KUTTENBERG (Czech, Kutnd Hora), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 45 m.
REICHENBERG (Czech, Liberec), a town of Bohemia, 87 m.
The Hussite movement, a victorious expression of Czech nationality, is contemporaneous with the loss of German dominion in Prussia; the exodus of German students from Prague takes place a year before the defeat of the Order at Tannenburg.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
PARDUBITZ (Czech, Pardubic), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 65 m.
In 1879 and 1880 as Rector Magnificus he fought against the introduction of Czech instead of German in the Prague University.
GABLONZ (Czech, Jablonec), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 94 m.
The name of Czech, however, is usually reserved for the Bohemians, while the Sla y s of Moravia and West Hungary are called Moravians and Slovacs.
He refused to take part in the preliminary parliament consisting of Soo former deputies to the diet, which met at Frankfort, on the ground that as a Czech he had no interest in German affairs.
Pop. (1900) 18,761, mostly Czech.
The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
On the 3rd of May the Czech Catholics elected Matthias king of Bohemia, but this was contrary to the wishes of both pope and emperor, who preferred to partition Bohemia.
But Boleslaus's first Bohemian war proved unsuccessful, and was terminated by the marriage of his sister Swatawa with the Czech king Wratyslaus II.
Pop. (1900), 17,029, mostly Czech.
BILIN (Czech Bilina), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 90 m.
Pop. (1900), 14,799, mostly Czech.
BRAUNAU (Czech Broumov), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 139 m.
SCHLAN (Czech, Slane), a town of Bohemia, 37 m.
KRUMAU (in Czech, Krumlov), is a town in Bohemia situated on the banks of the Moldau (Vitava).
It has about 8000 inhabitants, partly of Czech, partly of German nationality.
According to the language in common use, 95% of the population was German, 4.66% was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians.
FRANTISEK PALACKY [FRANCIS]] (1798-1876), Czech historian and politician, was born on the 14th of June 17 9 8 at Hodslavice (Hotzendorf) in Moravia.
The journal was at first published in Czech and German, and the Czech edition survived to become the most important literary organ of Bohemia.
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
The first volume was printed in German in 1836, and subsequently translated into Czech.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
Among his more important smaller historical works are: Wilydigung der alten bOhmischen Geschichtschreiber (Prague, 1830), dealing with authors of many of whose works were then inaccessible to Czech students; Archiv cesky (6 vols., Prague, 1840-1872); Urkundliche Beitr¢ge zur Geschichte des Hussitenkriegs (2 vols., Prague, 1872-1874); Documenta magistri Johannis Hus vitam, doctrinam, causam.
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
No sooner was political life thus resumed than all the Slovene, Croat and Serb deputies of Austria united to form a " Yugoslav parliamentary Club," which entered into close alliance with the Czech Club.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
The Czech and Yugoslav spokesmen in the Reichsrat insisted upon separate representation at the peace negotiations, and the absolute right to decide their own future State allegiance (Oct.
On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
Korosec in the name of the Czech and Yugoslav Clubs unreservedly rejected it and claimed that the future of both nations was an international problem which only the future Peace Conference could solve.
4 Stepanek and Giunio, as delegates of the Czech and Yugoslav revolutionary committees, reached Italy in a fishing-boat, to concert with the Allies a general rising along the coast, but were closely imprisoned in Rome and not allowed to communicate with Doctor Benes and Doctor Trumbic till nearly three weeks had been lost.
BODENBACH (Czech Podmokly), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 83 m.
SAAZ (Czech Zatec), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 64 m.
Pop. (1900), 13,576, together with the adjoining township of Birkenberg, 19,119, almost exclusively Czech.
At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria.
The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort.
AUSTERLITZ (Czech Slavkov), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 15 m.
Pop. (1900) 3145, mostly Czech.
OLMUTZ (Czech, Olomouc or Holomauc), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 67 m.
