The drawing room had crystal cylinder vases strategically placed all around, filled with large parrot tulips of every shade.
In accordance with the expressed desire of the philosopher, his tomb was marked by the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder, the discovery of the relation between the volumes of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder being regarded by him as his most valuable achievement.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
Air is drawn by an aspirator between the surfaces, and the ions having the opposite sign to the inner cylinder are deposited on it.
The charge given up to the inner cylinder is known from its loss of potential.
A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.
There is a hole in the webframe which smoothly fits the larger cylinder at /3', and another which similarly fits the smaller cylinder at -y'.
9) by holes 7), 0 in the ends of the box, which fit the cylinder closely and smoothly.
The cylinder is rigidly fixed in the studs C, C, and these are attached to the foundation plate f.
The cylinder contains towards n a sliding rod, and towards 0 a compressed spiral spring.
The end-plane of this cylinder receives the pressure of the micrometer screw, so that by turning the small drum-head the coincidence-reading of the movable web with the fixed web can be changed, and thus any given angle can be measured with different FIG.
Every installation is made up of a boiler or other water heater, a tank or cylinder to contain the water when heated, and a cistern of cold water, the supply from which to the system is regulated automatically by a ball valve.
The flow pipe starts from the top of the boiler and is connected near the top of the cylinder, the return pipe joining the lower portions of the cylinder and boiler.
The supply from the cold water cistern enters the bottom of the cylinder, and thence travels by way of the return pipe to the boiler, where it is heated, and back through the flow pipe to the cylinder, which is thus soon filled with hot water.
A flow pipe which serves also for expansion is taken from the top of the cylinder to a point above the cold - water supply and turned down to prevent the ingress of dirt.
12 the cylinder is placed in proximity to the boiler; this is the usual and most effective method, but it may be placed some distance away if desired.
The tank system is of much earlier date than this cylinder system, and although the two resemble each other in many respects, the tank system is in practice the less effective.
This method differs from that adopted in the cylinder system, where all services are led from the top of the cylinder.
A suitable proportion between the size of the tank or cylinder and that of the boiler is 8 or io to 1.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.
In order to be sure that the heat was not due to the action of the air upon the newly exposed metallic surface, the cylinder and the end of the boring bar were immersed in 18-77 lb.
There are three Li ting - typical methods: (I) A direct pull may be applied to the hook, either by screws, or by a cylinder fitted with is piston and rod and actuated by direct hydraulic or other pressure, as shown diagrammatically in fig.
(2) The hook may be attached to a rope or chain, and the pulling cylinder connected with a system of pulleys around which the rope is led; by these means the lift can be very largely increased.
2 gives a lift of load four times the stroke of the cylinder.
The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within very wide limits and with perfect safety.
In steam cranes it is usual to work all the motions from one double cylinder engine.
This drawback can be corrected to a slight extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder, and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same economical range of load "as in an electric crane.
8) the copper strand is passed through a vessel A containing melted Chatterton's compound, then through the cylinder C, in which a quantity of gutta percha, purified by repeated washing in hot water, by facture.
As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure
The coated wire is treated in the same way as the copper strand - the die D, or another of the same size, being placed at the back of the cylinder and a larger one substituted at the front.
In the Korn apparatus the light from a Nernst electric lamp is concentrated to a point by means of a lens on the original picture, which is wound on a glass cylinder in the shape of a transparent photographic film.
A totally reflecting prism placed inside the glass cylinder projects the light which penetrates the film upon a selenium cell situated at the end of the cylinder.
At the receiving station a cylinder - which revolves synchronously with the transmitting cylinder - is covered with a photographic film or paper, upon a point of which a pencil of light from a Nernst lamp is concentrated.
The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.
The telephone used was Edison's chalk cylinder or electromotograph type of telephone.
Fleming invented in 1904 a detector called an oscillation valve or glow lamp detector made as follows: 1 A small carbon filament incandescent lamp has a platinum plate or cylinder placed in it surrounding or close to the filament.
