a wax bust of Flora acquired in 1909 for the Berlin Museum and unfortunately ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci, its real author having been proved by external and internal evidence to be the Englishman Richard Cockle Lucas, and its date 1846.
This brought them into conflict with Ezzelino da Romano; Jacopo da Carrara was besieged by Ezzelino in his castle of Agna, and while trying to escape was drowned.
His distant kinsman Marsiglietto da Carrara succeeded to him, but was immediately assassinated by Jacopo da Carrara, a prince famed as the friend of Petrarch.
In 1350 Jacopo was murdered by Guglielmo da Carrara, and his brother Jacopino succeeded, reigning together with his nephew Francesco.
The Castello di Corte here, the old castle of the Gonzagas (1395-1406), erected by Bartolino da Novara, the architect of the castle of Ferrara, now contains the archives, and has some fine frescoes by Mantegna with scenes from the life of Ludovico Gonzaga.
The island was discovered by the Portuguese navigator, Joao da Nova, on Ascension Day 1501, and was occasionally visited thereafter by ships.
They include the custom house (1812) in the Grecian style; Trinity House (1817), also Grecian, containing Sir Henry Raeburn's portrait of Admiral Lord Duncan, David Scott's "Vasco da Gama Rounding the Cape" and other paintings; the markets (1818); the town hall (1828), with an Ionic façade on Constitution Street and a Doric porch on Charlotte Street; the corn exchange (1862) in the Roman style; the assembly rooms; exchange buildings; the public institute (1867) and Victoria public baths (1899).
In breeding-time the bird resorts to solitary island groups, like the Crozet Islands and the elevated Tristan da Cunha, where it has its nest - a natural hollow or a circle of earth roughly scraped together - on the open ground.
He was for a year employed by a Portuguese knight whom he described as having only one eye, and whom he names Vacz de Cogna (Vaz da Cunha ?).
In this memoir by Gergonne, the theory of duality is very clearly and explicitly stated; for instance, we find " da p s la geometrie plane, a chaque theoreme ii en repond necessairement un autre qui s'en deduit en echangeant simplement entre eux les deux mots points et droites; tandis que dans la geometrie de l'espace ce sont les mots points et plans qu'il faut echanger entre eux pour passer d'un theoreme a son correlatif "; and the plan is introduced of printing correlative theorems, opposite to each other, in two columns.
At one of the great Manchester meetings he said, "Da not suppose, because I counsel firmness and decision at the right moment, that I am of that school of statesmen who are favourable to a turbulent and aggressive diplomacy.
The rich background with gold decoration in relief is characteristic. There is also a late altarpiece by Perugino (1521) and a fine early Renaissance canopy by Rocco da Vicenza (1515).
In addition to the works already mentioned Boscovich published Elementa universae matheseos (1754), the substance of the course of study prepared for his pupils; and a narrative of his travels, entitled Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinepoli in Polonia, of which several editions and a French translation appeared.
The church contains frescoes by Lorenzo da Viterbo (1469) and a fine majolica pavement.
The fine wooden roof of the interior is by Antonio da Sangallo the younger (1519-25).
The rocks of Tristan da Cunha are felspathic basalt, dolerite, augite-andesite, sideromelane and palagonite; some specimens of the basalt have porphyritic augite.
The islands were discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese admiral Tristan, or more correctly Tristao da Cunha,' after whom they are named, during a voyage to India.
After discovering the islands which now bear his name, da Cunha landed in Madagascar, subsequently visiting Mozambique, Brava (where he reduced the Arab power) and Sokotra, which he conquered.
It has been claimed as a British possession since the annexation of Tristan da Cunha.
Among papers relating to Tristan da Cunha published by the British government, see especially reports issued in 1897, 1903, 1906 - which gives a detailed account of the island and islanders - and 1907.
In 1307 it was seized by Giberto da Correggio of Parma.
In 1498 it was visited by Vasco da Gama; in 1501 a Portuguese factory was planted here by Cabral; in 1502 da Gama made a treaty with the raja, and in 1505 a fort was built.
Leonardo da Vinci, more than a hundred years earlier, had come to the same conclusion.
The Serra da Estrella, in Portugal, is usually regarded as a fourth section in the CarpetanoVetonica chain.
The principal places are Sa`da, the residence of the Imam, an important town on the old pilgrim road 120 m.