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cylindrical

cylindrical

cylindrical Sentence Examples

  • Cylindrical organs may exhibit similar phenomena.

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  • This continuous change of position has been called circumnutation, and is held to be universal in all growing cylindrical organs.

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  • The cheese-box still has a vertical cylindrical body, which may be as much as 30 ft.

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  • In Thomas Walker's harpoon or frictionless log, introduced in 1861, the wheelwork was enclosed in a cylindrical case of the same diameter as the body of the rotator or fan, and the latter was brought close up to the register, forming a compact machine and avoiding the use of the 6-ft.

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  • 40), with a straight, cylindrical snout which in some male beetles of the family is longer than the rest of the body.

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  • In most insects the leg is built up of nine segments: (1) a broad triangular, sub-globular, conical or cylindrical haunch (coxa); (2) a small trochanter; (3) an elongate stout thigh (femur); (4) a more slender shin (tibia); and (5-9) a foot consisting of five tarsal segments.

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  • These at first consisted of an ordinary truck on which were placed two wooden tub-like tanks, each holding about 2000 gallons; they were replaced in 1871 by the modern type of tank-car, constructed with a horizontal cylindrical tank of boiler plate.

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  • 3, the true bulrush, occurs in lakes, ditches and marshes; it has a spongy, green, cylindrical stem, reaching nearly an inch in thickness and 1 to 8 ft.

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  • The cylindrical body of Pterotrachaea is paralleled by the slug-like forms of Euthyneura.

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  • The calorimeter used for solutions is usually cylindrical, and made of glass or a metal which is not, attacked by the reacting substances.

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  • The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.

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  • In the United States a horizontal cylindrical still is usually employed in the distillation of the spirit and kerosene, but what is known as the " cheese-box " still has also been largely used.

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  • In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.

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  • The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.

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  • The bit or cutter consists of a cylindrical The Calyx metallic shell, the lower end of which is made, by a Drill.

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  • The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.

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  • This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.

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  • while those which are cylindrical or of similar shape (centric leaves) have it all round.

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  • The pods are almost cylindrical, about 9 in.

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  • The large cones stand erect on the branches, are cylindrical in shape, and have long bracts, the curved points of which project beyond the scales.

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  • Many of them are long thread-shaped or ribbon-shaped animals, more or less cylindrical in transverse section.

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  • They are cylindrical worm-like animals, with a median anterior mouth quite devoid of any armature or tentacles.

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  • The electrolysis is generally conducted with platinum electrodes, of which the cathode takes the form of a piece of foil bent into a cylindrical form, the necessary current being generated by one or more Daniell cells.

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  • ACANTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.

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  • It projects horizontally forwards from the head in the form of a cylindrical or slightly tapering, pointed tusk, composed of ivory, with a central cavity reaching almost to the apex, without enamel, and with the surface marked by spiral grooves and ridges, running in a sinistral direction.

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  • The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these.

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  • The colour is generally black-and-tan or brownish, the body is extremely long and cylindrical; the ears are large and pendulous, the legs broad, thick and twisted, with everted paws..

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  • They are of globular shape, less frequently irregular or branching, and may be elongated and cylindrical (axiolites).

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  • The bales are usually square, but cylindrical bales are becoming more common, though their cost is greater.

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  • The tanks are nearly cylindrical in form and have a truncated cone fixed in the centre, as shown at C, fig.

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  • in diameter, supported by a huge cylindrical pillar ?

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  • The rhizome, as met with in commerce, occurs in cylindrical pieces 2 or 3 in.

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  • 1434 of 1899) it is sought to overcome this difficulty by causing the point of a contact-arm, representing the siphon in the ordinary form of recorder, to traverse the cylindrical surface of a rapidly rotating drum.

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  • could be reflected and converged by cylindrical parabolic mirrors.

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  • The front or cover of the case is a similar button of hard polished carbon D, also slightly smaller in diameter than the cylindrical wall of the box.

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  • The latter are plates of green tissue one cell thick, while the stem consists of uniform more or less elongated cylindrical cells.

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  • Where internal phloem is present this is separated from the internal endodermis by an endocycle or internal pericycle, as it is sometimes called, and from the xylem by an internal mesocyclethese two layers, together with the outer mesocycle and pericycle, constituting the conjunctive tissue of the now hollow cylindrical stele.

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  • In others the secondary phloem is produced more abundantly in those places where the secondary xylem is deficient, so that the stem remains cylindrical in section, the phloem occupying the bays left in the xylem mass.

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  • In Pteromys the tail is cylindrical and comparatively thin, while in Sciuropterus it is broad, flat and laterally expanded, so as to compensate for the absence of the interfemoral membrane by acting as a supplementary parachute.

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  • those due to .Synchytrium, Protomyces, Cysto pus, many Ustilagineae, &c. These cases are not easily distinguished superficially froni the pustular outgrowth of actual mycelia and spores (stromata) of such Fungi as Nectria, Puccinia, &c. The cylindrical stem-swellings due to Calyptospora, Epichloe, &c., may also be mentioned here, and the tyro may easily confound with these the layers and cushions of eggs laid on similar organs by moths.

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  • Trans., 1885, 176, 455) introduced a modification of the usual ballistic arrangement which presents the following advantages: (I) very considerable magnetizing forces can be applied with ordinary means; (2) the samples to be tested, having the form of cylindrical bars, are more easily prepared than rings or wires; (3) the actual induction at any time can be measured, and not only changes of induction.

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  • Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.

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  • To assume a cylindrical form of primary wave would be justifiable only when there is synchronism among the secondary waves issuing from the various centres.

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  • Further, there is the peculiar cauldron on one conical foot, round which the fire was built, the cylindrical hone pierced for suspension, and the cup with a rounded bottom.

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  • a cylindrical crystal case mounted in metal frames, elaborately ornamented and jewelled.

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  • leaves which are grass-like or cylindrical or reduced to membranous sheaths.

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  • In an American process the glass is drawn direct from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means of an iron ring previously immersed in the glass, and is kept in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it leaves the molten bath.

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  • They have clubbed feelers, and their cylindrical bodies (fig.

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  • - The Chaetopoda are with but few exceptions (Myzostomida in part, Sternaspis) elongated worms, flattened or, more usually, cylindrical, and bilaterally symmetrical.

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  • The members of the order present the same wide range of superficial appearance as do the Pectinibranchiate Streptoneura, forms carrying well-developed spiral shells and large mantle-skirts being included in the group, together with flattened or cylindrical slug-like forms. But in respect of the substitution of other parts for the mantle-skirt and for the gill which the more degenerate Opisthobranchia exhibit, this order stands alone.

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  • The same general range of body-form is shown in Pulmonata as in the Heteropoda and in the Opisthobranchia; at one extreme we have snails with coiled visceral hump, at the other cylindrical or flattened slugs (see fig.

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  • 21, e) or saw-fly, with its long cylindrical body, bearing the six shortened thoracic legs and a variable number of pairs of " pro-legs " on the abdomen (this being the eruciform type of larva); the soft, white, wood?

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  • It is on a transversal cylindrical (rectangular) projection devised by Jacques Cassini (d.

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  • Mag., 1879) is that of a rectangular aperture, traversed by a cylindrical wave with aberration equal to cx 3 .

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  • it hung over the characteristic Hittite cylindrical head-dress (fig.

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  • Hogarth at Bor; inscribed silver boss of " Tarkudimme," mentioned above, &c., &c.); many intaglios in various stones (chiefly in steatite), mostly either spheroidal or gable-shaped, but a few scarabaeoid, conical or cylindrical, bearing sometimes pictographic symbols, sometimes divine, human or animal figures.

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  • The following is a brief description of the process and apparatus, as communicated by the courtesy of Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, Ltd.: Groups of cells or moulds are built within and against a cylindrical iron casing, by means of vertical plates inserted in grooves and set radially to the axis of the casing.

