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cylinders

cylinders Sentence Examples

  • The cylinders measure about 14 in.

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  • The glass is made in cylinders and in " crowns " or circles.

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  • The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver FIG.

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  • The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.

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  • All cylinders drive on one crank-axle with three cranks at 120°.

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  • After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.

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  • due to the two cylinders is variable to a greater or less extent, depending upon the degree of expansion in the cylinders and the speed.

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  • This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.

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  • ft., that the rate of combustion is 150 lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, that the calorific value is 14000, and finally that n =0.06, the maximum indicated horse-power which the engine might be expected to develop would be o 06 X 150 x14000 X24 X 778/1980000 = I 190, corresponding to a mean effective pressure in the cylinders of 59.5 lb per square inch.

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  • In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.

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  • inch absolute There were two high-pressure cylinders placed outside the frames and driving on a trailing wheel, and one low-pressure cylinder placed between the frames and driving on a wheel placed in front of the driving-wheel belonging to the highpressure cylinders.

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  • The steam connexions were such that the two high-pressure cylinders were placed in parallel, both exhausting into the one low-pressure cylinder.

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  • In these there are two lowpressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and one highpressure cylinder placed between the frames.

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  • There are two high-pressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and two low-pressure placed inside the frames.

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  • The low-pressure cylinders drive on the leading crank-axle with cranks at right angles, the highpressure cylinders driving on the trailing wheels.

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  • The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.

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  • Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.

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  • This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.

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  • Cylinders, tanks and independent boilers should be encased in a non-conducting material such as silicate cotton, thick felt or asbestos composition.

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  • An excellent brake for very large cranes is Matthew's hydraulic brake, in which water is passed from end to end of cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons, cooling jackets being provided.

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  • Its two steam cylinders were 8 in.

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  • This is the horse-power, therefore, which must be developed in the cylinders to maintain the train in motion at a uniform speed of 40 m.

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  • Therefore the horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders to effect this change of speed is from (21) H.P.280X2240X0 113X59 = _237 55 0 X 32 The rate of working is negative when the train is retarded; for instance, if the train had changed its speed from 41 to 40 m.

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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.

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  • Let an engine have two cylinders each 19 in.

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  • The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.

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  • Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.

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  • In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.

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  • Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.

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  • It had a vertical boiler, and was carried on four wheels all coupled, the two cylinders being placed in an inclined position and having a bore of about 6 in.

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  • With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.

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  • To get the best effect the area of the blast-nozzle must be properly proportioned to the size of the cylinders and be properly set with regard to the base of the chimney.

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  • Also let l be the length of the stroke in feet and let a be the area of one cylinder in square inches, then, assuming two cylinders of equal size, I.H.P. =2 planl550 (8) The I.H.P. at any instant is equal to the total rate at which energy is required to overcome the tractive resistance R.

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  • This must be exerted in addition to the horse-power calculated in the previous section, so that the total indicated horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is now 354+223 =577.

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  • 465)/32 = 28,720 ib, and the corresponding horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is, from (20), f V/550, and this is with f and V equal to the above values, 1149.

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  • V hen the train is started and is moving slowly, the toroue acting on the driving-axle may be estimated as that due to about 85°/, of the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders.

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  • This scene of the fight with the bull is often depicted on seal cylinders.

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  • Y g g The air passes through a reducing valve from the main to an auxiliary tank, in which the pressure is, say, 125 lb, and thence to the driving cylinders.

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  • The hoisting speed is therefore slower, and as less engine power is required for a given load the cylinders.

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  • For high heads the water cylinders, valves and valve chambers are specially constructed to withstand heavy pressures, water being sometimes raised in a single lift to heights of more than 2000 ft.

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  • Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.

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  • The lower end of the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open.

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  • In the case of large and thick cylinders, however, another process of opening the ends is generally employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the diameter of the whole as described above.

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  • These cylinders and crowns may be either solid colour or flashed.

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  • The former was made, as described by Theophilus, from cylinders, which were split, reheated and flattened into square sheets.

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  • b2' and this, by § 36, is also the ratio of the kinetic energy in the annular 4,1 interspace between the two cylinders to the kinetic energy of the liquid moving bodily inside r = b.

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  • Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.

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  • - Confocal Elliptic Cylinders.

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  • The corresponding expression for two orthogonal cylinders will be With a 2 = co, these reduce to / y /, = Uy (I ra 2 p22 +-C24)..

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  • Two equal spheres, intersecting at 120°, will require - I U j x _ a 3 a4(a 7 2 x) a3 a4(a+2x)] (II) 2 - _ 2 y a 271 3 271 +2Y2 3 2720 ' with a similar expression for cylinders; so that the plane x=o may be introduced as a boundary, cutting the surface at 60°.

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  • The motion of these cylinders across the line of centres is the equivalent of a line doublet along each axis.

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  • The extension to the case where the liquid is bounded externally by a fixed ellipsoid X= X is made in a similar manner, by putting 4 = x y (x+ 11), (io) and the ratio of the effective angular inertia in (9) is changed to 2 (B0-A0) (B 1A1) +.a12 - a 2 +b 2 a b1c1 a -b -b12 abc (Bo-Ao)+(B1-A1) a 2 + b 2 a1 2 + b1 2 alblcl Make c= CO for confocal elliptic cylinders; and then _, 2 A? ?

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  • Babylonian art, however, had already attained a high degree of excellence; two seal cylinders of the time of Sargon are among the most beautiful specimens of the gem-cutter's art ever discovered.

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  • The prepared tobacco, while still moist and pliant, is pressed between cylinders into a light cake, and cut into fine uniform shreds by a machine analogous to the chaff-cutter.

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  • From the drum of the twisting machine the spun tobacco is rolled into cylinders of various sizes.

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  • For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.

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  • This condition may be cured completely, or greatly improved, by the use of lenses whose surfaces are segments of cylinders.

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  • i., Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century.

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  • Electroscopes and electrometers, therefore, standing in proximity to electrified bodies can be perfectly shielded from influence by enclosing them in cylinders of metal gauze.

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  • capacity of two concentric spheres, of two coaxial cylinders and of two parallel planes.

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  • The same arrangement can be supplied to a pair of coaxial cylinders.

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  • The other case of importance is that of two coaxial cylinders.

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  • Then when the inner cylinder is at potential V 1 and the outer one kept at of two potential V 2 the lines of electric force between the cylinders Q (4).

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  • Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.

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  • As, one after another, the various tablets and cylinders and annalistic tablets have been translated, it has become increasingly clear that here are almost inexhaustible fountains of knowledge, and that sooner or later it may be possible to check the Hebrew accounts of the most important periods of their history with contemporaneous accounts written from another point of view.

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  • The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.

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  • Denayrouze by which the air, contained in cylinders at a pressure of 300 to 350 lb per sq.

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  • The engines used for winding or hoisting in collieries are usually direct-acting with a pair of horizontal cylinders coupled directly to the drum shaft.

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  • In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.

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  • The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.

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  • Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.

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  • These are cylinders of cast iron or steel from 6 in.

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  • The fillet is drawn between two little steel cylinders which do not revolve and are held rigidly in position.

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  • The revolution of an eccentric A causes two short steel cylinders or cutters mounted on a block of iron B, suitably guided, to enter two holes in a plate fixed to the bed of the machine.

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  • In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders io ft.

