Customs sentence example

customs
  • I came to learn the customs of your people.
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  • Similar customs seem to have existed among the Italian races.
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  • From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 1863, he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the work of the department, with the result that the revenue grew from upwards of eight million taels to nearly twenty-seven million, collected at the thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs staff, which in 1864 numbered 200, reached in 1901 a total of 57 0 4.
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  • There are other special customs recognized in various localities, e.g.
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  • So easy is it, though many housekeepers doubt it, to establish new and better customs in the place of the old.
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  • He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.
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  • The expenditure was distributed as follows: Customs collection.
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  • Taxation laws must deal with only one subject of taxation; but customs and excise duties may, respectively, be dealt with together.
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  • The Domesday Survey contains a long account of the laws, customs and values of the salt-works at that period, which were by far the most profitable in Cheshire.
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  • The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district.
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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.
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  • Representatives of their race are also found scattered among the Malayan villages throughout the country, and also along the coast, but these have intermixed so much with the Malays, and have acquired so many customs, &c., from their more civilized neighbours, that they can no longer be regarded as typical of the race to which they belong.
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  • Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
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  • Within two years uniform customs duties were to be imposed; thereafter the parliament of the Commonwealth had exclusive power to impose customs and excise duties, or to grant bounties; and trade within the Commonwealth was to be absolutely free.
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  • A merchant named Cony refused to pay customs not imposed by parliament, his counsel declaring their levy by ordinance to be contrary to Magna Carta, and Chief Justice Rolle resigning in order to avoid giving judgment.
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  • The situation was conducive to the spread of foreign customs, and the condemnation passed upon Manasseh thus perhaps becomes more significant.
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  • The customs revenue was divided among the several states in proportion to population.
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  • Being open to objection on grounds both of superstition and of irreverence, these customs were gradually put down by the council of Laodicea in A.D.
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  • A portion of the consecrated Bread from one Eucharist, known as the " Fermentum," was long made use of in the next, or sent by the bishop to the various churches of his city, no doubt with the object of emphasizing, the solidarity and the continuity of " the one Eucharist "; and amongst other customs which prevailed for some centuries, from the 8th onward, were those of giving it to the newly ordained in order that they might communicate themselves, and of burying it in or under the altar-slab of a newly consecrated church.
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  • In England, during the religious changes of the 16th century, such of these customs as had already taken root were abolished; and with them the practice of reserving the Eucharist in the churches appears to have died out too.
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  • On the other hand, it is probable that in many cases the desire for reservation has arisen, in part at least, from a wish for some thing analogous to the Roman Catholic customs of exposition and benediction; and the chief objection to any formal practice of reservation, on the part of many who otherwise would not be opposed to it, is doubtless to be found in this fact.
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  • With the opening of the Karun river, as far as Ahvaz, to international navigation in 1889, Muhamrah acquired greater importance, and its customs, which until then were leased to the governor for 150o per annum, rose considerably, and paid 8000 until taken over by the central customs department under Belgian officials in 1902.
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  • It is estimated that the value of the imports and exports into and from Muhamrah, excluding specie, is about £300,000 per annum, paying customs amounting to about £18,000.
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  • Such cruel customs were, of course, and still are associated in many lands with the cult of the dead; but, on the other hand, there are gentler and more beneficial aspects observable to-day in China and Japan.
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  • Of the revenue, about 64% is derived from customs and excise; 9% from property, road, military, slaughter and salt taxes; 1.7% from the gunpowder monopoly; and the remainder from various taxes, stamps, government lands, and postal and telegraph services.
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  • New York, New Orleans, Boston, Galveston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco and Puget Sound are, in order, the leading customs districts of the country in the value of their imports and exports.
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  • Thus the indirect taxes of customs and excise which the Federal government imposes are levied by Federal custom-house collectors and excisemen, and the judgments of Federal courts are carried out by United States marshals distributed over the country.
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  • Revenue bills for imposing or continuing the various customs duties and internal taxes are prepared by the House committee on ways and means, whose chairman is always a leading man in the majority party.
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  • Neither does it proceed on estimates of the sums needed to maintain the public service, for, in the first place, it does not know what appropriations will be proposed by the spending committees; and in the second place, a primary object of the customs duties has been for many years past, not the raising of revenue, but the protection of American industries by subjecting foreign imports to a very high tariff.
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  • A customs court of five judges was created by an act of 1909 for the hearing of cases relating to the tariff.
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  • The Federal authority naturally resorted first to customs duties upon foreign commerce, because in this field it had exclusive authority.
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  • Customs duties have been found to be in general the most cheaply collected, the least conspicuous, and least annoying of all taxes.
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  • In the latter period the excise proved of great richness, and quickly responsive in its returns; whereas the Customs were inelastic so long as the war continued.
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  • The customs revenue, in its form of high protection, has always had against it a strong free trade sentiment, generally unorganized, and this seems to be growing.
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  • The aggregate net ordinary receipts into the United States treasury, from I 791 to the 30th of June 1885, were as follows, in millions of dollars: from customs, 5642; from internal revenue, 3449; from direct taxes, 28; from public lands, 241; from miscellaneous sources, 578; total, 9938.
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  • The average yearly ordinary receipts of the decade 1900-1909, distributed by source, was as follows: from customs, $280,728,741.30; from excise, $257,477,356.45; from miscellaneous sources, $48,736,721.89; total ordinary revenue, $586,942,919.64 or per capita; revenue from sale of Panama bonds, $8,730,959.48; from premiums exclusive of Panama bonds, $397,894.20.
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  • In March 1886 this letter was communicated to the San Francisco customs by Mr Daniel Manning, secretary of the treasury, for publication.
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  • It granted to the burgesses all privileges and free customs such as they held in the time of Edward the Elder, with many additional exemptions, in return for help rendered against the Danes.
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  • But these measures failing, he proposed to the king the suppression of internal customs, duties and the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy.
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  • When I go to far-flung places, I often know little of local customs and, through ignorance, I have committed more than one faux pas.
