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cycads

cycads Sentence Examples

  • The stem resembled that of Cycads in having a large pith, sometimes as much as 4 in.

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  • We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.

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  • In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.

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  • This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.

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  • Amongst palms the Corypheae are represented by Sabal and Thrinax, and there is a solitary Za,nza amongst Cycads.

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  • Cycads are represented by Cycas itself, which in several species ranges from southern India to Polynesia.

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  • Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.

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  • Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.

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  • Of Cycads, Australia and New Caledonia have Cycas, and the former the endemic Macrozamia and Bowenia.

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  • A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.

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  • They are characterized by fine cycads (Zamites arcticus and Glossozamites Hoheneggeri), which also occur in the Urgonian strata of Wernsdorff.

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  • Cordaites, a tall plant (20-30 ft.) with yucca-like leaves, was related to the cycads and conifers; the catkin-like inflorescence, which bore yew-like berries, is called Cardiocarpus.

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  • Among other trees and shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-palm, the plantain, various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which grows in some parts of Sicily more profusely than anywhere else, and in the desolate region in the south-west yields almost the only vegetable product of importance.

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  • Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

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  • The plants of the Lower Gondwanas consist chiefly of acrogens(Equisetaceae and ferns)and gymnogens (cycads and conifers), the former being the more abundant.

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  • The same classes of plants occur in the Upper Gondwanas; but there the proportions are reversed, the conifers, and still more the cycads, being more numerous than the ferns, whilst the Equisetaceae are but sparingly found.

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  • It consists partly of sandstones with impressions of plants (cycads, ferns, &c.), and partly of clay-beds with coal.

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  • It was the English botanist Robert Brown who first recognized this important distinguishing feature in conifers and cycads in 1825; he established the gymnospermy of these seed-bearing classes as distinct from the angiospermy of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

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  • The line of descent of recent cycads is comparatively clear in so far as they have undoubted affinity with Palaeozoic plants which combined cycadean and filicinean features; but opinion is much more divided as to the nature of the phylum from which the conifers are derived.

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  • The cycads constitute a homogeneous group of a few living members confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions.

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  • In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.

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  • The male flower of Cycas conforms to the type of structure characteristic of the cycads, and consists of a long cone of numerous sporophylls bearing many oval pollen-sacs on their lower faces.

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  • The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, Stem springing from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the tuberous or columnar stem of the Cyca daceae constitutes a striking distinguishing feature.

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  • Probably the oldest example of this genus in cultivation is in the Botanic Garden of Amsterdam, its age is considered by Professor de Vries to be about two thousand years: although an accurate determination of age is impossible, there is no doubt that many cycads grow very slowly and are remarkable for longevity.

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  • The thick armour of petiole-bases enveloping the stem is a characteristic C y cad c an feature; in Cycas the alternation of scale-leaves and fronds is more clearly shown than in other cycads; in Encephalartos, Dioon, &e., From a photograph of a plant in the Peradeniya the persistent scale - leaf Gardens, Ceylon, by Professor R.

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  • The Cyas type of frond, except as regards the presence of a midrib in each pinna, characterizes the cycads generally, except Bowenia and Stangeria.

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  • In rare cases the pinnae of cycads are lobed or branched: in Dioon spinulosum (Central America) the margin of the segments bears numerous spinous processes; in some species of Encephalartos, e.g.

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  • A feature of interest in connexion with the phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.

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  • The male flowers of cycads are constructed on a uniform plan, and in all cases consist of an axis bearing crowded, spirally disposed sporophylls.

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  • Webber, and more recent work enables us to assume that all cycads produce ciliated male gametes.

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  • Pollination in cycads has always been described as anemophilous, but according to recent observations by Pearson on South African species it seems probable that, at least in some cases, the pollen is conveyed to the ovules by animal agency.

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  • The anatomical structure of the vegetative organs of recent cycads is of special interest as affording important evidence of relationship with extinct types, and with other groups of recent plants.

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  • The leaftraces of cycads are remarkable both on account of their course and their anatomy.

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  • The complicated girdle-like course is characteristic of the leaf-traces of most recent cycads, but in some cases, e.g.

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  • in Zamia floridana, the traces are described by Wieland in his recent monograph on American fossil cycads (Carnegie Institution Publications, 1906) as possessing a more direct course similar to that in Mesozoic genera.

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  • Similarly in the sporophylls of some cycads the bundles are endarch near the base and mesarch near the distal end of the stamen or carpel.

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  • This is of interest from the point of view of the comparison of recent cycads with extinct species (Bennettites), in which the leaf-traces follow a much more direct course than in modern cycads.

