How to use Cutting in a sentence
He didn't say anything about cutting the rope?
Dean pointed out the obvious reasons he was suspected of cutting the rope.
I'm always cutting off more than I can chew.
He hadn't mentioned anything earlier about cutting the evening short so I figured it was an excuse.
He signalized his accession by putting to death his brothers and nephews; and gave early proof of resolution by boldly cutting down before their troops two officers who showed signs of insubordination.Advertisement
As in 1770, carving or cutting is the chief method by which ornament is produced, the vessels being blown very solid.
Howie and I were relegated to shucking more corn and cutting up strawberries on the covered front porch as we watched the rain continue to fall.
As Dean drew close to Bird Song, he resolved to ask his wife point blank if she witnessed Donnie Ryland cutting his stepfather's climbing rope in an attempt to send him to his death.
At first she said nothing but when he tried to rise, she grabbed his wrist and held it, her long nails cutting into his flesh.
The woods are so dense over large districts as to be impenetrable, except by cutting a path foot by foot through the close network of vines and undergrowth.Advertisement
The impetus which the indirect process and the acceleration of civilization in the 15th and 16th centuries gave to the iron industry was so great that the demands of the iron masters for fuel made serious inroads on the forests, and in 1558 an act of Queen Elizabeth's forbade the cutting of timber in certain parts of the country for iron-making.
Raymond adopts Bernard of Pavia's division into five books and into titles; in each title he arranges the decretals in chronological order, cutting out those which merely repeat one another and the less germane parts of those which he preserves; but these partes decisae, indicated by the words " et infra " or " et j," are none the less very useful and have been printed in recent editions.
Then I would imitate the acts of cutting the slices and buttering them.
The oscillations are controlled either by a key inserted in the primary circuit of the exciting induction coil or transformer, or by a key cutting in and out of the primary condensers or throwing inductance in and out of the closed oscillation circuit.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.Advertisement
An endeavour is made so to plan the works of a railway that the quantity of earth excavated in cuttings shall be equal to the quantity required for the embankments; but this is not always practicable, and it is sometimes advantageous to obtain the earth from some source close to the embankment rather than incur the expense of hauling it from a distant cutting.
An interesting case of embankment and cutting in combination was involved in crossing Chat Moss on the Liverpool & Manchester railway.
The subsoil was composed principally of clay and sand, and the railway had to be carried over the moss on the level, requiring cutting, and embanking for upwards of 4 m.
Intermediate stations, like terminal ones, should be convenient in situation and easy of approach, and, especially if they are important, should be on the ground level rather than on an embankment or in a cutting.
From its intersection with A'A' arcs are struck cutting B in two points.Advertisement
Wherever possible the lines were constructed in open cutting, to ensure adequate ventilation; and where this was not possible they were built by a method suggestively named " cut and cover."
His men became panic-stricken at the first rush and allowed themselves to be slaughtered like sheep. Baker himself with a few of his officers succeeded by hard fighting in cutting a way out, but his force was annihilated.
It was at a later period of his life that he propounded schemes for cutting canals through the isthmus of Suez and the isthmus of Panama.
The practice of cutting off the hair of the dead prevailed in India, though it does not appear in the Vedas (Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India, p. 281).
The writer does not approve of the common practice of cutting wheat high and then mowing the stubbles.Advertisement
The smaller branches and the waste portion of the trunks, left in cutting up the timber, are exported as fire-wood, or used for splitting into matches.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
He found that they were wholly inadequate, and summed up his views in a remarkable letter to the Directory (23rd of February), wherein he pointed out two possible alternatives to an invasion of England, namely, a conquest of the coast of the north-west of Germany, for the cutting off of British commerce with central Europe, or the undertaking of an expedition to the Orient which would be equally ruinous to British trade.
The ostensible aims of the expedition, as drawn up by him, and countersigned by the Directory on the 12th of April, were the seizure of Egypt, the driving of the British from all their possessions in the East and the cutting of the Suez canal.
Sculptured panels, with conventional motives, peacocks, eagles devouring hares, peacocks drinking from a cup on a tall pillar, are let into both exterior and interior walls, as are roundels of precious marbles, sawn from columns of porphyry, serpentine, verd antique, &c. The adoption of veneer for decoration prohibited any deep cutting, and almost all the sculpture is shallow.Advertisement
The corpse of the vampire, which may often be recognized by its unnaturally ruddy and fresh appearance, should be staked down in the grave or its head should be cut off; it is interesting to note that the cutting off of heads of the dead was a neolithic burial rite.
The last-named lake has now been almost entirely dried up by the cutting of a channel, which conducts its feeders directly to the Orontes.
Most of the trade of Brielle was diverted to Hellevoetsluis by the cutting of the Voornsche Canal in 1829, but it still has some business in corn and fodder, as well as a few factories.
The solidification is a very gradual process, depending, of course, for its completion on the size of the block; but before cutting into bars it is essential that the whole should be set and hardened through and through, else the cut bars would not hold together.
The circle in which a sphere is cut by a plane is called a "great circle," when the cutting plane passes through the centre of sphere.Advertisement
Separated from Lycabettus by a depression to the south-west, through which flows a brook, now a covered drain (probably to be identified with the Eridanus), stands the remarkable oblong rocky mass of the Acropolis (512 ft.), rising precipitously on all sides except the western; its summit was partially levelled in prehistoric times, and the flat area was subsequently enlarged by further cutting and by means of retaining walls.
A portion of the body may die in consequence of the disturbance of its nutrition by inflammation, or of a cutting off of the bloodsupply, as by pressure upon, or injury to, the blood-vessels.
The larger species of fungi, such as the Agaricini and Polyporei, &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus, the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the stem.
These lakes are much larger at flood season than at other times, and have been much reduced in size by the cutting of a channel through the raft.
To prevent the gradual destruction of the forests by unskilful management and depredations, schools of forestry have been founded, and means have been taken for regulating the cutting of wood and for replanting districts that have been partially denuded.Advertisement
The gross receipts from this export trade amounted in the year1908-1909to £T99,564, and the profits approximately to £T12,000, in spite of the contest between Liverpool and Spanish salt merchants on the Calcutta market, which led to a heavy cutting of prices.
As soon as their strategic purpose of cutting him off from Vienna became apparent, the emperor moved his troops into position, and in the afternoon issued his famous proclamation to his troops, pointing out the enemy's mistakes and his plan for defeating them.
French centre near Amotz, where, after hard fighting, it swept away the 18,000 of the second line there opposed to it, cutting Soult's army in two.
Beresford was Feb.27, directed to turn his right, if possible cutting him off 1814.