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  • To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
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  • Think of it as a tribal warrior society that's kinda backwards or antiquated in its customs.
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  • Kiera would figure things out soon, especially once Evelyn got her into this new world and its customs.
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  • From what he'd gleaned from Kisolm and others during his imprisonment, she was new to the planet and their customs.
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  • Revenue is derived principally from customs duties, direct taxation being light.
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  • This was in many cases true, and it is equally true that Mozart and Haydn often had no scruple in following the customs of very bad composers.
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  • A metropolis demanded tribute and military support from its subject cities but left their local cults and customs unaffected.
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  • Further, every city had its own octroi duties, customs, ferry dues, highway and water rates.
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  • Libels, insults, &c., resistance to public authority, offences against good customs, thefts and frauds, have increased; assaults are nearly stationary.
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  • The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
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  • The most important of the local dues is the gate tax, or dazio di consumo, which may be either a surtax upon commodities (such as alcoholic drinks or meat), having already paid customs duty at the frontier, in which case the local surtax may not exceed 50% of the frontier duty, or an exclusively communal duty limited to 10% on flour, bread and farinaceous products,2 and to 20% upon other commodities.
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  • Suffice it to say that the rule of the Lombards proved at first far more oppressive to the native population, and was less intelligent of their old customs, than that of the Goths had been.
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  • Agreeably to feudal customs, these nobles, as they grew in power, retired from the town, and built themselves fortresses on points of vantage in the neighborhood.
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  • The result was the formation of an assembly at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic (October 1796).
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  • It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
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  • In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontese codes; and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon.
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  • Though the cabinet had no stable majority, it induced the Chamber to sanction a commercial treaty which had been negotiated with France and a general autonomous customs tariff.
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  • The customs necessary for the preservation of the forests must remain in force.
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  • Twelve knights in each county are to make a thorough inquiry into all evil customs connected with the forests, and these are to be utterly abolished.
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  • By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
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  • Many names and customs were introduced into his court from that of Constantinople; he proposed to restore the Roman senate and consulate, revived the office of patrician, called himself "consul of the Roman senate and people" and issued a seal with the inscription, "restoration of the Roman empire."
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  • The extent of jurisdiction of archdeacons depended much upon local customs. In England the custom was generally in their favour.
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  • In Catalonia " Pragmatics," letters from the prince, issued to restrain jurisdiction assumed by ecclesiastical judges contrary to the customs of the principality.
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  • He or his school introduced innumerable ritual customs, some of them beautiful enough.
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  • The fort has been dismantled; and in trade the town is outstripped by Astara, the customs station on the Persian frontier.
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  • The granite Customs House, extending from Fore Street to Commercial Street, is large and massive.
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  • In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
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  • He was the son of William and Martha Arnold, the former of whom occupied the situation of collector of customs at Cowes.
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  • A new consolidated debt of £20,500,000 was issued at 32% interest, and, as security for payment of interest, 45% of the customs receipts at Montevideo was assigned.
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  • In the first the plebeians strive to obtain relief from laws and customs which were actually oppressive to them, while they were profitable to the patricians.
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  • The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the Liberian service.
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  • In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
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  • Not so with the national customs. There are features - the wooden house, the oven, the bath - which the Russian never abandons, even when swamped in an alien population.
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  • Numerous foreigners had been allowed to settle in Moscow and to build for themselves a heretical church, and their strange unholy customs had been adopted by not a few courtiers and great dignitaries.
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  • So inefficient, indeed, were the reforms as a whole, and so unsuited to the national character and customs, that the Slavophil critics of a later date could maintain plausibly the paradoxical thesis that in regard to internal administration Peter was anything but a national benefactor.
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  • Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
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  • In these statistics, the third item, " other persons," includes post office and customs officials and other persons connected with the railway service, as well as railway officers and servants off duty.
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  • In the annual "customs" of Dahomey, now abolished, hundreds of human victims were offered.
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  • The world could only be christianized on condition that old holy days and customs were continued.
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  • It contains a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early Arabs, and is the most valuable authority we have for their pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.
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  • His grandfather was a man of ability, an enterprising merchant of London, one of the commissioners of customs under the Tory ministry during the last four years of Queen Anne, and, in the judgment of Lord Bolingbroke, as deeply versed in the " commerce and finances of England " as any man of his time.
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  • This was a departure from the customs of the age, and was perhaps influenced less by generosity than by expediency.
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  • At a time when all nationalities, and at the same time all bonds of religion and national customs, were beginning to be broken up in the seeming cosmos and real chaos of the Graeco-Roman Empire, the Jews stood out like a rock in the midst of the ocean.
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  • Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
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  • Various customs, traditions and names of places also point to a former relation with Fiji.
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  • The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
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  • The case was tried in 1329 and decided against Lymington, but in 1750 the judgment was reversed, and since then the petty customs have been regularly paid.
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  • He says: "The apostles had no thought of appointing festival days, but of promoting a life of blamelessness and piety"; and he attributes the observance of Easter by the church to the perpetuation of an old usage, "just as many other customs have been established."
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  • The Gulfport project reduced freight rates between Gulfport and the Atlantic seaboard cities and promoted the trade of Gulfport, which is the port of entry for the Pearl River customs district.
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  • Ethnographers have traced a connexion between the Turkoman of central Asia and the Teutonic races of Europe, based on a similarity of national customs and immemorial usage.
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  • Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
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  • The Parthians appear to have been a Turanian tribe who had adopted many Persian customs. They successfully withstood the Romans, and at one time their power extended from India to Syria.
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  • The restored state of Jerusalem lived for about six centuries in partial independence under Persian, Egyptian, Syrian and Roman rule, often showing an aggressively heroic attachment to its national customs, which brought it into collision with its suzerains, until the temple was destroyed by Titus in A.D.
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  • He saw also that much of the inefficiency of the Assembly arose from the inexperience of the members and their incurable verbosity; so, to establish some system of rules, he got his friend Romilly to draw up a detailed account of the rules and customs of the English House of Commons, which he translated into French, but which the Assembly, puffed up by a belief in its own merits, refused to use.