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  • The mesarch structure of the leaf-bundles is met with in a less pronounced form in the flower peduncles of some cycads.

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  • Palaeozoic genera, has not entirely disappeared from the stems of modern cycads; but the mesarch bundle is now confined to the leaves and peduncles.

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  • The roots of some cycads resemble the stems in producing several cambiumrings; they possess 2 to 8 protoxylem-groups, and are characterized by a broad pericyclic zone.

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  • A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.

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  • Surrounding the pitted wall of the ovum there is a definite layer of large cells, no doubt representing a tapetum, which, as in cycads and conifers, plays an important part in nourishing the growing egg-cell.

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  • A point of anatomical interest is the occurrence in the vascular bundles of the cotyledons, scale-leaves, and elsewhere of a few centripetally developed tracheids, which give to the xylem-strands a mesarch structure such as characterizes the foliar bundles of cycads.

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  • The leaves at once invite a comparison with ferns; the numerous long hairs which form a delicate woolly covering on young leaves recall the hairs of certain ferns, but agree more closely with the long filamentous hairs of recent cycads.

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  • The spermatozoids constitute the most striking link with both cycads and ferns.

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  • The structure of the seed, the presence of two neck-cells in the archegonia, the late development of the embryo, the partially-fused cotyledons and certain anatomical characters, are features common to Ginkgo and the cycads.

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  • Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules; he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in conifers as well as in cycads.

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  • Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.

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  • During the growth of the cell which forms the megaspore the greater part of the nucellus is absorbed, except the apical portion, which persists as a cone above the megaspore; the partial disorganization of some of the cells in the centre of the nucellar cone forms an irregular cavity, which may be compared with the larger pollen-chamber of Ginkgo and the cycads.

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  • (1898); Wieland, " American Fossil Cycads," Carnegie Institution Publication (1906); Stopes, " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Fortpflanzungsorgane der Cycadeen," Flora (1904); Caldwell, " Microcycas Calocoma," Bot.

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  • xliv., 1907 (also papers on this and other Cycads in the Bot.

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  • The most important positive evidence on this point indicates that the most ancient Gymnosperms were derived from the Filicales rather than from any other phylum of the Vascular Cryptogams. Extinct forms are known intermediate between the Ferns and the Cycads, and a number of these have been shown to bear seeds and must be classed as Pteridospermae.

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  • A great group of Palaeozoic fossils, showing evident affinity to Ferns, has proved to consist of seed-bearing plants allied to Gymnosperms, especially Cycads.

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  • We will begin with the Lyginodendreae, a group in which the anatomical characters indicated a systematic position between Ferns and Cycads, long before the reproductive organs were discovered.

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  • The leaf-traces, where they traverse the cortex, have the structure of the foliar bundles in Cycads, for they are of the collateral type, and their xylem is mesarch, the spiral elements lying in the interior of the ligneous strand.

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  • Heterangium shows, on the whole, a decided preponderance of Filicinean vegetative characters, though in the leaf-traces and the secondary tissues the Cycads are approached.

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  • (X 70.) closely with the foliar bundles of Cycads.

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  • It is probable that these stems belonged to plants with the fructification and foliage of Cycads, taking that group in the widest sense.

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  • It is only quite at the close of the Palaeozoic period that Cycads begin to appear.

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  • Some authors have been so much impressed by the similarity of this extinct family to the Cycads, that they have regarded them as being on the direct line of descent of the latter group; it is more probable, however, that they formed a short divergent phylum, distinct, though not remote, from the Cycadean stock.

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  • In fact, if the foliage alone were taken into account, the Cordaiteae might be described as simple-leaved Cycads.

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  • Specimens of true Cycads or Conifers are rare or doubtful until we come to the latest Palaeozoic rocks.

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  • In any case the morphology of the male Cordaitean fructification is clearly very remote from that of any of the Cycads or P P (All after Renault.) Fin.

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  • In the light of our present knowledge of Ginkgo and the Cycads, there can scarcely be a doubt that spermatozoids were formed in the cells of the antheridium of the Cordaitean pollen-grain and that of other Palaeozoic Spermophyta; the an theridium is much more developed than in any recent Gymnosperm, and it may be doubted whether any pollen-tube was formed.

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  • Isolated fossil seeds are common in the Carboniferous and Permian strata; in all cases they are of the orthotropous type, and resemble the seeds of Cycads or Ginkgo more nearly than those of any other living plants.

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  • This genus, from the Permo-Carboniferous of Autun, is represented by large, fleshy, reniform leaves or leaflets, with radiating dichotomous venation; the vascular bundles have in all respects the structure of those in the leaves of Cycads or Cordaiteae.