JAGERNDORF (Czech, Krnov), a town of Austria, in Silesia, 18 m.
of the Sudetic Mountains they were brought under a Czech national state, which inherited, with them, the problem of nationality.
the party which had frustrated the efforts of the Old Czechs for a reconciliation with the Germans) produced this magnificent work in collaboration with 22 professors, artists, industrial leaders and writers of Czech nationality, supported by a national subsidy; it can therefore be accepted as a trustworthy Czech autobiography.
It should be difficult, after the copious details of this autobiography de luxe of the Czech nation in the year 1916, to speak of it historically as an " oppressed " nation of Austria.
Since the last election in the spring of 1908 the Bohemian Diet had been unworkable, eventually owing to obstruction on the part of the Germans, who saw themselves handed over hopelessly to the Czech majority, until a rearrangement of the voting groups (curiae) should afford them protection against Czech oppression.
The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized.
minister of Czech and of German nationality.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
In purely German territories moreover it was claimed that only German officials should be appointed, just as in purely Czech territories the appointment of Czech officials was already uncontroverted and looked upon as a matter of course.
1909, stood under the threat of a paralyzing Czech obstruction.
According to the statistical returns there were 139 administrative sub-districts where only Czech was spoken and 95 speaking only German, as opposed to only five bilingual ones.
They alleged as a reason that two small country communes of Lower Austria, Oberand Unter-Themmenau, had a mixed colony of Czechs and Croats; it was further advanced on their side that a considerable annual migration to Vienna took place, which became Germanized in the second generation, and so lost to their Czech nationality.
Vienna, with over ioo,000 Czechs, was actually the second largest Czech town.
In reality a still clearer diminution of the Czech population of Vienna was noticeable; according to the census of 1900, out of 1,674,000 inhabitants there were 102,970 Czechs, i.e.
The Czech colonies in Vienna endeavoured, by means of the so-called " Komensky schools " (from the Czech form of the name of Komenius, the educationalist), to protect themselves against fusion with the indigenous population.
3 1909 the Lower Austrian Diet, in opposition to these Czech encroachments, tried to establish German by law as the language of instruction in all the public schools of Lower Austria, in correspondence with the actual state of affairs hitherto.
They opened a Komensky school there without proper authorization, and when this was closed by the municipal authorities, they organized a demonstration of Czech women, who crowded with their children into the Parliament House.
But the Czechs not only demanded two Czech ministers, but also a number of headships of departments and councillorships in each department.
It was only to be expected that the Germans, whose very existence was in question, should show themselves to be patriotic. But it was somewhat surprising that at Prague, after the declaration of war, Germans and Czechs sang Die TV acht am Rhein together in the streets, and the burgomaster, a Czech, made a speech in German before the town hall in which he called for cheers for the Emperor William and the fraternization of Germans and Czechs.
24 1914 the Czech Union solemnly declared: " It is true that we have been against one Government or another, but never against the state."
15 the Czech parties in Moravia issued a patriotic manifesto.
Kdrber' s successor, Clam-Martinitz,' who belonged to the violently Czech feudal nobility, tried to form a national coalition Cabinet, including two German politicians.
The Czech Union rejected, by a unanimous resolution of its governing committee, the suggestions of the Entente, as being insinuations based on erroneous premises, and deprecated by a reference to their secular allegiance " the interference of the Entente Powers " (Jan.
Seidler granted indeed a rearrangement of districts in Bohemia (seven Czech, four German and two mixed); but he could not make up his mind to go further, and tried the expedient of summoning a fresh Parliament on June 16.
18 the Czech National Council had already imposed some taxes.
IGLAU (Czech Jihlava), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 56 m.
Even after the conquest of Slovakia by the Hungarians, which resulted in Slovak territory being separated from Czech territory till they were reunited in 1918, an intellectual connexion between the two branches of the one family was always maintained, and some of the foremost names in Czech literature are those of writers who were Slovaks by birth.
The difference between the Czech language and the language spoken in Slovakia is merely dialectical and the struggle for independence, culminating in the declaration of the Czechoslovak State, has emphasized and developed the sentiment of Czechoslovak unity.
