Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity.
The third or Cuzco section extends 250 m.
CUZCO, an inland city of southern Peru, capital of an Andean department of the same name, about 360 m.
There are a number of small manufacturing industries in Cuzco, including the manufacture of cotton and woollen fabrics, leather, beer, embroidery and articles of gold and silver.
This railway gives Cuzco an outlet to the coast, and also direct connexion with La Paz, the Bolivian capital.
A branch of the Callao & Oroya railway is also projected southward to Cuzco, and reached Huancayo in 1908.
Above sea-level, between the western and central Cordilleras, and on the main road between Lima and Cuzco, 394 m.
The department of Ayacucho extends across the great plateau of central Peru, between the departments of Huancavelica and Apurimac, with Cuzco on the E.
For intermediate or secondary instruction there are 23 national colleges for boys in the various departmental capitals, and three similar colleges for girls, in Ayacucho, Cuzco and Trujillo.
For higher instruction there are four universities: the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos at Lima, and three provincial institutions at Arequipa, Cuzco and Trujillo.
The best known of these are Jose Sebastian Barranca, the naturalist and antiquary, Jose Fernandez Nodal, and Gavino Pacheco Zegarra of Cuzco, who published translations of the Inca drama of 011antay, and Leonardo Villar, of Cuzco.
There are Anglican churches in Lima and Cuzco, belonging to the diocese of the Bishop of the Falkland Islands; but their existence is illegal and is ignored rather than permitted.
In its ecclesiastical organization Peru is divided into nine dioceses: Lima, which is an archbishopric, Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho, Huanuco, Huaraz, Trujillo and Chachapoyas.
The empire of the Incas was divided into four main divisions, Chinchay-suyu to the north of Cuzco, Anti-suyu to the east, Colla-suyu to the south and Cunti-suyu to the west, the whole empire being called Ttahuantin-suyu, or the four governments.
Pataz, Huanuco, Chuquitambo, Huancavelica, Cuzco, Cotabambas, Aymares, Paucartambo, Santo Domingo and Sandia; the latter wholly on the Amazon slope, in the country about the Pongo de Manseriche and at Chuquibamba, both on the upper Maranon, in the districts of Pataz, Huanuco, Aymares and Antabamba (Apurimac), Paucartambo and Quippicauchi (Cuzco), and Sandia and Carabaya (Puno).
The principal copper-bearing districts are Chimbote, Cajamarca, Huancayo, Huaraz, Huallanca, Junin, Huancavelica, Ica, Arequipa, Andahuaylas and Cuzco - chiefly situated in the high, bleak regions of the Andes.
At Cuzco the university of San Antonio Abad was founded in 1598, and the college of San Geronimo at Arequipa in 1616.
Of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
Remains of a similar character are found at Huaraz in the north of Peru, and at Cuzco, 011antay-tambo and Huinaque between Huaraz and Tiahuanaco.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
The conquering tribe or tribes had made their way to the sierra from the plains, and found themselves a new land sheltered from attack amidst the lofty mountains that hem in the valley of Cuzco and the vast lake basin of Titicaca, situated 12,000 ft.
An interview took place at Mala, on the sea-coast, on the 13th of November 1537, which led to no result, and Almagro was finally defeated in the battle of Las Salinas near Cuzco on the 26th of April 1538.
Fearing that the little court of the Inca Tupac Amaru -(who had succeeded his brother Sayri Tupac) might become a focus of rebellion, he seized the young prince, and unjustly beheaded the last of the Incas in the square of Cuzco in the year 1571.
Gamarra, born at Cuzco in 1785, never accommodated himself to constitutional usages; but he attached to himself many loyal and devoted friends, and, with all his faults he loved his country and sought its welfare according to his lights.
In 1543 he refused the Mexican bishopric of Cuzco, but was prevailed upon to accept that of Chiapa, for which he sailed in 1544.
In the vicinity of Huaraz are megalithic ruins similar to those of Tiahunaco and Cuzco, showing that the aboriginal empire preceding the Incas extended into northern Peru.
The more prominent peaks in and between these ranges are the Asanaque (16,857), Michaga (17,389), Cuzco (17,930), Potosi (15,381), Chorolque (18,480) and Tuluma (15,584).
Between Guajara-Merim and this fall, inclusive, the Madeira receives the drainage of the northeastern slopes of the Andes, from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Cuzco, the whole of the south-western slope of Brazilian Matto Grosso, and the northern one of the Chiquitos sierras, an area about Scale, z:2z,50o.000 English Miles 0 5 o zoo 200 390 equal to that of France and Spain.
The Tambo, which rises in the Vilcanota knot of mountains south of Cuzco, is a torrential stream valueless for commercial purposes.
East of Cuzco, and flows in an east and north-east direction through northern Bolivia to a junction with the Beni 120 m.
After the final effort of the Incas to recover Cuzco in 1 53 6 -37 had been defeated by Diego de Almagro, a dispute occurred between him and Pizarro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction.
The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 ft.), Languna Blanca (18,307), Diamante (18,045), Cachi (20,000), Granadas, Lipez (19,680), Guadalupe (18,910), Chorolque (18,480), Cuzco (17,930), Enriaca (18,716), Junari (16,200), Michiga (17,410), Quimza-Cruz (18,280), Illimani (21,190) and Sorata (21,490).
There are large woollen factories at Cuzco and Lima, the Santa Catalina factory at the latter place turning out cloth and cashmere for the army, blankets, counterpanes and underclothing.
There are breweries in Arequipa, Callao, Cuzco and Lima, and the consumption of beer is increasing.
In the following year the Incas made a brave attempt to expel the invaders, and closely besieged the Spaniards in Cuzco during February and March.
Markham, Cuzco and Lima (London, 1858); idem, Travels in Peru and India (ibid.
By the departments of Ayacucho and Cuzco, E.
C. 18) says that Manco Capac " taught the subject nations to be men," and also founded the imperial city of Cuzco (= navel).
As for the marvels of Peru, the walls of the temple of the sun in Cuzco, with their circular form and curve inward, from the ground upward, are most imposing.
Markham, Cuzco (London, 1856, and Hakluyt Soc., 1859); Marquis de Nadaillac, L'Amerique prehistorique (Paris, 1883); H.
He played a prominent part in the conquest of the Incas' kingdom (helping to seize and guard the person of Atahualpa, discovering a pass through the mountains to Cuzco, &c.), and returned to Spain with a fortune of 180,000 ducats, which enabled him to marry the daughter of his old patron d'Avila, and to maintain the state of a nobleman.
CHUNCHO, a tribe of South American Indians, living in the forests east of Cuzco, central Peru.