As currency is inflated, prices rise.
Few countries have suffered more from a depreciated currency than Argentina.
Now the Zimbabwean dollar has undergone four re-denominations (the process of shaving zeros off the currency to make a more manageable new currency.
The constant fluctuations in the value of the currency, then much depreciated, intensified the distress and complicated the situation.
As on previous occasions, the great depreciation in the value of the currency has led to a repudiation of part of its nominal value.
On the 18th of January 1906 the currency in circulation amounted to $502,420,485, which is more than $95 per capita.
Camden gave currency to the derivation of the word from the combination of the names Thame and Isis.
The forced paper currency, instituted in 1866, was abolished in 1881, in which year were dissolved the Union of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks.
These notes are of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 lire; while the state issues notes for 5, 10 and 25 lire, the currency of these at the end of October 1906 being 17,546,967; with a total guaraotee of 15,636,000 held against them.
Formerly import duties were payable in currency, but in 1899 it was decided to collect 10% of them in gold to provide the government with specie for its foreign remittances.
Rates of exchange, or, in other words the gold premium, favored Italy during the yearr immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881
He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.
His pension was continued by the National Assembly, and he was partially indemnified for the depreciation of the currency by remunerative appointments.
On the 12th of April 1883 the forced currency was formally abolished by the resumption of treasury paynients in gold with funds obtained through a loan of 14,500,000 issued in London on the 5th of May 1882.
The rulers of this powerful house, whose silver dirhems had an extensive currency during the 10th century all over the N.
1 These ceased to have legal currency at the end of igoi; they were notes of x and 2 lire.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
They were in January 1908 equal in value to the metallic currency of gold and silver.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
The considerations which have given currency to an early date for Joel are of various kinds.
This extension of the term to Christian burial-vaults generally dates from the 9th century, and obtained gradual currency through the Christian world.
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
30, 1905) Unpaid bills, $3,332,594, Paper £8 22,950 The paper currency forms an important part of the internal debt, and has been a fruitful source of trouble to the country.
In order to diminish the gold premium, which under Giolitti had risen to 16%, forced currency was given to the existing notes of the banks of Italy, Naples and Sicily, while special state notes were issued to meet immediate currency needs.
As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
Partial relief was sought in the continual issue of debased currency (beshlik, altilik and their subdivisions), of which the excess of nominal value over intrinsic value ranged between 33 and 97%, and finally paper money (kaime) which was first issued in 1839, bearing an interest of 8%, reduced in 1842 to 6%, such interest being paid on notes of 500 piastres, but not on notes of 20 or 10 piastres, which were issued simultaneously.
In the last twelve years of the 19th century the altilik currency was almost entirely withdrawn, and replaced by fractional mejidie; a large proportion of the beshlik has also been withdrawn, but the metallik has not been touched.
When that happens, refusal to accept the currency is swiftly outlawed and punished harshly.
One is to hyperinflate currency, which is a massive transfer of wealth from creditors to debtors.
currency, and, eventually, fiscal reform.
Its affairs are administered by a governor-general, who is also commander-in-chief of the forces, by a bureau of civil government, and by three prefectural governors, below whom are the heads of twenty territorial divisions called cho; its finances are not included in the general budget of the Japanese empire; it is garrisoned by a mixed brigade taken from the home divisions; and its currency is on a silver basis.
Not until the silver currency question became a political issue did Nevada take a prominent part in national politics.
He surrendered all his offices and all his preferments except the archbishopric of York, receiving in return a pension of 1000 marks (equal to six or seven thousand pounds a year in modern currency) from the bishopric of Winchester, and retired to his see, which he had never before visited.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
The inhabitants of Yap are noted for possessing the most extraordinary currency, if it can he so called, in the whole world.
He therefore proposed to mak over the treasury service to the state banks, to increase th~ forced currency, to raise the stamp and registration duties and to impose a new tax on textile fabrics.