Stefanik), and a Czech (Dr. Benes).
Open protest or organized revolt, however, was impossible owing to the proximity and indeed the presence in overwhelming numbers of German and Hungarian troops, who were expressly garrisoned among the Czech population in order to stifle any possible outburst of national and pro-Ally sentiment.
Whenever opinions did happen to be expressed which could be construed as criticism of Austria or Germany the offenders were speedily punished, and it was not long before the political leaders of the Czechs and Slovaks found themselves in confinement, some of them under sentence of death, while the Czech and Slovak press was subjected to a rigorous censorship and many of its organs prohibited from appearing.
The persecutions, sometimes revolting in their cruelty, to which (on account of their pro-Ally sympathies) the Czechs were subjected during the first two years of the war, had the effect of uniting all the different political parties into one single national block; and when the Austrian Parliament was at length convoked in May 1917 the Czech parties made a unanimous declaration that it was their aim to work for the union of Czechs and Slovaks as one people in an independent state.
6 1918, in which all the Czech deputies of the Austrian Reichsrat and of the Diets of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia unanimously demanded full independence and representation at the future conference which should conclude peace in Europe.
Of a total of 600,000 Czech troops in the Austrian army over onehalf surrendered to the Allies.
The great majority of the landlords were nobles of foreign origin who acquired their 'estates at the hands of the Habsburg conqueror from 1621 onwards, when, after the battle of the White Mountain, the lands of the Czech nobles and yeomen were confiscated, the owners being executed or, as adherents of the Moravian Brotherhood and other Protestant churches, preferring to pass into exile rather than surrender their faith.
In Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia the standard of education - elementary, higher and technical - is excellent, and there are practically no illiterates - a state of affairs attributable to the interest which the Czech nation (imbued with the traditions of Comenius) had ever taken in education.
In the entire republic there are four universities, three Czech and Slovak - the Charles University of Prague, the Masaryk University of Brno and the Comenius University of Bratislava - and one German (at Prague).
There are four polytechnics enjoying university rank at Prague and Brno, two of them being Czech and two German.
The " Scout " movement, too, both for boys and girls, has since 1918 developed with much success, especially in collaboration with the other original Czech gymnastic and sport corporations.
The religious history of the lands which now compose the Czechoslovak Republic has a special interest for the Englishspeaking world owing to the fact that the work of John Hus, the great Czech reformer (1369-1415) was largely a result of the influence of Wyclif.
In Bohemia, the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren represents a spiritual and historical continuity with the old Hussites.
Vrchlicky, a master of verse and a perfect cosmopolitan, and tech, who took the material for his epics from Czech history, are the outstanding names of this epoch.
Sladek was, with his excellent translations, one of the first to make Czech readers acquainted with the riches of English literature (especially Shakespeare).
He marks the period of transition to the younger generation of writers, in the forefront of whom stands the poet and novelist Hachar, who revolutionized the conception of Czech patriotism and is famous for his historical glosses.
The history of modern Czech music commences with the creator of Czech opera, Frederick Smetana.
The latter, as well as others of the younger school of Czech sculptors, such as Bilek, Kafka and Maiatka, studied under Rodin at Paris.
In the course of the new intellectual life, by which after three hundred years of subjection the Czech nation again entered the ranks of the living peoples of Europe, scientific effort early resumed its due place.
At the very threshold of the .Czech renaissance men of science were among the first pioneers of national thought, as for example Dobrovsky the philologist, and in the ensuing generation Purkyne (Purkinje) the physiologist, and Palacky the greatest of Czech historians.
Enriched by new ethical and religious elements, Czech philosophy manifests itself in Masaryk's works as a new realism or humanism.
In return Hussite mercenaries fought on the Polish side at Tannenburg, and Czech patriots repeatedly offered the crown of Bohemia to Wladislaus.