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  • The chief buildings are that containing the town hall and the grammar school (a foundation of 1547), the exchange, a theatre, and the customs house and dock offices.
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  • The Order only imposed customs duties: it levied no tolls within the land; and though its consent was necessary to any change in municipal ordinances, it allowed the towns a large amount of self-government.
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  • He demanded the reform of the taille, the suppression of internal customs duties and greater freedom of trade.
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  • But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.
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  • Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of ZEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local customs affecting the two counties alike.
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  • From its remote position Carpathus has preserved many peculiarities of dress, customs and dialect, the last resembling those of Rhodes and Cyprus.
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  • Copious extracts from a diary kept by him at this time are given by Bain; they show how methodically he read and wrote, studied chemistry and botany, tackled advanced mathematical problems, made notes on the scenery and the people and customs of the country.
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  • From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.
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  • But questions of sentiment, shop-feeling and trade customs invariably play an important part.
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  • In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
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  • We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.
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  • In the case of King Louis, family quarrels embittered the relations between the two brothers; but it is clear from Napoleon's letters of November - December 1809 that he had even then resolved to annex Holland in order to gain complete control of its customs and of its naval resources.
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  • He censured Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, inveighing especially against the servile ceremony of adoration.
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  • Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which not only injures the moral As feudalism passed from its age of supremacy into its age of decline, its customs tended to crystallize into fixed forms.
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  • Petermann 6 and Albrecht Socin, and Siouffi 7 published in 1880 a full and accurate account of their manners and customs, taken from the lips of a converted Mandaean.
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  • He used his facilities carefully and judiciously; and the result is a work on the whole accurate and unprejudiced, and quite indispensable to the student either of the history of the early colonies, or of the institutions and customs of the aboriginal American peoples.
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  • The Chinese writers say that their customs were like those of the Turks; that they had no cities, lived in felt tents, were ignorant of writing and practised polyandry.
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  • The Chinese statement that the Hoa or Ye-tha were a section of the great Yue-Chi, and that their customs resembled those of the Turks (Tu-Kiue), is probably correct, but does not amount to much, for the relationship did not prevent them from fighting with the Yue-Chi and Turks, and means little more than that they belonged to the warlike and energetic section of central Asian nomads, which is in any case certain.
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  • Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d.
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  • From 1848 he had been a member of the Bavarian second chamber, at first representing the district of Erlangen-Fiirth, and afterwards Nuremberg, which city also sent him after the war of 1866 as its deputy to the German customs parliament, and from 1871 to 1874 to the first German Reichstag.
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  • It is noticeable that it was on French soil that the seed had been sown.3 Preached on French soil by a pope of French descent, the Crusades began - and they continued - as essentially a French (or perhaps better Norman-French) enterprise; and the kingdom which they established in the East was essentially a French kingdom, in its speech and its customs, its virtues and its vices.
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  • Godfrey never legislated: the customs of the kingdom gradually grew, and were gradually defined, especially under kings like Baldwin III.
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  • It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
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  • The Territory is a member of the South African Customs Union.
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  • Revenue is obtained from a hut tax of £1 per hut; the sale of licences to trade; customs and post office receipts.
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  • Seven-eighths of the revenue comes from the hut tax and customs. The average annual revenue for the five years 1901-1905 was £96,880; the average annual expenditure £69,559.
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  • A book on national customs, the first work in the vernacular by a South African native, was published in 1893.
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  • Native laws and customs were interfered with as little as possible and the authority of the chiefs - all members of the Moshesh family - was maintained.
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  • Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
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  • We owe to his pen curious remarks on English and Swiss customs, valuable notes on the remains of antique art in Rome, and a singularly striking portrait of Jerome of Prague as he appeared before the judges who condemned him to the stake.
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  • Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
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  • Laredo is a jobbing centre for trade between the United States and Mexico, and is a sub-port of entry in the Corpus Christi Customs District.
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  • So late as the 10th and even the 11th centuries we find the law of the Burgundians invoked as personal law in Cluny charters, but doubtless these passages refer to accretions of local customs rather than to actual paragraphs of the ancient code.
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  • The law established the ancient customs, at the same time eliminating anything that was contrary to the spirit of Christianity; it proclaimed the peace of the churches, whose possessions it guaranteed and whose right of asylum it recognized.
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  • This text is a collection of local customs arranged in the same order as the law of the Ripuarians.
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  • The penal code of November 1821 abolished many odious customs and punishments of the old code, and allowed publicity in criminal trials.
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  • The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
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  • The island now has free trade with the United States, and receives into its general revenue fund all customs duties and internal taxes collected in the island.
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  • The public buildings, which are large and handsome, include the government and customs offices on the quay opposite the spot where the mail boats anchor, the governor's house, state hospital, post office, and the Boma or barracks.
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  • He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
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  • The student of English constitutional history will observe the success with which Friends have, by the mere force of passive resistance, obtained, from the legislature and the courts, indulgence for all their scruples and a legal recognition of their customs. In American history they occupy an important place because of the very prominent part which they played in the colonization of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
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  • On the murder of the 3rd earl (1333), his male kinsmen, who had a better right, by native Irish ideas, to the succession than his daughter, adopted Irish names and customs, and becoming virtually native chieftains succeeded in holding the bulk of the de Burgh territories.
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  • Legislative power is in the hands of the commissioner, and revenue is obtained largely from customs. The revenue, £22,000 in 1900-1901, was £30,000 in 1908-1909, while the expenditure, £51,000 in the first-named year, was £134,000 in 1908-1909.
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  • The customs house and chief warehouses are by the western harbour, but the principal buildings of the city are in the east and south-east quarters.
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  • From the landing-stage, by the customs house, roads lead to the Place Mehemet Ali, the centre of the life of the city and the starting-point of the electric tramways.