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  • A great change of method arose when iron cylinders and in some cases brick cylinders Cross Bridge.

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  • We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.

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  • 3 No representation of the seventh sign has yet been discovered on any Euphratean monument; but it is noticeable that the eighth is frequently doubled,4 and it is difficult to avoid seeing in the pair of zodiacal scorpions carved on Assyrian cylinders the prototype of the Greek scorpion and claws.

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  • Gilgamesh's conquest of the divine bull was placed under Taurus; his slaying of the tyrant Khumbaba (the prototype of Geryon) in the fifth month typified the victory of light over darkness, represented in plastic art by the group of a lion killing a bull, which is the form ordinarily given to the sign Leo on Ninevite cylinders.

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  • A variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent reheating.

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  • He is pictured on monuments and seal cylinders with the lightning and the thunderbolt, and in the hymns the sombre aspects of the god on the whole predominate.

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  • The third or last molar tooth of both jaws is of great size, and presents a structure at first sight unlike that of any other mammal, being composed of numerous (22-25) parallel cylinders or columns, each with pulp-cavity, dentine and enamel-covering, and packed together with cement.

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  • From the cephalic part of this primary diverticulum solid rods of cells called the hepatic cylinders grow out, and these branch again and again until a cellular network is formed surrounding and breaking up the umbilical and vitelline veins.

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  • The penis is the intromittent organ of generation, and is made up of three cylinders of erectile tissue, covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue without fat.

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  • That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.

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  • First, if the skeleton which it forms is continuous, then its planes of junction with the metallic matrix offer a path of low resistance to the passage of liquids or gases, or in short they make the metal so porous as to unfit it for objects like the cylinders of hydraulic presses, which ought to be gas-tight and water-tight.

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  • Castings which, like hydraulic press cylinders and steam radiators, must be dense and hence must have but little graphite lest their contents leak through their walls, should not have more than 1.75% of silicon and may have even as little as 1% if impenetrability is so important that softness and consequent ease of machining must be sacrificed to it.

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  • I, the lift cylinder is in hydraulic connexion with a pair of short cylinders placed one above the other, the pistons working in them being connected together by a common rod.

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  • in.; the governor is carried within the driving pulley shown at the right-hand end, while the working revolving cylinders are carried inside the boxed-in flywheel at the left-hand end, the relay cylinder and its attachments being fixed to the bed-plate in front of the flywheel.

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  • The disintegrated ground is then brought back in the trucks and fed through perforated cylinders into the washing pans; the hard blue which has resisted disintegration on the floors, and the lumps which are too big to pass the cylindrical sieves, are crushed before going to the pans.

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  • 1897) to cylinders of cast-iron and mild steel, 5 in.

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  • The isothermal surfaces are coaxial cylinders.

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  • Lorenz and others have employed similar methods, depending on the observation of the rate of change of temperature at certain points of bars, rings, cylinders, cubes or spheres.

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  • With them were found many reliefs in ivory, on tusks, wands and cylinders.

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  • They are being replaced by the rotatory process, so called because the cement is burned in rotating cylinders instead of in R fixed kilns.

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  • These cylinders vary from 60 to iso ft.

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  • The cylinders are made of steel plate, lined with refractory bricks, are carried on rollers at a slight angle with the horizontal, and are rotated by power.

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  • It is extremely hot, and is cooled usually by being passed down one or more rotating cylinders, similar to the first, but smaller, and acting as coolers instead of kilns.

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  • On its way down the cylinders the clinker meets a current of cold air and is cooled, the air being correspondingly warmed and passing on to aid in the combustion of the fuel used in heating the kiln.

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  • The mode of administration is by an inhaler attached to an inhalation bag, which serves to break the force with which the oxygen issues from the cylinders in which it is sold in a compressed form.

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  • L I subjected in a series of large cast-iron cylinders to the action of pyrites-burner gases and steam at a low red heat.

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  • a,a, Upright cast-iron cylinders; b,b, brick jacket; c,c, flues; d, e, iron plates arranged like venetian blinds, between which the contact-substance is contained; f, charging hole; g, discharging hole; h, entrance pipe for gas; i, exit pipe for gas.

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  • Hasenclever, consisting of four horizontal cast-iron cylinders with internal stirring-gear.

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  • The operation is performed in iron cylinders, provided with an agitating arrangement.

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  • The wet alkali-waste as it comes from the lixiviating vats, is transferred into upright iron cylinders in which it is systematically treated with lime-kiln gases until the whole of the calcium sulphide has been converted into calcium carbonate, the carbon dioxide of the lime-kiln gases being entirely exhausted.

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  • This is a tall iron erection, built up from superposed cylinders, which are separated from one another by perforated horizontal diaphragms, con this recovery is carried out in the most efficient manner, the process cannot possibly pay; but so much progress has been made in this direction that the loss of ammonia is very slight indeed, merely a fraction per cent.

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  • Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.

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  • In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.

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  • These cylinders are filled with pills, made of a mixture of magnesia, potassium chloride and fireclay, the object of the potassium chloride being to prevent any formation of hydrochloric acid, which might occur if the magnesia was not perfectly dry.

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  • With four cylinders the process is continuous (L.

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  • Applications: Hydraulic Press: Pneumatic Power-Transmitter.In the hydraulic press the vessel consists of two cylinders, viz, the pump-barrel and the press-barrel, each having its piston, and of a passage connecting them having a valve opening towards the press-barrel.

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  • In the pneumatic power-transmitter the motion of one piston if transmitted to another at a distance by means of a mass of air contained in two cylinders and an intervening tube.

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  • and the path of such a point is a circle described about A with the radius AB, being for outside rolling the sum, and for inside rolling the difference, of the radii of the cylinders.

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  • If B atops rolling, then the two cylinders continue to move as though they were parts of a rigid body.

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  • These rolling cylinders are sometimes called axodes, and a section of an axode in a plane parallel to the plane of motion is called a centrode.

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  • The exact provenance of these cylinders is not known, but there is every reason to believe that they were found in Cyprus.

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  • It is significant that the first iron swords in Cyprus are of a type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic. Gold and even silver become rare; 5 foreign imports almost cease; engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (fibulae) like those of south-eastern Europe.

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  • (end of 8th century B.C.),, and the occasional discovery of Mesopotamian cylinders of early date in Cyprus is no proof of direct intercourse.'

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  • Two other classes of presses of somewhat different design were largely in operation in the middle of the r9th century - the " double platen," which still printed only one side at each impression from each end, and the " perfecting machine," which was made with two large cylinders and printed from two typeformes placed on separate beds.

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  • This type was fixed, both in vertical and in perpendicular positions, upon a cylinder, round which rotated other cylinders, which held and compressed the sheets against the larger one, which also revolved and carried the printing surface.

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  • After many experiments Augustus Applegath (1789-1871) in 1848 constructed for The Times (London), a machine which was an eight-feeder, built entirely on the cylindrical principle, the cylinders placed not in a horizontal but in a vertical position.

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  • Around the large type cylinders were placed the smaller impression cylinders, the number of these being governed by the output required.

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  • As will be observed, the only differences in principle between these two type revolving machines were in the positions of the respective cylinders, and the fixing of the type to form a printing surface.

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  • The sheets were severed by knives placed on the cylinders, and when cut were carried by grippers and tapes; and delivery was made by means of automatic metal fingers fixed upon endless belts at such distances apart as to seize each sheet in succession as it left the last printing cylinder.

