Cylinder Sentence Examples
The charge given up to the inner cylinder is known from its loss of potential.
The drawing room had crystal cylinder vases strategically placed all around, filled with large parrot tulips of every shade.
A cylinder of chalk was used in some of Edison's later experiments with this receiver.
This drawback can be corrected to a slight extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder, and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same economical range of load "as in an electric crane.
The cylinder is rigidly fixed in the studs C, C, and these are attached to the foundation plate f.Advertisement
Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.
A flow pipe which serves also for expansion is taken from the top of the cylinder to a point above the cold - water supply and turned down to prevent the ingress of dirt.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within very wide limits and with perfect safety.Advertisement
In the Korn apparatus the light from a Nernst electric lamp is concentrated to a point by means of a lens on the original picture, which is wound on a glass cylinder in the shape of a transparent photographic film.
In steam cranes it is usual to work all the motions from one double cylinder engine.
As the wire is pulled through, a coating of gutta-percha, the thickness of which is regulated by the die D, is pressed out of the cylinder by applying the requisite pressure
The cylinder contains towards n a sliding rod, and towards 0 a compressed spiral spring.
In Cat harinea undulata the central h drom cylinder of the aerial stem is a loose tissue, its interstices being filled up with thin-walled, starchy parenchyma.Advertisement
A steel cylinder (about the thickness of a goose-quill), which forms the micrometer screw, has two threads cut upon it, one-half being cut with a thread double the pitch of the other.
The supply from the cold water cistern enters the bottom of the cylinder, and thence travels by way of the return pipe to the boiler, where it is heated, and back through the flow pipe to the cylinder, which is thus soon filled with hot water.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
In order to be sure that the heat was not due to the action of the air upon the newly exposed metallic surface, the cylinder and the end of the boring bar were immersed in 18-77 lb.
The telephone used was Edison's chalk cylinder or electromotograph type of telephone.Advertisement
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
Scattered single stereids or bundles of fibres are no imnrornmnn in the rnrtev of the root The innermost layer of the cortex, abutting on the central cylinder of the stem or on the bundles of the leaves, is called the jthloeoterma, and is often differentiated.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
The end-plane of this cylinder receives the pressure of the micrometer screw, so that by turning the small drum-head the coincidence-reading of the movable web with the fixed web can be changed, and thus any given angle can be measured with different FIG.
The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).Advertisement
The tank system is of much earlier date than this cylinder system, and although the two resemble each other in many respects, the tank system is in practice the less effective.
This method differs from that adopted in the cylinder system, where all services are led from the top of the cylinder.
A totally reflecting prism placed inside the glass cylinder projects the light which penetrates the film upon a selenium cell situated at the end of the cylinder.
At the receiving station a cylinder - which revolves synchronously with the transmitting cylinder - is covered with a photographic film or paper, upon a point of which a pencil of light from a Nernst lamp is concentrated.
This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.
The whole cylinder is enclosed by the peculiarly differentiated innermost cell-layer of the cortex, known as the endodermis.
The current from the line was made to pass through the spring and paper to the cylinder.
This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.
The periblem, one cell thick at the apex, produces the cortex, to which the piliferous layer belongs in Monocotyledons; and the plerome, which is nearly always sharply separated from the periblem, gives rise to the vascular cylinder.
The protoxylems and the phloem strands are developed alternately, just within the outer limit of the young cylinder.
The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character.
Then the work done during one revolution of the crank is 2pla per cylinder.
Assuming that the mean pressure in the other cylinder is also p, the total work done per revolution is 4pla.
If the solution in the cylinder be kept saturated by the presence FIG.
Deville's portable blast furnace is very similar in principle to the above, but the body of the furnace is formed of a single cast iron cylinder lined with fireclay, closed below by a cast iron plate perforated by a ring of small holes - a hemispherical basin below forming the air-heating chamber.
The valve on top of a cylinder containing the highly volatile substance acetylene had ignited on the sixth floor.
With this machine the cutting cylinder could be removed and replaced with a lawn sweeper or a lawn aerator attachment.
Engine All the boats come with a 4 cylinder Isuzu 55 engine with PRM hydraulic gearbox and twin alternators.
How do I calculate the compression of a cylinder between flat parallel anvils?
These are the use of a vibrating feed, a screw auger feed, and a notched cylinder feed mechanism.
A single seat light autogyro powered by a Victa Pixie 173cc 2-stroke single cylinder piston engine.
He put the rusty blowlamp on the cylinder head, ' Tis a fine day for boating ', the old boatman said.
A Victorian mahogany cylinder bureau bookcase realized a price of £ 1,550 against an estimate of £ 800-£1000.
Only then does the 883 get a narrower bore, which extends to its cylinder head, compared to the 1200.
If the master cylinder bore is scored, the whole unit is scrap and will need to be replaced.
These options include from a simple cylinder to convert standard disk brakes to the fluid type, to a full twin disk system.
With the cylinder head off, the pistons were cleaned of any carbon deposits using a wire cup brush on a drill.
Holding the measuring cylinder over a tray or beaker, lightly insert the rubber bung.
The De'Longhi Quattro Plus model is priced at RRP £ 79.95 and fuelled by either a 7kg or 15kg cylinder of Calor gas butane.
The entire electromagnetic calorimeter at TESLA comprises a cylinder of length 5.5m, internal radius 1.9m, and annular thickness of 20cm.