Moreover Casimir's difficulties were materially increased by the necessity of paying for Czech mercenaries, the pos polite ruszenie, or Polish militia, proving utterly useless at the very beginning of the war.
Polish Literature The Polish language belongs to the western branch of the Slavonic tongues, and exhibits the closest affinities with the Czech or Bohemian and Lusatian Wendish.
The doctrines of Hus had entered the country in very early times, and we find Polish recensions of Bohemian hymns; even the hymn to the Virgin previously mentioned is supposed to have a Czech basis.
An important writer of history is Karl Szajnocha (1818-1868), born in Galicia of Czech parents.
GITSCHIN (Czech Jicin), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 65 m.
Pop. (1900) 9790, mostly Czech.
TROPPAU (Polish, Oppava; Czech, Opava), the capital of the Austrian duchy and crown land of Silesia, 180 m.
TEPLITZ (Czech, Teplice), or Teplitz-Schonau, as it is officially called since the incorporation of the village of Schonau in 1895, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 80 m.
PROSSNITZ (Czech Prostejov), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 50 m.
Pop. (1900), 24,054, mostly Czech.
LEITMERITZ (Czech, Litomerice), a town and episcopal see of Bohemia, 45 m.
WITTINGAU (Czech, Trebon), a town of Bohemia, 95 m.
Pop. (1900) 5467, mostly Czech.
EGER (Czech, Cheb), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 148 m.
RAUDNITZ (Czech Roudnice nad Labem), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 44 m.
Pop. (1900) 7986, mostly Czech.
cerkova, Czech cirkev, Finn.
The marriage was a purely political one, arranged by his father and a section of the Hungarian magnates to counterpoise hostile German and Czech influences.
PRERAU (Czech, Perov), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 56 m.
Pop. (1goo), 16,738, chiefly Czech.
KOLIN, or NEU-Kolin (also Kollin; Czech, Novy Kolin), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 40 m.
Pop. (1900), 15,025, mostly Czech.
Denmark and Sweden followed suit with translations, and the expression " eternal Jew " passed as a current term into Czech.
BUDWEIS (Czech Budbjovice), a town of Bohemia, Austria, So m.
It is the see of a bishop since 1783, and is the centre of a German enclave in Czech Bohemia.
But the Czech element is steadily increasing, and the population of the town was in 1908 60% Czech.
Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there were: Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679; Masuran, 142,049; Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305; Cassubian, 100,213; Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80,36,; Italian, 65,961; Moravian, 64,382; Czech, 43,016; Frisian, 20,677; English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841.
In Bohemia the Czech literary movement had developed into an organized resistance to the established order, which was attacked under the disguise of a criticism of the English administration in Ireland.
But the great object lesson was furnished by the events in Prague, where the quarrel between Czechs and Germans, radicals and conservatives, issued on the 12th of June in a rising of the Czech students and populace.
where over three-fifths of the population were Czech, racial feeling was supported by the appeal to historic law.
In Bohemia the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary.
Opposition newspapers were suppressed; cases in which Czech journalists were concerned were transferred to the German districts, so that they were tried by a hostile German jury.
Czech manifestoes were confiscated, and meetings stopped at the slightest appearance of disorder; and the riots were punished by quartering soldiers upon the inhabitants.
The measure transferred the right of electing members of the Reichsrath from the diets to the direct vote of the people, the result being to deprive the Federalists of their chief weapon; it was no longer possible to take a formal vote of the legal representatives in any territory refusing to appoint deputies, and if a Czech or Slovene member did not take his seat the only result was that a single constituency was unrepresented, and the opposition weakened.
Twenty-seven members of the diet led by Gregr and Stadkowsky, being outvoted in the Czech Club, resigned their seats.
In Bohemia the Czechs claim that their language shall be recognized as customary, even in those districts such as Reichenberg, which are almost completely German; the Germans, on the other hand, claim that the Czech language shall only be recognized in those towns and districts where there is a considerable Czech population.