The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers.Advertisement
As to the third complaint, that the compilers of the Digest altered the extracts they collected, cutting out and inserting words and sentences at their own pleasure, this was a process absolutely necessary according to the instructions given them, which were to prepare a compilation representing the existing law, and to be used for the actual administration of justice in the tribunals.
The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
Among these are flour mills, factories for the cutting of wire nails and making hollow ware from sheet iron, and factories for the manufacture of umbrellas, boots and shoes, &c.
The depth of the cutting is indicated by marks on the vertical wall at intervals of 10 Roman ft.
It was probably in consequence of the cutting just mentioned that some of the more important buildings of the imperial period were erected in the low ground by the shore, and near the small harbour.Advertisement
The common variety of bed-sore is the result of continuous pressure on and irritation of the skin, the vitality and resisting power of which are lowered by a lesion of the cord cutting off the trophic supply to the skin affected.
The west boundary of Achradina is marked farther south by a perpendicular cutting in the rock, on the top of which a wall must have run (see above).
Voltaire revenged himself on the duke of Sully for his conduct towards his guest by cutting Maximilien de Bethune's name out of the Henriade.
In religion he protested stoutly, and no doubt sincerely, that his own attitude was not purely negative; but here also he seems to have failed altogether to distinguish between pruning and cutting down.
Siphons are sometimes used to carry the water over an undulating grade and thereby save the expense of a deep rock cutting.
The Chindwin, called in its upper reaches the Tanai, rises in the hills south-west of Thama, and flows due north till it enters the southeast corner of the Hukawng valley, where it turns north-west and continues in that direction cutting the valley into two almost equal parts until it reaches its north-west range, when it turns almost due south and takes the name of the Chindwin.
Further, all the subsequent processes of cutting, moulding and annealing become increasingly difficult, owing to the greatly increased risk of breakage arising from either external injury or internal strain, as the dimensions of the individual piece of glass increase.
Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold.
The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam or electric power.
Cutting brings out the brilliancy of glass, which is one of its intrinsic qualities.
In many specimens there were three or more layers of differently coloured glass, and curious effects of blended colour were obtained by cutting through, or partly through, the different layers.
This only requires to be annealed and is then ready for cutting up, but the lump of glass by which the original globe was attached to the pipe remains as the bullion in the centre of the disk of glass.
From the annealing kiln the slabs of glass are transported to the cutting room, where they are cut square, defective slabs being rejected or cut down to smaller sizes.
The deceptive effect is in some cases heightened by cutting over and polishing by hand the pressed surface.
All kinds of vessels were blown, both with and without moulds, and both moulding and cutting were used as methods of decoration.
The invention of colourless Bohemian glass brought in its train the practice of cutting glass, a method of ornamentation for which Venetian glass, from its thinness, was ill adapted.
It was at Prague that Caspar Lehmann and Zachary Belzer learnt the craft of cutting glass.
George Schwanhart, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glass-cutting at Ratisbon, and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving glass in Nuremberg.
Engraved flowers, views and devices are often combined with decorative cutting.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
Haynes has systematically and patiently uncovered the remains of the great temple of El-lil, removing layer after layer of debris and cutting sections in the ruins down to the virgin soil.
The slabs are sent by a conveyor to a drying stove, whence they issue to pass through a cutting machine, provided with knives so arranged that the cutting takes place both downwards and upwards, and here the slabs are cut into cubes.
The cubes fall from the cutting machine on to a riddling machine, which separates those which are defective in size from the rest.
In Shuffling, Cutting and Dealing, 26th of May, he rejoiced at the quarrels which he saw arising, for "if you all complain I hope I shall win at last."
It seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars and fir-trees.
This is an excellent group for cutting purposes, but it will take a few more years to make the varieties common.
It commonly results from injury, as the tearing or cutting of a blood-vessel, but certain forms result from disease, as in scurvy and purpura.
The cutting of this canal led to the construction of an aqueduct for drinking water, which, besides supplying the city, furnishes an ice factory with enough water to make 200 quintals of ice per day.
Other sources of employment are the cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made clothing, chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares.
But with the advent of the new regimen in Meiji days there arose a desire for social plays depicting the life of the modern generation, and as these croppy dramas (zampatsumono)so called in allusion to the European method of cutting the hair closewere not included in the repertoire of the orthodox theatre, amateur troupes (known as sOshi-yakusha) were organized to fill the void.
These, both for design and for skill of cutting, hold their own with the best work of European wood-cutting of any period.
Microscopic accuracy has to be attained in cutting out the space for the insertion of the design, and while the latter must be soldered firmly in its place, not the slightest trace of solder or the least sign of junction must be discernible between the metal of the inserted picture and that of the field in which it is inserted.
It is, in fact, velvet that has passed through all the usual stages of manufacture except the cutting of the thread along each wire and the withdrawal of the wires.
The cutting artist lays the piece of unfinished velvet on his bench, and proceeds to carve into the pattern with his chisel, just as though he were shading the lines of the design with a steel pencil.
Of course it is to be noted that the edge of the cutting tool is never allowed to trespass upon a line which the exigencies of the design require to be solid.
The two sloping lines cutting at the eutectic point are the freezing-point curves of alloys that, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and tin respectively.
The material of the bank being loosened by blasting and the cutting action of the water, crumbles into holes, and the superincumbent mass, often with large trees and stones, falls into the lower ground.
Wolfe rallied for a moment, gave a last order for cutting off the retreat, and murmuring, " Now God be praised, I will die in peace," breathed his last.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
Linnaeus divided the Hymenoptera into two sections - the Terebrantia, whose females possess a cutting or piercing ovipositor, and the Aculeata, in which the female organ is modified into a sting.
At last the weatherly qualities of the ships enabled Monk to break through the Dutch line, cutting some of their ships off from the others.
For this purpose a horizontal bar Shaft armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which cuts boring.
In the first instance, a smaller cutting frame is used, boring a hole from 3 to 5 ft.
In the former, which is also known as " post and stall" or "bord and pillar " in the north of England, " pillar and stall " in South Wales, and " stoop and room " in Scotland, the field is divided into strips by numerous openings driven parallel to the main rise headings, called " bords " or " bord gates," which are again divided by cutting through them at intervals, so as to leave a series of pillars arranged chequer-wise over the entire area.
The principal road extends from the shafts southward; and on both sides of it the coal has been removed from the light-shaded area by cutting it back perpendicularly towards the boundaries, along faces about 50 yds.
The actual cutting of the coal is chiefly performed by manual labour, the tool employed being a sharp-pointed double-armed pick, which is nearly straight, except when required for use in hard rock, when the arms are made with an « „ inclination or anchored.
