Serbian officers under General Livkovic were sent out, and many officers of the future Czechoslovak legions first saw service in this corps.
Unfortunately, while the new Czechoslovak army was recognized by Italy and took its place in the front line, Baron Sonnino, for political reasons, vetoed the formation of similar Yugoslav legions, though General Diaz had consented, and though the Yugoslays interned at Nocera and elsewhere were clamouring to be enrolled.
21 the news of President Wilson's answer to Count Burian's final peace note (refusing to negotiate save on the basis of a recognition of Czechoslovak and Yugoslav national claims) became generally known, the old regime vanished almost as if by magic. Extraordinary scenes took place in many towns, the troops tearing off their military badges with the Habsburg arms, and trampling them underfoot.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
Appellation of the Czechoslovak state.
On the break-up of the State in 1918 the German deputies of this rump Parliament assembled to form the constituent national assembly of German Austria, while in the Czechoslovak and Yugoslav states there were committees from which the German and Italian deputies were excluded, which proceeded to take measures towards forming states.
The Czechs had set up a national committee, with Kramarz at its head, which adopted the programme of " a Czechoslovak State sovereign and independent."
Its modern history as an independent entity begins with the dramatic collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the close of the World War, and the definitive proclamation of Czechoslovak independence on Oct.
Of German towns in Czechoslovakia (most of them with a considerable Czechoslovak minority), Liberec (Reichenberg), and Jablonec (Gablonz), are important industrial centres.
The prevailing element is that of the Czechs (7 millions), with whom the Slovaks (22 millions) form one people; indeed as long ago as the 9th century the kingdom of Great Moravia, with frontiers roughly identical with the present boundaries of the Czechoslovak Republic, was the creation of the Slav people, who occupied in common a territory stretching from W.
The difference between the Czech language and the language spoken in Slovakia is merely dialectical and the struggle for independence, culminating in the declaration of the Czechoslovak State, has emphasized and developed the sentiment of Czechoslovak unity.
Of the non-Czechoslovak races in the republic the Germans are the most numerous, numbering some 31 millions, chiefly dispersed along the W.
On the day following the attainment of Czechoslovak independence, Oct.
To 1919 and the Austrian Government released the Germans from the oath of allegiance they had taken to the new Austrian Republic, that the Germans desisted from openly fighting against incorporation in the Czechoslovak Republic. Their claim to self-determination was rejected by the Peace Conference.
The historic frontiers of the Czechoslovak State it would indeed have been difficult, with justice, to deduce a right of self-determination, that is to say, the right, in this case, of retaining all the fruits of misused power.
Other nationalities occupying portions of the Czechoslovak Republic are Ruthenians 600,000 and Poles 250,000.
In towns and districts in which there lives a considerable section (20% or more) of citizens speaking a language other than Czechoslovak, schools are to be provided, the instruction to be imparted in the language of that minority.
Provincial Boundaries Railways ful campaign abroad for the destruction of the Austrian Monarchy and the attainment of Czechoslovak independence.
The remnant, 3,000 in number, proceeded to France and there joined the Czechoslovak legions already fighting on the French front.
In Russia a Czechoslovak legion was formed at the outset of the war, and later this grew into a regular army which by 1918 numbered 10o,000 men.
The activities of Prof. Masaryk in Russia, England and America, enthusiastically supported by his compatriots living abroad, and especially by the Czechs and Slovaks who had emigrated to the United States, the self-sacrificing valour of the Czechoslovak legions on the French, Italian and Russian fronts, and the work of the Czechoslovak Council with its headquarters at Paris, moved the Allies to acknowledge the last-named body as the de facto Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak State.
The war the Czechoslovak nation has resisted the common enemy by every means in its power.
In consideration of their efforts to achieve independence, Great Britain regards the Czechoslovaks as an Allied nation and recognizes the unity of the three Czechoslovak armies as an Allied and belligerent army waging a regular warfare against Austria-Hungary and Germany...
This declaration materially helped to seal the fate of Austria, and implicitly recognized Czechoslovak independence as an accomplished fact.
France and Italy, by accepting the assistance of Czechoslovak legions on the French and Italian fronts, had already practically acknowledged Czechoslovakia's claims (Briand, 1916).
14 1918 the Czechoslovak National Council was constituted as a Provisional Government with all the attributes of sovereign and independent power.
16 the first representative body of the Czechoslovak people - the National Assembly as it was called - met at Prague.
Two days after the declaration of the independence of the Czechoslovak State, which had been signed also by the representatives of Slovakia, the Slovak National Council issued a "Declaration of the Slovak nation," wherein it was solemnly set forth that the Slovaks in blood, in language and civilization form part of the Czechoslovak nation.
In the extreme eastern corner of the Czechoslovak Republic, there is situated a little autonomous region of Russinia (or Sub-Carpathian Russia), which, together with Slovakia, was part and parcel of the Hungarian Kingdom till the Treaty of St.