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  • 1; it was with the smaller leaves that Mr Arber discovered sporangia exhibiting certain points of resemblance to the microsporangia of modern Cycads.

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  • Passing over the few known species of plants from the middle Trias (Muschelkalk) to the more abundant and more widely spread Upper Triassic species as recorded from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, North America and elsewhere, we find a vegetation characterized chiefly by an abundance of Ferns and Cycads, exhibiting the same general facies as that of the succeeding Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic floras.

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  • Among Cycads may be mentioned species of Pterophyllum (e.g.

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  • The Palaeozoic types are barely represented; the arborescent Vascular Cryptogams have been replaced by Cycads, Ginkgoales and Conifers as the dominant classes, while Ferns continue to hold their own.

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  • Some plants, again, have been referred by certain authors to Ferns, while others have relegated them to the Cycads.

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  • As examples of these doubtful forms may be mentioned Thinnfeldia, characteristic of Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic rocks; Dichopteris, represented by some exceptionally fine Jurassic specimens, described by Zigno, from Italy; and Ctenis, a genus chiefly from Jurassic beds, founded on pinnate fronds like those of Zamia and other Cycads, with linear pinnae characterized by anastomosing veins.

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  • Plants referred to Schimper's genus Lomatopteris and to Cycadopteris of Zigno afford instances of the difficulty of distinguishing between the foliage of Ferns and Cycads.

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  • The difficulty of distinguishing between Ferns and Cycads is a necessary consequence of the common origin of these two classes; in Palaeozoic times the Cycado filicies and Pteridospermae (see section I., FIG.

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  • and even among recent Cycads and Ferns B, 0.

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  • relationship. There is reason to believe that compound or generalized types - partly Ferns and partly Cycads - persisted into the Mesozoic era; but without more anatomical knowledge than we at present possess, it is impossible to do more than to point to a few indications afforded by external, and to a slight extent by internal structure, of the survival of Cycadofilicinean types.

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  • The scaly ramenta which occur in abundance on the leaf-stalk bases of fossil Cycads constitute another fern-character surviving in Mesozoic Cycadales.

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  • Without a fuller knowledge of internal structure and of the reproductive organs, we are compelled to speak of some of the Mesozoic plants as possibly Ferns or possibly Cycads, and not referable with certainty to one or other class.

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  • It has been found useful in some cases to examine microscopically the thin film of coal that often covers the pinnae of fossil fronds, in order to determine the form of the epidermal cells which may be preserved in the carbonized cuticle; rectilinear epidermal cell-walls are usually considered characteristic of Cycads, while cells with undulating walls are more likely to belong to Ferns.

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  • Sphenozamites, chiefly from French localities, which are referred to 1 fronds, which therg is good reason to refer to the Cycadales in the Cycads because of their similarity to the pinnate fronds of Upper Triassic, Rhaetic, Jurassic and Wealden rocks in India, modern Cycadaceae.

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  • Dorsetshire and in the Inferior Oolite beds of Yorkshire, as well as in Rhaetic strata in Persia and elsewhere; it is characterized by its bipinnate fronds, and may be compared with the recent Australian genus Bowenia - peculiar among living Cycads in having bipinnate fronds.

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  • It is noteworthy that Tertiary plant-beds have yielded hardly any specimens that can be recognized as Cycads.

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  • A more important question is, What knowledge have we of the reproductive organs and stems of these fossil Cycads?

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  • 13, B) a large pith is seen to occupy the axial region, and this is surrounded by a zone of secondary wood, which appears to differ from the characteristic wood of modern Cycads (see Gymnosperms) in having a more compact structure.

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  • 18 Greenland, and other Arctic lands and G12 G13 Gla G15 G16 G17 Yale University has noticed in some of the Cycadean stems from the Black hills of Dakota and Wyoming that the wood appears to possess a similar structure, differing in its narrower medullary rays from the wood of modern Cycads.

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  • Cycads, but the ramenta, instead of having the form of long unicellular hairs like those on the petioles and bud-scales of existing species are exactly like the paleae or ramental scales characteristic of the majority of ferns.

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  • This fern-like character affords an interesting survival of the close relationship between Cycads and Ferns.

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  • In this stem the flowers may have been terminal, as in existing Cycads.

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  • These reproductive shoots differ in many important respects from the flowers of recent Cycads, and chiefly on this account it is customary to include the plants in a separate genus, Bennettites, and in a separate group - the Bennettitales - distinct from that of the Cycadales including the existing Cycads.

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  • A study of the anatomical structure of the vegetative stem, which on the whole is very similar to that of recent Cycads (fig.

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  • in recent Cycads and Conifers.