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  • From Hooke's Posthumous Works (1705), p. 127, we find that in one of the Cutlerian lectures on Light delivered in 1680, he illustrated the phenomena of vision by a darkened room, or perspective box, of a peculiar pattern, the back part, with a concave white screen at the end of it, being cylindrical and capable of being moved in and out, while the fore part was conical, a double convex lens being fixed in a hole in front.

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  • Airy, the astronomer, about 1827, corrected his own astigmatism by means of a cylindrical lens.

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  • In the Cyclostomata, further distinguished by the cylindrical or prismatic form of their highly calcified zooecia, the orifice is typically circular, without any definite closing organ.

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  • Those kinds which have a less elongate and cylindrical body possess a distinctly prehensile tail.

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  • The cylindrical vessel is replaced by a globular one, and the pressure on the vapour due to the column of alloy in the side tube is readily reduced to millimetres of mercury since the specific gravity of the alloy at the temperature of boiling sulphur, 444° (at which the apparatus is most frequently used), is two-thirds of that of mercury (see Ber.

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  • 4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.

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  • Modern heliometers made with cylindrical slides measure angles over 2°, the images remaining as sharp and perfect as when the smallest angles are measured.

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  • The makers availed themselves of Bessel's suggestion to make the segments move in cylindrical slides, and of Struve's to have the head attached to a brass tube; the eye-piece is set permanently in the axis, and the whole rotates in a cradle attached to the declination axis.

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  • The best-known of Joule's experiments was that in which a brass paddle consisting of eight arms rotated in a cylindrical vessel of water containing four fixed vanes, which allowed the passage of the arms of the paddle but prevented the water from rotating as a whole.

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  • A good example may be made with two cylindrical tin cups; the bottoms form the membranes and the cups the mouthpieces.

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  • The microphonic portion of the transmitter is contained in a thin cylindrical box or case of brass A, the inner curved surface of which is covered with an insulating layer of paper.

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  • This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.

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  • Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.

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  • The fructification in this species is cylindrical, and in that of E.

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  • 5) narrow and cylindrical.

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  • The plant consists of two tilting oval metal pans (capacity 7 tons), one cylindrical crystallizing pot (capacity 22 tons), with two discharging spouts and one steam inlet opening, two lead moulds (capacity 31 tons), and a steam crane.

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  • When it is desired to have a uniform magnet with definitely situated poles, it it usual to employ one having the form of an ovoid, or elongated ellipsoid of revolution, instead of a rectangular or cylindrical bar.

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  • The distribution of magnetism and the position of the poles in magnets of other shapes, such as cylindrical or rectangular bars, cannot be specified by any general statement, though approximate determinations may be obtained experimentally in individual cases.'

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  • Kohlrausch 2 the distance between the poles of a cylindrical magnet the length of which is from io to 30 times the diameter, is sensibly equal to five-sixths of the length of the bar.

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  • The demagnetizing force inside a cylindrical rod placed longitudinally in a uniform field Ho is not uniform, being greatest at the ends and least in the middle part.

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  • These, together with values of nt 2 N for cylindrical rods, and of N and m 2 N for ellipsoids of revolution, are given in the following useful table (loc. cit.

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  • - An electric current i flowing uniformly through a cylindrical wire whose radius is a produces inside the wire a magnetic field of which the lines of force are concentric circles around the axis of the wire.

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  • Passing on now from the mesosoma we come in Scorpio to the metasoma of six segments, the first of which is broad whilst the rest are cylindrical.

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  • The alimentary canal is uncoiled and cylindrical, and gives rise laterally to large gastric glands, which are more than a single pair in number (two to six pairs), and may assume the form of simple caeca.

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  • Some relics of old military architecture survive, among them a cylindrical tower of the 15th century near the Porte Notre-Dame, the southern gate of the city, and the Porte Rivotte, a gate of the 16th century, flanked by two round towers.

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  • In strictness this idea is appropriate only when the source is a luminous line, emitting cylindrical waves, such as might be obtained from a luminous point with the aid of a cylindrical lens.

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  • Ann., 1888, 33, 194) obtained similar results by using cylindrical glass rods in place of the column of water.

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  • Finally the cylindrical hat of Hittite kings and queens reappears with lappets in Phoenicia (Perrot and Chipiez, Phoen.

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  • Its principal product is " papelon," or brown sugar, which is put on the market in the shape of small cylindrical and cubical masses of 14 to 31 lb weight.

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  • Compressed air locomotives are provided with cylindrical FIG.

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  • Drums are either cylindrical or conical.

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  • Thus, at every complete stroke of the piston, the air in the vessel or receiver was diminished by that fraction of itself which is expressed by the ratio of the volume of the available cylindrical space above the outward opening valve to the whole volume of receiver, nozzle and cylinder.

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  • The " Passglas," another popular drinking-glass, is cylindrical in form and marked with horizontal rings of glass, placed at regular intervals, to indicate the quantity of liquor to be taken at a draught.

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  • On tall, roomy, cylindrical glasses they painted portraits of the emperor and electors of Germany, or the imperial eagle bearing on its wings the arms of the states composing the empire.

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  • The most noted are the glasses with stout cylindrical legs (Plate I.

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  • Round disks made of these substances were placed in a closely fitting cylindrical cavity drilled in a block of steel, the cavity having a circular aperture of two or four centimetres below.

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  • The tail is cylindrical, with some bushy elongation of the hairs near the end, but not forming a distinct tuft.

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  • He supposed a cylindrical vessel full of water to be perforated in its bottom with a small hole by which the water escaped, and the vessel to be supplied with water in such a manner that it always remained full at the same height.

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  • He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts, - the first, which he called the " cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical vessel.

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  • When the liquid is bounded by a cylindrical surface, the motion of a vortex inside may be determined as due to a series of vorteximages, so arranged as to make the flow zero across the boundary.

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  • If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.

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  • Beads of baked earth, cylindrical and of all shapes, with smooth or polished surfaces, mostly black and red in colour, were chiefly in use.

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  • conveniently made of diameter which will give the cylindrical portion sufficient capacity to hold the juice expressed from the cane-mill in one hour.

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  • The hot liquor is conducted downwards in a continuous steady stream by a central pipe to eight horizontal branches, from which it issues into the separator at the level of the junction of the cylindrical and conical portions of the vessel.

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  • In a continuous separator of which the cylindrical portion measures 13 ft.

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  • an outer cast-iron casing, which forms a steam jacket, and is fitted with a cylindrical curb or breast above the bottom.

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  • In the centre of the defecator an open-topped cylindrical vessel is placed, with its bottom about 6 in.

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  • The clear juice in the meantime flows over the edge of the cylindrical vessel without disturbance and finds its way out by the short leg of the siphon, and so passes to the canal for collecting the defecated juice.

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  • The crystallizers are long, horizontal, cylindrical or semi-cylindrical vessels, fitted with a strong horizontal shaft running from end to end, which is kept slowly revolving.

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  • Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.

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  • The diffusion cells are closed, vertical, cylindrical vessels, holding generally 60 hectolitres, or 1320 gallons, and are arranged in batteries of 12 to 14.

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  • These are large cylindrical vessels from 20 to 50 ft.

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  • - Elongated cylindrical animals either with a single subterminal sucker at the proximal end, or with the corresponding end of the body converted into a mobile undulatory fold.

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  • It is a coarse rank-growing annual, with a simple, unbranched, cylindrical stem which attains a height of 6 ft.

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  • In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.

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  • In shape the leaves are straight, tapering, cylindrical and pointed; they are about 1 in.

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  • It consists of a number of tubes mounted vertically on a horizontal circular disk which rotates about a vertical axis in a cylindrical vessel.

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  • For the distillation of liquids the retort is usually a cylindrical pot placed vertically; cast iron is generally employed, in which case the bottom is frequently incurved and thicker than the sides in order to take up the additional wear and tear.

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  • I I consists of a cylindrical vessel having in its lower half a horizontal copper coil connected to the steam supply.

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  • The cylindrical vessel is filled to a certain level with salt water and the steam turned on.