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  • Perfecting machines, usually with two cylinders, and printing or " perfecting " both sides of a sheet before it leaves the machine, but with two distinct operations.

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  • Occasionally these machines are made with two cylinders.

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  • Although some perfecting machines have been made with one cylinder only, which reverses itself on the old " tumbler " principle, they now are made with two cylinders, and it is with this class that we are particularly concerned.

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  • Although the two-type beds have a reciprocating motion, as in the ordinary one-sided press, the two cylinders rotate towards each other.

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  • Close to the large cylinders are the inking rollers, which take the necessary amount of ink, each set from its own slab as it passes under, and these rollers convey the requisite ink to the printing surface as the forme-carriage runs under its own cylinder.

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  • This is performed by carrying them over a series of smaller cylinders or drums by means of tapes.

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  • In the older type of machine it 'is next led up to the right- ' hand one of the two reversing drums, which are placed above the large printing cylinders, and over which it passes with the printed side downwards.

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  • Thus it will be seen that the sheet is reversed in its travel between the first and second large cylinders which give the impression.

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  • The sheet is then finally run out and delivered in the space between the two large cylinders, and laid on the delivery board - usually with the aid of flyers.

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  • It seems almost as though this branch had reached its limit, and as though any further developments can only be a question of duplication of the existing facilities so as to print from a greater number of cylinders than, say, an octuple machine.

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  • It was somewhat similar in design to the Bullock press, so far as the printing apparatus was concerned, except that the cylinders were all of one size and placed one above the other.

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  • Hippolyte Marinoni (1823-1904), of Paris, also devised a machine on a somewhat similar principle, making the impression and type cylinders of one size and placing them one over the other.

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  • arranged with the paper at one end of the machine, and passing through the cylinders to the folder at the other end where the copies are delivered.

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  • The four cylinders, which are on the right-hand side of the press, are respectively the plates, four pages on each type cylinder, making a total of thirty-two pages in all.

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  • printing and impression cylinders - the two inside ones being those giving the impression, and the two outer ones bearing the printing surfaces.

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  • The inking arrangements are placed at the two extreme ends of these four drums or cylinders, thus being near the type surfaces in each case.

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  • As the paper is unwound from the reel below it travels between the first two cylinders when it is printed on the first side; it then passes to the third and fourth cylinders, which give it the second backing side, thus " perfecting " the printed sheet.

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  • Cylinders are now turned so truly and ground to such a nicety that very little packing is required between type and sheet to be impressed, so that a new system of making-ready, termed " hard-packing," has been resorted to.

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  • The capsules or seed-pods in the case of C. capsularis are globular, rough and wrinkled, while in C. olitorius they are slender, quill-like cylinders (about 2 in.

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  • Strips of paper bearing a manifold repetition of the words "The Jewel in the Lotus, Amen," are wrapped round cylinders of all sizes - from hand-mills to windor water-mills.

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  • In its final form this temple and tower were the work of Nebuchadrezzar, but from the clay cylinders found by Sir Henry Rawlinson in two of the corners of the tower it appears that he restored an incomplete ziggurat of a former king, "which was long since fallen into decay."

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  • The electrodes consist of two cylinders of platinum (placed one inside the other) about 75 mm.

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  • The cylinders are then removed from the solution and washed with distilled water, the one holding the deposited copper being washed with alcohol, dried and weighed; the increase in weight represents the copper contents of the ore.

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  • In the upper compartment are two large revolving horizontal cathode cylinders.

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  • Two such engraved cylinders of this archaic period are in the British Museum collections.

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  • Still, the fashion for cylinders appears to have revived at intervals, for they are found in the 6th, the 12th and the 18th dynasties.

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  • The high and the low pressure cylinders were 5 and 8 in.

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  • After the cambium has been active for some time producing secondary xylem and phloem, the latter consisting of sievetubes, phloem-parenchyma and frequently thick-walled fibres, a second cambium is developed in the pericycle; this produces a second vascular zone, which is in turn followed by a third cambium, and so on, until several hollow cylinders are developed.

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  • The climbing species of Gnetum are characterized by the production of several concentric cylinders of secondary wood and bast, the additional cambium-rings being products of the pericycle, as in Cycas and Macrozamia.

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  • of the cast-iron cylinders forming the well was provided with about 660 small orifices lined with gun-metal tubes or rings, each armed with numerous thicknesses of copper wire gauze, and temporarily closed with screwed plugs.

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  • This rod is continued upwards by a pair of thin nickel bands which are led right and left over two horizontal cylinders, round which they partly wrap, and to which they are firmly 'attached.

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  • The diameter of the middle part of the cylinders is greater than that of the ends, and the bands from the vertical rod are led over the middle part.

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  • The lower ends of these bands pass round the under side of the end portions of the cylinders, wrapping close round them, and are firmly attached to them.

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  • To the bottom of each cylinder is rigidly attached a heavy solid cylinder of lead, and these are the regulators of the position of equilibrium of the cylinders when they rotate under the action of the load..

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  • When the load comes upon the platform the pull of the vertical rod is transmitted by the nickel bands to the cylinders around which they are wrapped, and causes them to revolve.

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  • By the rolling of the cylinders up the vertical bands from the casting the cylinders are raised vertically through a space defined by the position of the leaden regulators.

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  • By means of suitable and simple mechanism this vertical movement of the cylinders works plunger pistons in a pair of cylinders which contain glycerin, and these deaden the vibrations of the machinery while weighing is going on.

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  • These vessels consist of two vertical cylinders joined at the bottom by a short tube.

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  • The telescopic form consists of two or more lifts which slide in one another, and may be described as a single lift holder encircled by other cylinders of slightly larger diameter, but of about the same length.

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  • On monuments and cylinders he is represented as armed with the weapon with which he despatched the monster Tiamat.

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  • The stem, from the ground tissue of which sclerenchyma is absent, has a complicated system of steles arranged in concentric circles; the thick roots, the central cylinders of which have several alternating groups of xylem and phloem, arise in relation to these.

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  • G.) From Egypt the figure of the sphinx passed to Assyria, where it appears with a bearded male head on cylinders; the female sphinx, lying down and furnished with wings, is first found in the palace of Esar-haddon (7th cent.

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  • It may be mentioned here that on the first of these sites a cuneiform tablet belonging to the Amarna series was discovered; at Gezer, a deed of sale; at Tell-el-Hasy the remains of a Babylonian stele, three seals, and three cylinders with Babylonian mythological representations; at Tell-el-Mutasellim, a seal bearing a Babylonian legend, and at Taannek, twelve tablets and fragments of tablets were found near the fragments of the terracotta box in which they were stored.

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  • The seeds and nuts are then decorticated (where required), the shells removed, and the kernels ("meats") converted into a pulpy mass or meal (in older establishments by crushing and grinding between stones in edge-runners) on passing through a hopper over rollers consisting of five chilled iron or steel cylinders mounted vertically like the bowls of a calendar.

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  • The presses having perforated cylinders, although presenting mechanically a more perfect arrangement, are not preferable to the press cages formed by staves, as the holes become easily clogged up by the meal, when the cylinder must be carefully cleaned out.

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  • 2379) would necessitate the employment of a great volume, with extremely large and mechanically inefficient cylinders and apparatus.

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  • The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of power.

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    0
  • Microsauria, nearest the reptiles, with persistent notochord completely surrounded by constricted cylinders on which the neural arch rests.