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  • discovery is the very close correspondence of the male organs of the Bennettites flower with the sporophylls and synangia of Marattiaceous ferns - a further relic of the common origin of Cycads and Ferns.

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  • with in modern Cycads.

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  • This form of stem, of a habit entirely different from that of recent Cycads and extinct Bennettites, points to the existence in the Mesozoic era of another type of Gymnosperm allied to the Bennettitales of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods by its flowers, but possessing a distinctive character in its vegetative organs.

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  • There is no doubt that the Cycadophyta, using the term suggested by Nathorst in 1902, was represented in the Mesozoic period by several distinct families or classes which played a dominant part in the floras of the world before the advent of the Angiosperms. In addition to the bisporangiate reproductive shoots of Bennettites, distinguished by many important features from the flowers of recent Cycads, a few specimens of flowers have been discovered exhibiting a much closer resemblance to those of existing Cycads, e.g.

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  • Some of the fossils referred to the genus Kaidocarpon, and originally described as monocotyledonous inflorescences, are undoubted Araucarian cones; other cones of the same type have been placed in the genus Cycadeostrobus and referred to Cycads.

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  • No conclusive proof has so far been adduced of the existence in those days of the Cycads, nor is there more than partial evidence of the occurrence of genera which can be placed with confidence in any of the existing families of Conifers.

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  • Arborescent Pteridophytes are barely represented, and such dominant types as Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites and Sphenophyllum have practically ceased to exist; Cycads and Conifers have assumed the leading role, and the still luxuriant fern vegetation has put on a different aspect.

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  • This change is most strikingly illustrated by the inrush of Angiosperms, in the equally marked decrease in the Cycads, and in the altered character of the ferns.

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  • Physical conditions no doubt played an important part, but whatever cause may have had the greatest share in disturbing the equilibrium of evolutionary forces, it would seem that the apparently sudden appearance of Cycads and other types at the close of the Palaeozoic period made a widespread and sudden impression on the whole character of the vegetation.

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  • Among modern floras we find here and there isolated types, such as Ginkgo, Sequoia, Matonia, Dipteris and the Cycads, persisting as more successful survivals which have held their own through the course of ages; these plants remain as vestiges from a remote past, and as links connecting the vegetation of to-day with that of the Mesozoic era.

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  • Wieland, "American Fossil Cycads," Publication Carnegie Instit.

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  • Lester Ward records no fewer than 737 distinct forms, consisting chiefly of Ferns, Cycads, Conifers and Dicotyledons, the Ferns and Cycads being con fined mainly to the Older Potomac, FIG.

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  • The Cenomanian strata have yielded already 177 species, the different groups being represented in these proportions: Cryptogams, 37, 30 of which are Ferns; Cycads, 8; Conifers, 27; Monocotyledons, 8; Apetalous Dicotyledons, 31; other Dicotyledons, 66.

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  • Other beds yield principally palms, willows, laurels, Eucalyptus or Ferns; but there are no Cycads.

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  • Cycads are only represented by fragments of two species, and this seems to be the last appearance of Cycads in Europe.

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  • The glasshouses contain collections of palms, rare cycads, tropical ferns, cacti and alpines.

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  • cycads plants.

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  • During recent years a number of fossil (Carboniferous and Permian) plants have been very thoroughly investigated in the light of modern anatomical knowledge, and as a result it has become st i s clear that in those times a large series of plants etisted ear ys intermediate in structure between the modern ferns tern of Cycaand the modern Gymnosperms (especially Cycads), dofiices.

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  • We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.

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  • Among the Cycadofilices a series of stages is found leading from the primitive fern-protostele to the type of siphonostele characteristic of the Cycads which agrees in essentials in all the Spermophytes.

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  • The leaves of the more primitive members of this series were entirely fern-like and possessed a fern-like vascular strand; while in the later members, including the modern Cycads, the leaf bundles, remaining unaffected by secondary thickening, are mesarch, while those of the stem-stele have become endarch.

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  • Among the existing Cycads, though the type of vascular system conforms on the whole with that of the other existing seed-plants, peculiar structures are often found (e.g.

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  • In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.

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  • This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.

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  • Amongst palms the Corypheae are represented by Sabal and Thrinax, and there is a solitary Za,nza amongst Cycads.

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  • Cycads are represented by Cycas itself, which in several species ranges from southern India to Polynesia.

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  • Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.

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  • Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.

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  • Of Cycads, Australia and New Caledonia have Cycas, and the former the endemic Macrozamia and Bowenia.

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  • A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.

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  • They are characterized by fine cycads (Zamites arcticus and Glossozamites Hoheneggeri), which also occur in the Urgonian strata of Wernsdorff.