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  • SPECTACLES, the name given to flat glasses, prisms, spherical or cylindrical lenses, mechanically adjusted to the human eyes, so as to correct defects of vision.

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  • Airy, the astronomer, corrected his own astigmatism by means of a cylindrical lens.

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  • - Zooecia, long and coherent, prismatic or cylindrical, with terminal orifices, their wall thin and simple in structure proximally, thickened and complicated distally.

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  • - Zooecia prismatic or cylindrical, with terminal, typically circular orifice, not protected by any special organ.

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  • In other Entoprocta the buds on a horseshoe retain a high degree of individuality, a shaped l o p h o - thread-like stolon giving off the cylindrical phore; stalks, each of which dilates at its end i, Ectocyst; into the body of a zooid.

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  • They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.

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  • Their body is cylindrical, flexible in every part, covered with smooth or keeled scales, and provided with broad ventral and subcaudal scutes.

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  • The scales of the long, cylindrical body are smooth and small, scarcely enlarged on the ventral side.

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  • - Terrestrial, with a cylindrical tail, comprising about 150 species which have been grouped into numerous genera, mostly upon very slight differences.

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  • Good descriptions and figures of all these snakes are given in Krefft's Snakes of Australia (Sydney, 1869, t 40 Several genera of the Elapinae lead a more or less burrowing life; their body is of a uniform cylindrical shape, terminating in a short tail, and covered with short polished scales; their head is short, the mouth rather narrow, and the eye small.

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  • This formula is important in connexion with the capacity of electric cables, which consist of a cylindrical conductor (a wire) enclosed in a conducting sheath.

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  • In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.

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  • The lift is effected by cams acting on the under surface of tappets, and formed by cylindrical boxes keyed on to the stems of the lifter about onefourth of their length from the top. As, however, the cams, unlike those of European stamp mills, are placed to one side of the stamp, the latter is not only lifted but turned partly round on its own axis, whereby the shoes are worn down uniformly.

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  • This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels.

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  • Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.

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  • The pots, which are usually cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom, may hold as much as 13,000 to 16,000 oz.

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  • In the liquation process the ore is heated in inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the lower end; the residues being removed from the upper end.

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  • high, the surface divided into numerous furrows like the ribs of a melon, with projecting angles, which are set with a regular series of stellated spines - each bundle consisting of about five larger spines, accompanied by smaller but sharp bristles - and the tip of the plant being surmounted by a cylindrical crown 3 to 5 in.

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  • - This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface instead of being cut up into ridges with alternate furrows, as in Melocactus, is broken up into teat-like cylindrical or angular tubercles, spirally arranged, and terminating in a radiating tuft of spines which spring from a little woolly cushion.

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  • They have the fleshy stems characteristic of the order, these being either globose, oblong or cylindrical, and either ribbed as in Melocactus, or broken up into distinct tubercles, and most of them armed with stiff sharp pines, set in little woolly cushions occupying the place of the buds.

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  • They are dwarf, ribbed, globose or cylindrical plants; and the flowers, which are produced from the side instead of the apex of the stem, are large, and in some cases very beautiful, being remarkable for the length of the tube, which is more or less covered with bristly hairs.

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  • It is a very heterogeneous group, being fleshy-stemmed with a woody axis, the branches being angular, winged, flattened or cylindrical, and the flowers small, short-tubed, succeeded by small, round, peashaped berries.

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  • It consists of a cylindrical tube of a capacity ranging from 10 to 50 cc., provided at the upper end with a thick-walled capillary bent as shown on the left of the figure.

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  • Many variations of this apparatus are in use; in one of the commonest there are two cylindrical chambers, joined at the bottom, and each provided at the top with fine tubes bent at right angles; sometimes the inlet and outlet tubes are provided with caps.

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  • A long tube (a) terminates at the bottom in a cylindrical chamber of about 100-150 cc. capacity.

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  • On the other hand it is not necessary to reset the telescope after each reversal of the segments.4 When Bessel ordered the Konigsberg heliometer, he was anxious to have the segments made to move in cylindrical slides, of which the radius should be equal to the focal length of the object-glass.

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  • 4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.

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  • Modern heliometers made with cylindrical slides measure angles over 2°, the images remaining as sharp and perfect as when the smallest angles are measured.

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  • It must be mentioned 4 _ 28 that the pressure of the cushion C on the type-wheels 6 - 30 has no influence whatever upon the micrometer-screw, 7 -32 because the type-wheels are mounted on a hollow cylindrical axis, concentric with the axis of the screw, but entirely disconnected from the screw itself.

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  • The only connexion between the type-wheel and the screwhead S is by the pin p (which is screwed into S), the cylindrical end of which acts in a slot cut in the typewheel.

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  • In some cases, therefore, a combined form is adopted, the body of the drum being cylindrical, and a width equal to three or four laps conical on either side.

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  • The cleaned coal is carried by a stream of water to a bucket elevator and delivered to the storage bunkers, or both water and coal may be lifted by a centrifugal pump into a large cylindrical tank, where the water drains away, leaving the coal sufficiently dry for use.

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  • In the so-called "Buchner funnel," the filtering vessel is cylindrical, and the paper receives support by being laid upon its flat perforated bottom.

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  • These are for the most part large antelopes, with long cylindrical horns, which are present in both sexes, hairy muzzles, no face-glands, long tufted tails and tall thick molars of the ox-type.

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  • The fleshy leaves are often reduced to a more or less cylindrical structure, as in the stonecrops (Sedum), or form closely crowded rosettes as in the house-leek (Sempervivum).

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  • The corresponding solid figure, in its most general form, is such as would be constructed to represent the relation of a magnitude E to two magnitudes F and G of which it is a function; it would stand on a plane base, and be comprised within a cylindrical boundary whose cross-section might be of any shape.

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  • It consists of a cylindrical chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting outwards, and Siren of intended for supplying the cavity of the cylinder with Cagniard de compressed air or other gas, or even liquid.

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  • - The longitudinal vibration of air in cylindrical pipes is made use of in various wind instruments.

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  • We shall deduce the modes of vibration of the air column in a cylindrical pipe from the consideration that the air in motion within the pipe forms some part of a system of stationary waves, one train being formed by the exciter of the disturbance, and the other being formed by the reflection of the train at the end of the pipe.

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  • We may illustrate the successive modes of vibration by using as pipe a tall cylindrical jar, and as exciter a vibrating tuning-fork held over the mouth.

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  • § 307) that for a cylindrical tube of radius R, provided with a flat extended flange, the loop may be regarded as about o 82 R, in advance of the end.

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  • The cylindrical form of jet is unstable if its length is more than 7 times its diameter, and usually the irregular disturbances it receives at the orifice go on growing, and ultimately break it up irregularly into drops which go out at different rates.

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  • It will be seen that the girder directly rests on a cylindrical pin or rocker so placed as to distribute the load uniformly to all the rollers.

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  • In the last case they consist of any number of hollow cylindrical pillars, vertical or raking, turned and planed at the ends and united by a projection or socket and by flanges and bolts.

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  • Of the apartments, all of the finest Gothic architecture, the chief are the refectory, divided down the centre by columns and lighted by large embrasured windows, and the knights' hall, a superb chamber, the vaulting of which is supported on three rows of cylindrical pillars.

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  • The weasel is an elegant little animal, with elongated slender body, back much arched, head small and flattened, ears short and rounded, neck long and flexible, limbs short, five toes on each foot, all with sharp, com - pressed, curved claws, tail rather short, slender, cylindrical, and pointed at the tip, and fur short and close.

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  • They are all stout, heavily-built animals, with blunt rounded heads, fleshy mobile snouts, and coats of thick cylindrical or flattened spines, which form the whole covering of their body, and are not intermingled with ordinary hairs.

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  • The stems are cylindrical, and clothed with short hair, and grow in clusters of from 2 to 10 ft.

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  • of lump of solid lead = 6 1 ' 2 = °7403 while in the case of a bundle of cylindrical sticks of cordite, (s) G.D.

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  • 8 in.: the cylindrical portion 36 ft.