Notwithstanding the advance of £160,000 made by the four protecting powers after the institution of autonomous government and the profits (£61,937) derived from the issue of a new currency in 1900, there was at the beginning of 1906 an accumulated deficit of £23,470, which represents the floating debt.
During 1905-13 he was a member of the national House of Representatives and as a member of the committee on banking and currency took an active part in framing the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency bill.
The 20-piastre mejidie currency, in spite of the further enormous depreciation of silver since 1880, has scarcely varied in the Constantinople market, but has always remained at a discount of about 3% (between 108 and 109 piastres to the pound) under government rate; this is doubtless due to the fact that the demand and supply of the coins in that market are very evenly balanced.
On the 31st of August of the same year a series of proposals upon the currency question was submitted to congress by the president, whose real object was to counteract the too rapid appreciation of the inconvertible paper money.
Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.
For notes of hand or promissory notes see Negotiable Instru Ments and Bill Of Exchange, and for notes passing as currency see Banks And Banking, Bank-Note and Post.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
At this point we must also call to mind the wide currency given to the term theology by Abelard, and his editors or copyists.
The fall in prices was aggravated, first by the unpropitious weather and deficient harvest of the years 1816, 1817, and still more by the passing in 181 9 of the bill restoring cash payments, which, coming into operation in 1821, caused serious embarrassment to all persons who had entered into engagements at a depreciated currency, which had now to be met with the lower prices of an enhanced one.
Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.
When the crash came and the national treasury was found to be without resources to meet current expenses, further issues of $110,000,000 in currency were made.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
Until 1893 the juridical status of the Banks of Issue was regulated by the laws of the 3oth of April 1874 on paper currency and of the 7th of April 1881 on the abolition of forced currency.
In this emergency assignats were issued to provide a substitute for a metallic currency.
To him are due the introduction of the decimal system of currency and the adoption of a system of protection to Canadian manufactures.
He successfully opposed a bill providing for what would have been practically an irredeemable currency, and he voted against the bill for chartering the second United States bank, although it provided for the redemp - tion of bank notes in specie, because he objected to permitting the government to have so large a share in its management.
No traces of currency have come to light, unless certain axe-heads, too slight for practical use, had that character; but standard weights have been found, and representations of ingots.
Finally, usage of paper money was restricted to the capital only, and in 1842 this partial reform of the paper currency was followed by a reform of the metallic currency, in the shape of an issue of gold, silver and copper currency of good value.
The first of these mistakes was a measure making (January 1885) the currency inconvertible for a period of two years.
The Chinese government had bound itself in 1896 and 1898 that the imperial maritime customs services should remain as then constituted during the currency of the loan.
Since 1891 the national budgets have been calculated in both gold and currency, and both receipts and expenditures have been carried out in this dual system.
The unsatisfactory financial condition of the Florence, Rome and Naples municipalities necessitated state help, but the Chamber nevertheless proceeded with a light heart (23rd February 1881) to sanction the issue of a foreign loan for 26,000,000, with a view to the abolition of the forced currency, thus adding to the burdens of the exchequer a load which three years later again dragged Italy into the gulf of chronic deficit.
These measures have served to give greater stability to the value of the circulating medium, and to prevent the ruinous losses caused by a constant fluctuation in value, but the rate established prevents the further appreciation of the currency.
When he was in Europe he went to the bank to handle the conversion of his money into the local currency.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
The new law forbade the state banks to lend money on real estate, limited their powers of discounting bills and securities, and reduced the maximum of their paper currency.
Stoke, however, was dissolved in the following reign, and Parker received a pension equivalent to £400 a year in modern currency.
Sterling (Currency) >>
Foreign gold coins, especially the pound sterling (par value 110 piastres) and the French 20-franc piece (par value 872 piastres) have free currency.
Brazil is a member of the Postal Union, and like Argentina exacts higher nominal rates of postage upon outgoing mail than those agreed upon to cover the depreciation in her own currency.
The depreciation and unstable character of the paper currency render it difficult to give a clear statement of receipts and expenditures for a term of years, the sterling equivalents often showing a decrease, through a fall in the value of the milreis, where there has been an actual increase in currency returns.