Two parallel vertical valves per cylinder are driven directly by a single overhead camshaft.
The engine also features a reed valve that pulls oil from the cylinder head thereby reducing oil carry-over to the air box.
Once we got the cylinder going down the studs we found the casings required some grinding to allow the piston down!
This is achieved by a valve arrangement inside the steam chest, which is located next to each cylinder.
Different injection mapping for the two cylinders so as to optimize combustion in each cylinder.
The 6 cylinder engine on display is a later version (circa 1914) and is virtually two 3-cylinder engines sharing a common crankcase.
As the piston moves up and down in the cylinder it rotates the crankshaft and converts the straight line motion into rotary motion.
Later 2.5L 4 cylinder gasoline engines have 5 bearing crankshafts.
Sometimes a complete internal vascular cylinder, having the same structure as the primary one, and concentric with it, occurs in the pith, and others may appear, internal to the first (Matonia, Saccoloma).
In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described.
The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith.
The remaining bundles (compensation bundles) which go to make up the cylinder are such as have branched off from the leaf-traces, and will, after joining with others similarly given off, themselves form the traces of leaves situated at a higher level on the stem.
Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.
It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.
Where a large-celled pith is developed this often becomes obvious very early, and in some cases it appears to have separate initials situated below those of the hollow vascular cylinder.
The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions.
Wood thus altered is known as heart-wood, or duramen, as distinguished from the young sap-wood, or alburnum, which, forming a cylinder next the cambium, remains alive and carries on the active functions of the xylem, particularly the conduction of water.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
The indicated horse-power developed by a cylinder may always be ascertained from an indicator diagram and observations of the speed.
Let p be the mean pressure in pounds per square inch, calculated from an indicator diagram taken from a particular cylinder when the speed of the crank-shaft is n revolutions per second.
Hence, if p is the maximum value of the mean effective pressure corresponding to about 85% of the boiler pressure,, uW = pd 2 le /D (26) is an expression giving a relation between the total weight on the coupled wheels, their diameters and the size of the cylinder.
Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
It was of the same type as Mallet's engine, and was made by simply bushing one cylinder of an ordinary two-cylinder simple engine, the bushed cylinder being the high-pressure and the other cylinder the low-pressure cylinder.
The steam connexions were such that the two high-pressure cylinders were placed in parallel, both exhausting into the one low-pressure cylinder.
Generally steam from the boiler is admitted direct to the low-pressure cylinder through a reducing valve, and valves and devices are used to prevent the steam so admitted acting as a back pressure on the high-pressure cylinder.
In these there are two lowpressure cylinders placed outside the frame, and one highpressure cylinder placed between the frames.
A highand low-pressure cylinder are cast together, and the piston-rods belonging to them are both coupled to one cross-head which is connected to the driving-wheels, these again being coupled to other wheels in the usual way.
There is a general increase in cylinder power, boiler pressure and weight, and in consequence in the number of coupled axles.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
The original sources are very scanty, besides the cylinder containing his proclamation to the Babylonians we possess only a great many dated private documents from Babylon.
After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder, armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
The inner cylinder is generally placed somewhat excentrically in the outer casing, in order to render the kneading more perfect than would otherwise be the case.
These may number some thousands, and they are usually bent over and tend to form a closed cylinder of the gutter.
When therefore sensible uniformity is desired, the radius of the ring should he large in relation to that of the convolutions, or the ring should have the form of a short cylinder with thin walls.
If a hollow sphere 7 of which the outer radius is R and the inner radius r is placed in a uniform field Ho, the field inside will also be uniform and in the same direction as Ho, and its value will be approximately 3 i - R 3 For a cylinder placed with its axis at right angles to the lines of force, 2 = Ho (41) 2 +4(-2)(i - R2) These expressions show that the thicker the screen and the greater its permeability o, the more effectual will be the shielding action.
A primary coil of length 1, having n turns, is wound upon a cylinder made of non-conducting and non-magnetic material, and upon the middle of the primary a secondary or induction coil is closely fitted.
One pole has a V-shaped notch for the rod to rest in; the surface of the other is slightly rounded, forming a portion of a cylinder, the axis of which is perpendicular to the direction of the length of the rod.
In the iron cylinder and ovoid, which expanded when magnetized, compression caused a diminution of magnetization; in the nickel rod, which contracted when magnetized, pressure was attended by an increase of magnetization.
It is equal to the actual diameter of the cylinder of rays admitted by a telescope.
Cyrus appears in the unassailably authentic cylinder inscription "as a complete religious indifferentist, willing to go through any amount of ceremonies to soothe the prejudices of a susceptible population."
Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.
Hydraulic pumping engines, while not differing essentially from steam pumps, must have specially designed valves in the power cylinder on account of the incompressibility of water.
The simplest forms of pumps employed for forcing liquids are "plunger pumps," consisting essentially of a piston moving in a cylinder, provided with inlet and outlet pipes, together with certain valves.
E is a valve in the inlet pipe opening into the cylinder; and A the piston is perforated by one or more holes, each fitted with valves opening outwards on its upper surface.
On raising the piston, the valve F remains closed and a vacuum tends to be created in the cylinder, but the pressure of the atmosphere forces the liquid up the tube D and it raises the valve E and passes into the cylinder.
On reversing the motion the valve E closes and the liquid is forced through the valve F to the upper part of the cylinder.