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  • Branchiosauria, nearest to the true batrachians; with persistent non-constricted notochord, surrounded by barrel-shaped, bony cylinders formed by the neural arch above and a pair of intercentra below, both these elements taking an equal share in the formation of a transverse process on each side for the support of the rib.

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  • The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history.

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  • The space between the two cylinders serves as a heater and distributor for the blast, which is introduced through the nozzle at the bottom, and enters the furnace through a series of several small tuyeres arranged round the inner lining.

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  • air brake cylinders.

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  • Both siphoning and the use of compressed air cylinders were experimented with but failed to noticeably improve the up to 3.5% C02.

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  • air cylinder cylinders are shown on the underframe, but no air brake cylinders.

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  • Breakfast and topping up air cylinders was followed by a short move to a deep dive site before finding a secure anchorage for lunch.

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  • blanking plugs should be replaced in the cylinders.

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  • Guns being fired, tanks advance firing, battleships firing a broadside, gas hissing out of cylinders.

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  • You do need negatively buoyant cylinders to combat the positive buoyancy of all your insulation.

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  • butane cylinders being stored in the caravan.

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  • At Chepstow the piers were large cast iron cylinders which themselves formed the caissons, the air locks being fitted on top of them.

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  • cast iron river piers are each comprised of three 6 feet diameter cast-iron cylinders filled with concrete.

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  • Different injection mapping for the two cylinders so as to optimize combustion in each cylinder.

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  • conveyance of gasoline, fuel oil and cylinders and cartridges of liquefied hydrocarbon gas in vehicles on board the Vessels 20.

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  • And now they've sort of face lifted the 3200 GT to produce this new coupe, with 4.2 liters and eight cylinders.

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  • The visual impact of the dump of red propane cylinders beside the Hut.

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  • acetylene cylinders may not be used or stored in the laboratories.

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  • He was inspired by Edison's invention of sound recording and Alexander Graham Bell's development of wax cylinders.

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  • decant filling of medical oxygen cylinders.

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  • disc brakeservo-assisted disk brakes all round with twin master cylinders.

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  • This was a 12 cylinder engine minus one bank of cylinders, the gap being closed by a plain entablature.

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  • fairway mowers would typically offer five sets of 30 inch units with 7, 7.5 or even 8 inch cylinders.

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  • The haphazard cylinders he substituted displayed a musical fantasia.

    0
    0
  • fast tracke fast-track LLB in two years was like firing on all cylinders.

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  • They had 16 " x 24 " cylinders, 6ft diameter driving wheels, domeless boilers and raised firebox.

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  • firing on all cylinders, creating a rich tapestry of rock delight.

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  • Deeply refrigerated flammable, non-flammable, and poisonous gases such as butane, oxygen, propane, and aqualung cylinders.

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  • hissing out of cylinders.

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    0
  • The cylinders on the back are charged with 10 cubic feet of oxygen at a pressure of 18.000 lbs per square inch.

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  • March 7, 2006 A delivery van packed with highly inflammable gas cylinders crashes in an East Herts village.

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  • Most modern cylinders come with foam lagging bonded on to the outside of the cylinder.

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  • Cylinders are first heated to drive off any residual moisture followed by thorough purging and evacuation process to create a clean baseline.

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  • All suppliers have agreed to reimburse pharmacists in full for unused oxygen cylinders.

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    0
  • propane cylinders which exploded whilst the crews were fighting the fire.

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  • Their regulator was connected to three cylinders, each holding 2,500 psi (about 160 bar) of air.

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  • reimburse pharmacists in full for unused oxygen cylinders.

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    0
  • The cast fires on all cylinders and is aided by a fine witty script which crackles with pathos.

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    0
  • Flavored butters also enliven grills and pan-fried steaks and can be shaped into cylinders and frozen for use at a later date.

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    0
  • Water is pumped out of the cylinders until the entire assembly lifts up in the water, pulling the tethers taut.

    0
    0
  • Lastly, some of the Urie bogie tenders and all of the straight-sided bogie ones had vacuum storage cylinders behind the coal space.

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  • Cylinders - buckling under compression, bending, torsion with internal pressure, collapse under external pressure.

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    0
  • The front valance has been taken off to allow easier access to the cylinders.

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    0
  • Rotating cylinders are also used; the material to be dried being placed inside, and the cylinder heated by a steam jacket or otherwise.

    0
    0
  • This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.

    0
    0
  • 9), (3y is a single rod consisting of two cylinders accurately fitting in the ends of the micrometer box, the larger cylinder being at (.

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  • A spiral spring, coiled round the cylinder y, resting one end on the shoulder formed by the difference of the diameters of the cylinders (3 and -y and the other on the inside of the web-frame, presses the latter continuously towards y.

    0
    0
  • This corresponds, in the Cape instrument, with an excess of the diameters of the holes over those of the cylinders of about i,*mth of an inch - a quantity so small as to imply good workmanship, though it involves a systematic error which is very much larger than the probable error of a single determination of the coincidence point.

    0
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  • Cylinders, tanks and independent boilers should be encased in a non-conducting material such as silicate cotton, thick felt or asbestos composition.

    0
    0
  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.

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  • With " very hard " water this deposit may require removal every three months; in London it is usual to clean out the boiler every six months and the cylinders and tanks at longer intervals.

    0
    0
  • An excellent brake for very large cranes is Matthew's hydraulic brake, in which water is passed from end to end of cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons, cooling jackets being provided.

    0
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  • the engines of a 10-ton steam crane have cylinders capable of indicating about 60 horse-power when working at full speed, but it is found that, in consequence of the intermittent working, sufficient steam can be supplied with a boiler whose heating surface is only a to 4 of that necessary for the above power, when developed continuously by a stationary engine.

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  • It has a very large starting torque, which enables it to overcome the inertia of getting the load into motion, and it lifts heavy loads at a slower speed and lighter loads at a quicker one, behaving, under the action of the controller in a somewhat similar manner to that in which the cylinders of the steam crane respond to the action of the stop-valve.

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  • The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver FIG.

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  • The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.

    0
    0
  • In dictyostelic ferns similar internal (dictyostehc) cylinders are found in some forms, and occasionally a large series of such concentric cylinders is developed (Marattiaceae) (fig.

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    0
  • In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.

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  • Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.

    0
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  • The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.

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  • Its two steam cylinders were 8 in.

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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.

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  • After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.

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  • It had a vertical boiler, and was carried on four wheels all coupled, the two cylinders being placed in an inclined position and having a bore of about 6 in.

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  • With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.

    0
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  • Also let l be the length of the stroke in feet and let a be the area of one cylinder in square inches, then, assuming two cylinders of equal size, I.H.P. =2 planl550 (8) The I.H.P. at any instant is equal to the total rate at which energy is required to overcome the tractive resistance R.

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  • The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.

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  • - When the weight of the engine and tender and the weight of the vehicles are respectively given, the rate at which work must be done in the engine cylinders in order to maintain the train in motion at a stated speed can be computed by the aid of the curves plotted in fig.

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  • This is the horse-power, therefore, which must be developed in the cylinders to maintain the train in motion at a uniform speed of 40 m.

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  • This must be exerted in addition to the horse-power calculated in the previous section, so that the total indicated horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is now 354+223 =577.