The current from the line was made to pass through the spring and paper to the cylinder.
A cylinder of chalk was used in some of Edison's later experiments with this receiver.
This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.
This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
In Cat harinea undulata the central h drom cylinder of the aerial stem is a loose tissue, its interstices being filled up with thin-walled, starchy parenchyma.
In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.
In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.
This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue.
Scattered single stereids or bundles of fibres are no imnrornmnn in the rnrtev of the root The innermost layer of the cortex, abutting on the central cylinder of the stem or on the bundles of the leaves, is called the jthloeoterma, and is often differentiated.
the xylem coming to the surface of the cylinder, ~dS;
The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).
The whole cylinder is enclosed by the peculiarly differentiated innermost cell-layer of the cortex, known as the endodermis.
1, v.), so that the endodermal cells cannot be split apart to admit of the formation of intercellular spaces, and an air-tight sheath is formed round the cylinder.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described.
Sometimes a complete internal vascular cylinder, having the same structure as the primary one, and concentric with it, occurs in the pith, and others may appear, internal to the first (Matonia, Saccoloma).
In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described.
The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith.
they can be traced upwards from any given point till they are found to pass out of the cylinder, travel through the cortex of the stem and enter a leaf.
The remaining bundles (compensation bundles) which go to make up the cylinder are such as have branched off from the leaf-traces, and will, after joining with others similarly given off, themselves form the traces of leaves situated at a higher level on the stem.
Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.
It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.
In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.
the initials of the cortex and central cylinder Whether these art always in layers which remain separate is not known, but it is certair that in many cases such layers cannot be distinguished.
separation between the young cylinder (plerome) and young corte1 (periblem), the latter having one or more layers of initials at th actual apex.
Where a large-celled pith is developed this often becomes obvious very early, and in some cases it appears to have separate initials situated below those of the hollow vascular cylinder.
The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions.
The periblem, one cell thick at the apex, produces the cortex, to which the piliferous layer belongs in Monocotyledons; and the plerome, which is nearly always sharply separated from the periblem, gives rise to the vascular cylinder.
The protoxylems and the phloem strands are developed alternately, just within the outer limit of the young cylinder.
The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character.
Wood thus altered is known as heart-wood, or duramen, as distinguished from the young sap-wood, or alburnum, which, forming a cylinder next the cambium, remains alive and carries on the active functions of the xylem, particularly the conduction of water.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
The indicated horse-power developed by a cylinder may always be ascertained from an indicator diagram and observations of the speed.
Let p be the mean pressure in pounds per square inch, calculated from an indicator diagram taken from a particular cylinder when the speed of the crank-shaft is n revolutions per second.
Also let l be the length of the stroke in feet and let a be the area of one cylinder in square inches, then, assuming two cylinders of equal size, I.H.P. =2 planl550 (8) The I.H.P. at any instant is equal to the total rate at which energy is required to overcome the tractive resistance R.
The plotting of the torque curve is laborious, but the average torque acting, which is all that is required for the purposes of this article, can be found quite simply, thus: - Let p be the mean effective pressure acting in one cylinder, a, the area of the cylinder, and 1, the stroke.
Then the work done during one revolution of the crank is 2pla per cylinder.
Assuming that the mean pressure in the other cylinder is also p, the total work done per revolution is 4pla.
Hence, if p is the maximum value of the mean effective pressure corresponding to about 85% of the boiler pressure,, uW = pd 2 le /D (26) is an expression giving a relation between the total weight on the coupled wheels, their diameters and the size of the cylinder.
Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
It was of the same type as Mallet's engine, and was made by simply bushing one cylinder of an ordinary two-cylinder simple engine, the bushed cylinder being the high-pressure and the other cylinder the low-pressure cylinder.
inch absolute There were two high-pressure cylinders placed outside the frames and driving on a trailing wheel, and one low-pressure cylinder placed between the frames and driving on a wheel placed in front of the driving-wheel belonging to the highpressure cylinders.