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  • Cordaites, a tall plant (20-30 ft.) with yucca-like leaves, was related to the cycads and conifers; the catkin-like inflorescence, which bore yew-like berries, is called Cardiocarpus.

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  • Among other trees and shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-palm, the plantain, various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which grows in some parts of Sicily more profusely than anywhere else, and in the desolate region in the south-west yields almost the only vegetable product of importance.

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  • Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

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  • The plants of the Lower Gondwanas consist chiefly of acrogens(Equisetaceae and ferns)and gymnogens (cycads and conifers), the former being the more abundant.

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  • The same classes of plants occur in the Upper Gondwanas; but there the proportions are reversed, the conifers, and still more the cycads, being more numerous than the ferns, whilst the Equisetaceae are but sparingly found.

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  • It consists partly of sandstones with impressions of plants (cycads, ferns, &c.), and partly of clay-beds with coal.

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  • It was the English botanist Robert Brown who first recognized this important distinguishing feature in conifers and cycads in 1825; he established the gymnospermy of these seed-bearing classes as distinct from the angiospermy of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

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  • It is needless to discuss at length the origin of the Gymnosperms. The two views which find most favour in regard to the Coniferales and Cycadophyta are: (I) that both have been derived from remote filicinean ancestors; (2) that the cycads are the descendants of a fern-like stock, while conifers have been evolved from lycopodiaceous ancestors.

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  • The line of descent of recent cycads is comparatively clear in so far as they have undoubted affinity with Palaeozoic plants which combined cycadean and filicinean features; but opinion is much more divided as to the nature of the phylum from which the conifers are derived.

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  • The cycads constitute a homogeneous group of a few living members confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions.

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  • In the genus Cycas the female flower is peculiar among cycads in consisting of a terminal crown of separate leaf-like carpels several inches in length; the apical portion of each carpellary leaf may be broadly triangular in form, and deeply dissected on the margins into narrow woolly appendages like rudimentary pinnae.

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  • The male flower of Cycas conforms to the type of structure characteristic of the cycads, and consists of a long cone of numerous sporophylls bearing many oval pollen-sacs on their lower faces.

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  • The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, Stem springing from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the tuberous or columnar stem of the Cyca daceae constitutes a striking distinguishing feature.

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  • Probably the oldest example of this genus in cultivation is in the Botanic Garden of Amsterdam, its age is considered by Professor de Vries to be about two thousand years: although an accurate determination of age is impossible, there is no doubt that many cycads grow very slowly and are remarkable for longevity.

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  • The thick armour of petiole-bases enveloping the stem is a characteristic C y cad c an feature; in Cycas the alternation of scale-leaves and fronds is more clearly shown than in other cycads; in Encephalartos, Dioon, &e., From a photograph of a plant in the Peradeniya the persistent scale - leaf Gardens, Ceylon, by Professor R.

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  • The Cyas type of frond, except as regards the presence of a midrib in each pinna, characterizes the cycads generally, except Bowenia and Stangeria.

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  • In rare cases the pinnae of cycads are lobed or branched: in Dioon spinulosum (Central America) the margin of the segments bears numerous spinous processes; in some species of Encephalartos, e.g.

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  • A feature of interest in connexion with the phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.

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  • The male flowers of cycads are constructed on a uniform plan, and in all cases consist of an axis bearing crowded, spirally disposed sporophylls.

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  • The cones of cycads attain in some cases (e.g.

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  • Webber, and more recent work enables us to assume that all cycads produce ciliated male gametes.

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  • Pollination in cycads has always been described as anemophilous, but according to recent observations by Pearson on South African species it seems probable that, at least in some cases, the pollen is conveyed to the ovules by animal agency.

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  • The anatomical structure of the vegetative organs of recent cycads is of special interest as affording important evidence of relationship with extinct types, and with other groups of recent plants.

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  • The leaftraces of cycads are remarkable both on account of their course and their anatomy.

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  • The complicated girdle-like course is characteristic of the leaf-traces of most recent cycads, but in some cases, e.g.

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  • in Zamia floridana, the traces are described by Wieland in his recent monograph on American fossil cycads (Carnegie Institution Publications, 1906) as possessing a more direct course similar to that in Mesozoic genera.

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  • Similarly in the sporophylls of some cycads the bundles are endarch near the base and mesarch near the distal end of the stamen or carpel.

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  • This is of interest from the point of view of the comparison of recent cycads with extinct species (Bennettites), in which the leaf-traces follow a much more direct course than in modern cycads.

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  • The mesarch structure of the leaf-bundles is met with in a less pronounced form in the flower peduncles of some cycads.