The law of 1867 required that the education in the elementary schools in the Slav districts should be given in Czech or Slovenian, as the case might be.
This has happened not only in many places in Bohemia, but in Styria, and even in Vienna, where there has been a great increase in the Czech population and a Czech school has been founded.
In Prague the victory of the Czechs has been marked by the removal of all German street names, and the Czech town council even passed a by-law forbidding private individuals to have tablets put up with the name of the street in German.
The two races were nearly equal, and the victory of Czech would mean that nearly two ' For Dalmatia, see T.
million Germans would be placed in a position of subordination; but for the last twenty years there had been a constant encroachment by Czech on German.
An ordinance of 1880 determined that henceforward all business which had been brought before any government office or law court should be dealt with, within the office, in the language in which it was introduced; this applied to the whole of Bohemia and Moravia, and meant that Czech would henceforward have a position within the government service.
It was another step in the same direction when, in 1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn.
Then not only were a large number of Czech elementary schools founded, but also many middle schools were given to the Czechs, and Czech classes introduced in German schools; and, what affected the Germans most, in 1882 classes in Czech were started in the university of Prague - a desecration, as it seemed, of the oldest German university.
In the old days it was common for the children of German parents in Bohemia to learn Czech; since 1867 this has ceased to be the case.
In Bohemia they demanded, as a means of protecting themselves against the effect of the language ordinances, that the country should be divided into two parts; in one German was to be the sole language, in the other Czech was to be recognized.
The Czechs, of course, refused even to consider it; it would have cut away the ground on which their whole policy was built up, namely, the indissoluble unity of the Bohemian kingdom, in which German and Czech should throughout be recognized as equal and parallel languages.
After a fortnight's discussion an agreement was made on the basis of a separation between the German and the Czech districts, and a revision of the electoral law.
meant the introduction of Czech into the government offices throughout the whole of the kingdom; (2) after 1903 no one was to be appointed to a post under the government in Bohemia until he had passed an examination in Czech.
The new minister, Gautsch, a man popular with all parties, held office for three months; he proclaimed the budget and the Ausgleich, and in February replaced the language ordinances by others, under which Bohemia was to be divided into three districts - one Czech, one German and one mixed.
Korber proposed that Bohemia be divided into 10 districts, of which 5 would be Czech, 3 German and 2 mixed.
Of the 234 district tribunals, 133 were to be Czech, 94 German and 7 mixed.
As this demand involved the recognition of Czech as a language of internal service in Bohemia it was refused by the Germans.
In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, the Constitutional Landed Proprietors and the Christian Socialists, created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of four members to watch over German racial interests.
Thus Germans were obliged to vote for Germans and Czechs for Czechs; and, though there might be victories of Clerical over Liberal Germans or of Czech Radicals over Young Czechs, there could be no victories of Czechs over Germans, Poles over Ruthenes, or Slovenes over Italians.
Progressives Czechs Czech Agrarians Young Czechs Czech Clericals Old Czechs Czech National Socialists Realists .
Unattached Czech Social Democrats Of all races Poles Democrats Conservatives Populists .
AUSSIG (Czech Ousti nad Labesn), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 68 m.
Pop. (1900), 13,608, mostly Czech.
The name of Pisek, which is the Czech for sand, is said to be derived from the gold-washing formerly carried on in the bed of the Wottawa (1571-1621).
DUX (Czech Duchcov), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 86 m.
PILSEN (Czech, Plzen), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 68 m.
Pop. (1900), 68,292, of which 94% are Czech.
Tomek's History of the Town of Prague (Czech) (12 vols., Prague, 1855-1901).
ZNAIM (Czech Znojmo), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 50 m.
GRASLITZ (Czech, Kraslice), a town of Bohemia, on the Zwodau, 145 m.
These preceptors included the German priest Bruno, the Czech priest Radla, and an Italian knight, Theodate of San Severino, who taught him arms and letters (a holograph epistle by Stephen existed in the Vatican Library as late as 1513).
his Popular Astronomy (1878) which has been translated into German, Russian, Norwegian, Czech, Dutch and Japanese, his Astronomy for Schools and Colleges (1880), written in conjunction with Professor E.