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  • The form is that of a truncated cone, placed on a cylindrical base, 196 ft.

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  • The columns encircling the cylindrical portion are stunted and much broader at the base than the top; the capitals are Doric. Many of the columns, 60 in number, have been much damaged.

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  • The next, the copepodid or cyclopid, stage is characterized by a cylindrical segmented body, with foreand hind-body distinct, and by having at most six cephalic limbs and two pairs of swimming feet.

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  • The kilogram (kg.) is represented by an iridio-platinum standard weight, of cylindrical form, by which all other metric weights, and all measures having reference to metric weight, are ascertained in the United Kingdom.

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  • In the United Kingdom the metric standard of capacity is the litre, represented (Order in Council, 19th May 1890) by the capacity of a hollow cylindrical brass measure whose internal diameter is equal to one-half its height, and which at 0° C., when filled to the brim, contains one kg.

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  • And with this agrees a pottery cylindrical vessel, with official stamp on it (ΔHM0ΣION, &c.), and having a fine black line traced round the inside, near the top, to show its limit; this seems to be probably very accurate, and contains 58.5 cub.

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  • sempervirens, but when old the outline of the head becomes cylindrical, with short branches sparsely clad with foliage sprays.

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  • A cylindrical campanile stands detached from the church on either side of the western apse (FF).

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  • wide on the Osage river near its confluence with the Missouri, where a hollow, wooden, cylindrical sector, stiffened inside by iron framing and revolving on an axis laid along the crest of the solid part of the weir, fits into a drum at the back „ vim 4 ..

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  • The foot is commonly a simple cylindrical or ploughshare-shaped organ, used for boring in sand and mud, and more rarely presents a crawling disk similar to that of Gastropoda; in some forms it is aborted.

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  • near the labial tentacles, but it is at first only a ridge, and does not project as a free cylindrical axis until the back part of the foot is reached.

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  • Foot cylindrical, more or less elongated, byssogenous.

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  • - Elongated burrowing forms; foot cylindrical, powerful, without byssus; shell long, truncated and gaping at each end.

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  • IIo, differs from Nicholson's instrument in being constructed of glass, and having a cylindrical bulb about 21 centimetres in length and 22 millimetres in diameter.

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  • 7 and 8), which is cylindrical and thickly haired.

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  • avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.

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  • All these "rodentmoles" are thoroughly adapted to a subterranean life, the eyes and ears being small and rudimentary, as is also the tail; while the bodily form is cylindrical, and the front claws are very large and powerful.

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  • is represented in all the three great continents of the Old World, and extends as far east as Flores and Celebes, the skull is swollen and convex, the spines are cylindrical, and the tail is short and covered with spines and slender-stalked open quills.

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  • The cylindrical branches of the fruticose forms are usually radially symmetrical, but the flattened branches of these forms and also the thalli of the foliaceous form show a difference in the cortex of the upper and lower side.

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  • The Cornish is cylindrical with the furnace occupying about half the length of the cylinder.

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  • Climbers are trained from the bottom around or across trellises, of which the cylindrical or the balloon-shaped, or sometimes the flat oval or circular, are the best forms. The size should be adapted to the habit of the plant, which should cover the whole by the time flowers are produced.

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  • Very durable trellises for greenhouse climbers are made of slender round iron rods for standards, having a series of hooks on the inner edge, into which rings of similar metal are dropped; the rings may be graduated so as to form a broad open top, or may be all of the same size, when the trellis will assume the cylindrical form.

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  • Elongated, cylindrical, rounded at both ends; thick cuticle with acicular spicules; radula polystichous or wanting.

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  • Many fungi (Phallus, Agaricus, Fumago, &c.) when strongly growing put out ribbon-like or cylindrical cords, or sheet-like mycelial plates of numerous parallel hyphae, all growing together equally, and fusing by anastomoses, and in this way extend long distances in the soil, or over the surfaces of leaves, branches, &c. These mycelial strands may be white and tender, or the outer hyphae may be hard and black, and very often the resemblance of the subterranean forms to a root is so marked that they are termed rhizomorphs.

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  • Under yet other conditions the quiescent yeast-cells floating on the surface of the fermented liquor grow out into elongated sausage-shaped or cylindrical cells and branching cell-series, which mat together into mycelium-like veils.

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  • The fruit-body before it ruptures may reach the size of a hen's egg and is white in colour; from this there grows out a hollow cylindrical structure which can be distinguished at the distance of several yards by its disgusting odour.

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  • The rapid advance in mechanical engineering in the latter part of this second period stimulated the iron industry greatly, giving it in 1728 Payn and Hanbury's rolling mill for rolling sheet iron, in 1760 John Smeaton's cylindrical cast-iron bellows in place of the wooden and leather ones previously used, in 1783 Cort's grooved rolls for rolling bars and rods of iron, and in 1838 James Nasmyth's steam hammer.

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  • Here BB is a large fixed iron cylinder, corrugated within, and C an excentric cylinder, also corrugated, which, in turning to the right, by the friction of its corrugated surface rotates the puddled ball D which has just entered at A, so that, turning around its own axis, it travels to the right and is gradually changed from a ball into a bloom, a rough cylindrical mass of white hot iron, still dripping with cinder.

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  • The rolling mill in its simplest form is a pair of cylindrical rollers,.

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  • Great armour plates can indeed be made by rolling, because in making such flat plates the ingot is simply rolled back and forth between a pair of plain cylindrical rolls, like BB of fig.

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  • Pieces which vary materially in cross section from point to point in their length cannot well be made by rolling, because the cross section of the piece as it emerges from the rolls is necessarily that of the aperture between the rolls from which it is emerging, and this aperture is naturally of constant size because the rolls are cylindrical.

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  • Forging proceeds by beating or squeezing the piece under treatment from its initial into its final shape, as for instance by hammering a square ingot or bloom first on one corner and then on another until it is reduced to a cylindrical shape as shown at A in fig.

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  • Each pair of wheels is built in three storeys, and the outflow of the water is controlled by a cylindrical gate or sluice, which is moved up and down by the action of the governor.

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  • The disintegrated ground is then brought back in the trucks and fed through perforated cylinders into the washing pans; the hard blue which has resisted disintegration on the floors, and the lumps which are too big to pass the cylindrical sieves, are crushed before going to the pans.

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  • These are shallow cylindrical troughs containing muddy water in which the diamonds and other heavy minerals (concentrates) are swept to the rim by revolving toothed arms, while the lighter stuff escapes near the centre of the pan.

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  • In some cases leaves, as in Iris, or leaf-like petioles, as in Australian acacias and eucalypti, have their plane of expansion parallel to the axis of the shoot, there is then no distinction into an upper and a lower face, but the two sides are developed alike; or the leaf may have a cylindrical or polyhedral form, as in mesembryanthemum.

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  • It preserves remains of ramparts, a stronghold of the 16th century flanked by cylindrical towers, and a sculptured gateway of the 15th century.

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  • The movements of the apparatus, which when complete should consist of two similar pendulums in planes at right angles to each other, are recorded by means of a beam of light, which, after reflection from the mirror or mirrors, passes through a cylindrical lens and is focussed upon a moving surface of photographic paper.

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  • Measurement of volume (amounts of grain in cylindrical and rectangular spaces of different dimensions and vice versa).

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  • Thread-Work.Stone spindle whorls (103) are common in the prehistoric age; wooden ones were usual, of a cylindrical form (104) ~n the XIIth, and conical (105) in the XVIIIth Dynasty.

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  • The stone vases were at first of cylindrical forms, with a foot, and ears for hanging.

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  • The native pottery is of a very fine paste, smooth and thin, but poor in forms. Cylindrical cups, and jars with cylindrical necks and no brim, are typical.

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  • In Laminariaceae secondary cylindrical props arise obliquely from the base of the thallus.

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  • While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.

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  • In these cases, however, the portions of the hairs behind the growing region become agglutinated together into a solid cylindrical pseudo-parenchymatous axis.

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  • In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.