In this period the increase in the sterling equivalents would be proportionately greater than that of the currency values.
The gold and currency receipts and expenditures for the six years 1900 to 1905, inclusive, according to official returns, were as follows: - Reducing gold to a currency basis at 15d.
In 1888, a year before the republic was proclaimed, the internal and external national debts amounted to £74,000,000 sterling, with the currency at par.
Ten years later, when the currency had fallen to 51 pence per milreis, the government found itself unable to meet the interest obligations on its debt and railway guarantees, and an arrangement was made with its creditors in London for the issue of a 5% funding loan to an amount not to exceed £10,000,000, and the suspension of all amortization for thirteen years.
On the other hand the government agreed to withdraw currency, which had reached a total of 788,364,614 1-milreis, pari passu with the issue of the loan, the milreis being computed at 18 pence.
The government even withdrew more of its currency issues than required by the agreement, and the value of the milreis steadily improved.
The paper currency of Brazil consists of both treasury issues and bank-notes, the latter issued under government supervision.
Up to 1906 the Caixa da Amortisacdo (redemption bureau), which has charge of the service of the internal funded debt, superintended the redemption of the currency, but in that year (December 6, 1906) a Caixa de Conyers-do (conversion bureau) was created for this special service.
Charles, moreover, was a born financier, and his reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich both the merchant class and the treasury.
Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.
It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.
When the view had once obtained currency, it would naturally become a tradition.
- the Curetonian and the Sinaitic - in two differing forms: but this never obtained much currency.
Rabbula, the powerful and energetic bishop of Edessa who withstood the beginnings of Nestorianism, and who gave currency to the Peshitta text of the four Gospels, abolishing the use of the Diatessaron, is dealt with in a separate article.
In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.
Under the currency law of the 31st of March 1879, the thousandth part of a kilogramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a bolivar, in honour of the Venezuelan liberator.
Paper currency is issued by the banks of Venezuela, Caracas and Maracaibo under the provisions of a general banking law, and their notes, although not legal tender, are everywhere accepted at their face value.
The condition of the currency of Japan was at that time deplorable, and national bankruptcy threatened.
The coinage had not only been seriously debased during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime, but large quantities of paper currency had been issued and circulated, both by many of the feudal lords, and by the central government itself, as a temporary expedient for filling an impoverished exchequer.
Matsukata showed the government the danger of the situation, and urged that the issue of further paper currency should be stopped at once, the expenses of administration curtailed, and the resulting surplus of revenue used in the redemption of the paper currency and in the creation of a specie reserve.
These proposals were acted upon: the Bank of Japan was established, and the right of issuing convertible notes given to it; and within three years of the initiation of these financial reforms, the paper currency, largely reduced in quantity, was restored to its full par value with silver, and the currency as a whole placed on a solvent basis.
He published The Political and Financial Opinions of Peter Cooper, with an Autobiography of his Early Life (1877), and Ideas for a Science of Good Government, in Addresses, Letters and Articles on a Strictly National Currency, Tariff and Civil Service (1883).
In 1748 he carried through the General Court a bill providing for the cancellation and redemption of the outstanding paper currency.
Zinc as a component of brass (XaXKOs, 6pei-XaXKos) had currency in metallurgy long before it became known as an individual metal.
This view had currency until 1849, when Wohler showed that the crystals are a compound, Ti(CN)2.3T13N2, of a cyanide and a nitride of the metal.
Experience with paper currency has been even more disastrous.
These banks enjoyed the privilege of issuing currency notes to the amount of three times the cash in hand without regard to their commercial liabilities.
A large increase in imports, caused by fictitious prosperity and inability to obtain drafts against guano shipments, led to the exportation of coin to meet commercial obligations, and this soon reduced the currency circulation to a paper basis.
There is also a large paper currency in the form of notes issued by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the National Bank of China, Limited.