On again raising the piston, more liquid enters the lower part of the cylinder, whilst the previously raised liquid is ejected from the delivery pipe.
In practice it may be considerably less, owing to leakage at the valves and between the piston and cylinder.
In this case the piston is solid, and the outlet pipe, G which is placed at the bottom of the cylinder, has a valve F opening outwards, the inlet pipe and valve are the same as before.
On raising the piston the liquid rises in the cylinder, the valve E opening and F remaining shut.
It consisted of a spherical glass vessel opening below by means of a stop-cock and narrow nozzle into the cylinder of an "exhausting syringe," which inclined upwards from the extremity of the nozzle.
The cylinder, in which a well-fitting piston worked, was provided at its lower end with two valves.
One of these opened from the nozzle into the cylinder, the other from the cylinder into the outside air.
During the down-stroke of the piston the former was pressed home, so that no air entered the nozzle and vessel, while the latter was forced open by the air which so escaped from the cylinder.
During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.
Thus, at every complete stroke of the piston, the air in the vessel or receiver was diminished by that fraction of itself which is expressed by the ratio of the volume of the available cylindrical space above the outward opening valve to the whole volume of receiver, nozzle and cylinder.
This type of pump is, however, not very efficient, for there is not only leakage about the valves and between the piston and cylinder, but at a certain degree of exhaust the air within the vessel is insufficient to raise the inlet valve; this last defect has been met in some measure by using an extension of the piston to open and close the valve.
The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.
The piston, provided with a valve opening upwards, is packed in the cylinder by a leather cup which is securely pressed against the sides of the cylinder by the atmospheric pressure.
The piston rod passes through a valve in the upper part of the cylinder which is held to its seat by a spring.
The inlet pipe enters an elliptical vessel which communicates with the cylinder a little way up from its base, whilst at the base there is a relief tube leading into the elliptical vessel already mentioned.
Oil is placed both above the upper valve seating, and also in the cylinder up to the height of the lower edge of the inlet pipe.
Guinand, towards the end of the 18th century, by introducing the process of stirring the molten glass by means of a cylinder of fireclay.
For this purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and is then introduced into the molten glass.
The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved.
The stirring is therefore discontinued and the clay cylinder is either left embedded in the glass, or by the exercise of considerable force it may be gradually withdrawn.
When this is the case the gathering is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed of the viscous mass.
From the hemispherical shape the mass of glass is now gradually blown into the form of a short cylinder, and then the pipe with the adherent mass of glass is handed.
In this way the glass is extended into the form of a long cylinder closed at the lower end.
The size of cylinder which can be produced in this way depends chiefly upon the dimensions of the working platform and the weight which a man is able to handle freely.
The lower end of the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open.
The blower then heats the end of the cylinder again and rapidly spins the pipe about its axis; the centrifugal effect is sufficient to spread the soft glass at the end to a radius equal to that of the rest of the cylinder.
The finished cylinder is next carried to a rack and the pipe detached from it by applying a cold iron to the neck of thick hot glass which connects pipe-butt and cylinder, the neck cracking at the touch.
Next, the rest of the connecting neck is detached from the cylinder by the application of a heated iron to the chilled glass.
This leaves a cylinder with roughly parallel ends; these ends are cut by the use of a diamond applied internally and then the cylinder is split longitudinally by the same means.
Flashed glass is produced by taking either the first or the last gathering in the production of a cylinder out of a crucible containing the coloured " metal," the other gatherings being taken out of ordinary white sheet-glass.
A full account of the process of blowing crown-glass will be found in all older books and articles on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, is blown into a flattened sphere, which is caused to burst at the point opposite the pipe and is then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front of a very hot furnace-opening, caused to expand into a flat disk of large diameter.
What came out below was a compact cylinder with a rounded bottom, consisting of so many layers superimposed upon one another.
Parallel experiments with layers of dough or sand plus some connecting material proved that the particles in all cases moved along the same tracks as would be followed by a flowing cylinder of liquid.
He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts, - the first, which he called the " cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical vessel.
Afterwards, when the metal has risen above B, to the level KK', the additional thrust is the weight of the cylinder of diameter KK' and height BH.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.
Another explanation may be given of the sidelong force, arising from the velocity of liquid past a cylinder, which is encircled by a vortex.
Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
The sugar fed into the upper end of the cylinder gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itself upon the heated central cylinder.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
The solenoid was above the iron cylinder, the supporting rod of which passed through it as a core.
Immediately the current passed through the solenoid it caused the iron cylinder to rise, and, by means of its supporting rod, forced the end of the balance beam upwards, so depressing the other end that the negative carbon rod was forced downwards into contact with the metal in the crucible.
At once the attractive force of the solenoid on the iron cylinder was automatically reduced, and the falling of the latter caused the negative carbon to rise, starting an arc between it and the metal in the crucible.
Any change in the resistance of the arc, either by lengthening, due to the sinking of the charge in the crucible, or by the burning of the carbon, affected the proportion of current flowing in the two shunt circuits, and so altered the position of the iron cylinder in the solenoid that the length of arc was, within limits, automatically regulated.
The condenser consists of a vertical cylinder having manifolds at the head and foot and through which a number of tubes pass.
If we consider a length l of the cylinder, the charge Q on the inner cylinder is Q=27rR l ly, where v is the surface density, and by Coulomb's law v = E i /47r, where E 1 = A/R 1 is the force at the surface of the inner Ai cylinder.