In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; but the most important operation is that known as holing or kirving, which consists in cutting a notch or groove in the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 ft., measured back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part unsupported, which then either falls of its own accord within a few hours, or is brought down either by driving wedges along the top, or by blasting.
The method of cutting coal on the long-wall system is seen in fig.
The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
This agent has been applied in various ways, in machines which either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless chain or a revolving disk or wheel.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
These are similar in principle to the Baird machine, the cutting agent being a flat link chain carrying a double set of chisel points, which are drawn across the coal face at the rate of about 5 ft.
The whole operation requires from 8 to io minutes, giving a cutting speed of 120 to 150 sq.
This wheel is mounted on a carrier which, being movable about its centre by a screw gearing worked by hand, gives a radial sweep to the cutting edges.
Another class of percussive coal-cutters of American origin is represented by the Harrison, Sullivan and Ingersoll-Sergeant machines, which are essentially large rock-drills without turning gear for the cutting tool, and mounted upon a pair of wheels placed so as to allow the tool to work on a forward slope.
These machines, which are driven by compressed air, are very handy in use, as the height and direction of the cut may be readily varied; but the work is rather severe to the driver on account of the recoil shock of the piston, and an assistant is necessary to clear out the small coal from the cut, which limits the rate of cutting.
In laying out the mine it is customary to drive the levels or roads in pairs, communication being made between them at intervals by cutting through the intermediate pillar; the air then passes along one and returns by the other.
Xiphodon and Dichodon represent another type with cutting premolars and selenodont molars; while Caenotherium and Plesiomeryx form yet another branch, with resemblances to the ruminants.
Taking these passages as a whole they seem to point to an exclusion from church fellowship rather than to a final cutting off from the hope of salvation.
The children of these families were educated in the hope of avenging their parents, and after many years succeeded in doing so, cutting off Sir John Elland and his heir.
From 1343 onward, statutes were passed by parliament forbidding any one to accept a papal provision, and cutting off all appeals to the papal curia or ecclesias tical courts in cases involving benefices.
The legislation against Baptists (about 1644-1678) and the persecution of the Quakers (especially 1656-1662) partook of the brutality of the time, including scourging, boring of tongues, cutting of ears and in rare cases capital punishment.
Mineral, vegetable and animal substances, by means of tools and apparatus of stone, wood and bone - tools for cutting, or edged tools; tools for abrading and smoothing the surfaces of substances, like planes, rasps and sandpaper; tools for striking, that is, pounding for the sake of pounding, or for crushing and fracturing violently; perforating tools; devices for grasping and holding firmly.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
The northern Algonquin and Iroquoian tribes practised similar arts, and in the Atlantic states wove robes of animal and bird skins by cutting the latter into long strips, winding these strips on twine of hemp, and weaving them by the same processes employed in their basketry.
Puteoli was reached direct by a road from Capua traversing the hills to the north by a cutting (the Montagna Spaccata), which went on to Neapolis, and by the Via Domitiana from Rome and Cumae.
This method is unconsciously adopted by the teacher who illustrates the equality of area of two geometrical figures by cutting them out of cardboard of uniform thickness and weighing them.
This formula holds for the general case in which the base is a trapezium; the wedge being thus formed by cutting a triangular prism by any two planes.
The figure Abdc is a sector of an annulus, which is the portion of a circle left after cutting out a concentric circle.
The cutting machine used in the Mint is shown in fig.
The cutting machines at the Mint work at 160 revolutions per minute, so that each of the eleven machines would be capable of cutting 19,200 blanks in an hour if it could be fed continuously.
The cutting of two canals, whereby communication is effected by lagoon between Assini and Grand Lahou via Bassam, followed the construction of the railway.
They held most of the ditch of Chi-Kuan Fort and were cutting down the escarp, and two parallels had been made only 30 yds.
He mentions two experiments made by him to prove this - one by cutting off the staminal flowers in Maize, and the other by rearing the female plant of Mercurialis apart from the male.
Even the shoulder-blades are said to be put in requisition for cutting grass."
The volcanic fissures that allowed of the upwelling of basalt are represented by numerous dykes, many cutting the earlier lava-flows as well as all the beds below them.
He was, however, a desultory student, and in 1870 was advised to go to the little village of Martinhoe, in Devon, for quiet reading, but distinguished himself more by his daring climbs after seagulls' eggs and his engineering skill in cutting a pathway along precipitous cliffs to some caves.
The necessity for reducing the revenue and cutting down the continued surplus was met in this way rather than by lowering the protective duties.
Here we have a first proof of his talent for romancing; for alike to two pilgrims who show him the road and to the huntsmen of Mark's court (whom he instructs in the rightful method of cutting up and disposing the quarry), Tristan invents different, and most detailed, fictions of his land and parentage.
For the processes of the paper manufacturer esparto is used in the dry state, and without cutting; roots and flowers and stray weeds are first removed, and the material is then boiled with caustic soda, washed, and bleached with chlorine solution.
On the summit of Osengal Hill, about a mile to the west of the town, a graveyard of early Saxon settlers was discovered during the cutting of the railway.
If the pressure falls off uniformly, so that the pressure-curve is a straight line PDF sloping downwards and cutting AM in F, then the energy-curve will be a parabola curving downwards, and the velocity-curve can be represented by an ellipse, or circle with centre F and radius FA; while the time-curve will be a sinusoid.
But if the pressure-curve is a straight line F'CP sloping upwards, cutting AM behind A in F', the energy-curve will be a parabola curving upwards, and the velocity-curve a hyperbola with center at F'.
For this slaughter Arthur took summary vengeance, slaying all the kinsfolk of the man who started the fight, and cutting off the noses of his women-folk.
Besieged from May until October, it was at length relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.
The main road from Durham to Sunderland here passes through a remarkable cutting in the limestone 80 ft.
They are prepared by boiling in water, cutting up into slices, and drying in the sun, by which treatment the slices assume a dark brown or black colour.
The decisive engagement was fought (probably) in the Gulf of Morbihan and the Romans gained the victory by cutting down the enemy's rigging with sickles attached to poles.
This should be done about March, cutting out some of the old wood, and shortening back some of the younger growths of the preceding year.
Copper was known to them, and it is possible that they knew how to make cutting instruments from it, but they generally used stone axes, hammers and picks, and their most dangerous weapon was a war-club into which chips of volcanic glass were set.
In 1895 this percentage was reduced to about 84%, and the work of the schools is slowly cutting it down.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
Approximately its south border ran from a point slightly east of Tehuantepec to the bay of Honduras, and its north limit was that of the modern states of Michoacan and Guanajuato, then cutting across San Luis Potosi to a point just above Tampico.
After a disastrous attempt to enlarge the tunnel in 1675, it was eventually converted into an open cutting, but the work was not finished till 1789, and the bottom was then 29 ft.