The steam connexions were such that the two high-pressure cylinders were placed in parallel, both exhausting into the one low-pressure cylinder.
stroke, a low-pressure cylinder 26 in.
Generally steam from the boiler is admitted direct to the low-pressure cylinder through a reducing valve, and valves and devices are used to prevent the steam so admitted acting as a back pressure on the high-pressure cylinder.
In these there are two lowpressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and one highpressure cylinder placed between the frames.
A highand low-pressure cylinder are cast together, and the piston-rods belonging to them are both coupled to one cross-head which is connected to the driving-wheels, these again being coupled to other wheels in the usual way.
for a simple two-cylinder engine, and cylinder volume is slightly increased with the necessary accompaniment of heavier loads on the coupled wheels to give the necessary adhesion.
There is a general increase in cylinder power, boiler pressure and weight, and in consequence in the number of coupled axles.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
Their kingdom cannot have been of large extent, as Nabonidus in a contemporary inscription (Cylinder from Abu Habba, VR.
The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.
h, The mantle-skirt reflected over the sides branchia the mouth-bearing cylinder is in C, Head, the letter placed near the right eye.
(From Owen.) cylinder, but have a simple non-introversible rostrum, as it has been termed, which is also the condition presented by the mouth-bearing region in nearly all other Gastropoda.
After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder, armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.
" The ordinary sand-pump or bailer, consists of a plain cylinder of light galvanized iron with a bail at the top and a stem-valve at the bottom.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
(2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in dissolving an accurately determined weight, and making up the volume in a graduated cylinder or flask to a known volume.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
Some of the rubber having been placed in the annular space between the inner cylinder and the outer casing, the former is made to revolve; and the continued kneading action to which the rubber is subjected works it into a solid mass, something like a gigantic sausage.
The inner cylinder is generally placed somewhat excentrically in the outer casing, in order to render the kneading more perfect than would otherwise be the case.
Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.
These may number some thousands, and they are usually bent over and tend to form a closed cylinder of the gutter.
When therefore sensible uniformity is desired, the radius of the ring should he large in relation to that of the convolutions, or the ring should have the form of a short cylinder with thin walls.
If a hollow sphere 7 of which the outer radius is R and the inner radius r is placed in a uniform field Ho, the field inside will also be uniform and in the same direction as Ho, and its value will be approximately 3 i - R 3 For a cylinder placed with its axis at right angles to the lines of force, 2 = Ho (41) 2 +4(-2)(i - R2) These expressions show that the thicker the screen and the greater its permeability o, the more effectual will be the shielding action.
A primary coil of length 1, having n turns, is wound upon a cylinder made of non-conducting and non-magnetic material, and upon the middle of the primary a secondary or induction coil is closely fitted.
One pole has a V-shaped notch for the rod to rest in; the surface of the other is slightly rounded, forming a portion of a cylinder, the axis of which is perpendicular to the direction of the length of the rod.
In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.
It is equal to the actual diameter of the cylinder of rays admitted by a telescope.
Cyrus appears in the unassailably authentic cylinder inscription "as a complete religious indifferentist, willing to go through any amount of ceremonies to soothe the prejudices of a susceptible population."
Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.
Hydraulic pumping engines, while not differing essentially from steam pumps, must have specially designed valves in the power cylinder on account of the incompressibility of water.
The simplest forms of pumps employed for forcing liquids are "plunger pumps," consisting essentially of a piston moving in a cylinder, provided with inlet and outlet pipes, together with certain valves.
i shows the arrangement in a suction pump. A is the cylinder within which the piston B is moved up and down by the rod C. D is the inlet pipe (the lower extremity of which is placed beneath the surface of the liquid to be G removed), and G is the outlet pipe.
E is a valve in the inlet pipe opening into the cylinder; and A the piston is perforated by one or more holes, each fitted with valves opening outwards on its upper surface.
On raising the piston, the valve F remains closed and a vacuum tends to be created in the cylinder, but the pressure of the atmosphere forces the liquid up the tube D and it raises the valve E and passes into the cylinder.