If then the outer cylinder be at zero potential the potential V of the inner one is V =A log (R 2 /R 1), and its capacity C =1/2 log R2/R1.
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
Then when the inner cylinder is at potential V 1 and the outer one kept at of two potential V 2 the lines of electric force between the cylinders Q (4).
Then let a small, very short cylinder be described of which dS is a section, and the generating lines are normal to the surface.
But the force perpendicular to the curved surface of this cylinder is everywhere zero.
The older, devised by Hooke in 1667, is provided with valves above and below, both opening upward, through which the water passes freely during descent, but which are closed by some device on hauling up. The newer or slip water-bottle type consists of a cylinder allowed to drop on to a base-plate when a sample is tro be collected.
The first form of slip water-bottle due to Meyer retained the water merely by the weight of the cylinder pressing on the base-plate.
Buchanan introduced an improved form on the " Challenger," also remaining closed by weight, the cylinder being very heavy and ground to fit the bevelled base-plate very accurately.
The shaft is lined with a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular chamber, provided with doors above and below, known as an P g air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly sinkin packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
The drum, when round ropes are used, is a plain broad cylinder, with flanged rims, and cased with soft wood packing, upon which the rope is coiled; the breadth is made sufficient to take the whole length of the rope at two laps.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
A great future was expected from its use in the liquid state, since a cylinder fitted with the necessary reducing valves would supply the gas to light a house for a considerable period, the liquid occupying about T h.
They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.
A similar explosion will frequently follow the breaking in the same way of a cylinder charged with hydrogen at a high pressure.
The chief trouble was that acetone expands a small percentage of its own volume while it is absorbing acetylene; therefore it is impossible to fill a cylinder with acetone and then force in acetylene, and still more impracticable only partly to fill the cylinder with acetone, as in that case the space above the liquid would be filled with acetylene under high pressure, and would have all the disadvantages of a cylinder containing compressed acetylene only.
This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.
This is well shown by taking a cylinder one-half full of acetylene and one-half of air; on applying a light to the mixture a lurid flame runs down the cylinder and a cloud of soot is thrown up, the cylinder also being thickly coated with it, and often containing a ball of carbon.
If now, after a few moments' interval to allow some air to diffuse into the cylinder, a taper again be applied, an explosion takes place, due to a mixture of carbon monoxide and air.
Each of the molecules enumerated in expression (9) will move parallel to the edge of this cylinder, and each will describe a length equal to its edge in time dt.
Thus each of these molecules which is initially inside the cylinder, will impinge on the area dS within an interval dt.
The cylinder is of volume u dt dS, so that the product of this and expression (9) must give the number of impacts between the area dS and molecules of the kind under consideration within the interval dt.
This machine depended simply on the pressure of water acting directly in a cylinder on a piston, which was connected with suitable multiplying gear.
Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
The filtering medium in this, as in other filters of the same kind, takes the form of a hollow cylinder or "candle," through the walls of which the water has to pass from the outside to the inside, the candles often being arranged so that they may be directly attached to a tap, whereby the rate of flow, which is apt to be slow, is accelerated by the pressure of the main.
That the area of a parallelogram is equal to the area of a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels, or that the volume of a cone is one-third that of a cylinder on the same base and of the same height, may be established by a proof which is admitted to be rigorous, or be accepted in good faith without proof, and yet fail to be a matter of conviction, even though there may be a clear conception of the relative lengths of the diagonal and the side of a square or of the relative contents of two vessels of different shapes.
By considering the circle as the limit of a polygon, it follows that the formulae (iii) and (v) of § 26 hold for a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone; i.e.
These formulae also hold for any right cylinder and any cone.
The curved surfaces of the cylinder and of the cone are developable surfaces; i.e.
The total surface of the cylinder is 41ra 2 +ira 2 +lra 2= 61ra 2, and its volume is 2a.7ra 2 =27ra 3 .
Archytas of Tarentum (c. 430 B.C.) solved the problems by means of sections of a half cylinder; according to Eutocius, Menaechmus solved them by means of the intersections of conic sections; and Eudoxus also gave a solution.
It consists of a cylindrical chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting outwards, and Siren of intended for supplying the cavity of the cylinder with Cagniard de compressed air or other gas, or even liquid.
This will go on continually as long as air is supplied to the cylinder, and the velocity of rotation of the upper plate will be accelerated up to a certain maximum, at which it may be maintained by keeping the force of the current constant.
The cylinder is mounted on an axis and turned round, while the style attached to the vibrating body is in light contact with it, and traces therefore a wavy circle, which, on taking off the paper and flattening it, becomes a wavy straight line.
The superiority of this arrangement arises from the comparative facility with which the number of revolutions of the cylinder in a given time may be ascertained.
Koenig's arrangement (Quelques experiences d'acoustique, p. I) the axis of the cylinder is fashioned as a screw, which works in fixed nuts at the ends, causing a sliding as well as a rotatory motion of the cylinder.
The lines traced out by the vibrating pointer are thus prevented from overlapping when more than one turn is given to the cylinder.
To the centre of this membrane is attached a small feather-fibre, which, when the reflector is suitably placed, touches lightly the surface of the revolving cylinder.
Imagine now that a fork with black prongs is held near the cylinder with its prongs vertical and the plane of vibration parallel to.
Let the cylinder be rotated so that each white line moves exactly into the place of the next while the prong moves once in and out.