He succeeded to the throne on the 16th of November 1797 and at once gave earnest of his good intentions by cutting down the expenses of the royal establishment, dismissing his father's ministers, and reforming the most oppressive abuses of the late reign.
Cutting and binding take place in early winter after the fall of the leaf, the crop being known as green whole stuff.
This method ensures a clean-butted unfractured rod, but unless great judgment is exercised in selecting the proper time for cutting, the rods will remain double-skinned and the head may bleed.
The increasing dryness of the land is partly, perhaps largely, attributable to the cutting down of timber trees both by natives and by whites, and to the custom of annually burning the grass, which is destructive to young wood.
Fra Diavolo was made leader of one of them, and waged untiring war against the French troops, cutting off isolated detachments and murdering stragglers and couriers.
The object of the change was primarily to leave the hands of the celebrant freer for the careful performance of the manual acts, and to this end a process of cutting away at the sides of the vestment began, which continued until the tent-shaped chasuble of the 12th century had developed in the 16th into the scapular-like vestment at present in use.
It only remained now for the primal man to descend into the abyss and prevent the further increase of the generations of darkness by cutting off their roots; but he could not immediately separate again the elements that had once mingled.
Many well-defined channels, cutting across the north-sloping spurs of the plateau in the neighborhood of Syracuse, NY., mark the temporary paths of the ice-bordered outlet river.
The generality of treatment is indeed remarkable; he gives as the fundamental property of all the conics the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to oblique axes (consisting of a diameter and the tangent at its extremity) obtained by cutting an oblique circular cone in any manner, and the axes appear only as a particular case after he has shown that the property of the conic can be expressed in the same form with reference to any new diameter and the tangent at its extremity.
Many of the crystals are parti-coloured, the blue being distributed in patches in a colourless or yellow stone; but by skilful cutting, the deep-coloured portion may be caused to impart colour to the entire gem.
They bloom during the months of May and June, as well as later, and are always most welcome ornaments for the flower borders, and useful for cutting for decorative purposes.
This is the most bitterly criticized action in his career, but no one but the man on the spot can judge how it is necessary to handle a crowd; and in addition one of the princes, Abu Bukt, heir-apparent to the throne, had made himself notorious for cutting off the arms and legs of English children and pouring the blood into their mothers' mouths.
In the typical Australian and Papuan Hydromys, locally known as water-rats, the molars originally have transverse ridges, the enamel folds between which form cutting edges whose sharpness depends upon the degree to which the teeth have been worn, while the large hind feet are webbed.
Therefore, when gill drawing machinery was invented, the cutting of silk into short fibres ceased, and long silks are now prepared for spinning on what is known as " long spinning process."
On cutting across a grain of rice and examining it under the microscope, first the flattened and dried cells of the husk are seen, and then one or two layers of cells elongated in a direction parallel to the length of the seed, which contain the gluten or nitrogenous matter.
The destruction of considerable portions of the forests by cattle, goats, insects, fire and cutting has been followed by reforesting, the planting of hitherto barren tracts, the passage of severe forest fire laws, and the establishment of forest reserves, of which the area in 1909 was 545,746 acres, of which 357,180 were government land.
The more typical members of the genus are terrestrial in their habits, and their cheek-teeth have nearly the same pattern as in rhinoceroses; while the interval between the upper incisors is less than the width of the teeth; and the lower incisors are only slightly notched at the cutting edge.
If the two substances are soluble in each other in all proportions at all temperatures above their melting points we get a diagram reduced to the two fusion curves cutting each other at a nonvariant point.
In connexion with the projected grande coupure (that is, a cutting through the neck of the loop in the river Scheldt immediately below .Antwerp), the importance of these four docks would be greatly increased because they would then flank the new main channel of the river.
The suggested origin of the name Antwerp from Hand-werpen (hand-throwing), because a mythical robber chief indulged in the practice of cutting off his prisoners' hands and throwing them into the Scheldt, appeared to Motley rather farfetched, but it is less reasonable to trace it, as he inclines to do, from an t werf (on the wharf), seeing that the form Andhunerbo existed in the 6th century on the separation of Austrasia and Neustria.
It was perpetuated from a savage past in the custom of cutting off the right hand of a man who died without heir, and sending it as proof of main-morte to the feudal lord.
The head is large, the neck slender, the antennae short and the legs longish, and the appearance of the long stalk-like waist of the ant is produced by a patch of whitish hair on each side of the forepart of the abdomen which has the effect of cutting away the parts of the segments so covered, leaving a narrow dark-coloured median area to represent the waist.
In the majority of ant-imitating spiders the forepart of the cephalothorax is constricted on each side to resemble the neck of the insect, and in many cases the similarity is increased by the presence of a stripe of white hairs which has the optical effect of cutting out an extra piece of integument, exactly as occurs in analogous cases in insects.
The effort to admit the cooling sea breezes by cutting through the mountains a passage called the Abra de San Nicolas had some beneficial effect.
For a quarter of the year the flocks and herds are fed on the upper pastures; but the true limit of the wealth of a district is the number of animals that can be supported during the long winter, and while one part of the population is engaged in tending the beasts and in making cheese and butter, the remainder is busy cutting hay and storing up winter food for the cattle.
In taking a slip or cutting the gardener removes from the parent plant a shoot having one or more buds or " eyes," in the case of the vine one only, and places it in a moist and sufficiently warm situation, where, as previously mentioned, undue evaporation from the surface is prevented.
If they spring from a thick root it is not to be wantonly severed, but the soil should be removed and the sucker taken off by cutting away a clean slice of the root, which will then heal and sustain no harm.
Free-rooting subjects strike in any lightish sandy mixture; but difficult subjects should have thoroughly well-drained pots, a portion of the soil proper for the particular plants made very sandy, and a surfacing of clean sharp silver sand about as deep as the length of the cutting.
These are cut up into half-inch lengths (more or less), and inserted in light sandy soil round the margin of a cutting pot, so that the upper end of the root cutting may be level with the soil or only just covered by it.
In the case of plants with persistent leaves, the stem may be cut through just above and below the bud, retaining the leaf which is left on the cutting, the old wood and eye being placed beneath the soil and the leaf left exposed.
Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
To form a standard tree, either the stock is allowed to grow up with a straight stem, by cutting away all side branches up to the height required, say about 6 ft., the scion or bud being worked at that point, and the head developed therefrom; or the stock is worked close to the ground, and the young shoot obtained therefrom is allowed to grow up in the same way, being pruned in its progress to keep it single and straight, and the top being cut off when the desired height is reached, so as to cause the growth of lateral shoots.