On reversing the motion the valve E closes and the liquid is forced through the valve F to the upper part of the cylinder.
On again raising the piston, more liquid enters the lower part of the cylinder, whilst the previously raised liquid is ejected from the delivery pipe.
In practice it may be considerably less, owing to leakage at the valves and between the piston and cylinder.
In this case the piston is solid, and the outlet pipe, G which is placed at the bottom of the cylinder, has a valve F opening outwards, the inlet pipe and valve are the same as before.
On raising the piston the liquid rises in the cylinder, the valve E opening and F remaining shut.
It consisted of a spherical glass vessel opening below by means of a stop-cock and narrow nozzle into the cylinder of an "exhausting syringe," which inclined upwards from the extremity of the nozzle.
The cylinder, in which a well-fitting piston worked, was provided at its lower end with two valves.
One of these opened from the nozzle into the cylinder, the other from the cylinder into the outside air.
During the down-stroke of the piston the former was pressed home, so that no air entered the nozzle and vessel, while the latter was forced open by the air which so escaped from the cylinder.
During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.
Thus, at every complete stroke of the piston, the air in the vessel or receiver was diminished by that fraction of itself which is expressed by the ratio of the volume of the available cylindrical space above the outward opening valve to the whole volume of receiver, nozzle and cylinder.
This type of pump is, however, not very efficient, for there is not only leakage about the valves and between the piston and cylinder, but at a certain degree of exhaust the air within the vessel is insufficient to raise the inlet valve; this last defect has been met in some measure by using an extension of the piston to open and close the valve.
The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.
The piston, provided with a valve opening upwards, is packed in the cylinder by a leather cup which is securely pressed against the sides of the cylinder by the atmospheric pressure.
The piston rod passes through a valve in the upper part of the cylinder which is held to its seat by a spring.
The inlet pipe enters an elliptical vessel which communicates with the cylinder a little way up from its base, whilst at the base there is a relief tube leading into the elliptical vessel already mentioned.
Oil is placed both above the upper valve seating, and also in the cylinder up to the height of the lower edge of the inlet pipe.
Guinand, towards the end of the 18th century, by introducing the process of stirring the molten glass by means of a cylinder of fireclay.
For this purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and is then introduced into the molten glass.
The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved.
The stirring is therefore discontinued and the clay cylinder is either left embedded in the glass, or by the exercise of considerable force it may be gradually withdrawn.
When this is the case the gathering is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed of the viscous mass.
From the hemispherical shape the mass of glass is now gradually blown into the form of a short cylinder, and then the pipe with the adherent mass of glass is handed.
In this way the glass is extended into the form of a long cylinder closed at the lower end.
The size of cylinder which can be produced in this way depends chiefly upon the dimensions of the working platform and the weight which a man is able to handle freely.
The lower end of the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open.
The blower then heats the end of the cylinder again and rapidly spins the pipe about its axis; the centrifugal effect is sufficient to spread the soft glass at the end to a radius equal to that of the rest of the cylinder.
In the case of large and thick cylinders, however, another process of opening the ends is generally employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the diameter of the whole as described above.
The finished cylinder is next carried to a rack and the pipe detached from it by applying a cold iron to the neck of thick hot glass which connects pipe-butt and cylinder, the neck cracking at the touch.
Next, the rest of the connecting neck is detached from the cylinder by the application of a heated iron to the chilled glass.
This leaves a cylinder with roughly parallel ends; these ends are cut by the use of a diamond applied internally and then the cylinder is split longitudinally by the same means.
Flashed glass is produced by taking either the first or the last gathering in the production of a cylinder out of a crucible containing the coloured " metal," the other gatherings being taken out of ordinary white sheet-glass.
A full account of the process of blowing crown-glass will be found in all older books and articles on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, is blown into a flattened sphere, which is caused to burst at the point opposite the pipe and is then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front of a very hot furnace-opening, caused to expand into a flat disk of large diameter.
What came out below was a compact cylinder with a rounded bottom, consisting of so many layers superimposed upon one another.
Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts, - the first, which he called the " cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical vessel.
Afterwards, when the metal has risen above B, to the level KK', the additional thrust is the weight of the cylinder of diameter KK' and height BH.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.
Example z.-Liquid motion past a circular cylinder.
Then 4, =o over the cylinder r = a, which may be considered a fixed post; and a stream line past it along which 4, = Uc, a constant, is the curve (r - ¢2) sin 0=c, (x2 + y2) (y - c) - a 2 y = o, (3) a cubic curve (C3).
Over a concentric cylinder, external or internal, of radius r=b, 4,'=4,+ Uly =[U I - + Ui]y, (4) and 4" is zero if U 1 /U = (a 2 - b2)/b 2; (5) so that the cylinder may swim for an instant in the liquid without distortion, with this velocity Ui; and w in (I) will give the liquid motion in the interspace between the fixed cylinder r =a and the concentric cylinder r=b, moving with velocity U1.
If the liquid is reduced to rest at infinity by the superposition of an opposite stream given by w = - Uz, we are left with w = Ua2/z, (6) =U(a 2 /r) cos 0= Ua2x/(x2+y2), (7) 4, = -U(a 2 /r) sin 0= -Ua2y/( x2+y2), (8) giving the motion due to the passage of the cylinder r=a with velocity U through the origin 0 in the direction Ox.
208.) If 01 denotes the velocity function of the liquid filling the cylinder r = b, and moving bodily with it with velocity Ul, 41 = -U1x, (12) and over the separating surface r =b 4, = I U (+- a2) a2 +b2 (13) 1 Ul b2 - a 2 ...
Consequently the inertia to overcome in moving the cylinder r=b, solid or liquid, is its own inertia, increased by the inertia of liquid (a2+b2)/(a2,..b2) times the volume of the cylinder r=b; this total inertia is called the effective inertia of the cylinder r =b, at the instant the two cylinders are concentric.
When the cylinder r =a is moved with velocity U and r =b with velocity U 1 along Ox, = U b e - a,1 r +0 cos 0 - U ib2 - 2 a, (r +Q 2 ') cos 0, = - U be a2 a2 (b 2 - r) sin 0 - Uib2 b1)a, (r - ¢2 sin 0; b and similarly, with velocity components V and V 1 along Oy a 2 b2 ?= Vb,_a,(r+r) sin g -Vi b, b2 a, (r+ 2) sin 0, (17) = V b, a2 a, (b2 r) cos 0+Vi b, b, a, (r- ¢ 2) cos h; (18) and then for the resultant motion z 2zz w= (U 2 + V2)b2a a2U+Vi +b a b a2 U z Vi -(U12+V12) b2 z a2b2 Ui +VIi b 2 - a 2 U1 +Vii b 2 - a 2 z The resultant impulse of the liquid on the cylinder is given by the component, over r=a (§ 36), X =f p4 cos 0.ad0 =7rpa 2 (U b z 2 + a 2 Uib.2bz a2); (20) and over r =b Xi= fp?
Then, if the outside cylinder is free to move - 2a2 2 X 1 = 0, T T = b2 a2, 7rpa 2 Ub 2+ a 2.
(22) But if the outside cylinder is moved with velocity U1, and the inside cylinder is solid or filled with liquid of density v, 2 U i 2pb2 and the inside cylinder starts forward or backward with respect to the outside cylinder, according as p> or < v.
(7) Thus with g=o, the cylinder will describe a circle with angular velocity 2pw/(a+p), so that the radius is (a+p)v/2pw, if the velocity is v.
With v=o, the angular velocity of the cylinder is 2w; in this way the velocity may be calculated of the propagation of ripples and waves on the surface of a vertical whirlpool in a sink.
Another explanation may be given of the sidelong force, arising from the velocity of liquid past a cylinder, which is encircled by a vortex.
The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.