Hence when a white line is in a particular position on the cylinder, the prong will always be the same distance along it and cut off the same length from view.
The boundary between, the grey cylinder and the black fork will therefore appear wavy with fixed undulations, the distance from crest to crest being the distance between the lines on the cylinder.
If the fork has slightly greater frequency, then a white line will not quite reach the next place while the fork is making its swing ip and out, and the waves will travel against the motion of the cylinder.
To these illustrations it is unsafe to add the scene on a cylinder preserved in the British Museum, representing two figures, a See Jastrow, Rel.
It was a cylinder of parchment of about the diameter of a coachwheel, and was literally rolled up on the floor of the house.
The apparatus described in the patent specification is an iron cylinder heated by gas rings below, with a narrower cylinder beneath, through which passes upwards a stout iron cathode rod cemented in place by caustic soda solidified in the narrower vessel.
Iron anodes are suspended around the cathode, and between the two is a cylinder of iron gauze at the bottom with a sheet-iron continuation above, the latter being provided with a movable cover.
During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.
A secondary standard measure for dry goods is the bushel of 1824, containing 8 imperial gallons, represented by a hollow bronze cylinder having a plane base, its internal diameter bring double its depth.
In the case of high tension voltmeters, the movable plate takes the form of a single plate of paddle shape, and for extra high tensions it may simply be suspended from the end of a balanced arm; or the movable system may take the form of a cylinder which is suspended within, but not touching, another fixed cylinder, the relative position being such that the electric forces draw the suspended cylinder more into the fixed one.
In A Copper Cylinder (1888), Describes A Singular Race Whose Cardinal Doctrine Is That Poverty Is Honourable And Wealth The Reverse.
The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
A pyloric caecum connected with the stomach is commonly found, containing a tough flexible cylinder of transparent cartilaginous appearance, called the " crystalline style " (Mactra).
Borchers also used an externally heated metal vessel as the cathode; it is provided with a supporting collar or flange a little below the top, so that the upper part of the vessel is exposed to the cooling influence of the air, in order that a crust of solidified salt may there be formed, and so prevent the creeping of the electrolyte over the top. The carbon anode passes through the cover of a porcelain cylinder, open at the bottom, and provided with a side-tube at the top to remove the chlorine formed during electrolysis.
Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.
If solvent be allowed to enter through a semipermeable wall into an engine cylinder, the work done when the solution within is already dilute will be the same whatever the nature of the interaction between solute and solvent, that is, whatever be the nature of the solvent itself.
Now the work done by allowing a small quantity of solvent to enter reversibly into an osmotic cylinder is measured by the product of the osmotic pressure into the change in volume.
Let us imagine unit mass of solution of volume V confined in a cylinder ABC between a fixed vapour sieve B and a solid piston A A B C FIG.
In the equation dP/dT= X/T(v 2 - v 1), P is the osmotic pressure, T the absolute temperature and X the heat of solution of unit mass of the solute when dissolving to form a volume v2 - v1 of saturated solution in an osmotic cylinder.
The available energy A is the work which may be gained from the system by a small reversible isothermal operation with an osmotic cylinder, that is Pdv.
Both successions were doomed to failure; and the result 7 In likening the earth to a cylinder Anaximander recognized its circular figure in one direction.
The Cornish is cylindrical with the furnace occupying about half the length of the cylinder.
Andreas Gordon (1712-1751) of Erfurt, a Scotch Benedictine monk, first used a glass cylinder in place of a sphere.
Edward Nairne's electrical machine (1787) consisted of a glass cylinder with two insulated conductors, called prime conductors, on glass legs placed near it.
Here BB is a large fixed iron cylinder, corrugated within, and C an excentric cylinder, also corrugated, which, in turning to the right, by the friction of its corrugated surface rotates the puddled ball D which has just entered at A, so that, turning around its own axis, it travels to the right and is gradually changed from a ball into a bloom, a rough cylindrical mass of white hot iron, still dripping with cinder.
N, Hydraulic cylinder for tilting.
I, the lift cylinder is in hydraulic connexion with a pair of short cylinders placed one above the other, the pistons working in them being connected together by a common rod.
Below the piston of the upper cylinder is an annular space E (surrounding the common piston rod) with a capacity equal to the maximum displacement of the liftram, while the corresponding annular area C of the piston of the lower cylinder is just large enough when subjected to the working water pressure to enable the work of lifting the net load to be done and any friction to be overcome.
The chief difficulty in this method lay in determining the effective distances of the bulbs of the thermometers from the axis of the cylinder, and in ensuring uniformity of flow of heat along different radii.
Layard, through his assistant Hormuzd Rassam, devoted two or three days to excavating on the site, but owing to the want of pasturage and the fear of Bedouin attacks he left the spot after finding a broken clay cylinder 1 Cf.
Combinations of rays sometimes resemble a luminous fan, or a series of fans, or part of a hollow luminous cylinder.
This cylinder, which is suspended from a stand rigidly attached to the earth, has a vertical hole in its centre extending from its upper surface to its centre of gravity, and to the bottom of this well a light rod is fixed.
There is also an extension from the upper surface of the pendulum, in contact with a system of levers and rods attached to the case; an air-dampkig cylinder is fitted to annul the free vibrations of the pendulum.
A little later the breaking down of the whole axon, both axis cylinder and myelin sheath alike, seems to occur simultaneously throughout its entire length distal to the place of severance.