    0
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  • Therefore the horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders to effect this change of speed is from (21) H.P.280X2240X0 113X59 = _237 55 0 X 32 The rate of working is negative when the train is retarded; for instance, if the train had changed its speed from 41 to 40 m.

    0
    0
  • 465)/32 = 28,720 ib, and the corresponding horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders is, from (20), f V/550, and this is with f and V equal to the above values, 1149.

    0
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  • To get the best effect the area of the blast-nozzle must be properly proportioned to the size of the cylinders and be properly set with regard to the base of the chimney.

    0
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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.

    0
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  • V hen the train is started and is moving slowly, the toroue acting on the driving-axle may be estimated as that due to about 85°/, of the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders.

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  • due to the two cylinders is variable to a greater or less extent, depending upon the degree of expansion in the cylinders and the speed.

    0
    0
  • The magnitude of F when p and e are put each equal to unity, is usually called the tractive force of the locomotive per pound of mean effective pressure in the cylinders.

    0
    0
  • Let an engine have two cylinders each 19 in.

    0
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  • This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.

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  • ft., that the rate of combustion is 150 lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, that the calorific value is 14000, and finally that n =0.06, the maximum indicated horse-power which the engine might be expected to develop would be o 06 X 150 x14000 X24 X 778/1980000 = I 190, corresponding to a mean effective pressure in the cylinders of 59.5 lb per square inch.

    0
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  • Engine efficiency depends upon many variable factors, such as the cut-off, the piston speed, the initial temperature of the steam, the final temperature of the steam, the quality of the steam, the sizes of the steam-pipes, ports and passages, the arrangement of the cylinders and its effect on condensation, the mechanical perfection of the steam-distributing gear, the tightness of the piston, &c. A few values of the thermal efficiency obtained from experiments are given in Table XXI.

    0
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  • For the few cases where data are available - data, however, belonging to engines representing standard practice in their construction and in the design of cylinders and steam ports and passages - the law connecting p and v is approximately linear and of the form p=c - bv (28) where b and c are constants.

    0
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  • The thermal efficiency of a steam-engine is in general increased by carrying out the expansion of the steam in two, three or even more stages in separate cylinders, notwithstanding the inevitable drop of pressure which must occur when the steam is transferred from one cylinder to the other during the process of expansion.

    0
    0
  • In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.

    0
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  • inch absolute There were two high-pressure cylinders placed outside the frames and driving on a trailing wheel, and one low-pressure cylinder placed between the frames and driving on a wheel placed in front of the driving-wheel belonging to the highpressure cylinders.

    0
    0
  • The steam connexions were such that the two high-pressure cylinders were placed in parallel, both exhausting into the one low-pressure cylinder.

    0
    0
  • The first engines of this class were provided with high-pressure cylinders, i i in.

    0
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  • In these there are two lowpressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and one highpressure cylinder placed between the frames.

    0
    0
  • All cylinders drive on one crank-axle with three cranks at 120°.

    0
    0
  • A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.

    0
    0
  • There are two high-pressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and two low-pressure placed inside the frames.

    0
    0
  • The low-pressure cylinders drive on the leading crank-axle with cranks at right angles, the highpressure cylinders driving on the trailing wheels.

    0
    0
  • The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.

    0
    0
  • The windows are mere slits; those of the tambours, or cylinders, on which the cupolas rest, are curved, and slant at an angle of 70°, as though the tambours were leaning to one side.

    0
    0
  • The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.

    0
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  • He evolved an ingenious solution of the duplication of the cube, which shows considerable knowledge of the generation of cylinders and cones.

    0
    0
  • This scene of the fight with the bull is often depicted on seal cylinders.

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    0
  • For example, Wilde produced copper printing surfaces for calico printing-rollers and the like by immersing rotating iron cylinders as cathodes in a copper bath.

    0
    0
  • Elmore, Dumoulin, Cowper-Coles and others have prepared copper cylinders and plates by depositing copper on rotating mandrels with special arrangements.

    0
    0
  • Y g g The air passes through a reducing valve from the main to an auxiliary tank, in which the pressure is, say, 125 lb, and thence to the driving cylinders.

    0
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  • As ordinarily constructed, a pair of horizontal cylinders is coupled to a shaft on which are mounted either one or two drums (fig.

    0
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  • The diameter of the cylinders is such that each alone is capable of starting the load.

    0
    0
  • The cylinders are generally single-expansion, though compound engines are occasionally used for heavy work.

    0
    0
  • The hoisting speed is therefore slower, and as less engine power is required for a given load the cylinders.

    0
    0
  • Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.

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  • Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.

    0
    0
  • For high heads the water cylinders, valves and valve chambers are specially constructed to withstand heavy pressures, water being sometimes raised in a single lift to heights of more than 2000 ft.

    0
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  • Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.

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  • The lower end of the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open.

    0
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  • In the case of large and thick cylinders, however, another process of opening the ends is generally employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the diameter of the whole as described above.

    0
    0
  • The glass is made in cylinders and in " crowns " or circles.

    0
    0
  • The cylinders measure about 14 in.

    0
    0
  • These cylinders and crowns may be either solid colour or flashed.

    0
    0
  • The former was made, as described by Theophilus, from cylinders, which were split, reheated and flattened into square sheets.

    0
    0
  • This machirre consists essentially of two communicating cylinders (fig.

    0
    0
  • b2' and this, by § 36, is also the ratio of the kinetic energy in the annular 4,1 interspace between the two cylinders to the kinetic energy of the liquid moving bodily inside r = b.

    0
    0
  • Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.

    0
    0
  • Considered by itself, with the cylinders held fixed, the vortex sets up a circumferential velocity m/r on a radius r, so that the angular momentum of a circular filament of annular cross section dA is pmdA, and of the whole vortex is pm7r(b2-a2).

    0
    0
  • Any circular filament can be started from rest by the application of a circumferential impulse 7rpmdr at each end of a diameter; so that a mechanism attached to the cylinders, which can set up a uniform distributed impulse rpm across the two parts of a diameter in the liquid, will generate the vortex motion, and react on the cylinder with an impulse couple-pmira 2 and pm7rb 2, having resultant pm7r(b 2 -a 2), and this couple is infinite when b = oo, as the angular momentum of the vortex is infinite.

    0
    0
  • - Confocal Elliptic Cylinders.

    0
    0
  • The corresponding expression for two orthogonal cylinders will be With a 2 = co, these reduce to / y /, = Uy (I ra 2 p22 +-C24)..

    0
    0
  • Two equal spheres, intersecting at 120°, will require - I U j x _ a 3 a4(a 7 2 x) a3 a4(a+2x)] (II) 2 - _ 2 y a 271 3 271 +2Y2 3 2720 ' with a similar expression for cylinders; so that the plane x=o may be introduced as a boundary, cutting the surface at 60°.

    0
    0
  • The motion of these cylinders across the line of centres is the equivalent of a line doublet along each axis.

    0
    0
  • The extension to the case where the liquid is bounded externally by a fixed ellipsoid X= X is made in a similar manner, by putting 4 = x y (x+ 11), (io) and the ratio of the effective angular inertia in (9) is changed to 2 (B0-A0) (B 1A1) +.a12 - a 2 +b 2 a b1c1 a -b -b12 abc (Bo-Ao)+(B1-A1) a 2 + b 2 a1 2 + b1 2 alblcl Make c= CO for confocal elliptic cylinders; and then _, 2 A? ?