Thus by the express will of their peoples, the various lands represented in the Czechoslovak Republic, viz.
The actual terms of the constitution are introduced by a preamble, which runs: " We, the Czechoslovak nation, desiring to consolidate the perfect unity of our people, to establish the reign of justice in the Republic, to assure the peaceful development of our native Czechoslovak land, to contribute to the common welfare of all citizens of this State and to secure the blessings of freedom to coming generations, have in our National Assembly this 29th day of February 1920 adopted the following Constitution for the Czechoslovak Republic: and in so doing we declare that it will be our endeavour to see that this Constitution together with all the laws of our land be carried out in the spirit of our history as well as in the spirit of those modern principles embodied in the idea of Self-determination, for we desire to take our place in the Family of Nations as a member at once cultured, peace-loving, democratic and progressive."
Among other outstanding terms of the constitution are the following: - The Czechoslovak State is declared to be a democratic republic with an elected president at its head.
Previous to 1918 the territories now composing the Czechoslovak Republic were of course subject to the Austrian or Hungarian code of laws respectively.
The creation of the so-called " Little Entente," aiming at the preser vation of the status quo in central Europe, was the primary outcome of Czechoslovak foreign policy.
It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
With Poland the relations of the Czechoslovak Republic were for a considerable time seriously troubled by the question of Teschen, both countries laying claim to that territory.
In the words of Dr. Benes, " the Czechoslovak Government regards the conflict with the Poles as definitively ended and is desirous of systematically pursuing a policy of rapprochement."
It had always been opposed to intervention in Russia, and insisted upon Russia desisting from any act that might be construed as intermeddling in the affairs of Czechoslovakia, in particular the pursuit of Bolshevist propaganda on Czechoslovak territory.
The Germans and the Magyars were also proportionately split up. The strongest party in the republic was that of the Czechoslovak Social Democrats, which up to Sept.
They supported the peace policy of the Czechoslovak Government in foreign affairs, and were strongly opposed to intervention in Russia.
Of the German parties the strongest was again the Social Democratic party, originally numbering 31 deputies and 16 senators, but having subsequently lost three deputies who formed a German Communist party acting more or less in concert with the Czechoslovak Communists.
The democratic sentiment of the Czechoslovak nation, and its maturity in social matters, resulted in the adoption of a social policy which, while proceeding without undue haste, was characterized by a comparatively rapid course of reform.
Estates belonging to the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, property illegally acquired, as well as the property of persons who during the war were guilty of gross offences against the Czechoslovak nation are taken for a compensation paid to the Reparation Commission at Vienna.
The army was formed of the legionaries who had fought in Russia, France and Italy on the side of the Allies, and of those Czechoslovak troops who, on the collapse of Austria-Hungary, streamed back from the various fronts.
The Czechoslovak Government, between 1918 and 1921, set up some 2,000 additional elementary and some 40 higher schools in Slovakia and Russinia (including 80 new German schools), so that a vast improvement in the educational status of those countries is only a matter of time.
The Sokol organization and the Sokol spirit were one of the mainsprings of the movement resulting, in the years 1914 to 1918, in the formation of the Czechoslovak legions on the various European battle-fronts.
The religious history of the lands which now compose the Czechoslovak Republic has a special interest for the Englishspeaking world owing to the fact that the work of John Hus, the great Czech reformer (1369-1415) was largely a result of the influence of Wyclif.
At the beginning of the 17th century some 90% of the Bohemians were Protestant, but the loss of independence and the effects of religious persecution (the Counter-Reformation) under the aegis of the Habsburg dynasty, caused the position to be reversed, and up to 1918 almost 90°o of the Czechoslovak population was entered in the official statistics as belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.
On the Holy See declining to meet these demands the " Czechoslovak Church " was founded in Jan.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
In 1919 Czechoslovak exports to Great Britain (exclusive of colonies) amounted to a value of 238 million crowns, imports to 328 millions.
Before the war the Czechoslovak traffic on the Elbe totalled some 4 million tons annually.
Z ` apek, Bohemia under Habsburg Misrule (1915); The Bohemian Biography (1918); Dedecek, La Tchecoslovaquie et les Tchecoslovaques (1919); Louis Eisenmann, La Tchecoslovaquie, une carte hors texte (1921); Etienne Fournol, De la Succession d'Autriche (1918); Hoetzl and Joachim, The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic (1920); D.
Nosek, Independent Bohemia (1918); C. Pergler, The Czechoslovak State (1919); C. Rivet, Les Tchecoslovaques (4th ed., 1921); P. Selver, Anthology of Modern Bohemian Poetry (1912); R.
Seton-Watson, German Slav and Magyar (1916), The Czechoslovak Republic (1921); E.