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  • In Iridaea the thallus is an entire lamina; in Callophyllis a lobed lamina; in Delesseria it is provided with midrib and veins, simulating the appearance of a leaf of the higher plants; in Constantinea the axis remains cylindrical, and the lateral branches assume the form of leaves.

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  • Wampum was of two colours, dark purple and white, of cylindrical form, averaging a quarter of an inch in length, and about half that in diameter.

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  • Cylindrical shell-beads similar to the wampum of the Atlantic coast Indians were made to some extent by the Indians of the west coast.

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  • The shapes of all polygonal and all cylindrical and conical forms are obtained by simple development - that is, the envelopments of these bodies are marked out on a flat plane, and when cut, are bent or folded to give the required envelopes.

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  • These furnaces possess a large cylindrical shell (e), lined with fire-bricks, and made to revolve round its horizontal axis by means of a toothed wheel fixed on its exterior; (if) are tire-seats holding tires (gg), which work in friction rollers (h).

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  • Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.

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  • This bee excavates several parallel galleries to which access is gained by a cylindrical hole.

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  • (For the characteristics of the family and of its more important generic representatives, see RoDENTIA.) In the Egyptian jerboa the length of the body is 8 in., and that of the tail, which is long, cylindrical and covered with short hair terminated by a tuft, 10 in.

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  • In all these antelopes long cylindrical horns are present in both sexes; the muzzle is hairy; there is no gland below the eye; the tail is long and tufted; and in the breadth of their tall crowns the upper molar-teeth resemble those of the oxen.

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  • In a two-dimensional frame, each joint may be conceived as consisting of a small cylindrical pin fitting accurately and smoothly into holes drilled t(~trough the members which it connects.

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  • For a homogeneous sphe:e this ratio is ~, for a uniform circular cylinder or disk ~, for a circular hoop or a thin cylindrical shell 4.

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  • In the wheel and axle, motion is received and transmitted by two cylindrical surfaces of different radii described about their common fixed axis of turning, their velocity-ratio being that of their radii.

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  • 92), when the rolling will be towards the opposite hand; and at a given instant let T be the line of coptact of the two cylindrical surfaces, which is at their commor intersection with the plane AB traversing the two axes of figure.

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  • That for a pair of turning pieces with parallel axes, and for a turning piece and a shifting piece, the line of contact is straight, and parallel to the axes or axis; and hence that the rolling surfaces are either plane or cylindrical (the term cylindrical including all surfaces generated by the motion of a straight line parallel tO itself).

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  • Cylindrical Wheels and Smooth Racks.In designing cylindrical wheels and smooth racks, and determining their comparati* motion, it is sufficient to consider a section of the pair of pieces made by a plane perpendicular to the axis or axes.

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  • One of those consists in forming the rim of each wheel into a series of alternate ridges and grooves parallel to the plane of rotation; it is applicable to cylindrical and bevel wheels, but not to skew-bevel wheels.

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  • The comparative motion of a pair of wheels so ridged and grooved is the same a~ that of a pair of smooth wheels in rolling contact, whose cylindrical or conicai surfaces lie midway between the tops of the ridges and bottoms of the grooves, and those ideal smooth surfaces are called the pitch surfaces of the wheels.

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  • Trundles and Pin-Wheels.If a wheel or trundle have cylindrical pins or staves for teeth, the faces of the teeth of a wheel suitable for driving it are described by first tracing external epicycloids, by rolling the pitch-circle of the pin-wheel or trundle on the pitch-circle of the driving-wheel, with the centre of a stave for a tracing-point, and then drawing curves parallel to, and within the epicycloids, at a distance from them equal to the radius of a stave.

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  • Belts (the most frequently used of all wrapping connectors) require nearly cylindrical pulleys.

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  • Cords require either cylindrical drums with ledges or grooved pulleys.

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  • Reuleaux has shown that the relative motion of any pair of nonadjacent links of a kinematic chain is determined by the rolling together of two ideal cylindrical surfaces (cylindrical being used here in the general sense), each of which may be assumed to be formed by the extension of the material of the link to which it corresponds.

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  • Total Pressure between Journal and Bearing.A singb piece rotating with a uniform velocity has four mutually balancec forces applied to it: (I) the effort exerted on it by the pieci which drives it; (2) the resistance of the piece which follows it which may be considered for the purposes of the present questiol as useful resistance; (3) its weight; and (4) the reaction of its owi - cylindrical bearings.

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  • or two-thirds of that of a cylindrical journal of the same radius under the same normal pressure.

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  • The moment of friction of Schieles anti-friction pivot, as it is called, is equal to that of a cylindrical journal of the radius OR=PT the constant tangent, under the same pressure.

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  • A rotating shaft carries upon a cylindrical portion of its figure a wheel or pulley turning loosely on it, and consequently capable of remaining at rest when the shaft is in motion.

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  • Indeed there is hardly a village in India which cannot boast of a shrine dedicated to Siva, and containing the emblem of his reproductive power; for almost the only form in which the" Great God "is adored is the Linga, consisting usually of an upright cylindrical block of marble or other stone, mostly resting on a circular perforated slab.

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  • The middle one contains but two families, the cylindrical and often thread-like skeleton shrimps, Caprellidae, and their near cousins, the broad, flattened, so-called whale-lice, Cyamidae.

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  • The cotton trade developed rapidly after the introduction of the cylindrical carding machine, which was set up here two years before Peel used it at Bolton.

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  • In the second stage, implements of true bronze (9 to io% tin) become common; painted pottery of buff clay with dull black geometrical patterns appears alongside the red-ware; and foreign imports occur, such as Egyptian blue-glazed beads (XIIth-XIIIth Dynasty, 2500-2000 B.C.),1 and cylindrical Asiatic seals (one of Sargon I., 2000 B.C.).2 In the third stage, Aegean colonists introduced the Mycenaean (late Minoan) culture and industries; with new types of weapons, wheel-made pottery, and a naturalistic art which rapidly becomes conventional; gold and ivory are abundant, and glass and enamels are known.

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  • After many experiments Augustus Applegath (1789-1871) in 1848 constructed for The Times (London), a machine which was an eight-feeder, built entirely on the cylindrical principle, the cylinders placed not in a horizontal but in a vertical position.

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  • It was then customary to print with a good deal of packing, usually consisting of a thick blanket together with several thicknesses of paper, all of which intervened between the printing and the impression surface, whether the latter was flat or cylindrical.

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  • Six anodes were suspended, alternately with four cathodes, in a saturated solution of copper sulphate in a cylindrical fire-clay trough, all the anodes being connected in one parallel group, and all the cathodes in another.

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  • high, with a cylindrical stalk as thick as a man's finger, and hardly branching except near the top. The lightgreen leaves are from 4 to 5 in.

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  • Out of the vague and limitless body there sprung a central mass, - this earth of ours, cylindrical in shape, poised equidistant from surrounding orbs of fire, which had originally clung to it like the bark round a tree, until their continuity was severed, and they parted into several wheelshaped and fire-filled bubbles of air.

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  • The leaves are rather short, curved, and often twisted; the male catkins, in dense cylindrical whorls, fill the air of the forest with their sulphur-like pollen in May or June, and fecundate the purple female flowers, which, at first sessile and erect, then become recurved on a lengthening stalk; the ovate cones, about the length of the leaves, do not reach maturity until the autumn of the following year, and the seeds are seldom scattered until the third spring; the cone-scales terminate in a pyramidal FIG.

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  • The molar teeth have cylindrical crowns, with several islands and a single lateral fold of enamel when worn.

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  • If The Surface Could Be Treated As A Cylindrical Prolongation Of The Tube (Radius A), The Pressure Would Be T/A, And The Resulting Force Acting Downwards Upon The Drop Would Amount To One Half (2Rat) Of The Direct Upward Pull Of The Tension Along The Circumference.

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  • When a liquid flows out of a vessel through a circular opening in the bottom of the vessel, the form of the stream is at first nearly cylindrical though its diameter gradually diminishes from the orifice downwards on account of the increasing velocity of the liquid.