    0
    0
  • Babylonian art, however, had already attained a high degree of excellence; two seal cylinders of the time of Sargon are among the most beautiful specimens of the gem-cutter's art ever discovered.

    0
    0
  • The prepared tobacco, while still moist and pliant, is pressed between cylinders into a light cake, and cut into fine uniform shreds by a machine analogous to the chaff-cutter.

    0
    0
  • From the drum of the twisting machine the spun tobacco is rolled into cylinders of various sizes.

    0
    0
  • For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.

    0
    0
  • This condition may be cured completely, or greatly improved, by the use of lenses whose surfaces are segments of cylinders.

    0
    0
  • i., Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century.

    0
    0
  • Electroscopes and electrometers, therefore, standing in proximity to electrified bodies can be perfectly shielded from influence by enclosing them in cylinders of metal gauze.

    0
    0
  • capacity of two concentric spheres, of two coaxial cylinders and of two parallel planes.

    0
    0
  • The same arrangement can be supplied to a pair of coaxial cylinders.

    0
    0
  • The other case of importance is that of two coaxial cylinders.

    0
    0
  • Then when the inner cylinder is at potential V 1 and the outer one kept at of two potential V 2 the lines of electric force between the cylinders Q (4).

    0
    0
  • Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.

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  • As, one after another, the various tablets and cylinders and annalistic tablets have been translated, it has become increasingly clear that here are almost inexhaustible fountains of knowledge, and that sooner or later it may be possible to check the Hebrew accounts of the most important periods of their history with contemporaneous accounts written from another point of view.

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  • A third model proposed by Savary consists of two complete lenses of equal focal length, mounted in cylinders side by side, and attached to a strong brass plate (fig.

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  • The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.

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  • Denayrouze by which the air, contained in cylinders at a pressure of 300 to 350 lb per sq.

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  • The engines used for winding or hoisting in collieries are usually direct-acting with a pair of horizontal cylinders coupled directly to the drum shaft.

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  • In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.

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  • The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.

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  • It is prepared commercially from anthracene by stirring a sludge of anthracene and water in horizontal cylinders with a mixture of sodium bichromate and caustic soda.

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  • Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.

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  • These are cylinders of cast iron or steel from 6 in.

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  • The fillet is drawn between two little steel cylinders which do not revolve and are held rigidly in position.

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  • The revolution of an eccentric A causes two short steel cylinders or cutters mounted on a block of iron B, suitably guided, to enter two holes in a plate fixed to the bed of the machine.

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  • In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders io ft.

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  • A great change of method arose when iron cylinders and in some cases brick cylinders Cross Bridge.

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  • We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.

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  • 3 No representation of the seventh sign has yet been discovered on any Euphratean monument; but it is noticeable that the eighth is frequently doubled,4 and it is difficult to avoid seeing in the pair of zodiacal scorpions carved on Assyrian cylinders the prototype of the Greek scorpion and claws.

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  • Gilgamesh's conquest of the divine bull was placed under Taurus; his slaying of the tyrant Khumbaba (the prototype of Geryon) in the fifth month typified the victory of light over darkness, represented in plastic art by the group of a lion killing a bull, which is the form ordinarily given to the sign Leo on Ninevite cylinders.

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  • A variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent reheating.

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  • He is pictured on monuments and seal cylinders with the lightning and the thunderbolt, and in the hymns the sombre aspects of the god on the whole predominate.

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  • The third or last molar tooth of both jaws is of great size, and presents a structure at first sight unlike that of any other mammal, being composed of numerous (22-25) parallel cylinders or columns, each with pulp-cavity, dentine and enamel-covering, and packed together with cement.

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  • From the cephalic part of this primary diverticulum solid rods of cells called the hepatic cylinders grow out, and these branch again and again until a cellular network is formed surrounding and breaking up the umbilical and vitelline veins.

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  • The penis is the intromittent organ of generation, and is made up of three cylinders of erectile tissue, covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue without fat.

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  • In a transverse section two of these cylinders (the corpora cavernosa) are placed above, side by side, while one, the corpus spongiosum, is below.

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  • That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.

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  • First, if the skeleton which it forms is continuous, then its planes of junction with the metallic matrix offer a path of low resistance to the passage of liquids or gases, or in short they make the metal so porous as to unfit it for objects like the cylinders of hydraulic presses, which ought to be gas-tight and water-tight.

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  • Castings which, like hydraulic press cylinders and steam radiators, must be dense and hence must have but little graphite lest their contents leak through their walls, should not have more than 1.75% of silicon and may have even as little as 1% if impenetrability is so important that softness and consequent ease of machining must be sacrificed to it.

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  • I, the lift cylinder is in hydraulic connexion with a pair of short cylinders placed one above the other, the pistons working in them being connected together by a common rod.

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  • The cylinders are cast in one piece with a circular valve, and rotate about a main stud S (fig.

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  • in.; the governor is carried within the driving pulley shown at the right-hand end, while the working revolving cylinders are carried inside the boxed-in flywheel at the left-hand end, the relay cylinder and its attachments being fixed to the bed-plate in front of the flywheel.

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  • The disintegrated ground is then brought back in the trucks and fed through perforated cylinders into the washing pans; the hard blue which has resisted disintegration on the floors, and the lumps which are too big to pass the cylindrical sieves, are crushed before going to the pans.

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  • 1897) to cylinders of cast-iron and mild steel, 5 in.

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  • The isothermal surfaces are coaxial cylinders.

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  • Lorenz and others have employed similar methods, depending on the observation of the rate of change of temperature at certain points of bars, rings, cylinders, cubes or spheres.

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  • With them were found many reliefs in ivory, on tusks, wands and cylinders.

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  • They are being replaced by the rotatory process, so called because the cement is burned in rotating cylinders instead of in R fixed kilns.

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  • These cylinders vary from 60 to iso ft.

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  • The cylinders are made of steel plate, lined with refractory bricks, are carried on rollers at a slight angle with the horizontal, and are rotated by power.

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  • It is extremely hot, and is cooled usually by being passed down one or more rotating cylinders, similar to the first, but smaller, and acting as coolers instead of kilns.

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  • On its way down the cylinders the clinker meets a current of cold air and is cooled, the air being correspondingly warmed and passing on to aid in the combustion of the fuel used in heating the kiln.

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  • The mode of administration is by an inhaler attached to an inhalation bag, which serves to break the force with which the oxygen issues from the cylinders in which it is sold in a compressed form.

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  • L I subjected in a series of large cast-iron cylinders to the action of pyrites-burner gases and steam at a low red heat.

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  • a,a, Upright cast-iron cylinders; b,b, brick jacket; c,c, flues; d, e, iron plates arranged like venetian blinds, between which the contact-substance is contained; f, charging hole; g, discharging hole; h, entrance pipe for gas; i, exit pipe for gas.

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  • Hasenclever, consisting of four horizontal cast-iron cylinders with internal stirring-gear.

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  • The operation is performed in iron cylinders, provided with an agitating arrangement.

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  • The wet alkali-waste as it comes from the lixiviating vats, is transferred into upright iron cylinders in which it is systematically treated with lime-kiln gases until the whole of the calcium sulphide has been converted into calcium carbonate, the carbon dioxide of the lime-kiln gases being entirely exhausted.