JUNG-BUNZLAU (Czech, Mladd Boleslav), a town of Bohemia, 44 m.
Pop. (1900), 13,479, mostly Czech.
BOhmen, Czech Cechy, Lat.
The Czech (Cech) alphabet is the same as the English, with the omission of the letters q, w and x.
H is always pronounced in Czech.
The northern part (Czech Cesky Les) attains in the massif of Czerkov an altitude of 3300 ft., but the southern part (Czech Sumava) is at the same time the highest and the most picturesque part of the range, including on the Bohemian side the Osser (4053 ft.) and the Plockenstein (45 1 3 ft.), although the highest peak, the Arber (4872), is in Bavaria.
It stretches towards the east, above the small town of Taus (Czech Domazlice, once called Tuhost, i.e.
The Erzgebirge (Czech Rudo Hori), which form the north-west frontier, have an average altitude of 2600 ft., and as their highest point, the Keilberg (4080 ft.).
The Riesengebirge (Czech Kroknose) are, after the Alps, among the highest mountains of central Europe, and attain in the Schneekoppe an altitude of 5264 ft.
But the principal river of Bohemia, from every point of view, is the Moldau (Czech Vltava), not the Elbe.
Besides, there are numerous German-speaking enclaves situated in purely Czech districts; on the other hand, the Czechs have shown a tendency to invade the purely German mining and manufacturing districts.
At the head of the educational establishments stand the two universities at Prague, one German and the other Czech.
BIELITZ (Czech Bilsko, Polish Bielsko), a town of Austria, in Silesia, 80 m.
Pop. (1900) 13,017, mostly Czech.
Pop. (1900) 9899, mostly Czech.
BERAUN (Czech Beroun), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 27 m.
Pop. (1900) 9693, mostly Czech.
Somewhat under a fifth of the population are Germans, the rest belong to the Bohemian (Czech) nationality.
NEUTITSCHEIN (Czech Novy.
KREMSIER, (Czech, Krome y z), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 37 m.
Pop. (1900), 13,991, mostly Czech.
KOMOTAU (Czech, Chomutov), a town of Bohemia, Austria 79 m.
Komotau was originally a Czech market-place, but in 1252 it came into the possession of the Teutonic Order and was completely Germanized.
In 996 he gained a seaboard by seizing Pomerania, and subsequently took advantage of the troubles in Bohemia to occupy Cracow, previously a Czech city.
Pop. (1900), 18,600, mostly Czech.
TESCHEN (Czech, resin; Polish, Cieszyn), a town of Austria, in Silesia, 50 m.
Polish and the remainder Czech.
NIKOLSBURG (Czech, Mikulov), a town of Austria, in Moravia, 53 m.
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auld kirk in Prague in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Republic ace lifted nastily while negotiating the first bend and was thrown awkwardly into the air fence.
In order to avoid bloodshed, the Czech government ordered its armed forces not to resist the invasion.
Klaus's privatization produced a rather circular, fairly complex and impenetrable structure of businesses in the Czech Republic.
Thousands of lecturers set to strike Czech government bans communists Cripes!
Petr Eben is one of the foremost composers from the Czech Republic.
Still think the Czech's will win the cup.
Within the Czech Republic, it is still debatable whether the community is ready for such reintegration.
UK workers may even choose to look elsewhere for work - why not decamp to the Czech republic?
decimated squad has meet up ahead of the friendly against the Czech Republic.
And Jan Patocka, a Czech dissident, died during interrogation conducted by the communist regime.
So here he is blowing the gaffe on the Czech connection.
Czech glassmakers became international pioneers in the use of the medium for artistic purposes.
Czech travel guide, Prague Czech and Prague travel guide.
In the Czech Republic itÃ¢s ' pickled herring ' .
On large vocabulary continuous speech recognition of highly inflectional language - Czech.