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  • [The circumstances attending the resolution of a cylindrical jet into drops were admirably examined and described by F.

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  • The capillary tension endeavours to contract the surface of the fluid; so that the stability, or instability, of the cylindrical form of equilibrium depends upon whether the surface (enclosing a given volume) be greater or less respectively after the displacement than before.

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  • Disturbances of the former kind lead to vibrations of harmonic type, whose amplitudes always remain small; but disturbances, whose wave-length exceeds the circumference, result in a greater and greater departure from the cylindrical figure.

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  • The smaller the causes by which the original equilibrium is upset, the more will the cylindrical mass tend to divide itself regularly into portions whose length is equal to 4.5 times the diameter.

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  • They consist of single cells, which may be spherical, oblong or cylindrical in shape, or of filamentous or Definition.

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  • 14), and the length of the rows of cylindrical cells may be many hundred times greater than the breadth.

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  • transverse to the long axis - and therefore produce aggregates of long cylindrical shape; but in rarer cases iso-diametric cells divide in two or three directions, producing flat, or spheroidal, or irregular colonies, the size of which is practically unlimited.

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  • Rods or rodlets: slightly or more considerably elongated cells which are cylindrical, biscuit-shaped or somewhat fusiform.

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  • The cylindrical forms are short, i.e.

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  • Filaments really consist of elongated cylindrical cells which remain united end to end after division, and they may break up later into elements such as those described above.

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  • Vegetative body unicellular; spheroidal, cylindrical or spirally twisted; isolated or connected in filamentous or other growth series.

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  • This opium is in the form of cylindrical sticks about 6 in.

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  • From the nitrate are made (a) argenti nitras indurata, toughened caustic, containing 19 parts of silver nitrate and one of potassium nitrate fused together into cylindrical rods; (b) Argenti nitras mitigatus, mitigated caustic, in which 1 part of silver nitrate and 2 parts of potassium nitrate are fused together into rods or cones.

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  • When used for walking, one of the rami, usually the inner, is stout and cylindrical, terminating in a claw, and having the segments united by definite hinge-joints.

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  • The structure is bilaterally symmetrical, the body and shell elongated along the antero-posterior axis and nearly cylindrical.

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  • The foot is cylindrical.

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  • The foot is elongated and cylindrical, and can be protruded from the anterior aperture to serve as a burrowing organ.

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  • It is a small somewhat cylindrical projection with the mouth at its anterior end.

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  • 2) consists of a receptacle varying in form from that of a shallow saucer to that of a long cylindrical or trumpet-shaped tube, thin or fleshy in consistence, and giving off from its upper border the five sepals, the five petals (rarely these latter are absent), and the threads or membranous processes constituting the "corona."

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  • From the base of the inner part of the tube of the flower, but quite free from it, uprises a cylindrical stalk surrounded below by a small cup-like outgrowth, and bearing above the middle a ring of five flat filaments each attached by a thread-like point to an anther.

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  • They are generally numerous, erect, cylindrical (rarely flattened) and conspicuously jointed with evident nodes.

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  • Less absolute characters, but generally trustworthy and more easily observed, are the feathery stigmas, the always distichous arrangement of the glumes, the usual absence of more general bracts in the inflorescence, the split leaf-sheaths, and the hollow, cylindrical, jointed culms - some .or all of which are wanting in all Cyperaceae.

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  • Phleum has a cylindrical spike-like inflorescence; P. pratense (timothy) is a valuable fodder grass, as also is Alopecurus pratensis (foxtail).

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  • wide, in which stands the Pillar of the Constitution, a stalagmitic column perfectly cylindrical and 71 ft.

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  • The lowlanders' head-dress is generally a high cylindrical cap of rough cloth or felt, while the mountaineers prefer a, small round straw hat.

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  • The abbey was once fortified and a high wall and cylindrical tower remain.

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  • There are various forms of under-drainage, some of them alluded to in the historical section below, but by far the commonest is by means of cylindrical or oval pipes of burnt clay about 1 ft.

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  • The substitution of cylindrical pipes for the original horse-shoe tiles has still further lowered the cost and increased the efficiency and permanency of drainage works.

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  • - A light and carefully balanced drum with its axis horizontal is enclosed within a cylindrical casing, and rotates freely in bearings formed in the ends of the casing.

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  • In order to deaden the vibrations of the index arm when weighing goods a vertical rod is attached to the lever from the lever machine near its left-hand end, and this rod carries on its lower end a plunger which works in a closed cylindrical dash-pot containing oil or glycerin.

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  • The tea is fed into a hopper, which has a large opening at the bottom, and this opening is entirely closed by two cylindrical brushes, which are mounted end to end on a horizontal shaft.

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  • an upright cylindrical or square tower, consisting of a leaden shell lined with heatand acid-proof stone or brick, and loosely filled or "packed" with the same material, over which a mixture of acid from the Gay-Lussac tower and from the chambers trickles down in such proportions that it arrives at the bottom as denitrated acid of from 78 to 80% H 2 SO 4.

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  • of bunches of elongate cylindrical zooids, whose proximal portions are united by solenia and compacted, by fusion of their own walls and those of the solenia, into a fleshy mass called the coenenchyma.

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  • Wooden pulleys are preferably made of maple, the rim being formed of small sections morticed, pinned and glued together, with the grain set in such directions that any warping of the material will leave the cylindrical form practically unaltered.

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  • The rims of pulleys, round which flat bands are wrapped, may be truly cylindrical, in which case the belt will run indifferently at any part of the pulley, or the rim may be swelled towards the centre, when the central line of the band will tend to run in the diametral plane of the pulley.

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  • 4, shows a clutch for a rope-driven pulley A, which runs freely on a bush B on the shaft, and is provided with an enlarged cylindrical nave or clutch box C. A split ring D, carried by the clutch and turning with it, can be thrust against the clutch box by rightand left-handed screws E, so that a sufficient grip is obtained to cause the clutch and the pulley to turn as one piece.

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  • A fine cylindrical rod or fibre (the so-called solid axis or virgula) becomes developed in a median groove in the dorsal wall of the polypary, and is sometimes continued distally as a naked rod.

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  • A third variety, of which an 8th century B.C. example from Nimrild exists in the British Museum, is a rectangular block ornamented at the ends by cylindrical rolls.

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  • This was cylindrical, 25 ft.

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  • The stout cylindrical male catkins are pendulous, reddish in colour and 2 to 4 in.

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  • This consists of hard, elongated, slender, cylindrical or tapering, thread-like masses of epidermic tissue, each of which grows, without branching, from a short prominence, or papilla, sunk at the bottom of a pit, or follicle, in the true skin, or dermis.

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  • Though usually more or less cylindrical or circular in section, hairs are often elliptical or flattened, as in the curly-haired races of men, the terminal portion of the hair of moles and shrews, and conspicuously in the spines of the spiny squirrels of the genus Xerus and those of the mouse-like Platacanthomys.

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  • The alimentary,or intestinal, canal varies greatly in relative length and capacity in different mammals, and also offers manifold peculiarities of form, being sometimes a simple cylindrical tube of nearly uniform calibre throughout, but more often subject to alterations of form and capacity in different portions of its course - the most characteristic and constant being the division into an upper and narrower and a lower and wider portion, called respectively the small and the large intestine; the former being arbitrarily divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the latter into colon and rectum.

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  • The final washing for ammonia is effected in an apparatus termed a" scrubber,"which is a cylindrical tower packed with boards 4 in, thick by II in.

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  • Rye is a tall-growing annual grass, with fibrous roots, flat, narrow, ribbon-like bluish-green leaves, and erect or decurved cylindrical slender spikes like those of barley.

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  • The upright stems were attached to the soil by a number of dichotomously branched members (Stigmaria), which, whatever their morphological nature may be, appear to have performed the function of roots: they bore numerous cylindrical appendages, which penetrated the soil on all sides.