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  • Palaeozoic genera, has not entirely disappeared from the stems of modern cycads; but the mesarch bundle is now confined to the leaves and peduncles.

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  • The roots of some cycads resemble the stems in producing several cambiumrings; they possess 2 to 8 protoxylem-groups, and are characterized by a broad pericyclic zone.

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  • A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.

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  • Surrounding the pitted wall of the ovum there is a definite layer of large cells, no doubt representing a tapetum, which, as in cycads and conifers, plays an important part in nourishing the growing egg-cell.

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  • After pollination the pollentube grows into the nucellar tissue, as in cycads, and the pollen-grain itself (fig.

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  • A point of anatomical interest is the occurrence in the vascular bundles of the cotyledons, scale-leaves, and elsewhere of a few centripetally developed tracheids, which give to the xylem-strands a mesarch structure such as characterizes the foliar bundles of cycads.

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  • The leaves at once invite a comparison with ferns; the numerous long hairs which form a delicate woolly covering on young leaves recall the hairs of certain ferns, but agree more closely with the long filamentous hairs of recent cycads.

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  • The spermatozoids constitute the most striking link with both cycads and ferns.

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  • The structure of the seed, the presence of two neck-cells in the archegonia, the late development of the embryo, the partially-fused cotyledons and certain anatomical characters, are features common to Ginkgo and the cycads.

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  • Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules; he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in conifers as well as in cycads.

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  • Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.

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  • During the growth of the cell which forms the megaspore the greater part of the nucellus is absorbed, except the apical portion, which persists as a cone above the megaspore; the partial disorganization of some of the cells in the centre of the nucellar cone forms an irregular cavity, which may be compared with the larger pollen-chamber of Ginkgo and the cycads.

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  • (1898); Wieland, " American Fossil Cycads," Carnegie Institution Publication (1906); Stopes, " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Fortpflanzungsorgane der Cycadeen," Flora (1904); Caldwell, " Microcycas Calocoma," Bot.

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  • xliv., 1907 (also papers on this and other Cycads in the Bot.

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  • The most important positive evidence on this point indicates that the most ancient Gymnosperms were derived from the Filicales rather than from any other phylum of the Vascular Cryptogams. Extinct forms are known intermediate between the Ferns and the Cycads, and a number of these have been shown to bear seeds and must be classed as Pteridospermae.

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  • A great group of Palaeozoic fossils, showing evident affinity to Ferns, has proved to consist of seed-bearing plants allied to Gymnosperms, especially Cycads.

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  • We will begin with the Lyginodendreae, a group in which the anatomical characters indicated a systematic position between Ferns and Cycads, long before the reproductive organs were discovered.

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  • The leaf-traces, where they traverse the cortex, have the structure of the foliar bundles in Cycads, for they are of the collateral type, and their xylem is mesarch, the spiral elements lying in the interior of the ligneous strand.

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  • Heterangium shows, on the whole, a decided preponderance of Filicinean vegetative characters, though in the leaf-traces and the secondary tissues the Cycads are approached.

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  • (X 70.) closely with the foliar bundles of Cycads.

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  • In the apex of the nucellus, as in most Palaeozoic seeds and in recent Cycads, a pollen-chamber, for the reception of the pollen-grains or microspores, is excavated (fig.

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  • It is probable that these stems belonged to plants with the fructification and foliage of Cycads, taking that group in the widest sense.

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  • It is only quite at the close of the Palaeozoic period that Cycads begin to appear.

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  • Some authors have been so much impressed by the similarity of this extinct family to the Cycads, that they have regarded them as being on the direct line of descent of the latter group; it is more probable, however, that they formed a short divergent phylum, distinct, though not remote, from the Cycadean stock.

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  • In fact, if the foliage alone were taken into account, the Cordaiteae might be described as simple-leaved Cycads.

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  • Specimens of true Cycads or Conifers are rare or doubtful until we come to the latest Palaeozoic rocks.

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  • The stem resembled that of Cycads in having a large pith, sometimes as much as 4 in.

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  • In any case the morphology of the male Cordaitean fructification is clearly very remote from that of any of the Cycads or P P (All after Renault.) Fin.

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  • In the upper part of the nucellus is a cavity or pollen-chamber, with a narrow canal leading into it, precisely as in the ovules of Stangeria or other Cycads at the present day (fig.

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  • In the light of our present knowledge of Ginkgo and the Cycads, there can scarcely be a doubt that spermatozoids were formed in the cells of the antheridium of the Cordaitean pollen-grain and that of other Palaeozoic Spermophyta; the an theridium is much more developed than in any recent Gymnosperm, and it may be doubted whether any pollen-tube was formed.