Similarly, the streaming velocity V reversed will give rise to a thrust 27rpmV in the direction xC. Now if the cylinder is released, and the components U and V are reversed so as to become the velocity of the cylinder with respect +m /a) 2 - U2 The components of the liquid velocity q, in the direction of the normal of the ellipse n and hyperbola t, are -mJi sh(n--a)cos(r-a),mJ2 ch(n-a) sin (E-a).
With #=o, the stream is parallel to xo, and 4)=m ch (n-a)cos = - Uc ch (n-a) sh n cos /sh (n-a) (22) over the cylinder n, and as in (12) § 29, =-Ux =-Uc ch n cos t, (23) for liquid filling the cylinder; and _ th n (14) 01 th (7 7 - a) ' over the surface of n; so that parallel to Ox, the effective inertia of the cylinder n, displacing M' liquid, is increased by M'thn/th(n-a), reducing when a= oo to /If' th n = M' (b/a).
For the liquid filling the interior of a rotating elliptic cylinder of cross section x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1, /(4) = m l (x 2 / a2 - - y2 /b 2) (5) with V21G1' =-2R =-2 m 1 (I / a2 + 21b2), 214 = m l (x2 / a2 + y2 / b2) - IR(x2+y2) = I R (x2 - y2) (a 2 - b2)/(a2+b2), cp 1 = Rxy (a 2 - b2)/(a2 +b2), w1 = cb1 +% Pli = - IiR(x +yi)2(a2b2)/(a2+b2).
x+yi =c1,1 [sin(+ 7 ni)] (17) i ' =Qc sh((n-a)sin((E-,6) (18) 'will give motion streaming past the fixed cylinder n = a, and dividing along t =43; and then x 2 -3/ 2 = c 2 sin ch n, 2xy = c 2 cos sh n.
Example 4.- Parabolic cylinder, axial advance, and liquid streaming past.
(9) a 5 ` = 2 (I -) y a x, or Uy (1- - 2 Y a 4 4) a, (io) for a sphere or cylinder, and a diametral plane.
The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.
ZI /t = - (a - s) M'Q 2 sine cos ° - EQ sin() =[ - (a - (3)M'U+E]V (8) Now suppose the cylinder is free; the additional forces acting on the body are the components of kinetic reaction of the liquid - aM' (Ç_vR), - (3M' (-- E -FUR), - EC' dR, (9) so that its equations of motion are M (Ç - vR) _ - aM' (_vR) - (a - $) M'VR, (io) M (Ç+uR) = - OM' (dV+U R) - (a - ()M'UR - R, '(II) C dR = dR + (a - Q)M'UV+0V; (12) and putting as before M+aM'=ci, M+13M' = c2, C+EC'=C3, ci dU - c2VR=o, dV +(c1U+E)R=o, c 3 dR - (c 1 U+ - c 2 U)V =o; showing the modification of the equations of plane motion, due to the component E of the circulation.
192, resembling the trochoidal curves, which can be looped, investigated in § 29 for the motion of a cylinder under gravity, when surrounded by a vortex.
Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
The sugar fed into the upper end of the cylinder gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itself upon the heated central cylinder.
(I) Let a spiral line be drawn on a right circular cylinder; a screw surface is then obtained by drawing lines from every point of this spiral perpendicular to its axis.
(2) A right cylinder having for its base an Archimedean spiral is intersected by a right circular cone which has the generating line of the cylinder passing through the initial point of the spiral for its axis.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
The solenoid was above the iron cylinder, the supporting rod of which passed through it as a core.
Immediately the current passed through the solenoid it caused the iron cylinder to rise, and, by means of its supporting rod, forced the end of the balance beam upwards, so depressing the other end that the negative carbon rod was forced downwards into contact with the metal in the crucible.
At once the attractive force of the solenoid on the iron cylinder was automatically reduced, and the falling of the latter caused the negative carbon to rise, starting an arc between it and the metal in the crucible.
Any change in the resistance of the arc, either by lengthening, due to the sinking of the charge in the crucible, or by the burning of the carbon, affected the proportion of current flowing in the two shunt circuits, and so altered the position of the iron cylinder in the solenoid that the length of arc was, within limits, automatically regulated.