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  • But, whatever may have been his date, he was their teacher and instructor in the Magian religion, modified their former religious customs, and introduced a variegated and composite belief."
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  • The Norse language and customs survived in Foula till the end of the 18th century, and words and phrases of Norse origin still colour their speech.
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  • Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
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  • At the instance of an English nobleman he prepared an account of the religious customs of the Synagogue, Riti Ebraici (1637).
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  • The United States left the task of altering the laws to the people, as far as there was no conflict between them and the Constitution of the United States and fundamental American legal customs. Copies of the Spanish codes were very rare, and some of them could not be had in the colonies.
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  • More than half of the revenue was derived from customs duties (two-thirds of the total being collected at Havana).
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  • The revenue receipts under the Republic have increased especially over those of the old regime in the item of customs duties; and the expenditure is very differently distributed.
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  • The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.
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  • The status of the Isle of Pines was left an open question by the treaty of Paris, but a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States has declared it (in a question of customs duties) to be a part of Cuba, and though a treaty to the same end did not secure ratification (1908) by the United States Senate, repeated efforts by American residents thereon to secure annexation to the United States were ignored by the United States government.
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  • In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina were in 1882 included in the customs and commercial system of AustriaHungary, to the extinction of all intermediate imposts.
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  • They have the same love for poetry, music and romance; the same intense pride in their race and history; many of the same superstitions and customs. The Christians retain the Servian costume, modified in detail, as by the occasional use of the turban or fez.
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  • Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
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  • Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
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  • The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
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  • In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
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  • Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
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  • By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
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  • Thus it is explained in the preface to the budget that the revenues " proceeding from the deposed sultan " are not classed together under one heading, but that they have been apportioned to the various sections under which they should fall " whether taxes on house property or property not built upon, tithes, aghnam, forests, mines, cadastre, sport, military equipment, private domains of the state, various receipts, proceeds of sales, rents " - a truly comprehensive list which by no means set a limit to the private resources of Abd-ul-Hamid II., who looked upon the customs also as a convenient reserve on which he could, and did, draw when his privy purse was short of money.
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  • These were immediately to be taken in hand, and considerable sums are being voted for repairs of existing customs buildings and the construction of new buildings.
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  • The reforms already accomplished have resulted in a marked increase in the customs revenues.
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  • Negotiations were undertaken to increase the customs import duties by a further additional 4%.
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  • To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
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  • The family service, termed Hagada shel Pesach, includes a description of the Exodus with a running commentary, and is begun by the youngest son of the house asking the father the reason for the difference in Passover customs.
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  • There is much that is striking and original in his history of marriage (Die ji dische Hochzeit in nachbiblischer Zeit, 1860), and of mourning customs (Die Leichenfeierlichkeiten im nachbiblischen Judenthum, 1861), his contributions to the sources of the Arabian Nights (Zur rabbinischen Sprach-und Sagenkunde, 1873), and his notes on rabbinic antiquities (Beitrage zur rabbinischen Sprachund Altertumskunde, 1893).
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  • He replies to the objection that it was not right to abandon the customs of their forefathers, and points them to Christ as their only safe guide to God.
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  • It was for centuries a "head port," its limits extending from Chepstow to Llanelly; in the 18th century it sank to the position of "a creek" of the port of Bristol, but about 1840 it was made independent, its limits for customs' purposes being defined as from the Rumney estuary to Nash Point, so that technically the "port of Cardiff" includes Barry and Penarth as well as Cardiff proper.
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  • In 1284 the inhabitants petitioned the burgesses of Hereford for a certified copy of the customs of the latter town, and these furnished a model for the later demands of the growing community at Cardiff from its lords, while Cardiff in turn furnished the model for the Glamorgan towns such as Neath and Kenfig.
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  • The control of foreign policy, public works, the customs and the exchequer are in French hands, while the management of police, the collection of the direct taxes and the administration of justice between natives remain with the native government.
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  • Father Thurston traces it to a combination in the i 6th and 17th centuries of customs that had their origin in the 13th, i.e.
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  • The development of manufacturing industries at Hamburg and its immediate vicinity since 1880, though not so rapid as that of its trade and shipping, has been very remarkable, and more especially has this been the case since the year 1888, when Hamburg joined the German customs union, and the barriers which prevented goods manufactured at Hamburg from entering into other parts of Germany were removed.
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  • In 1883-1888 the works for the Free Harbour were completed, and on the 18th of October 1888 Hamburg joined the Customs Union (Zollverein).
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  • Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics.
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  • On the Tabula Peutingeriana appear the "Chamavi qui et Pranci," which should doubtless read " qui et Franci "; these Chamavi apparently dwelt between the Yssel and the Ems. Later, we find them a little farther south, on the banks of the Rhine, in the district called Hamalant, and it is their customs which were brought together in the 9th century in the document known as the Lex Francorum Chamavorum.
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  • All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they had in common.
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  • With this the bishop of Exeter (Ornaments Rubric, p. 30) would seem to agree, when he says that "the customs of the present day do not fully accord with any reasonable interpretation of the rubric. The stole, now nearly universal, is only covered by the rubric if the word ' vestment ' be taken to include it (a very dubious point), and then only at Holy Communion."
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  • The word apanage is still employed in this sense in French official texts of some Customs; but it was in old public law that it received its definite meaning and importance.
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  • In the preface it is stated that Howel, "seeing the laws and customs of the country violated with impunity, summoned the archbishop of Menevia, other bishops and the chief of the clergy, the nobles of Wales, and six persons (four laymen and two clerks) from each comot, to meet at a place called Y Ty Gwyn ar Da y, or the white house on the river Tav, repaired thither in person, selected from the whole assembly twelve of the most experienced persons, added to their number a clerk or doctor of laws, named Bllgywryd, and to these thirteen confided the task of examining, retaining, expounding and abrogating.
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  • The Cossacks of West Siberia have the features and customs and many of the manners of life of the Kalmucks and Kirghiz.
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  • Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs, religious rites and even the very names of their original villages.