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  • Isolated fossil seeds are common in the Carboniferous and Permian strata; in all cases they are of the orthotropous type, and resemble the seeds of Cycads or Ginkgo more nearly than those of any other living plants.

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  • This genus, from the Permo-Carboniferous of Autun, is represented by large, fleshy, reniform leaves or leaflets, with radiating dichotomous venation; the vascular bundles have in all respects the structure of those in the leaves of Cycads or Cordaiteae.

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  • 1; it was with the smaller leaves that Mr Arber discovered sporangia exhibiting certain points of resemblance to the microsporangia of modern Cycads.

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  • Passing over the few known species of plants from the middle Trias (Muschelkalk) to the more abundant and more widely spread Upper Triassic species as recorded from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, North America and elsewhere, we find a vegetation characterized chiefly by an abundance of Ferns and Cycads, exhibiting the same general facies as that of the succeeding Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic floras.

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  • Among Cycads may be mentioned species of Pterophyllum (e.g.

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  • The Palaeozoic types are barely represented; the arborescent Vascular Cryptogams have been replaced by Cycads, Ginkgoales and Conifers as the dominant classes, while Ferns continue to hold their own.

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  • Some plants, again, have been referred by certain authors to Ferns, while others have relegated them to the Cycads.

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  • As examples of these doubtful forms may be mentioned Thinnfeldia, characteristic of Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic rocks; Dichopteris, represented by some exceptionally fine Jurassic specimens, described by Zigno, from Italy; and Ctenis, a genus chiefly from Jurassic beds, founded on pinnate fronds like those of Zamia and other Cycads, with linear pinnae characterized by anastomosing veins.

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  • Plants referred to Schimper's genus Lomatopteris and to Cycadopteris of Zigno afford instances of the difficulty of distinguishing between the foliage of Ferns and Cycads.

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  • The difficulty of distinguishing between Ferns and Cycads is a necessary consequence of the common origin of these two classes; in Palaeozoic times the Cycado filicies and Pteridospermae (see section I., FIG.

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  • and even among recent Cycads and Ferns B, 0.

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  • relationship. There is reason to believe that compound or generalized types - partly Ferns and partly Cycads - persisted into the Mesozoic era; but without more anatomical knowledge than we at present possess, it is impossible to do more than to point to a few indications afforded by external, and to a slight extent by internal structure, of the survival of Cycadofilicinean types.

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  • The scaly ramenta which occur in abundance on the leaf-stalk bases of fossil Cycads constitute another fern-character surviving in Mesozoic Cycadales.

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  • Without a fuller knowledge of internal structure and of the reproductive organs, we are compelled to speak of some of the Mesozoic plants as possibly Ferns or possibly Cycads, and not referable with certainty to one or other class.

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  • It has been found useful in some cases to examine microscopically the thin film of coal that often covers the pinnae of fossil fronds, in order to determine the form of the epidermal cells which may be preserved in the carbonized cuticle; rectilinear epidermal cell-walls are usually considered characteristic of Cycads, while cells with undulating walls are more likely to belong to Ferns.

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  • Sphenozamites, chiefly from French localities, which are referred to 1 fronds, which therg is good reason to refer to the Cycadales in the Cycads because of their similarity to the pinnate fronds of Upper Triassic, Rhaetic, Jurassic and Wealden rocks in India, modern Cycadaceae.

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  • Dorsetshire and in the Inferior Oolite beds of Yorkshire, as well as in Rhaetic strata in Persia and elsewhere; it is characterized by its bipinnate fronds, and may be compared with the recent Australian genus Bowenia - peculiar among living Cycads in having bipinnate fronds.

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  • It is noteworthy that Tertiary plant-beds have yielded hardly any specimens that can be recognized as Cycads.

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  • A more important question is, What knowledge have we of the reproductive organs and stems of these fossil Cycads?

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  • 13, B) a large pith is seen to occupy the axial region, and this is surrounded by a zone of secondary wood, which appears to differ from the characteristic wood of modern Cycads (see Gymnosperms) in having a more compact structure.

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  • 18 Greenland, and other Arctic lands and G12 G13 Gla G15 G16 G17 Yale University has noticed in some of the Cycadean stems from the Black hills of Dakota and Wyoming that the wood appears to possess a similar structure, differing in its narrower medullary rays from the wood of modern Cycads.

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  • Cycads, but the ramenta, instead of having the form of long unicellular hairs like those on the petioles and bud-scales of existing species are exactly like the paleae or ramental scales characteristic of the majority of ferns.