1, p. 25) obtained a purer product by heating the chloride with sodium in a steel cylinder; it then formed yellow scales.
The condenser consists of a vertical cylinder having manifolds at the head and foot and through which a number of tubes pass.
9, C), while in the Ctenostomata it is guarded by a delicate membrane similar to a piece of paper rolled into a longitudinally creased cylinder.
If we consider a length l of the cylinder, the charge Q on the inner cylinder is Q=27rR l ly, where v is the surface density, and by Coulomb's law v = E i /47r, where E 1 = A/R 1 is the force at the surface of the inner Ai cylinder.
If then the outer cylinder be at zero potential the potential V of the inner one is V =A log (R 2 /R 1), and its capacity C =1/2 log R2/R1.
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
Then when the inner cylinder is at potential V 1 and the outer one kept at of two potential V 2 the lines of electric force between the cylinders Q (4).
Then let a small, very short cylinder be described of which dS is a section, and the generating lines are normal to the surface.
But the force perpendicular to the curved surface of this cylinder is everywhere zero.
The older, devised by Hooke in 1667, is provided with valves above and below, both opening upward, through which the water passes freely during descent, but which are closed by some device on hauling up. The newer or slip water-bottle type consists of a cylinder allowed to drop on to a base-plate when a sample is tro be collected.
The first form of slip water-bottle due to Meyer retained the water merely by the weight of the cylinder pressing on the base-plate.
Buchanan introduced an improved form on the " Challenger," also remaining closed by weight, the cylinder being very heavy and ground to fit the bevelled base-plate very accurately.
The shaft is lined with a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular chamber, provided with doors above and below, known as an P g air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly sinkin packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
The drum, when round ropes are used, is a plain broad cylinder, with flanged rims, and cased with soft wood packing, upon which the rope is coiled; the breadth is made sufficient to take the whole length of the rope at two laps.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about T h.
They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.
A similar explosion will frequently follow the breaking in the same way of a cylinder charged with hydrogen at a high pressure.
When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
The chief trouble was that acetone expands a small percentage of its own volume while it is absorbing acetylene; therefore it is impossible to fill a cylinder with acetone and then force in acetylene, and still more impracticable only partly to fill the cylinder with acetone, as in that case the space above the liquid would be filled with acetylene under high pressure, and would have all the disadvantages of a cylinder containing compressed acetylene only.
This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.
This is well shown by taking a cylinder one-half full of acetylene and one-half of air; on applying a light to the mixture a lurid flame runs down the cylinder and a cloud of soot is thrown up, the cylinder also being thickly coated with it, and often containing a ball of carbon.
If now, after a few moments' interval to allow some air to diffuse into the cylinder, a taper again be applied, an explosion takes place, due to a mixture of carbon monoxide and air.
Each of the molecules enumerated in expression (9) will move parallel to the edge of this cylinder, and each will describe a length equal to its edge in time dt.
Thus each of these molecules which is initially inside the cylinder, will impinge on the area dS within an interval dt.
The cylinder is of volume u dt dS, so that the product of this and expression (9) must give the number of impacts between the area dS and molecules of the kind under consideration within the interval dt.
This machine depended simply on the pressure of water acting directly in a cylinder on a piston, which was connected with suitable multiplying gear.
Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
The filtering medium in this, as in other filters of the same kind, takes the form of a hollow cylinder or "candle," through the walls of which the water has to pass from the outside to the inside, the candles often being arranged so that they may be directly attached to a tap, whereby the rate of flow, which is apt to be slow, is accelerated by the pressure of the main.
That the area of a parallelogram is equal to the area of a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels, or that the volume of a cone is one-third that of a cylinder on the same base and of the same height, may be established by a proof which is admitted to be rigorous, or be accepted in good faith without proof, and yet fail to be a matter of conviction, even though there may be a clear conception of the relative lengths of the diagonal and the side of a square or of the relative contents of two vessels of different shapes.
(ii) Developable surfaces, such as the cylinder and the cone, form a special class, so far as the calculation of their area is concerned.