Orchard-house trees, and also pyramidal and bush trees of apples, pears and plums, are mainly fashioned by summer pruning; in fact, the less the knife is used upon them, except in the necessary cutting of the roots in potted trees, the better.
Some plants, like pelargoniums, can only be kept handsomely formed and well furnished by cutting them down severely every season, after the blooming is over.
The plants should be prepared for this by keeping them rather dry at the root, and after cutting they must stand with little or no water till the stems heal over, and produce young shoots, or " break," as it is technically termed.
Transfer chrysanthemums to sheltered positions out of doors, and provide means of protecting them from frost and cutting winds.
Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas and most of these were Elasmobranchs, sharks with crushing pavement teeth (Psammodus), adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, &c. Other sharks had piercing teeth (Cladoselache and Cladodus); some, the petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth.
The large ship canals to Rotterdam and Amsterdam, called the New Waterway and the North Sea canal respectively, were constructed in 1866-1872 and 1865-1876 at a cost of 21 and 3 million pounds sterling, the former by widening the channel of the Scheur north of Rozenburg, and cutting across the Hook of Holland, the latter by utilizing the bed of the Y and cutting through the dunes at Ymuiden.
They also undergo cutting up by numerous septa into short cells, and these often divide again in all planes, so that a pseudoparenchyma results, the walls of which may be thickened and swollen internally, or hardened and black on the exterior.
For one kind of meat we could substitute another; wool could be replaced by cotton, silk or fur; were our common silicate glass gone, we could probably perfect and cheapen some other of the transparent solids; but even if the earth could be made to yield any substitute for the forty or fifty million tons of iron which we use each year for rails, wire, machinery, and structural purposes of many kinds, we could not replace either the steel of our cutting tools or the iron of our magnets, the basis of all commercial electricity.
These include the austenitic or gamma non-magnetic manganese steel, already patented b y Robert Hadfield in 1883, the first important known substance which combined great malleableness with great hardness, and the martensitic or beta " high speed tool steel " of White and Taylor, which retains its hardness and cutting power even at a red heat.
Yet this very fact that it is unalterably hard has limited its use, because of the great difficulty of cutting it to shape, which has in general to be done with emery wheels instead of the usual iron-cutting tools.
It is possible that, at some remote day, aluminium, or one of its alloys, may become the great structural material, and iron be used chiefly for those objects for which it is especially fitted, such as magnets, springs and cutting tools.
In passing, it may be noted that the cost of the ore itself forms a relatively small part of the cost even of the cruder forms of steel, hardly a quarter of the cost of such simple products as rails, and an insignificant part of the cost of many most important finished objects, such as magnets, cutting tools, springs and wire, for which iron is almost indispensable.
This bloom is immediately rolled down into a long flat bar, called " muck bar," and this in turn is cut into short lengths which, piled one on another, are reheated and again rolled down, sometimes with repeated cutting, FIG.
The expense of cutting castings accurately to shape, cutting on them screw threads and what not, called " machining " in trade parlance, is often a very large part of their total cost; and it increases rapidly with the hardness of the metal.
The methods employed have been three - (i.) the cutting of drainage channels and clearing the marshes by pumping, the method principally employed; (ii.) the system of warping, i.e.
During the period just mentioned the tailors' methods of scientific pattern cutting have been adopted by the leading furriers in place of the old chance methods of fur cutters, so that to-day a fur garment may be as accurately and gracefully fitted as plush or velvet, and with all good houses a material pattern is fitted and approved before the skins are cut.
Avoiding the main road, held by the enemy in force, they attacked a weakly held stockade, and succeeded in cutting their way through, with a loss of two British officers mortally wounded, 39 Hausa killed, and double that number wounded or missing.
It is fitted with a section pipe and a circular balanced sluice for admitting and cutting off the water-supply.
Among these was the closing of the Scheldt to all ships, a clause which was ruinous to the commerce of the Belgic provinces, by cutting them off from their only to the impoverished land by the introduction of new but visited Belgium in person and governor-general,g p showed a great and active interest in its affairs.
The city's chief industry is the cutting, sawing and dressing of lumber obtained from the neighbouring forests.
Diamonds are now employed not only for faceting precious stones, but also for cutting and drilling glass, porcelain, &c,; for fine engraving such as scales; in dentistry for drilling; as a turning tool for electric-light carbons, hard rubber, &c.; and occasionally for finishing accurate turning work such as the axle of a transit instrument.
For rock drills, and revolving saws for stone cutting, either diamond, bort or carbonado is employed, set in steel tubes, disks or bands.
Since the heavy minerals of the cascalho in the river beds are more worn than those of the terraces, it is highly probable that they have been derived by the cutting down of the older river gravels represented by the terraces; and since in both deposits the heavy minerals are more abundant near the heads of the valleys in the plateau, it is also highly probable that both have really been derived from the plateau deposit.
The Regent or Pitt diamond is a magnificent stone found in either India or Borneo; it weighed 410 carats and was bought for £20,400 by Pitt, the governor of Madras; it was subsequently, in 1717, bought for £80,000 (or, according to some authorities, £ 135,000) by the duke of Orleans, regent of France; it was reduced by cutting to '3614 carats; was stolen with the other crown jewels during the Revolution, but was recovered and is still in France.
Also a diamond belonging to Mr Dresden, 119 carats before, and 762 carats after cutting.
In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.
At various times and by various persons, but more particularly by Peter the Great, the project has been mooted of cutting a canal between the Volga and the Don, and so establishing unrestricted water communication between the Caspian and the Black Sea; but so far none of these schemes has taken practical shape.
In 1900 the Hydrotechnical Congress of Russia discussed the plan of constructing a canal to connect the Caspian more directly with the Black Sea by cutting an artificial waterway about 22 ft.
These are prepared by cutting down and burning the jungle, which is afterwards hoed, lined and staked in parallel rows running both ways.
The object of this cutting down is to cause the bushes to spread out and cover the ground area usually allowed to each plant, i.e.
The points which require constant attention are - the perfect freedom of all carriers, feeders and drains from every kind of obstruction, however minute; the state and amount of water in the river or stream, whether it be sufficient to irrigate the whole area properly or only a part of it; the length of time the water should be allowed to remain on the meadow at different periods of the season; the regulation of the depth of the water, its quantity and its rate of flow, in accordance with the temperature and the condition of the herbage; the proper times for the commencing and ending of pasturing and of shutting up for hay; the mechanical condition of the surface of the ground; the cutting out of any very large and coarse plants, as docks; and the improvement of the physical and chemical conditions of the soil by additions to it of sand, silt, loam, `` chalk, &c.
A force of 30,000 was to be raised, La Fayette and Bailly, the mayor of Paris, were to be assassinated, and Paris was to be starved into submission by cutting off supplies.