I hope it is not an exaggeration to say that Czech intellectuals emerged disorientated and emasculated from the 1989 democratic revolution.
press Quotes Craig spoke to ` The Insider ` during a Czech Republic press junket on May 22nd.
The maist unusual place I've written a poem wis in the crypt unner an auld kirk in Prague in the Czech Republic.
I had to listen to mental midgets whining about the threat or Polish plumbers, Czech carpenters and Moldovan mechanics.
News: John Pawson's monastery monastic minimalism in the Czech Republic words: Kieran Long Do malls really excite us any more?
Last year his best Czech nymph was made from orange rabbit with black thorax or with a goldhead.
The second origin, which I find more persuasive is it comes from the Czech word Tabor meaning camp.
Jiri Belohlavek became Assistant Conductor with the Czech Philharmonic upon graduation from the Prague Academy of Arts where he studied with Celibidache.
Consequently, you may study Comparative Slavonic philology with special reference to Polish, Czech or Russian.
Czech number one Jan Koukal liked the Zagreb courts so much that he decided to play 85 minutes to overcome English qualifier Jonathan Harford.
Poland grew by 23 %, the Czech and Slovak republics by 38% and Hungary by 20% .
Czech republic into to cancel my at this village to day cruise.
The wind sextet ' Youth ' is more commonly known by its Czech name Mladi.
In March 1999, he suceeded almost single-handed in making the Czech Republic a member of the NATO alliance.
There is an extensive wine list that includes Moravian wines and a large selection of foreign wines, chosen by distinguished Czech sommeliers.
Inspired by Czech animation and James Whale, " The Note " features a fully improvised soundtrack from Last Harbor.
swine fever outbreaks have been reported in Germany, France, Italy, Moldavia, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.
taxisport taxes collected in the Czech Republic have already been paid upon the issuing of the ticket or PTA.
Several tornadoes occur every year in the Czech Republic.
You're just back from winning tournaments in the Czech Republic, too.
transpose most part this will be done by simply transposing the directives in question, word for word, into Czech legislation.
Uzel's Monographie der Ordnung Thysanoptera (Koniggratz, 1895; in the Czech language.
He was much affected by the romantic movement and the Ultramontane revival, and after his return home interested himself greatly in the revival of Czech language and literature and the growth of the Bohemian national feeling.
He formed a personal friendship with Palacky and others of the Czech leaders; he helped in the foundation of schools in which Czech should be taught, and set himself to acquire some knowledge of the language.
MORAVIA (Ger., Mahren; Czech, Morava), a margraviate and crownland of Austria, bounded E.
Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and domestic servants who came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence of their origin as speedily as possible.
" The control which is exercised over the land is in Czech hands since we possess a majority; the territorial authorities for the greater part belong to our nation " (p. 242).
Besides mentioning the encouragement bestowed by leading Germans like Goethe, Herder, Raumer, etc., on Czech poets and scholars, the book gives an appreciative account of the Emperor Joseph.
They insisted that the Government should introduce proposals as to the official language of functionaries, for they feared a return of the procedure used by Badeni, which by means of a Government ordinance had altered the received usage and upset the national balance of power; that in Bohemia the purely German sub-districts (Bezirke) should be included in German districts (Kreise), and in like manner the purely Czech sub-districts in Czech districts, so that there would then be a relatively small number of territories of mixed nationality, which would have to be governed bilingually; that minorities should be protected by law; and that in appointing to posts in the offices of the autonomous Bohemian territorial Government, proportionate consideration should be given to the Germans, attention being paid to the fact that in Bohemia more than a third of the population were German, and that they paid more than half the taxes, but that the Czech national majority had appointed more than 90% of Czechs and not even 10% of Germans in the Government offices.
These 239 sub-districts, according to the bill, were to be grouped in 20 districts, 10 Czech, six German and four bilingual, in which provision was to be made for minorities throughout the whole land through official translation bureaus.