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  • It always remained a characteristic feature of serfdom, but was limited and fixed, either by contracts or concessions from the lord (taille abonnee), or by the customs.
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  • From the 11th century onward, they were governed by their own special customs or fors.
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  • The first charter was that granted by the prior and convent in 1252, by which Weymouth was made a free borough and port for all merchants, the burgesses holding their burgages by the same customs as those of Portsmouth and Southampton.
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  • As early as 1293 trade was carried on with Bayonne, and six years later a receiver of customs on wool and wool-fells is mentioned at Weymouth, while wine was imported from Aquitaine.
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  • The Jarejas have a tradition that when they entered Cutch they were Mahommedans, but that they afterward adopted the customs and religion of the Hindus.
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  • It is certain, indeed, that they still retain many Mahommedan customs. They take oaths equally on the Koran or on the Shastras; they employ.
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  • The chief civil buildings are a large Chamber of Commerce, including the customs and port services, and a fine modern town hall.
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  • By three several protocols signed Germ n at Washington in February 1903, it was agreed that Italy certain claims by Great Britain, Germany and Italy, on Versus behalf of their respective subjects against the Venezuelan government should be referred to three mixed commissions, and that for the purpose of securing the payment of these claims 30% of the customs revenues at the ports of La Guayra and Puerto Caballo should be remitted in monthly instalments to the representative of the Bank of England at Caracas.
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  • An inland parcel post was in operation long before the overthrow of the monarchy, and a similar service with Portugal has been successfully maintained for a number of years, notwithstanding the difficulties interposed by customs regulations.
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  • Considerable protection was afforded to many of these industries by the customs tariff of that time, but protection did not become an acknowledged national policy until after 1889.
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  • The local patriotism and good taste of the citizens have regulated recreation and have also preserved in pristine vigour many peculiarly Scottish customs and pastimes.
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  • They had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud.
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  • Grave as most of his writings are, they include a short description of a crossing from Jersey to Granville, in which he satirizes English character and customs, and reveals an unexpected sense of humour.
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  • Revenue is derived chiefly from customs and excise, railways, land sales, posts and telegraphs and a capitation tax.
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  • Natives, however, are not justiceable under the RomanDutch law, but by virtue of letters patent passed in 1848 they are judged by native laws and customs, except so far as these may be repugnant to natural equity.
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  • In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
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  • The gg Y divergent interests of the various colonies threatened indeed a tariff and railway war when the Customs Convention (provisionally renewed in March 1906) should expire in 1908.
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  • For the native inhabitants, besides the works quoted under Kaffirs, valuable information will be found in Native Customs, H.C. 292 (1881), the Report of the Native Affairs' Commission, 1906-1907, Cd.
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  • Hungary forms together with Austria one customs and commercial territory, and the statistics for the foreign trade is given under Austria-Hungary.
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  • On the other hand, Charles swore, on behalf of himself and his heirs, to preserve the Hungarian constitution intact, with all the rights, privileges, customs, laws, &c., of the kingdom and its dependencies.
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  • Hungary was declared to be a free, independent and unsubjected kingdom governed by its own laws and customs. The legislative functions were to be exercised by the king and the diet conjointly and by them alone.
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  • Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
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  • That which we term the Record of the Past comprises the " taboos,' the customs, the traditions, the beliefs, the knowledge which are handed on by one generation to another independently of organic propagation.
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  • In 1877 he participated in the commercial negotiations with France, in 1878 compiled the Italian customs tariff, and subsequently took a leading part in the negotiations of all the commercial treaties between Italy and other countries.
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  • Herodotus gives a good survey of the customs of the Scyths: it seems mostly to apply to the ruling race.
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  • The newcomers adopted the language of the conquered, but brought with them new customs and a new artistic taste probably largely borrowed from the metal-working tribes of Siberia.
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  • Herodotus adduces this to show how much the Scyths hated foreign customs, but with the things found in the graves it rather proves how strong was the attraction exercised upon the nomads by the higher culture of their neighbours.
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  • They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized.
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  • The Anglo-Boer War completely disorganized trade, but the close of the contest was marked by feverish activity and the customs receipts in1902-1903rose to £2,176,658.
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  • The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
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  • The rest of the province is policed by the South African constabulary, a body 3700 strong, to which is also entrusted customs preventive work, fire brigade work and such like functions.
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  • An attempt was made in 1888, after the conference held between Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and Natal, to induce the Transvaal to enter a customs union.
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  • Of this group of people, among whom may be named the Yao, Yao Yin, Lanten, Meo, Musur (or Muhso) and Kaw, perhaps the best known and most like the Lao are the Lu - both names meaning originally "man" - who have in many cases adopted a form of Buddhism (flavoured strongly by their natural respect for local spirits as well as tattooing) and other relatively civilized customs, and have forsaken their wandering life among the hills for a more settled village existence.
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  • See articles on mourning customs in the Bible Dictionaries, and, for special studies, Buchler, Zeit.
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  • There was an anxiety to avoid articles of dress peculiar to other religions, especially when these were associated with religious practices; and there was a willingness to refrain from costume contrary to the customs of an unsympathetic land.
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  • The education of a mandarin includes local history, cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules of good breeding, the ceremonial of official and social life, and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public or private business.
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  • The public revenues are derived from customs taxes and charges on imports and exports, transit taxes, cattle taxes, profits on coinage, receipts from state monopolies, receipts from various public services such as the post office, telegraph, Caracas waterworks, &c., and sundr y taxes, fines and other sources.
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  • Between the customs house and the railway terminus is the mouth of a small river, the Chiveve, crossed by a steel bridge, the centre span revolving and giving two passages each of 40 ft.
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  • In October 1905 a considerable reduction was made in railway rates and in port dues and customs, with the object of re-attracting to the port the transit trade of the interior, and in 1907 a branch of the Rhodesian customs was opened in the town.
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  • It includes a museum containing ancient documents and specimens of articles seized by the customs authorities.