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  • Those of Ophioglossum are cylindrical, while the dorsiventral prothallus of Botrychium bears the sexual organs on the upper surface.

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  • The reduction of the outgrowth-bearing " corm " of the parapodium of either a Chaetopod or an Arthropod to a simple cylindrical stump, devoid of outgrowths, is brought about when mechanical conditions favour such a shape.

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  • or more broad; the tops of the fronds are fertile, the fertile pinnae being cylindrical and densely covered with the spore-cases, giving the appearance of a dense panicle of flowers, whence the plant is known as the flowering fern.

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  • In shape they were most frequently cylindrical, having conical roofs thatched with rushes or straw.

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  • Within the eastern and southern Bantu area certain cultural variations occur; beehive huts are found among the ZuluXosa and Herero, giving place among the Bechuana to the cylindrical variety with conical roof, a type which, with few exceptions, extends north to Abyssinia.

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  • Here the cylindrical type of hut prevails; clothing is of skin or leather but is very scanty; iron ornaments are worn in profusion; arrows are not feathered; shields of hide, spears with leather sheaths are found and also fighting bracelets.

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  • The tribes of the upper Nile are somewhat specialized, though here, too, are found the cylindrical hut, iron ornaments, fighting bracelets, &c., characteristic of the Sudanese tribes.

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  • The culture prevailing in the Horn of Africa is, naturally, mainly Hamito Semitic; here are found both cylindrical and bee-hive huts, the sword (which has been adopted by the Masai to the south), the lyre (which has found its way to some of the Nilotic tribes) and the head-rest.

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  • The lituus consisted of a cylindrical tube 4 or 5 ft.

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  • It completely embraces the truncated cylindrical tympanohyal, which is of great size, corresponding with the large development of the whole anterior arch of the hyoid.

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  • The caudal vertebrae, except those quite at the base, are slender and cylindrical, without processes and without chevron bones beneath.

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  • The penis is very large, cylindrical, with a truncated, expanded, flattened termination.

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  • The genus Rana may be defined as firmisternal Ecaudata with cylindrical transverse processes to the sacral vertebra, teeth in the upper jaw and on the vomer, a protrusible tongue which is free and forked behind, a horizontal pupil and more or less webbed toes.

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  • Suppose we have a leather strap A passing over a fixed cylindrical drum B, and let a pulling force or effort be applied to the strap. The force applied to A can act on B only at the surfaces of contact between them.

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  • Suppose B not to be fixed, but to be capable of moving against some third body C (which might, e.g., contain cylindrical bearings, if B were a drum with its shaft), itself fixed, - and further, suppose the frictional resistance between B and C to be the only resistance to B's motion.

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  • 61); tubular, having a long cylindrical tube, appearing continuous with the limb, as in Spigelia and comfrey; rotate or wheel-shaped, when the tube is very short, and the limb flat and spreading, as in forget-me-not, Myosotis (when the divisions of the rotate corolla are very acute, as in Galium, it is sometimes called stellate or star-like); urceolate or urn-shaped, when there is scarcely any limb, and the tube is narrow at both ends, and expanded in the middle, as in bell-heath (Erica cinerea).

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  • The filament is usually, as its name imports, filiform or threadlike, and cylindrical, or slightly tapering towards its summit.

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  • Pollen-grains are also spherical; cylindrical and curved, as in Tradescantia virginica; C From Vines' Students' Text-Book of Botany, by permission of Swan Sonnenschein & Co.

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  • CHIVE (Allium Schoenoprasum), a hardy perennial plant, with small narrow bulbs tufted on short root-stocks and long cylindrical hollow leaves.

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  • The non-cellular order Siphoneae is fairly well represented in Palaeozoic strata, especially by calcareous verticillate forms referable to the family Dasycladeae; the separate tubular joints of the articulated thallus, bearing the prints of the whorled branches, are sometimes cylindrical (Arthroporella, Vermiporella, &c.), sometimes oval (Sycidium) or spherical (Cyclocrinus).

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  • The type of fructification described by Williamson and now named Sphenophyllum Dawsoni consists of long cylindrical cones, in external habit not unlike those of some Calamarieae.

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  • Where the operation is simply one of fusion, as in the ironfounder's cupola, in which there is no very great change in volume in the materials on their descent to the tuyeres, the stack is nearly or quite straight-sided; but when, as is the case with the smelting of iron ores with limestone flux, a large proportion of volatile matter has to be removed in the process, a wall of varying inclination is used, so that the body of the furnace is formed of two dissimilar truncated cones, joined by their bases, the lower one passing downwards into a short, nearly cylindrical, position.

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  • anther s. Flowers develop into cylindrical capsule s 15mm long, which contain many small flattened seeds.

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  • bend radius is set at 24 turns for the cylindrical mirror.

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  • They have open-ended chanters, with a parallel (cylindrical) bore, and no keys.

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  • Mandal, P., Calladine, C.R. Buckling of thin cylindrical shells under axial compression.

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  • The vessel is long, cylindrical, with a ridged appearance and a slight constriction toward the middle.

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  • coupler with the cylindrical connector in place.

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  • Young shoots This bright green plant has cylindrical stems with paired branches like the stems which are the leaves.

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  • cylindrical portion of the wave.

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  • cylindrical bores with single reeds.

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  • cylindrical connector.

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  • cylindrical symmetry, the changes in radius can also be calculated.

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  • cylindrical map projections.

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  • cylindrical shell?

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  • Ears with two rows form a flat ear; those with six rows form a roughly cylindrical ear.

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  • The coaxial arrangement is of particular interest in this context, as its essentially cylindrical form factor lends itself to packaging into munitions.

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  • In this way, when the two halves are reunited a perfectly cylindrical form is guaranteed.

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  • The vessels have flat bases and slightly globular or almost cylindrical bodies.

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  • Around each column, the depletion region is approximately cylindrical.

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  • Lower, not visible part ± short cylindrical, narrowing at the base, densely covered with the old, dried up tubercles.

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  • cylindrical in shape, usually with length much greater than the diameter of the part.

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  • Invented the cylindrical balance spring and the detached detent escapement (1782 ).

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  • Yorkshire Machine Tools hold one of the largest stocks of used grinding machines in the UK, including cylindrical grinders over 5ft between centers.

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  • Comes with a flat key to quell concerns that the Ace cylindrical keyway Kryptonite used to employ could be picked with a cylindrical pipe.

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  • The requirements for testing using the cylindrical mandrel are the same as the conical mandrel in terms of dimensions.

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  • The ASTM equipment consists of a series of cylindrical metal mandrels mounted in a frame.

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  • The VHF antenna is a cylindrical paraboloid of dimension 40 x 120 meters, in four sections.

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  • The counters cover the cylindrical walls surrounding the tracking volume of the detector and provide partial of the top and bottom end caps.

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  • More particularly, it has not been used with a cylindrical penetrometer (as a pile or CPT would be ).

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  • The surfer actually rides inside the cylindrical portion of the wave.

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  • poured into ring molds which makes the cylindrical shape of the storage tanks.

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  • The bend radius is set at 24 turns for the cylindrical mirror.

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  • At the Civic Center there is a green cylindrical collection receptacle for household batteries (eg.

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  • However, many variations from the ideal will exist, including pre-war silos of concrete cylindrical construction.

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  • The semiconductor toothbrush used in this study was equipped with a cylindrical shaped TiO 2 semiconductor located in the neck of the toothbrush.

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  • turret guns was supplied in cylindrical cases, each case containing two quarter charges.

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  • gas vesicles are hollow cylindrical tubes, closed by a hollow, conical cap at each end.

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  • In lacking a browtine, and dividing in a regular fork-like manner some distance above the burr, the large and cylindrical antlers of this species conform to the general structural type characteristic of the American deer.

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  • 2 h), whose appendicular nature is shown only by a median furrow and by short, cylindrical palps (fig.

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  • I, 4) the abdomen is cylindrical, the female is provided with a ventral ovipositor and has the terminal abdominal segment conical; the corresponding segment in the male is usually bluntly rounded.