With the filling up of the channel the ancient festival of the cutting of the canal came to an end.
This tree was blown down in July 1906 and its place taken by a cutting made from the tree some years previously.
All three were dry or marshy depressions previously to the cutting of the Suez Canal, at which time the waters of the Mediterranean and Red Sea were let into them (see SUEZ CANAL).
The governor of Cairo attended the ceremony, with the cadi and, others, and gave the signal for the cutting of the dam.
Slicing Tools.The knife was originally a flint saw (17), havint minute teeth; it must have been used for cutting up animals, fresh or dried, as the teeth break away on soft wood.
When cutting a passage in the rock a rough driftway was first made, the roof was smoothed, a red axis line was drawn along it, and then the sides were cut parallel to the axis.
The whole was then heated until it perfectly adhered, and the mass was drawn out lengthways so as to render the design far more minute, and to increase the total length for cutting up. The rod was then sliced across, and the pieces used for inlaying.
Another use of colored glass was for cutting in the shapes of hieroglyphs for inlaying in wooden.
The coarse cutting of his cartouches contrasts with the splendid finish of the Middle Kingdom work which they disfigure.
The 1st Division attacked a few minutes later, and the cavalry swept round the left of the line of entrenchments, cutting down any fugitives who attempted resistance and reaching the enemys camp in rear.
The railway up the right bank of the Nile was continued to Kerma, in order to evade the difficulties of the 3rd cataract; but the sirdar had conceived the bold project of cutting off the great angle of the Nile from Wadi Haifa to Abu Hamed, involving nearly 600 m.
Woods cover fully 7% of the area, and their preservation is considered of so much importance that private owners are under strict control as regards cutting of timber.
The clergy recruited themselves therefore from the class next below them, and looked more and more to the crown for help and protection as they drew apart from the gentry, who, moreover, as dispensers of patronage, lost no opportunity of appropriating church lands and cutting down tithes.
Or the stream by cutting into another stream (piracy), but cutting through a barrier near its head waters, by entering a region of looser or softer rock; and by glacial drainage, may form a flood plain simply by filling up its valley (alluviation only).
His schemes consisted of series of broad, straight streets, cutting one another at right angles.
Accordingly another commission was appointed, consisting of Tribonian with four other coadjutors, full power being given them not only to incorporate the new constitutions with the Codex and make in it the requisite changes, but also to revise the Codex generally, cutting down or filling in wherever they thought it necessary to do so.
He made extracts from the existing law, preserving the old words, and merely cutting out repetitions, removing contradictions, retrenching superfluities, so as immensely to reduce the bulk of the whole.
Kug-Aral, the largest, lies opposite the mouth of the Syr-darya, cutting off the Kichkinehdenghiz or Little Sea.
Designs intended to be cut on wood, on the other hand, were usually drawn by the artist on the block and handed over for cutting to a class of workmen- Formschneider or Briefmaler - especially devoted to that industry.
In 1091 William Rufus renewed the treaty of Abernethy with Malcolm and fortified Carlisle, thereby cutting Malcolm off from Cumberland; Malcolm was summoned to meet Rufus at Gloucester; he went, but declined to accept the jurisdiction of the Anglo-Norman peers, or to " do right" to Rufus, except on the frontier of the two realms, wherever he may have supposed that frontier to be.
Sharks' teeth, shells and bamboo were formerly generally used as cutting instruments for shaving and surgical operations.
The existence of this route, which traverses the Darwaz mountains from east to west, cutting off the northern bend of the Oxus, and connecting those easterly routes which intersect the Pamirs by means of the Ghund and Shakhdara (and which concentrate about Lake Shiwa) with Kolab in eastern Bokhara, is important.
In oak this develops the beautiful silver grain by cutting longitudinally through the medullary rays.
In both jaws the anterior front-teeth were of a cutting and compressed type.
Homacodon was an animal of the size of a rabbit, with five toes (of which only five were functional to each foot) and 44 teeth, of which the molars are tuberculated (bunodont), with six columns on those of the upper jaw; the premolars being of a cutting type.
More mechanical in execution, though still very rich in effect, is that sort of iron tracery work produced by cutting out patterns in plate, and superimposing one plate over the other, so as to give richness of effect by the shadows produced by these varying planes.
Nutand bolt-making machinery, both for forging and screw cutting, operates automatically, and drilling machinery is highly specialized.
This was cutting at the common root of allegiance, emigration and colonization; but such radicalism was too thorough-going for the immediate end.
After three days spent in cutting down the sledge and rearranging its load Mawson started on his lonely tramp, and after appalling difficulties, when nearly exhausted, he stumbled on a food depot laid out by a search party 20 m.
It is famous for the cutting and setting of agates and other precious stones, an industry which has been established here, and in the neighbouring township of Idar, since the 16th century.
The cutting of the Gordian knot by Austria's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by the proclamation of the independence of Bulgaria, and of Prince Ferdinand's assumption of the old title of tsar (king), threatened to raise the Eastern Question once more in its acutest form.
Everywhere else the change from iron weapons to bronze is immediate, but at Hallstatt iron is seen gradually superseding bronze, first for ornament, then for edging cutting instruments, then replacing fully the old bronze types, and finally taking new forms of its own.
An attack from the Trentino with the object of cutting the Italian communications with the Julian front, and so bottling Cadorna's main force in what Krauss calls " the Venetian sack," was an operation which could not but commend itself to the Austrian general staff.
Meanwhile Sextus Pompeius made himself formidable by cutting off the supplies of grain from Rome.
Another beautiful illustration is easily obtained by cutting with a sharp knife a very small T aperture in a piece of note paper.
It is most picturesquely situated on a high bluff or peninsula, round the base of which flows the river Aar, thus completely cutting off the old town, save to the west.
Excessive luxuriance of the laterals may be combated by root pruning, or by checking them early in the season, and again later, and by cutting back to a female blossom bud, or else spurring nearly down to the main branch in the following spring.
He at once arrested his march; but the pressure of famine in the capital, caused by the cutting off of supplies from Asia and the presence of the large Russian force, compelled Mahmud to yield, and on the 3rd of May a firman ceded Adana to Ibrahim under the pretext of appointing him muhassil, or collector of the revenue.
These formulae give a means of constructing the resultant by means of any transversal AB cutting the lines of action.
Perpendicular to 01 draw A1IA2, cutting the axe8 in Ai, A2 make the outer rims of the patterns and of the wheels portions of the cones A1B1I, A,B2I, of which the narrow zones occupied by the teeth will be sufficiently near to a spherical surface described about 0 for practical purposes.