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  • For many centuries this district between London and Westminster was a kind of " no man's land " having certain archaic customs. Gomme in his Governance of London (1907) gives an account of the connexion of this with the old village of Aldwich, a name that survived in Wych Street, and has been revived by the London County Council in Aldwych, the crescent which leads to Kingsway.
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  • John granted several charters to the city, and it was expressly stipulated in Magna Charta that the city of London should have all its ancient privileges and free customs. The citizens opposed the king during the wars of the barons.
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  • Memories of these customs lingered even if the practice had died out.
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  • There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.
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  • The chiefs, however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin hills.
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  • The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.
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  • Formerly Bremen was a free port, but from the 1st of October 1888 the whole of the state, with the exception of two small free districts in Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, joined the' German customs union.
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  • The Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result of frontier arrangement the town was definitely included in the Sudan, though Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue.
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  • The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought.
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  • The second division is formed by the convention between the English and the Welsh Dunsaetas, the law of the Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book.
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  • The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.
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  • The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes.
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  • In 1886-1887 a German expedition under Dr Koldewey explored the cemetery of El Hibba (immediately to the south of Tello), and for the first time made us acquainted with the burial customs of ancient Babylonia.
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  • The Salic Law is a collection of ancient customs put into writing by order of the prince.
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  • In the sense that they already existed and came ready-made to the prince's hand, it is legitimate to speak of these customs as a popular law, a Volksrecht; but it was the prince who gave them force of law, emended them, and rejected such of the ancient usages as appeared to him antiquated.
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  • The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north of the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the various Germanic laws.
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  • Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.
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  • Neath is a borough by prescription and received its first charter about the middle of the 12th century from William, earl of Gloucester, who granted its burgesses the same customs as those of Cardiff.
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  • Labour disturbances are frequent, for, like Barcelona, Alcoy has become one of the centres of socialistic and revolutionary agitation, while preserving many old-fashioned customs and traditions, such as the curious festival held annually in April in honour of St George, the patron saint of the town.
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  • The value of trade passing through the customs in 1899 was 1,729,000; in 1904 these figures had risen to X2,543,831.
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  • This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs. The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.
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  • In this later pseudo-feudalism, however, the political had given way to the economic, and customs which had once had no economic significance came to have that only.
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  • A large part of Asir and northern Yemen has never been visited by Turkish troops, and such revenues as are collected, mainly from vexatious customs and transit duties, are quite insufficient to meet the salaries of the officials, while the troops, ill-fed and their pay indefinitely in arrears, live on the country as best they can.
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  • But the Omayyads (with one exception) were not religious men and, while preserving the outward forms of Islam, allowed full liberty to the pre-Islamic customs of the Arabs and the beliefs and practices of Christians.
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  • This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
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  • They are, however, extraordinarily tenacious of their ancient customs, and, almost totally isolated from the rest of Christendom since the 5th century, they afford an interesting study to the eccesiastical student.
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  • Westwards of the landing-place, where is the customs house, lies James Town.
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  • The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
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  • He joined Mr. Watson's Labour Cabinet of 1904 as Minister for Trade and Customs, and when Mr. Watson in 1907 resigned his leadership of the Labour party Mr. Fisher succeeded him.
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  • The Heruli remained heathen until the overthrow of their kingdom, and retained many striking primitive customs. When threatened with death by disease or old age, they were required to call in an executioner, who stabbed them on the pyre.
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  • The Narrative contains much interesting material concerning the manners and customs i This discovery was made on the 19th of January 1840, one day before Dumont d'Urville sighted Adelie Land about 400 m.
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  • The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
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  • Their number is estimated at 150,000 to 300,000, divided into 112 tribes, and differing widely in habits, customs and material condition.
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  • The comedies of Segura on the customs of Lima society, entitled Un Paseo a Amancaes and La Saya y Manto, have no equal in the dramatic literature of Spanish America and few in that of modern Spain.
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  • The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
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  • Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
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  • It was deprived of this privilege in 1891, when only the harbour was declared to be outside the customs limit.
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  • The Kru-men form a distinct section of the community, living in a separate quarter and preserving their tribal customs.
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  • In his eyes, institutions, customs, systems, so long as they had not become actively mischievous, were good because they were old.
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  • Although the legation of Britain lasted as a rule only three years, Agricola held the post for at least seven and succeeded in reconciling the inhabitants to Roman rule and inducing them to adopt the customs and civilization of their conquerors.
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  • Japan now possesses native periodicals of the European type, of which the following are representative examples: Fudzoku-Gaho (native customs); The Kokka (art); Toyo-Gakugei - Zasshi (science); Jogaku-Zasshi (domestic economy); Tetsugaku-Zasshi (philosophy); Keizai-Zasshi (political economy); Taiyo (literature).
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  • The city is attractively built on high level land, above the river; in addition to a fine customs house, court house and high school, it contains the West Virginia state capitol, erected in 1880.
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  • With the exception of Griend and Schokland, the islands of the Zuider Zee are inhabited by small fishing communities, who retain some archaic customs and a picturesque dress.
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  • The doubt already suggested as to language applies still more to such characteristics as Dorian music and other forms of art, and to Dorian customs generally.
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  • In the United Kingdom the excise duty is eleven shillings per proof gallon of alcohol, while the customs duty is eleven shillings and 5' g fivepence; the magnitude of these imposts may be more readily understood when one remembers that the proof gallon costs only about sevenpence to manufacture.
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  • Frederick William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminution of customs dues and the making of roads and canals.
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  • But this very fact of its ever-extending influence, coupled with an absence of dogmatism in belief, which made it at all times ready and even anxious to adopt foreign customs and ideas, gave its religion a constantly shifting and broadening character, so that it is difficult to determine the original essentials.
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  • His knowledge of human nature is keen and ample, and his sermons are a remarkable reflection of the manners and customs of his age.
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  • These are common school education and the adoption of one language (English); participation in political life, which is granted to all adult males after five years' residence; and the general influence of social standards embodied in laws, institutions and customs already established.