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  • This fern-like character affords an interesting survival of the close relationship between Cycads and Ferns.

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  • In this stem the flowers may have been terminal, as in existing Cycads.

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  • These reproductive shoots differ in many important respects from the flowers of recent Cycads, and chiefly on this account it is customary to include the plants in a separate genus, Bennettites, and in a separate group - the Bennettitales - distinct from that of the Cycadales including the existing Cycads.

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  • A study of the anatomical structure of the vegetative stem, which on the whole is very similar to that of recent Cycads (fig.

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  • in recent Cycads and Conifers.

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  • discovery is the very close correspondence of the male organs of the Bennettites flower with the sporophylls and synangia of Marattiaceous ferns - a further relic of the common origin of Cycads and Ferns.

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  • with in modern Cycads.

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  • Fossil flowers of a type more like that of modern Cycads are few in number, and it is not by any means certain that all of those described as Cycadean flowers and seeds were borne by plants which should be included in the Cycadophyta; a few female flowers have been described from Rhaetic rocks of Scania and elsewhere under the name Zamiostrobus - these consist of an axis with slender pedicels or carpophylls given off at a wide angle and bearing two ovules at the distal end; the structure is in fact similar to that of a Zamia female flower, in which the internodes of the peduncle have been elongated so as to give a looser arrangement to the carpels.

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  • From Jurassic rocks of France and Italy a few imperfect specimens have been described as carpels of Cycads, like those of the recent genus Cycas (see Gymnosperms); while a few of these may have been correctly identified, an inspection of some of the original examples in the Paris collections leads one to express the opinion that others are too imperfect to determine.

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  • Mr Wieland has also described young bipinnate fronds, very like those of recent species of Zamia and Encephalartos, attached to a Bennettites stem, and exhibiting the vernation characters of many recent Cycads (fig.

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  • This form of stem, of a habit entirely different from that of recent Cycads and extinct Bennettites, points to the existence in the Mesozoic era of another type of Gymnosperm allied to the Bennettitales of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods by its flowers, but possessing a distinctive character in its vegetative organs.

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  • There is no doubt that the Cycadophyta, using the term suggested by Nathorst in 1902, was represented in the Mesozoic period by several distinct families or classes which played a dominant part in the floras of the world before the advent of the Angiosperms. In addition to the bisporangiate reproductive shoots of Bennettites, distinguished by many important features from the flowers of recent Cycads, a few specimens of flowers have been discovered exhibiting a much closer resemblance to those of existing Cycads, e.g.

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  • Some of the fossils referred to the genus Kaidocarpon, and originally described as monocotyledonous inflorescences, are undoubted Araucarian cones; other cones of the same type have been placed in the genus Cycadeostrobus and referred to Cycads.

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  • No conclusive proof has so far been adduced of the existence in those days of the Cycads, nor is there more than partial evidence of the occurrence of genera which can be placed with confidence in any of the existing families of Conifers.

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  • Arborescent Pteridophytes are barely represented, and such dominant types as Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites and Sphenophyllum have practically ceased to exist; Cycads and Conifers have assumed the leading role, and the still luxuriant fern vegetation has put on a different aspect.

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  • This change is most strikingly illustrated by the inrush of Angiosperms, in the equally marked decrease in the Cycads, and in the altered character of the ferns.

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  • Physical conditions no doubt played an important part, but whatever cause may have had the greatest share in disturbing the equilibrium of evolutionary forces, it would seem that the apparently sudden appearance of Cycads and other types at the close of the Palaeozoic period made a widespread and sudden impression on the whole character of the vegetation.

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  • Among modern floras we find here and there isolated types, such as Ginkgo, Sequoia, Matonia, Dipteris and the Cycads, persisting as more successful survivals which have held their own through the course of ages; these plants remain as vestiges from a remote past, and as links connecting the vegetation of to-day with that of the Mesozoic era.

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  • Wieland, "American Fossil Cycads," Publication Carnegie Instit.

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  • Lester Ward records no fewer than 737 distinct forms, consisting chiefly of Ferns, Cycads, Conifers and Dicotyledons, the Ferns and Cycads being con fined mainly to the Older Potomac, FIG.

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  • The Cenomanian strata have yielded already 177 species, the different groups being represented in these proportions: Cryptogams, 37, 30 of which are Ferns; Cycads, 8; Conifers, 27; Monocotyledons, 8; Apetalous Dicotyledons, 31; other Dicotyledons, 66.

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  • Other beds yield principally palms, willows, laurels, Eucalyptus or Ferns; but there are no Cycads.

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  • Cycads are only represented by fragments of two species, and this seems to be the last appearance of Cycads in Europe.

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