To make the teeth of a pair of endless screws fit correctly and work smoothly, a hardened steel screw is made of the figure of the smaller screw, with its thread or threads notched so as to form a cutting tool; the larger screw, or wheel, is cast approximately of the required figure; the larger screw and the steel screw are fitted up in their proper relative position, and made to rotate in contact with each other by turning the steel screw, which cuts the threads of the larger screw to their true figure.
Draw BE perpendicular to CB, cutting CD produced in E, then E is the instantaneous axis of the bar ADB; and the direction of motion of A is at every instant perpendicular to EAthat is, along the straight line ACa.
The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.
Rule Iv.-Cutting Away Wreck Loss or damage caused by cutting away the wreck or remains of spars, or of other things which have previously been carried away by sea-peril, shall not be made good as G.A.
He had insured the cargo but not the ship. The cargo underwriters were held liable to pay a contribution to damage done to the ship by cutting away masts for the general safety.
The emperor protested that only the Greeks were fit to hear him, and rewarded them when he left by the bestowal of immunity from the land tax on the whole province, and by the gift of the Roman franchise; he also planned and actually commenced the cutting of a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth.
He proved by systematic experiments that the electromotive forces set up in conductors by their motions in magnetic fields or by the induction of other currents in the field were due to the secondary conductor cutting lines of magnetic force.
These presses were not at first reliable in working, especially in the cutting and delivery of the sheets after printing, but were finally so far improved that the Bullock press came into quite general use.
The rotary presses in use at the present time are indeed wonderful specimens of mechanical ingenuity, all the various operations of damping (when necessary), feeding, printing (both sides), cutting, folding, pasting, wrapping (when required) and counting being purely automatic. These machines are of various kinds, and are specially made to order so as to cope with the particular class of work in view.
Although the greater part may be fairly even, some pages, or portions of pages, would show up too strongly, the impress almost cutting through the paper, while in other portions the impression would be so faint that it could hardly be seen.
All these difficulties have to be rectified by the printer either overlaying or cutting away pieces in this first trial sheet.
If the " set " of the cylinder is about correct, and the impression sheet has been taken with neither too many nor too few sheets on the cylinder, it will be a matter rather of overlaying, or " patching up," than of cutting away from this trial sheet.
This is particularly necessary if the blocks are woodcuts, or electrotypes of woodcuts, which require a different cutting of perhaps three different thicknesses, all on thin hard paper, to give their full effect.
Without cutting himself altogether either from social pleasures or from art, he read and took notes with regularity.
In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in.
In the north vast quantities of timber are floated down the great rivers, and the lesser streams are used as floating-ways by the provision of flumes and dams. The millowners either own forests, or lease the right of cutting, or buy the timber when cut, in the Crown or private forests.
Plantations in England are generally ready for final cutting in from sixty to seventy years, and many are cleared at a much earlier stage of growth.
Indiscriminate cutting has occasionally been confined within certain bounds, but such restrictions were generally either of short duration or made for the convenience and profit of local governors.
The monopoly for cutting and exporting the timber of the Mazandaran forests is leased to European firms, principally for box and oak.
It is usually of an intensely sharp, cutting or burning character, either constant or with exacerbations, and often periodic, returning at a certain hour each day while the attack continues.
It consists in cutting down upon and exposing the nerve, and in seizing hold and drawing upon it so as to stretch it.
In cutting, the hedge (as indeed all hedges) should be XVI.
The three incisors of the upper jaw are arranged in a continuous arched series, and have crowns with broad cutting edges; the first or middle incisor is often larger than the others.
The first two premolars are compressed, with cutting longitudinal edges, the anterior one is deciduous, being lost about the time the second one replaces the milk-molar, so that three premolars are never found in place and use in the same individual.
The outer cuticle of Oriental species is so hard that it forms a sharp and durable cutting edge, and it is so siliceous that it can be used as a whetstone.
In the outer valleys of the Himalaya the sides are generally steep, so steep as to be liable to landslip, whilst the streams are still cutting down the river beds and have not yet reached the stage of equilibrium.
Their formation is explained by a process of " cutting back," by which the heads of these streams are gradually Sidhpur ohar -
Taking the average elevation of the central axial line of snowy peaks as 19,000 ft., the average height of the passes is not more than 10,000 owing to this process of cutting down by erosion and gradual encroachment into the northern basin.
The new allied offensive, therefore, begun all along the Serbian line on the 15th, and starting on the battle-front above mentioned (Golemi Vrh-Sivakobila-Obochna), resolved itself into a series of local combats with the object of cutting off as much as possible of Ivanov's rearguard detachments and of making strategic connexion with the Greek left at Pehchevo.
But the subjectivism that founded its theology on the "common sense" of the individual was accompanied by a fatal pseudouniversalism which, cutting away all that was peculiar, individual and most intense in all religions, left in any one of them but a lifeless form.
From the time it leaves Tibet it has a very narrow basin, and preserves the character of a gigantic ditch, or railway cutting, with for long stretches no other affluents than the mountain torrents from the hills, which rise from 3000 to S000 or 6000 ft.
Atropos is most frequently represented with scales, a sun-dial or a cutting instrument, the "abhorred shears," with which she slits the thin-spun thread of life that has been placed on the spindle by Clotho and drawn off by Lachesis.
For some years past, however, it .has been occasionally mixed with pieces of inferior opium, like that of Yoghourma, recognizable on cutting by their solidity and heavy character.
Cutting through the poppy-head caused the shrivelling up of the young fruit, but the heads which had been carefully incised yielded more seed than those which had not been cut at all.
He even contemplated cutting a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth, but was afraid to carry out his plan because the same thing had been unsuccessfully attempted before by the emperor Nero.
As early as 1285 a law provided for the cutting down of trees and bushes on either side of highways, so as to deprive lawless men of cover.
When one of the giant trees falls across the road, it forms a wall breast high to be climbed over, and the mass of tangled ropes brought down makes cutting a path round it a work of time which travellers never undertake."This description is equally applicable to the forest region extending eastward from the mouth of the Aruwimi almost to Albert Nyanza.
During the spring and summer months the prevalence of fierce cutting winds, which are shaped by the conformation of the valleys into blasts as through a funnel, following the strike of the valleys either up or down, makes travelling painful and existence in camp most unpleasant.
The stone hatchets are symmetrically shaped and edged by grinding, while the cutting flakes, scrapers, spear and arrow heads are of high finish.
The Tasmanian stone implements, figured in the Plate, show their own use when it is noticed that the rude chipping forms. a good hand-grip above, and an effective edge for chopping, sawing, and cutting below.
The statement by James Bruce respecting the cutting of steaks from a live cow has frequently been called in question, but there can be no doubt that Bruce actually saw what he narrates.