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  • Its merchants in 1686 owned forty ships, of a total carrying power of 3300 tons, and the customs collected were close upon X20,000.
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  • Gradually feudal customs asserted themselves.
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  • The formal treaty was signed in the same year, and arrangements were made whereby the Chinese imperial customs were able to collect duties on vessels trading with Macao in the same way as they had already arranged for their collection at the British colony of Hong-Kong.
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  • Provinces; for their origin, language and customs, see Basques.
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  • Wilmington is a customs district in which New Castle and Lewes are included; but its trade is largely coastwise.
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  • Without abolishing the customary law of the German tribes, which is said to have been committed to writing by his orders, he added to it by means of capitularies, and thus introduced certain Christian principles and customs, and some degree of uniformity.
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  • The account in the Chanson de Roland of the trial of Ganelon after the battle of Roncesvalles must have been adopted almost intact from earlier poets, and provides a striking example of the value of the chansons de geste to the historian of manners and customs.
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  • His investigations into the usages and customs of his native Attica were embodied in an Atthis, in seventeen books, a history of Athens from the earliest times to 262 B.C. Considerable fragments are preserved in the lexicographers, scholiasts, Athenaeus, and elsewhere.
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  • Primitive Semitic customs recognize that when persons are laid under a ban or taboo (herem) restrictions are imposed on contact with them, and that the breach of these involves supernatural dangers.
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  • Efforts are made by instruction in government and mission schools to spread a knowledge of the German language among the natives, in order to fit them for subordinate posts in administrative offices, such as the customs. Native chiefs in the interior are permitted to help in the administration of justice.
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  • In Adderley Street are the customs house and railway station, the Standard bank, the general post and telegraph offices, with a tower 120 ft.
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  • Revenue is chiefly derived from hut and poll taxes, R customs, wharfage dues, game licences and land tax.
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  • Here, wedged in among the ruder Papuans, who reappear at the extremity of the peninsula, a very different-looking people are found, whom competent observers, arguing from appearance, language and customs, assert to be a branch of the fair Polynesian race.
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  • The expenditure is about £38,000 annually, and the revenue, mainly derived from customs duties, is rapidly increasing.
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  • For a fuller account of the history, people and customs of Alava, see Basques and Basque Provinces, with the works there cited.
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  • The British consul and the customs outdoor staff occupy foreign-built houses on Conquest Island, which lies abreast of the city.
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  • In that year the value of imports at the Boston-Charlestown customs district was $123,411,168, and the value of exports was $104,610,908; for 1909 the corresponding figures were $127,025,654 and $72,936,869.
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  • But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
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  • Myths, folk-lore, hunting charms, fetishes, superstitions and customs were based on the same idea.
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  • For such an isolated community may have preserved primitive customs for some time after they had generally disappeared.
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  • In the former act he embodied a provision regulating and giving authority to the peculiar customs, usages, and regulations voluntarily adopted by the miners in various districts of the state for the adjudication of disputed mining claims. This, as Judge Field truly says, "was the foundation of the jurisprudence respecting mines in the country," having greatly influenced legislation upon this subject in other states and in the Congress of the United States.
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  • Miss Strickland was a warm partisan on the side of royalty and the church, but she made industrious study of "official records and other public documents," gave copious extracts from them, and drew interesting pictures of manners and customs. While engaged on this work.
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  • Making it his main object in his "introduction" to set before his readers the previous history of the two nations who were the actors in the great war, he is able in tracing their history to bring into his narrative some account of almost all the nations of the known world, and has room to expatiate freely upon their geography, antiquities, manners and customs and the like, thus giving his work a "universal" character, and securing for it, without trenching upon unity, that variety, richness and fulness which are a principal charm of the best histories, and of none more than his.
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  • The natives in language and customs present affinities with some Polynesians, and have been held to be a survival of the eastward immigration of people of Caucasian stock which took place before those which established the " pre-Malay "peoples (such as the Dyaks and Battas) in the Malay Archipelago.
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  • Puteoli was preferred to Naples, (a) as being in Roman territory, (b) because the customs duty was only leviable once, not twice as it would have been at Naples - once by the local authorities, and once by the Roman authorities on entrance into Roman territory.'
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  • The Ehsts, who resemble the Finns of Tavastland, have maintained their ethnic features, their customs, national traditions, songs and poetry, and their harmonious language.
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  • The abbot of Peterborough about the 13th century confirmed to his men of Oundle freedom from tallage, "saving to himself pleas of portmanmoot and all customs pertaining to the market," and they agreed to pay 8 marks, 12S.
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  • Financial reform and reorganization of the customs service were found equally necessary, if only to provide means for the increased cost of the army and navy.
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  • Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
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  • Devout Moslems became alarmed at the tendencies of the Committee; at the free-thinking professions of members and their general rejection of the Prophet; still more at the innovations advocated in Turkish customs and in the Mahommedan faith.
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  • The colonial revenue is chiefly derived from customs, stamp duties, land tax, income tax, beer excise, postal and telegraphic services, railways, and crown land sales and rents.
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  • Customs duties, railways and stamps are by far the most important sources of revenue.
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  • A severe property-tax and an increase of customs duties in 1879 only for a moment achieved financial equilibrium.
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  • Taxation, direct and indirect, had to be further increased, and as a means of gaining support for this in 1888 Sir Harry Atkinson, who was responsible for the budget, gave the customs tariff a distinctly protectionist complexion.
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  • The town (pop. 5000, including about 100 Europeans) is the seat of the customs administration and of the judicial department, and is the largest centre for the trade of the colony.
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  • Revenue is derived chiefly from customs receipts and a capitation tax of frs.
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  • Not only do the many intimate y y references to Egyptian history and customs support this position, but it is clear that the Jews of Celsus are not Western or Roman Jews, but belong to the Orient, and especially to that circle of Judaism which had received and assimilated the idea of the Logos.
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  • Customs and indirect taxes yield more than three-fifths of the total revenue, and direct taxes less than one-fourth.