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  • This is a tall iron erection, built up from superposed cylinders, which are separated from one another by perforated horizontal diaphragms, con this recovery is carried out in the most efficient manner, the process cannot possibly pay; but so much progress has been made in this direction that the loss of ammonia is very slight indeed, merely a fraction per cent.

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  • Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.

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  • In the transmission of power by compressed air (see POWER TRANSMISSION) the air-driven motors are for the most part machines resembling steam-engines in the general features of their pistons, cylinders, valves and so forth.

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  • In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.

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  • These cylinders are filled with pills, made of a mixture of magnesia, potassium chloride and fireclay, the object of the potassium chloride being to prevent any formation of hydrochloric acid, which might occur if the magnesia was not perfectly dry.

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  • With four cylinders the process is continuous (L.

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  • Applications: Hydraulic Press: Pneumatic Power-Transmitter.In the hydraulic press the vessel consists of two cylinders, viz, the pump-barrel and the press-barrel, each having its piston, and of a passage connecting them having a valve opening towards the press-barrel.

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  • In the pneumatic power-transmitter the motion of one piston if transmitted to another at a distance by means of a mass of air contained in two cylinders and an intervening tube.

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  • and the path of such a point is a circle described about A with the radius AB, being for outside rolling the sum, and for inside rolling the difference, of the radii of the cylinders.

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  • The whole of the foregoing reasonings are applicable, not merely when acm and bbb are actual cylinders, but also when they are the osculating cylinders of a pair of cylindroidal surfaces of varying curvature, A and B being the axes of curvature of the parts of those surfaces which are in contact for the instant under consideration.

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  • If B atops rolling, then the two cylinders continue to move as though they were parts of a rigid body.

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  • These rolling cylinders are sometimes called axodes, and a section of an axode in a plane parallel to the plane of motion is called a centrode.

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  • The exact provenance of these cylinders is not known, but there is every reason to believe that they were found in Cyprus.

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  • It is significant that the first iron swords in Cyprus are of a type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic. Gold and even silver become rare; 5 foreign imports almost cease; engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (fibulae) like those of south-eastern Europe.

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  • (end of 8th century B.C.),, and the occasional discovery of Mesopotamian cylinders of early date in Cyprus is no proof of direct intercourse.'

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  • Two other classes of presses of somewhat different design were largely in operation in the middle of the r9th century - the " double platen," which still printed only one side at each impression from each end, and the " perfecting machine," which was made with two large cylinders and printed from two typeformes placed on separate beds.

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  • This type was fixed, both in vertical and in perpendicular positions, upon a cylinder, round which rotated other cylinders, which held and compressed the sheets against the larger one, which also revolved and carried the printing surface.

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  • After many experiments Augustus Applegath (1789-1871) in 1848 constructed for The Times (London), a machine which was an eight-feeder, built entirely on the cylindrical principle, the cylinders placed not in a horizontal but in a vertical position.

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  • Around the large type cylinders were placed the smaller impression cylinders, the number of these being governed by the output required.

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  • As will be observed, the only differences in principle between these two type revolving machines were in the positions of the respective cylinders, and the fixing of the type to form a printing surface.

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  • This machine had two pairs of cylinders, that is, two type or stereotype cylinders, and two others which gave the impression as the web passed between.

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  • In his machine the stereotype plates were not made to fill the whole periphery of the forme cylinders so as to allow of the sheets being cut before printing, a difficulty w'iich the first machines did not satisfactorily overcome.

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  • The sheets were severed by knives placed on the cylinders, and when cut were carried by grippers and tapes; and delivery was made by means of automatic metal fingers fixed upon endless belts at such distances apart as to seize each sheet in succession as it left the last printing cylinder.

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  • Perfecting machines, usually with two cylinders, and printing or " perfecting " both sides of a sheet before it leaves the machine, but with two distinct operations.

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  • Occasionally these machines are made with two cylinders.

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  • Although some perfecting machines have been made with one cylinder only, which reverses itself on the old " tumbler " principle, they now are made with two cylinders, and it is with this class that we are particularly concerned.

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  • Although the two-type beds have a reciprocating motion, as in the ordinary one-sided press, the two cylinders rotate towards each other.

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  • Close to the large cylinders are the inking rollers, which take the necessary amount of ink, each set from its own slab as it passes under, and these rollers convey the requisite ink to the printing surface as the forme-carriage runs under its own cylinder.

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  • This is performed by carrying them over a series of smaller cylinders or drums by means of tapes.

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  • In the older type of machine it 'is next led up to the right- ' hand one of the two reversing drums, which are placed above the large printing cylinders, and over which it passes with the printed side downwards.

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  • Thus it will be seen that the sheet is reversed in its travel between the first and second large cylinders which give the impression.

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  • The sheet is then finally run out and delivered in the space between the two large cylinders, and laid on the delivery board - usually with the aid of flyers.

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  • continuously rotate, the web of paper travelling in and out, in a serpentine manner, between various cylinders of two aharactersone (the type cylinders) carrying the surface to be impressed, usually curved stereotype plates, and the other (the impression cylinders) giving the desired impression.

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  • It seems almost as though this branch had reached its limit, and as though any further developments can only be a question of duplication of the existing facilities so as to print from a greater number of cylinders than, say, an octuple machine.

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  • It was somewhat similar in design to the Bullock press, so far as the printing apparatus was concerned, except that the cylinders were all of one size and placed one above the other.

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  • Hippolyte Marinoni (1823-1904), of Paris, also devised a machine on a somewhat similar principle, making the impression and type cylinders of one size and placing them one over the other.

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  • arranged with the paper at one end of the machine, and passing through the cylinders to the folder at the other end where the copies are delivered.

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  • The four cylinders, which are on the right-hand side of the press, are respectively the plates, four pages on each type cylinder, making a total of thirty-two pages in all.

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  • printing and impression cylinders - the two inside ones being those giving the impression, and the two outer ones bearing the printing surfaces.

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  • The inking arrangements are placed at the two extreme ends of these four drums or cylinders, thus being near the type surfaces in each case.

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  • As the paper is unwound from the reel below it travels between the first two cylinders when it is printed on the first side; it then passes to the third and fourth cylinders, which give it the second backing side, thus " perfecting " the printed sheet.

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  • Cylinders are now turned so truly and ground to such a nicety that very little packing is required between type and sheet to be impressed, so that a new system of making-ready, termed " hard-packing," has been resorted to.

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  • The capsules or seed-pods in the case of C. capsularis are globular, rough and wrinkled, while in C. olitorius they are slender, quill-like cylinders (about 2 in.

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  • Strips of paper bearing a manifold repetition of the words "The Jewel in the Lotus, Amen," are wrapped round cylinders of all sizes - from hand-mills to windor water-mills.

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  • In its final form this temple and tower were the work of Nebuchadrezzar, but from the clay cylinders found by Sir Henry Rawlinson in two of the corners of the tower it appears that he restored an incomplete ziggurat of a former king, "which was long since fallen into decay."

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  • The electrodes consist of two cylinders of platinum (placed one inside the other) about 75 mm.

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  • The surfaces of the cylinders are roughened with a sand blast to increase the areas and make the deposited metals adhere more firmly.

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  • The cylinders are then removed from the solution and washed with distilled water, the one holding the deposited copper being washed with alcohol, dried and weighed; the increase in weight represents the copper contents of the ore.

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  • In the upper compartment are two large revolving horizontal cathode cylinders.

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  • Two such engraved cylinders of this archaic period are in the British Museum collections.