As in the Directions, the satire, though cutting, is good-natured, and the piece shows more animal spirits than usual in Swift's latter years.
This cutting off was caused largely by subsidence, though partly by marine action.
Besides the cutting down for building purposes of the timber trees the jungle was largely cleared for the plantation of vanilla; while a multitude of other tropical plants have been introduced tending to the extermination of the indigenous flora.
The latter stream, crossing the state and cutting the eastern and western borders at or near St Louis and Kansas City respectively, has a length between these of 430 m.
Excepting the embayment region, Missouri lies wholly within the Carolinian area of the Upper Austral life-zone; the There has been some controversy as to whether this condition is due to the elevation and corrosion of original flood-plain meanders after their development in a past base-level condition - which theory is probably correct - or to the natural, simultaneous lateral and vertical cut of an originally slightly sinuous stream, under such special conditions of stream declivity and horizontal bedstrata (conditions supposed by some to be peculiarly fulfilled in this region) as would be favourable to the requisite balance of bank cutting and channel incision.
This division of the national territory was modified in 1905, by creating seven additional departments from detached portions of the old ones, and by cutting up the unsettled districts of Goajira and the great eastern plains into four intendencias.
On the removal of the pads, or the cutting out of the face of the mortar where pads were not used, the vacant joint was gradually filled with almost dry mortar, a hammer and caulking tool being used to consolidate it.
Elkington showed that by cutting a deep drain through the clay, aided when necessary by wells or auger holes, the subjacent bed of sand or gravel in which a body of water is pent up by the clay, as in a vessel, might be tapped and the water conveyed harmlessly in the covered drain to the nearest ditch or stream.
The inhabitants were a brave and warlike people, who paid more attention to cattle-breeding than to agriculture, although it is probable that the Romans, by draining the marshes and cutting down timber, increased the fertility of the soil.
The economic value of the forests was originally great, but there has been reckless cutting, and the timber-bearing forests are rapidly disappearing.
The barriers between these groups may be regarded as horizontal planes cutting across the branches of the ascending tree of life at levels determined chiefly by our ignorance; as knowledge increases, and as the conception of a genealogical classification gains acceptance, they are being replaced by vertical partitions which separate branch from branch.
For the French always followed him at a cautious distance, cutting off his stragglers, and restricting the area of his ravages by keeping flying columns all around his path.
Occasionally, for long distances, it divides into two main streams with inland, lateral channels, all connected by a complicated system of natural canals, cutting the low, flat igapo lands, which are never more than 15 ft.
It may be added that the given curve is one of a series of curves, each cutting the several normals at right angles.
We have in like manner, as derivatives of a given curve, the caustic, catacaustic or diacaustic as the case may be, and the secondary caustic, or curve cutting at right angles the reflected or refracted rays.
Again, when there is in question only one pair of points or lines, these, if coincident, must be real; thus, b line meets a cubic curve in three points, one of them real, and other two real or imaginary; but if two of the intersections coincide they must be real, and we have a line cutting a cubic in one real point and touching it in another real point.
A re-entrant branch not cutting itself may be everywhere convex, and it is then properly said to be an oval; but the term oval may be used more generally for any re-entrant branch not cutting itself; and we may thus speak of a once indented, twice indented oval, &c., or even of a cuspidate oval.
Other descriptive names for ovals and re-entrant branches cutting themselves may be used when required; thus, in the last-mentioned case a simple form is that of a figure of eight; such a form may break up into two ovals or into a doubly indented oval or hour-glass.
As mentioned with regard to a branch generally, an infinite branch of any kind may have cusps, or, by cutting itself or another branch, may have or give rise to a crunode, &c.
An even circuit not cutting itself divides the plane into two parts, the one called the internal part, incapable of containing any odd circuit, the other called the external part, capable of containing an odd circuit.
The front teeth are simple and one-rooted, and are adapted for cutting and seizing.
The canines are in consequence greatly developed, of a cutting and piercing type, and from their wide separation in the mouth give a firm hold; the jaws being as short as is consistent with the free action of the canines, or tusks, so that no power is lost.
The thorough saturation of the narrow space with aqueous vapour, and the presence of drain water in the cutting, were probably their chief preservatives - assisted by the high even temperature always found in the deeper headings of coal mines, and by the enormous compression of the confined air.
Another rich Norman doorway was exposed in the south wall in 1903, when masons were cutting a site for the memorial to the soldiers who had fallen in the South African War.
There are a few plains, like that of David, in Chiriqui province, but irregular surface is normal; and this irregularity is the result of very heavy rains with a consequent extremely developed drainage system cutting river valleys down nearly to the sea-level, and of marine erosion, as may be seen by the bold and rugged islands, notably those in the Gulf of Panama.
Upon the rougher ground and small farms the ordinary binders are used; upon the great plains, like those of California, a great harvester is used, which has a cutting line 52 ft.
Diamond cutting is carried on and the town has also foundries, breweries, and in the neighborhood extensive powder-mills.
Medusa was the only one of the three who was mortal; hence Perseus was able to kill her by cutting off her head.
Let APB be a semicircle, BT the tangent at B, and APT a line cutting the circle in and BT at T; take a point Q on AT so that AQ always equals PT; then the locus of Q is the cissoid.
The Papuans are mostly ignorant of iron, but work skilfully with axes of stone or tridacna shell and bone chisels, cutting down trees 20 in.
South of this last line of elevations comes the depression of Kulja or Ili, cutting deep and far into the outer edge of the great plateau of central Asia.
Mourning is expressed by fasting, by shaving the head and face, or by cutting off the little finger.
By cutting about 30 m.
There was no native coinage, the French 5-franc piece or dollar being the standard, and all sums under that amount were obtained by cutting up those coins into all shapes and sizes, which were weighed with small weights and scales into halves, quarters, eighths, twelfths and twenty-fourths of a dollar, and even reckoned down to the seven hundred and twentieth fraction of the same amount.
Qat produced dawn, for the first time, by cutting the darkness with a knife of red obsidian.
He first made Marawa's acquaintance when he was cutting down a tree for a canoe.
The box tree comes to rare perfection, but in consequence of indiscriminate cutting for export during many years, is now becoming scarce.
In order to correct this, the light after analysation is passed through another plate of quartz and then the sensitive tint may be more or less restored by cutting off some colour, the same for the whole field, by a Nicol's prism placed in the eyepiece of the telescope.
On the south the principal streams, after cutting their way through the highest zone at right angles to the general direction of the range, become involved half-way to the plains in great longitudinal folds, from which they make their escape only after traversing long distances without finding an outlet.
They are short, stumplike, muscular structures, armed at their free extremities by a pair of cutting blades or claws, and are placed one on each side of the mouth.