This death of the sheath as well as of the axis cylinder shows that it, like the axis cylinder, is a part of the nerve cell itself.
Fischer has further established the fact that the peripheral mass, which is a hollow sphere in spherical cells, and either a hollow cylinder or barrel-shaped body in filamentous forms, must be regarded as the single chromatophore of the Cyanophyceous cell.
In the working of this type of kiln the rotation and slight inclination of the cylinder cause the raw material to descend towards the lower end.
Rotatory kilns of various other makes are now in use, but the same principles are embodied, namely, the employment of a rotating inclined cylinder for burning the raw materials, a burner fed with powdered coal and a blast of air, and some device such as a cooling cylinder or cooling tower by which the clinker may be cooled and the air correspondingly heated on its way to the burner.
This consisted of bronze swords and vases, gold jewellery with agate and other gems, bracelets, collars, a seal cylinder and two engraved gold rings, one of which, the largest known, bears a religious scene.
This is done in a tall iron cylinder, say 9 ft.
The air-pipe goes right to the bottom of the cylinder and there branches out into perforated side-pipes, so that the mass is thoroughly stirred up all the time.
The fresh lime is continually charged into the top cylinder, is gradually moved towards the other end, falls down into the next lower cylinder and thus gradually makes its way to the lowest cylinder.
It was used by Galileo as early as 1612, and came into English use much later, when it supplanted trunk and cylinder, the terms hitherto used to denote the telescope.
The difficulties of relief friction could probably be best overcome by a large hollow cylinder concentric with the polar axis fixed near the centre of gravity of the whole instrument and floated in mercury, on the plan adopted in the Mount Wilson 60-in.
A pipe from the top of A leads to the working cylinder (B).
Cold air was compressed by a pump into a receiver, where it was kept cool during compression and from which it passed through a regenerator into the working cylinder.
It was then allowed to expand further, taking in heat from a furnace under the cylinder and falling in pressure.
Incidentally, however, they do in some cases partially discharge that function, namely, when what is called a "preheater" is used to warm up the compressed air before it enters in the motor cylinder.
A Babylonian cylinder represents two figures (divine?) on either side of a fruit-tree, and behind one of them a serpent coils upwards.
If a be the radius of the cylinder, h the distance of G
The line of contact T, therefore, on the surface of the cylinder bbb, is for the instant at rest, and is the instantaneous axis FIG.
Screws.The figure of a screw is that of a convex or concave cylinder, with one or more helical projections, called threads, winding round it.
Method 1.By reference to 30 it will be seen that the motion of a cylinder rolling on a fixed cylinder is one of rotation about an instantaneous axis T, and that the velocity both as regards direction and magnitude is the same as if the rolling piece B were for the instant turning about a fixed axis coincident with the instantaneous axis.
The flat pivot is a cylinder of steel having a plane circular end as a rubbing surface.
Canton first suggested the use of an amalgam of mercury and tin for use with glass cylinder electrical machines to improve their action.
Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
His proposals were to print from type placed either on a flat bed or a cylinder, and the impression was to be given by another cylinder covered with some suitable material, the paper being fed in between the type and the impression cylinder, and the ink applied by rollers covered with cloth or leather, or both.
His suggestion to print from type made wedge-shaped (that is, smaller at the foot and wider at the top) to allow of its being so fixed on a cylinder that it would radiate from the centre and thus present an even printing surface, was adopted later by Applegath and others, and really was the first conception of printing on the rotary principle which has now been brought to such perfection.
His invention was to print type placed on a flat bed, the impression being given by a large cylinder, under which the type passed, but his inking appliances were not satisfactory.
It will be understood that Nicholson's theories were to print both from the flat and from type arranged in circular or cylinder form.
It was once thought that the finest work could not be produced by a cylinder impressing a surface in the progress of its reciprocating motion, but that it was likely to give a slurred or blurred impression.
But cylinder presses are now made so truly turned, and geared to such nicety, that this idea no longer prevails.
The cylinder press is able to produce generally quite as good work as the double platen, its speed is much greater, and it requires a smaller amount of power to drive it.
We shall deal with it more fully below in relation to the modern and more complicated class of machinery; and this also applies to the ordinary stop or single cylinder, and small platen machines, both of which have been in use many years, and are still in demand.
This type was fixed, both in vertical and in perpendicular positions, upon a cylinder, round which rotated other cylinders, which held and compressed the sheets against the larger one, which also revolved and carried the printing surface.
The type was fixed on a large cylinder, and instead of the printing surface presenting a complete circle, the different columns were each arranged so as to form a polygon.
Around this large type cylinder were eight smaller ones, all upright, for taking the impression for each of the eight sheets fed in separately, and rollers were so arranged as to apply the ink to the type as it passed alternately from one impression cylinder to the other.
The sheets were laid in from eight different feed-boards, placed horizontally, and they passed through tapes, when they were seized by another series of tapes and then turned sideways between their corresponding impression and type cylinder, thus obtaining sheets printed on one side only.
The impression cylinder then delivered the sheets separately (still in a vertical position) into the hands of the boys employed as takers-off.
The column rules were made tapering towards the feet of the type, and the type was securely locked in on these beds so that it could be held firmly in the required position to form a complete circle, thus allowing the cylinder to revolve at a greater speed than Applegath's, which was polygonal.
The second impression cylinder was made somewhat larger so as to give a greater tympan surface, to lessen the off-set from the side first printed.