From the modest and simple art of the patriotic poets and novelists of the first half of the 19th century, whose work nevertheless was an influential factor in the awakening of a national sentiment among the common people, Czech literature, after a period characterized by the romanticism of Macha and the critical realism of Havlicek, arrived at a school which, while it took its inspiration from the sources of the national spirit, did not shut itself out from foreign influences.
Scientific effort received an impetus from the establishment of an independent Czech university at Prague in 1881, and from that time there is hardly a branch of science in which workers of profound and creative talent did not arise (in physics Zenger, in biology Vejdovsky), while a whole series of eminent names as well in the technical and mathematical as in the historical and philological (e.g.
A result of this is that, as educated Czechs are generally bilingual, it is easier for them to obtain appointments in districts where a knowledge of Czech is required, and the Germans, therefore, regard every order requiring the use of Czech as an order which excludes Germans from a certain number of posts.
The Marcomanni were afterwards expelled by other Teutonic tribes, and eventually Bohemia was conquered by Slavic tribes, of whom the Cechs (see Czech) were the most important.
(Karel Capek, an acclaimed Czech playwright, coined the word to describe the mechanized workers in his play.)
Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
It's all up now! he was told in Russian, German, and Czech by the crowd of fugitives who understood what was happening as little as he did.
Last updated: January 5, 2004 CSA Czech Airlines recognizes the importance of protecting your personal information.
Poland grew by 23 %, the Czech and Slovak Republics by 38% and Hungary by 20 %.
Within the Czech Republic, emphasis often seems to be placed on the primary importance of samizdat literature.
A Czech soldier is murdered, the Bolsheviks arrive, and there is a spectacular shootout at the end.
Since 1998 swine fever outbreaks have been reported in Germany, France, Italy, Moldavia, the Czech Republic and Switzerland.
Airport taxes collected in the Czech Republic have already been paid upon the issuing of the ticket or PTA.
You 're just back from winning tournaments in the Czech Republic, too.
For the most part this will be done by simply transposing the directives in question, word for word, into Czech legislation.
Germany borders many countries including Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
He had a rumored affair with TV reporter Tara Palmer-Tomkinson, and a confirmed affair with Czech supermodel Petra Nemcova.
Suleman and her lawyer, Jeff Czech, confirmed that a deal has been signed with the Eyeworks production company, which is based in the United Kingdom, for a television program.
You can also add on to the tour package by selecting a three-night extension to Budapest, Hungary, or a four-night extension to Prague, Czech Republic.
Hand constructed form turquoise, coral, Chinese porcelain, freshwater pearls, sterling silver, abalone pearl, Czech glass and Austrian crystal, these special bracelets each have half of an interlocking heart.
There are different arms of T-Mobile that operate in other countries around the world, including Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, and the Czech Republic.
Czech model Paulina Porizkova appeared on consecutive covers in 1984 and 1985.
This Czech beauty, born in 1981, has modeled for super hot agencies Next and Why Not.
Tao Yoga featuring Grand Master Mantak Chia's Universal Healing Tao System, hosts workshops in Germany, the Czech Republic, and Thailand.
Fire Mountain Gems-Choose from large hole beads, bone and horn beads, Czech beads, pearls and more at Fire Mountain Gems.
Bead Room has a great selection of vintage glass beads, Czech beads, lampwork beads, Swarovski and seed beads.
Pressed glass beads, also known as Czech glass beads, have crisp facets and a clean finish to make them sparkle.
Karolina Kurkova, the blonde beauty from the Czech Republic has captured the attention of people around the world.
While robotics have been around since 270 BC, the term robot wasn't coined until 1921 when the Czech writer Karel Capek wrote a play called Rossum's Universal Robots, also known as R.U.R.
The fierce mining population of the town was mainly German, and fanatically Catholic, in contrast with Prague, which was Czech and utraquist.
Pop. (1900) 9491, mostly Czech.
TRAUTENAU (Czech Trutnov), a town of Bohemia, 120 m.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.