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  • Still, the fashion for cylinders appears to have revived at intervals, for they are found in the 6th, the 12th and the 18th dynasties.

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  • The high and the low pressure cylinders were 5 and 8 in.

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  • After the cambium has been active for some time producing secondary xylem and phloem, the latter consisting of sievetubes, phloem-parenchyma and frequently thick-walled fibres, a second cambium is developed in the pericycle; this produces a second vascular zone, which is in turn followed by a third cambium, and so on, until several hollow cylinders are developed.

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  • The climbing species of Gnetum are characterized by the production of several concentric cylinders of secondary wood and bast, the additional cambium-rings being products of the pericycle, as in Cycas and Macrozamia.

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  • of the cast-iron cylinders forming the well was provided with about 660 small orifices lined with gun-metal tubes or rings, each armed with numerous thicknesses of copper wire gauze, and temporarily closed with screwed plugs.

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  • This rod is continued upwards by a pair of thin nickel bands which are led right and left over two horizontal cylinders, round which they partly wrap, and to which they are firmly 'attached.

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  • The diameter of the middle part of the cylinders is greater than that of the ends, and the bands from the vertical rod are led over the middle part.

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  • The lower ends of these bands pass round the under side of the end portions of the cylinders, wrapping close round them, and are firmly attached to them.

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  • To the bottom of each cylinder is rigidly attached a heavy solid cylinder of lead, and these are the regulators of the position of equilibrium of the cylinders when they rotate under the action of the load..

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  • When the load comes upon the platform the pull of the vertical rod is transmitted by the nickel bands to the cylinders around which they are wrapped, and causes them to revolve.

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  • As they rotate they roll themselves up the pairs of bands which are attached to the top of the casting, and at the same time cause the leaden weights attached to the bottoms of the cylinders to take up a lateral position, where they exercise a leverage opposing the motion of the cylinders, and bringing them up in a definite position corre - sponding to the pull of the vertical rod.

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  • By the rolling of the cylinders up the vertical bands from the casting the cylinders are raised vertically through a space defined by the position of the leaden regulators.

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  • By means of suitable and simple mechanism this vertical movement of the cylinders works plunger pistons in a pair of cylinders which contain glycerin, and these deaden the vibrations of the machinery while weighing is going on.

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  • These vessels consist of two vertical cylinders joined at the bottom by a short tube.

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  • The telescopic form consists of two or more lifts which slide in one another, and may be described as a single lift holder encircled by other cylinders of slightly larger diameter, but of about the same length.

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  • On monuments and cylinders he is represented as armed with the weapon with which he despatched the monster Tiamat.

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  • The stem, from the ground tissue of which sclerenchyma is absent, has a complicated system of steles arranged in concentric circles; the thick roots, the central cylinders of which have several alternating groups of xylem and phloem, arise in relation to these.

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  • G.) From Egypt the figure of the sphinx passed to Assyria, where it appears with a bearded male head on cylinders; the female sphinx, lying down and furnished with wings, is first found in the palace of Esar-haddon (7th cent.

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  • It may be mentioned here that on the first of these sites a cuneiform tablet belonging to the Amarna series was discovered; at Gezer, a deed of sale; at Tell-el-Hasy the remains of a Babylonian stele, three seals, and three cylinders with Babylonian mythological representations; at Tell-el-Mutasellim, a seal bearing a Babylonian legend, and at Taannek, twelve tablets and fragments of tablets were found near the fragments of the terracotta box in which they were stored.

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  • The seeds and nuts are then decorticated (where required), the shells removed, and the kernels ("meats") converted into a pulpy mass or meal (in older establishments by crushing and grinding between stones in edge-runners) on passing through a hopper over rollers consisting of five chilled iron or steel cylinders mounted vertically like the bowls of a calendar.

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  • The presses having perforated cylinders, although presenting mechanically a more perfect arrangement, are not preferable to the press cages formed by staves, as the holes become easily clogged up by the meal, when the cylinder must be carefully cleaned out.

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  • 2379) would necessitate the employment of a great volume, with extremely large and mechanically inefficient cylinders and apparatus.

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  • The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of power.

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  • Microsauria, nearest the reptiles, with persistent notochord completely surrounded by constricted cylinders on which the neural arch rests.

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  • Branchiosauria, nearest to the true batrachians; with persistent non-constricted notochord, surrounded by barrel-shaped, bony cylinders formed by the neural arch above and a pair of intercentra below, both these elements taking an equal share in the formation of a transverse process on each side for the support of the rib.

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  • The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history.

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  • The space between the two cylinders serves as a heater and distributor for the blast, which is introduced through the nozzle at the bottom, and enters the furnace through a series of several small tuyeres arranged round the inner lining.

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  • The cast fires on all cylinders and is aided by a fine witty script which crackles with pathos.

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  • Flavored butters also enliven grills and pan-fried steaks and can be shaped into cylinders and frozen for use at a later date.

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  • Water is pumped out of the cylinders until the entire assembly lifts up in the water, pulling the tethers taut.

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  • Lastly, some of the Urie bogie tenders and all of the straight-sided bogie ones had vacuum storage cylinders behind the coal space.

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  • Cylinders - buckling under compression, bending, torsion with internal pressure, collapse under external pressure.

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  • The front valance has been taken off to allow easier access to the cylinders.

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  • The standard of course is the long rectangular aquarium, but aquariums now also come in such shapes as octagons, cylinders and cubes.

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  • Tall glass cylinders full of winter Cymbidium orchids provide a modern twist to the festivities.

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  • The styles range from funky-colored glass droplets to elegant nickel-plated cylinders or frosted globes, and are usually suspended from above by a cord, chain, or extendable stem.

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  • Track lights are so much more than a metal bar with large light cylinders hung every few feet.

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  • The Meflecto system, a flexible stem made of "nylon or metal cylinders intersected by a stainless steel core providing absolute comfort and adaptability to any face," according to the Persol website.

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  • These extensions are held together with metal cylinders, which are slipped around your natural hair and locked together.

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  • They come in two and three-wick cylinders.

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  • In 2004 alone, 13,000 legal actions were taken against counterfeiters; 6,000 raids were undertaken, resulting in 947 arrests and the seizure of several fake printing cylinders.

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  • As far as fuel efficiency, experts gave kudos to its cylinder deactivation technology that shuts down half of the cylinders at cruising speed saving on energy and fuel.

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  • This is when the friction between the pistons and the cylinders of your engine overheat so much that the engine completely breaks down and will require a complete rebuild to get it running again.

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  • Nobody likes a squishy robot!Amigurumi characters are crocheted with continuous spirals to create balls, cones, and cylinders and similar objects.

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  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.

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  • With " very hard " water this deposit may require removal every three months; in London it is usual to clean out the boiler every six months and the cylinders and tanks at longer intervals.

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  • The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.

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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.

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  • The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.

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  • The first engines of this class were provided with high-pressure cylinders, i i in.

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  • A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.

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  • For example, Wilde produced copper printing surfaces for calico printing-rollers and the like by immersing rotating iron cylinders as cathodes in a copper bath.

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  • Elmore, Dumoulin, Cowper-Coles and others have prepared copper cylinders and plates by depositing copper on rotating mandrels with special arrangements.

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  • The diameter of the cylinders is such that each alone is capable of starting the load.

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  • The cylinders are generally single-expansion, though compound engines are occasionally used for heavy work.

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