The sheets were severed by knives placed on the cylinders, and when cut were carried by grippers and tapes; and delivery was made by means of automatic metal fingers fixed upon endless belts at such distances apart as to seize each sheet in succession as it left the last printing cylinder.
Single cylinder machines (in England generally called " Wharfedales "), usually built on the " stop " cylinder principle, and printing one side of the sheet only.
Two-revolution machines, which, although with but one cylinder, have largely superseded perfecting machines, as their output has been increased and the quality of their work compares favourably with that of the average two-cylinder.
Two-colour machines, usually made with one feed, that is, with only one cylinder, but with two printing surfaces, and two sets of inking apparatus one at each end of the machine.
The modern single or " stop " cylinder, quite different in construc- Wharfe= tion from the old single cylinder machines, largely suc dale" ceeded the double platen machine.
After the impression is made the sheet is seized by another set of fingers and is transferred to a second and smaller cylinder over the larger one, and this smaller cylinder or drum delivers the sheet to the " flyer," or delivery apparatus, which in turn deposits it upon the table.
The ink passes to a small solid metal roller, and is then conveyed by a vibrating roller made of composition to a larger and hollow metal cylinder or drum which distributes the ink for the first time.
As the type bed travels, larger composition rollers, called inkers, placed near the cylinder, adjusted to the requisite pressure on the type, pick up the necessary amount of ink for each impression and convey it to the type as it passes under them.
Although some perfecting machines have been made with one cylinder only, which reverses itself on the old " tumbler " principle, they now are made with two cylinders, and it is with this class that we are particularly concerned.
Close to the large cylinders are the inking rollers, which take the necessary amount of ink, each set from its own slab as it passes under, and these rollers convey the requisite ink to the printing surface as the forme-carriage runs under its own cylinder.
The sheet is laid to its mark and is conveyed round an entry drum; thence it is carried round the first impression cylinder, and under this, moving at the same speed as the cylinder, is the type bed containing the inner of broad tapes which lie on the laying-on board and are fastened to a small drum underneath it.
It is then brought under the second or left-hand drum, and so on to the other large impression cylinder, with the blank side of the sheet exposed to the type of the outer forme on the table underneath.
Another variety employs grippers somewhat after the manner of the ordinary single cylinder.
Its speed is greater than the stop cylinder (it may be geared to produce from 1500 to Two copies per hour, printed one side only).
The principle of the two-revolution press is that the cylinder always rotates in the same direction, and twice for each copy given, once for the actual impression, and again to allow of the return of the forme-carriage in its reciprocating action.
In many of the old kinds of two-revolution machines, owing to the cylinder being geared separately from the type bed, it was apt to be occasionally thrown out, but in the Miehle, for instance, it is only out of gear in reversing, and in gear while printing.
These points, together with a truly turned and polished cylinder, with carefully planned means of adjustment, much simplify the preparation of making-ready of any kind of type-forme or blocks for printing, which is carried out much in the same way as on the ordinary single cylinder, but in a more convenient manner.
The two-colour machine is generally a single cylinder (fig..8) with one feed only, and the bed motion reciprocating.
The two colours are printed each at one revolution from the two Two-Colour type-formesas they pass under the cylinder, which rotates twice in its travel.
In comparison with the ordinary single cylinder the two-colour machine is built with a longer frame, as is necessary to allow the two type-formes to pass under the cylinder, both in its travel forward and on its return.
This cylinder on its return is stationary, in fact it might be called a double or rather an alternative stop-cylinder machine, with the inking facilities arranged somewhat on the same plan as on either a two-feeder or a perfecting machine.
The four cylinders, which are on the right-hand side of the press, are respectively the plates, four pages on each type cylinder, making a total of thirty-two pages in all.
The printing surface for one side of the cover is placed at one end of the cylinder and the reverse side is placed at the other end.
The fact that the iron impression cylinder was nearer the type forbade the large amount of soft-packing formerly used, besides which process blocks, whether line or half-tone, could not be rendered properly by a soft impression.
The cylinder is first dressed with a fine and thin calico drawn tightly over and fastened securely, which serves as a base on which to fasten sheets.
We take it that the machine has already been regulated by means of the impression screws at the respective ends of the cylinder for all-round or average work, and that any inequality of impression can be remedied by adding or taking away from the sheets on the cylinder.
Now, supposing the forme to be dealt with consists of thirty-two pages to be printed on quad crown paper, measuring 40X30 in., on a suitable size of single cylinder machine of the Wharfedale class, it would be found, although both the machine and type were fairly new (that is, not much worn), that there was some amount of inequality in the impression given to the whole sheet.
If the " set " of the cylinder is about correct, and the impression sheet has been taken with neither too many nor too few sheets on the cylinder, it will be a matter rather of overlaying, or " patching up," than of cutting away from this trial sheet.
As soon as this first sheet has been levelled up it is fixed on to the cylinder to its exact position, so that it will register or correspond with the type when the press is running, and another trial sheet is struck off, which is treated precisely in the same manner, and is then fastened up on the cylinder on top of the first sheet.
The Bruckner cylinder resembles the Elliot and Russell black ash furnace; its cylinder tapers slightly towards each end, and is generally 18 ft.
The proximity of the weighted roller or rollers to the fixed ones depends upon the large cylinder.