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  • Natal at this time had not seen its way to entering the Customs Union, but did so at a later date.
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  • The deputation also urged the Transvaal to join the South African Customs Union.
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  • With regard to the Customs Union, President Kruger was equally emphatic; he begged the Free State to steer clear of it.
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  • The railway from Pretoria to Bloemfontein was to be proceeded with; neither party was to enter the Customs Union without the consent of the other.
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  • Independent power of action was retained by Brand for the Free State in both the railway and Customs Union questions.
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  • In 1898 the Free State also acquiesced in the new convention arranged with regard to the Customs Union between the Cape Colony, Natal, Basutoland and the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
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  • The colony took part during this month in an inter-state conference which met at Pretoria and Cape Town, and determined to renew the existing, customs convention and to make no alteration in railway rates.
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  • Here are situated Queen's House, the governor's residence; the secretariat or government offices, and other government buildings, such as the fine general post office and the customs house.
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  • The people of Saxony are chiefly of pure Teutonic stock; a proportion are Germanized Sla y s, and to the south of Bautzen there is a large settlement of above 50,000 Wends, who retain their peculiar customs and language.
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  • Saxon agriculture, though dating its origin from the Wends, was long impeded by antiquated customs, while the land was subdivided into small parcels and subjected to vexatious rights.
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  • This capitulary ordered the celebration of baptism and other Christian rites and ceremonies in addition to the payment of tithes, and forbade the observance of pagan customs on pain of death.
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  • The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
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  • Among the passengers on the second trip was the wellknown painter and ethnologist, George Catlin, who spent several weeks at Fort Pierre studying the manners and customs of the Indians.
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  • An event which is thought to have greatly influenced Hancock's subsequent career was the seizure of the sloop "Liberty" in 1768 by the customs officers for discharging, without paying the duties, a cargo of Madeira wine consigned to Hancock.
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  • But his vexatious interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the 18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him.
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  • There was a tendency in time of misfortune to revert to earlier rites (illustrated in some ancient mourning customs), and it may have been some old disused practice revived under the pressure of national distress.
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  • Qaro, a Sephardic (Spanish) Jew, in his Code neglected Ashkenazic (German) customs. These deficiencies Isserles supplied, and the notes of Rema are now included in all editions of Qaro's Code.
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  • It is a storehouse of quaint stories and out-of-the-way information on manners and customs.
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  • Their language, the most distinctively Lao-Tai attribute which they have, plainly shows their very close relationship with the latter race and its present branches, the Shans (Tai Long) and the Ahom of Assam, while their appearance, customs, written character and religion bear strong evidence of their affinity with the Khmers.
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  • Englishmen were permitted to own land in certain defined districts, customs and port dues and land revenues were fixed, and many new trade facilities were granted.
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  • As regards the administration of justice, the distinction is maintained between (I) Europeans and persons assimilated with them (who include Christians and Japanese), and (2) natives, together with Chinese, Arabs, &c. The former are subject to laws closely resembling those of the mother country, while the customs and institutions of natives are respected in connexion with the administration of justice to the latter.
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  • The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
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  • In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
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  • The local commerce of Geneva is much aided by the fact that the city is nearly entirely surrounded by "free zones," in which no customs duties are levied, though the districts are politically French: this privilege was given to Gex in 1814, and to the Savoyard districts in 1860, when they were also neutralized.
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  • The Church as an institution now looked forward to a long life upon earth and adjusted itself to the new situation, taking on largely the forms and customs of the world in which it lived.
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  • Strictly speaking, these two objects are inconsistent with each other; since a customs duty, in so far as it causes a domestic industry rather than a foreign to supply the market, ceases to be a source of revenue.
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  • This circumstance strengthens the hold of the protective system, especially in countries where customs duties are an important source of revenue, the combination of fiscal convenience and of protection to home industry being a highly attractive one.
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  • Since that date the English customs tariff has been simplicity itself.
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  • A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
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  • Hence, by gradual steps, the customs policy of France has become more and more strongly restrictive.
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  • The tariff history of Germany, up to the foundation of the German Empire, is the history of the Zollverein or German customs union; and this in turn is closely connected with the tariff history of Prussia.
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  • The excitement and opposition in Germany to the Prussian tariff led to customs legislation by the other German states, some smaller states joining Prussia, while the southern states endeavoured to form independent customs unions.
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  • All the German states formed a customs union, with free trade between them, except so far as differing internal taxes in the several states made some modifications necessary.
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  • The decade from 1880 to 1890 was one of great prosperity, consequently of rising imports, consequently of swelling customs revenue.
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  • Customs vary in different states; thus in Schleswig-Holstein the state nominates but the parish elects; in Alsace-Lorraine the directorium or supreme consistory appoints, but the appointment must be confirmed by the viceroy; in Baden the state offers the parish a selection from six names and then appoints the one chosen.
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  • Lithuania and the Ruthenian Palatinates continued to be incorporated with Russia as the Western Provinces and were divided from the Congress Kingdom by a customs barrier till the reign of -Nicholas I.
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  • The customs barrier between Lithuania and the former Congress Kingdom was removed, in the hope that the influence of Russia would spread more easily over Poland.
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  • The islanders are a Spanish race, very closely akin to the Catalans; but the long period of Moorish rule has left its mark on their physical type and customs. In character they are industrious and hospitable, and pique themselves on their loyalty and orthodoxy.
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  • Since that time the customs of Azerbaijan have been taken over by the central customs department under Belgian officials, and it is stated that the trade has not decreased.
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  • Tenure by burgage was subject to a variety of customs, the principal of which was Borough-English.
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  • By a law of the 19th of December 1900, Algeria was constituted a legal personality, with power to own goods, contract loans, &c., and a decree of 1901 placed the customs department, until then directed from Paris, under the control of the governor-general, whose hands were also strengthened in various minor matters.
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  • The books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel are proved much later than the times recorded in them by the numerous passages which speak of customs, conditions, &c., remaining " unto this day," and Judges in particular by xviii.