By considering the circle as the limit of a polygon, it follows that the formulae (iii) and (v) of § 26 hold for a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone; i.e.
volume of right circular cylinder =length X area of base; volume of right circular cone = height X a area of base.
These formulae also hold for any right cylinder and any cone.
The curved surfaces of the cylinder and of the cone are developable surfaces; i.e.
The total surface of the cylinder is 41ra 2 +ira 2 +lra 2= 61ra 2, and its volume is 2a.7ra 2 =27ra 3 .
The " muffle," a graphite cylinder 6 in.
Archytas of Tarentum (c. 430 B.C.) solved the problems by means of sections of a half cylinder; according to Eutocius, Menaechmus solved them by means of the intersections of conic sections; and Eudoxus also gave a solution.
It may be noticed that a Thamudaean legend has been found on a Babylonian cylinder of about woo B.C., and it is remarkable that the Sabaean satara, " write," seems to be borrowed from Assyrian shataru.
It consists of a cylindrical chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting outwards, and Siren of intended for supplying the cavity of the cylinder with Cagniard de compressed air or other gas, or even liquid.
of the cylinder is formed of a plate perforated near its edge by holes distributed uniformly in a circle concentric with the plate, and which are cut obliquely through the thickness of the plate.
are immediately above those in the fixed plate, and let the bellows by which air is forced into the cylinder (air, for simplicity, being supposed to be the fluid employed) be put in action; then the air in its passage will strike the side of each opening in the movable plate in an oblique direction (as shown in fig.
This will go on continually as long as air is supplied to the cylinder, and the velocity of rotation of the upper plate will be accelerated up to a certain maximum, at which it may be maintained by keeping the force of the current constant.
190), consisting of a cylinder which may be coated The Revol- with lamp-black, or, better still, a metallic cylinder ving Drum.
The cylinder is mounted on an axis and turned round, while the style attached to the vibrating body is in light contact with it, and traces therefore a wavy circle, which, on taking off the paper and flattening it, becomes a wavy straight line.
The superiority of this arrangement arises from the comparative facility with which the number of revolutions of the cylinder in a given time may be ascertained.
Koenig's arrangement (Quelques experiences d'acoustique, p. I) the axis of the cylinder is fashioned as a screw, which works in fixed nuts at the ends, causing a sliding as well as a rotatory motion of the cylinder.
The lines traced out by the vibrating pointer are thus prevented from overlapping when more than one turn is given to the cylinder.
To the centre of this membrane is attached a small feather-fibre, which, when the reflector is suitably placed, touches lightly the surface of the revolving cylinder.
p. I), a cylinder is ruled with equidistant white lines parallel to the axis on a black ground.
Imagine now that a fork with black prongs is held near the cylinder with its prongs vertical and the plane of vibration parallel to.
Let the cylinder be rotated so that each white line moves exactly into the place of the next while the prong moves once in and out.
Hence when a white line is in a particular position on the cylinder, the prong will always be the same distance along it and cut off the same length from view.
The boundary between, the grey cylinder and the black fork will therefore appear wavy with fixed undulations, the distance from crest to crest being the distance between the lines on the cylinder.
If the fork has slightly greater frequency, then a white line will not quite reach the next place while the fork is making its swing ip and out, and the waves will travel against the motion of the cylinder.
To these illustrations it is unsafe to add the scene on a cylinder preserved in the British Museum, representing two figures, a See Jastrow, Rel.
- Cylinder, Charing security against deep scouring of the river-bed in floods.
It was a cylinder of parchment of about the diameter of a coachwheel, and was literally rolled up on the floor of the house.
The apparatus described in the patent specification is an iron cylinder heated by gas rings below, with a narrower cylinder beneath, through which passes upwards a stout iron cathode rod cemented in place by caustic soda solidified in the narrower vessel.
Iron anodes are suspended around the cathode, and between the two is a cylinder of iron gauze at the bottom with a sheet-iron continuation above, the latter being provided with a movable cover.
During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.
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