This cylinder, which has a high surface speed, carries part of the fibre towards the workers and strippers; the surface speed of the workers being much slower than that of the cylinder.
The pins of the stripper and cylinder point in the same direction, but since the surface speed of the cylinder is much greater than the surface speed of the stripper, it follows that the fibre is combed between the two, and that part is carried forward by the cylinder to be reworked.
After passing the last pair of workers and strippers the fibre is carried forward towards the doffing roller, the pins of which are back-set, and the fibre is removed from the cylinder by the doffer, from which it passes between the drawing and pressing rollers into the conductor, and finally between the delivery and pressing rollers into the sliver can.
A statement of indicated horse-power supplies a measure force acting in the cylinder of an engine, but the power available for doing external work off the crank-shaft is less than this by the amount absorbed in driving the engine itself.
When the ellipse becomes a circle, the meridian line becomes a straight line parallel to the axis, and the film passes into the form of a cylinder of revolution.
Such a film, if ever so little disturbed, will begin to contract at one secton and to expand at another, till its form ceases to resemble a cylinder, if it does not break up into two parts which become ultimately portions of spheres.
Let us conceive an infinitely long circular cylinder of liquid, at rest (a motion common to every part of the fluid is necessarily without influence upon the stability, and may therefore be left out of account for convenience of conception and expression), and inquire under what circumstances it is stable or unstable, for small displacements, symmetrical about the axis of figure.
Accordingly, the equilibrium is stable if A be less than the circumference; but unstable if A be greater than the circumference of the cylinder.
A calculation analogous to that of Lord Kelvin may be applied to find the frequency of small transverse vibrations of a cylinder of liquid under the action of the capillary force.
Each cylinder has a platinum wire fused to the upper circumference to connect with a clamp from which a wire leads to the proper pole of the battery.
The smaller cylinder is generally the negative electrode on which the copper is deposited.
The cylinder, having been carefully weighed, is placed in position, the beaker containing the solution is adjusted, and the current passed until all the copper is precipitated.
On the clay stoppers of wine jars of the remote age which goes by the name of the pre-dynastic period, and which preceded the historic period of the first Pharaohs, there are seal impressions which must have been produced from matrices, like those of Babylonia and Assyria, of the cylinder type, the impress of the design having been repeated as the cylinder was rolled along the surface of the moist clay.
The cylinder, however, seems to have been generally superseded in Egypt by the engraved scarab, or beetle-shaped object, which, it may be assumed, was used at an early time, as it certainly was in later Egyptian history, for sealing purposes, although its proper function was that of an amulet.
As already stated, the matrices of ancient Babylonian and Assyrian seals, usually cut on precious stones, are in cylinder form.
Early in the 7th century B.C. the cylinder seal gave place to the cone, the impression being henceforth obtained after the fashion followed to the present day.
The Phoenicians, as was only to be expected of those traders and artisans of the ancient world, appear to have adopted both the cylinder of Assyria and the scarab of Egypt as have survived the numerous engraved stones or g pebbles, technically called gems, which served as matrices and in most instances were undoubtedly mounted as finger-rings or were furnished with swivels.
Phoenician names are found cut both on cylinder matrices and on scarabs by the Phoenician engravers employed in Assyria and Egypt; and, when the cone-shaped matrix superseded the cylinder in Western Asia, the Phoenicians conformed to the change.
It consists of a smoked cylinder revolving by means of clockwork at a known speed, and a style or pen which inscribes its surface by scratching or brushing away the lampblack.
The movements to be registered are transferred to the style or pen by one or more levers, and the pen in turn transfers them to the cylinder, where they appear as legible tracings.
These bands, which may serve to strengthen the central cylinder, have been compared with the netting surrounding the delicate wall of an inflated balloon.
The vascular bundle entering the stern from a leaf with a single vein passes by a more or less direct course into the central cylinder of the stem, and does not assume the girdle-like form characteristic of the cycadean leaf-trace.
This machine is constructed with an open top cylinder, a stirrup strap being provided by which it may be suspended from a crane.
To deaden the vibration of the springs after a load has been placed on the platform, and thus to enable the weights and values of the goods to be read rapidly, the piston of a glycerin cylinder is attached to the end of the lever which pulls upon the hook of the horizontal bar and is worked by it in the glycerin.
The disk carries a weighted brass cylinder rigidly attached to it, which is pulled into an oblique position by the steel band until equilibrium is established.
To each cylinder a pair of similar nickel bands are led downwards from the top of a casting which is bolted to the frame.
To the bottom of each cylinder is rigidly attached a heavy solid cylinder of lead, and these are the regulators of the position of equilibrium of the cylinders when they rotate under the action of the load..
This is soldered to two thick terminal rods of copper, and the coil is enclosed in a water-tight brass cylinder so that it can be placed in water, or preferably in paraffin oil, and brought to any required temperature.
When Cyrus conquered Babylon in 539 he was employed in leading religious ceremonies (Chronicle of Nabonidus), and in the cylinder.
The gas is measured in the graduated cylinder on the right, which is surrounded by a water jacket and provided with a levelling bottle.
The cylinder in direct communication with the capillary is filled with glass tubes so as to expose a larger surface of the absorbing solution to the gas.
The other cylinder is open to the air and serves to hold the liquid ejected from the absorbing cylinder.
The central cylinder of the root, in which there are several xylem and phloem strands, has around it a two-layered endodermis, the inner layer of which appears to take the place of a pericycle.