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  • Some shoots are sterile while others are fertile, bearing at the apex the so-called fructification - a dense oval, oblong conical or cylindrical spike, consisting of a number of shortly-stalked peltate scales, each of which has attached to its under surface a circle of spore-cases (sporangia) which open by a longitudinal slit on their inner side.

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  • A washer of thin flexible mica G concentric with the carbon button is carried by the brass disk, and projecting over the edge of this is held firmly against the rim of the cylindrical wall of the case by an annular brass collar H, which is screwed upon the outer curved surface of this wall.

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  • As such its consideration falls outside the scheme of this article, but in one small and peculiar group of these plants, the Anthoceroteae, a distinct assimilating and transpiring system is found in the wall of the very long cylindrical capsule, clearly rendering the sporo-.

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  • In the simplest cases the cambium produces xylem more freely along certain tracts of the circumference than along others, so that the stem loses its original cylindrical form and becomes elliptical or lobed in section.

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  • Others, with soft, white, cylindrical bodies, which recall the caterpillars of moths, burrow in the leaves or stems of plants.

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  • For the vibration of air in other cavities than long cylindrical pipes we refer to Rayleigh's Sound, vol.

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  • of lump of solid lead = 6 1 ' 2 = °7403 while in the case of a bundle of cylindrical sticks of cordite, (s) G.D.

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  • In the United Kingdom the metric standard of capacity is the litre, represented (Order in Council, 19th May 1890) by the capacity of a hollow cylindrical brass measure whose internal diameter is equal to one-half its height, and which at 0° C., when filled to the brim, contains one kg.

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  • And with this agrees a pottery cylindrical vessel, with official stamp on it (ΔHM0ÃŽ£ION, &c.), and having a fine black line traced round the inside, near the top, to show its limit; this seems to be probably very accurate, and contains 58.5 cub.

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  • (1) Ile /3 c Tou irvpiov, On the Burning-Glass, where the focal properties of the parabola probably found a place; (2) Hepi On the Cylindrical Helix (mentioned by Proclus); (3) a comparison of the dodecahedron and the icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere; (4) `H Ka06Xov lrpa-yµareta, perhaps a work on the general principles of mathematics in which were included Apollonius' criticisms and suggestions for the improvement of Euclid's Elements; (5) ' (quick bringing-to-birth), in which, according to Eutocius, he showed how to find closer limits for the value of 7r than the 37 and 3,4-A of Archimedes; (6) an arithmetical work (as to which see Pappus) on a system of expressing large numbers in language closer to that of common life than that of Archimedes' Sand-reckoner, and showing how to multiply such large numbers; (7) a great extension of the theory of irrationals expounded in Euclid, Book x., from binomial to multinomial and from ordered to unordered irrationals (see extracts from Pappus' comm.

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  • The lower half is the neck or cervix and is cylindrical; it projects into the anterior wall of the vagina, into the cavity of which it opens by the os uteri externum.

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  • It includes Sciuropterus, represented by small species from the northern parts of both hemispheres; Pteromys, comprising large flying-squirrels, ranging from India and the Malay countries to Japan, characterized by the long cylindrical tail and large inter-femoral membrane; and Eupetaurus, represented by one very large dark grey, long-tailed and longhaired species from Astor and Gilgit, which differs from all other members of the family by its tall-crowned cheek-teeth (see Flying Squirrel).

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  • An erect cylindrical thallus terminated by the fruit is termed a podetium, as in Cladonia (fig.

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  • The tube is cylindrical, of riveted steel plate, graduated in thickness from the centre to its extremities, and bolted by very powerful flanges to a strong short cast-iron central tube, in which, as in Dr Engelmann's telescope (fig.

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  • The cylindrical drooping yellow male catkins (fig.

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  • A pinion is a small toothed wheel; a trundle is a pinion with cylindrical staves for teeth.

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  • The tacsonias, which in cultivation are generally regarded as distinct, differ from Passiflora in having a long cylindrical calyx-tube, bearing two crowns, one at the throat, the other near the base; they are stove or greenhouse plants; T.

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  • Branching, however, occurs not infrequently; in Cycas .the tall stem often p roduces several candelabra-like arms; in Zamia the main axis may break up near the base into several cylindrical branches; in species of Dioon (fig.

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  • In the typical oxen, as represented by the existing domesticated breeds (see Cattle) and the extinct aurochs, the horns are cylindrical and placed on an elevated crest at the very vertex of the skull, which has the frontal region of great length.

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  • The form of the style is usually cylindrical, more or less filiform and simple; sometimes it is grooved on one side, at other times it is flat, thick, angular, compressed and even petaloid, as in Iris (fig.

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  • Each stamen consists of a long filament, bearing several erect, cylindrical pollen-sacs at its summit (cf.

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  • Within the cylinder is a cylindrical rotor mounted on the rotating shaft.

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  • The cordite for the turret guns was supplied in cylindrical cases, each case containing two quarter charges.

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  • Gas vesicles are hollow cylindrical tubes, closed by a hollow, conical cap at each end.

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  • It is typically built into a cylindrical waveguide structure.

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  • Compost tumblers are cylindrical in shade and look like sideways drums supported by a base.

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  • Fill a tall cylindrical vase fruit slices and a little water; top with a floating candle.

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  • Dumortieri; but the leaves are broader, the flowers about the same size, closer, and paler in color, and with a distinct cylindrical tube half an inch or so long.

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  • On the upper half are densely arranged, in a cylindrical manner, numerous greenish-white blossoms, with purplish center, crowned by a tuft of narrow green leaves.

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  • From the centre of each tuft springs a stem 6 or 7 feet high, terminated in the flowering season by a close cylindrical spike 9 inches long, which is of dark olive, but changes to brownish-black as it ripens.

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  • Kniphofia Sarmentosa - Distinguished from K. aloides by its smaller glaucous leaves, the cylindrical flower-heads from 6 inches to 1 foot long, the flowers red in the upper half, and yellow, or yellow tinged red, in the lower.

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  • The flowers, on cylindrical spikes, are at first white, but afterwards change to a delicate rose.

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  • The flowers, produced in May on erect cylindrical spikes, 1 to 2 inches long, terminating short lateral twigs.

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  • Two different lens types are available: spherical and cylindrical.

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  • The spherical lenses use ARC technology, while the cylindrical lenses are thermoformed, making them less expensive but also quite clear.

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  • During the biopsy, a cylindrical piece of bone and marrow is removed.

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  • Cervix-A small, cylindrical structure about an inch or so long and less than an inch around that makes up the lower part and neck of the uterus.

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  • Round or cylindrical foods, hard candy, chewing gum, and balloons also present choking hazards.

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  • During the bone marrow biopsy, a cylindrical piece of bone and marrow is removed.

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  • Sqaure, rectangular, and cylindrical bag styles are all popular.

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  • It has a cylindrical brush to facilitate cleaning of both carpet and hard surface floors.

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  • The web site Soap Making Essentials has a calculator for determining the size of both cylindrical and rectangular molds.

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  • They started out in Europe during the 16th century as a method of making the torso look more cylindrical.

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  • During rudimentary exploration, they located a hangar-bay filled with little cylindrical craft designed to fit through a gate named puddle-jumpers.

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  • Gene Wolfe's amazing four-book series, Book of the Long Sun, is set on an enormous cylindrical vehicle.

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  • Played by Kenny Baker in a cylindrical suit, and sometimes by a mechanical version, Artoo is an 'astromech' droid; that is, he is an all-around space vehicle mechanic.

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  • The whorl in Gene Wolf's Book of the Long Sun is a giant cylindrical vessel, and yet to the inhabitants, it is all they know.

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  • One exception is paneer tikka, for which the paneer is grilled in a tandoor, or cylindrical oven.

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  • cylindrical or tapering from The numbers in square brackets [] refer to the bibliography at the end of this article; but when the number is preceded by the word Hydrozoa, it refers to the bibliography at the end of the articl Hydrozoa.

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  • It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.

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  • In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.

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