But one theory which has had considerable currency requires notice, namely, that Yahweh, or Yahu, Yaho, 3 is the name of a god worshipped throughout the whole, or a great part, of the area occupied by the Western Semites.
Ellsworth also made a determined stand against a national paper currency.
The country was still labouring under the curse of an inconvertible currency originatingwith the Legal Tender Act res - paperY g dncy.
The influx of Continental currency gave some trouble during the War of Independence, but there were no further local issues until 1786, when £10o,000 were issued.
When Adelaide bore a son, and a report gained currency that Otto intended to make this child his heir, Ludolf rose in revolt and was joined by Conrad of Lorraine and Frederick of Mainz.
But the reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable; it has been often translated; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adaptations) have also been common.
Coins bearing the inscription "Khokand the Charming," and known as khokands, have or had a wide currency.
Alone among the Baltic states Lithuania had as yet no national currency in 1921.
Legal tender were the "Ostmark" (originally introduced by the German Military Administration of the Army of Occupation, "Militdrisches Verwaltungsgebiet Ober-Ost"), which in Lithuania proper ranked pari passu with the German "Reichsmark," and other German fiduciary currency to a total not less than one milliard marks.
Currency legislation was especially prominent.
v.), form the next group. These must be used with the utmost caution, because even the earliest orthodox writers give currency to many misconceptions and calumnies.
If this appearance be not fallacious, the obvious relation between the two superscriptions will be best explained by the supposition that the author of Jude gave currency to the existing homily (James) before composing under the pseudonym of Jude.
The currency is English.
Lyell again was in the forefront of the progressive movement, and his work on The Antiquity of Man, published in 1863, gave currency for the first time to the new opinions.
In Carthage its currency is proven by the references of Tertullian, and the phraseology of the Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas (§§ 4, 12); in Alexandria by the citations of Clement (Paed.
He criticizes sharply (pp. 173 sqq., 233 sqq.) former methods of interpretation, and with the ardour of a discoverer of a new truth seeks to establish its currency throughout the entire field of apocalyptic. To such an extreme does he carry his theory that he denies obvious references to historical personages in the Apocalypse, when these are clothed in apocalyptic language.
The tad is not a coin, the only silver currency, apart from imported dollars, being the ingots of silver known as "sycee"; the only other native currency is the copper "cash."
The term is, however, a convenient one, and one whose use is almost a necessity, from its having an almost universal currency among coal miners.
The currency of the colony, which had formerly twelve shillings to the pound sterling, was assimilated to that of England in 1842.
As no time had been fixed for this operation to cease, it amounted to an unlimited increase of a kind of currency that circulated at a nominal value much above its real value.
The state banks still have the right to issue currency, but the heavy tax on currency issue imposed by Congress in 1866 (after the introduction of the National banking system in 1863) put a stop to the practice.
A paper currency had been instituted, and the notes - currently known as " bluebacks "- soon dropped to less than half their nominal value.
Brunetiere may have given countenance and currency to theidea, to regard his philosophy as in the main intended as a succour against the fear of death.
Among the chief objects set before this board were the inquiry into trade obstacles and the employment of the poor; the state of the silver currency was also a subject on which John Locke, its secretary, lost no time in making representations to the government.
It was at first extended provisionally, as it was impossible to reach a settlement between Austria and Hungary regarding the continuance of common currency and banking arrangements.
The suspension of cash payment by the Austro-Hungarian Bank was continued, but the bank was bound to provide, by every means at its disposal, that the value of its notes as quoted on foreign bourses should be permanently secured in proportion to the parity of the legal mint standard of the krone currency.
He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins.
£4,3 00, 000 The unit of Siamese currency is the tical, a silver coin about equal in weight and fineness to the Indian rupee.
A paper currency was established in 1902, and proved a financial success.
The tical (baht) is the unit of currency and also the unit of weight.
After the close of the war efforts were first directed to clearing the financial situation by funding the floating debt, and taking steps (never fully consummated) towards contracting the currency.
The currency issue had been foremost in the campaign, but the Republicans had also proclaimed themselves in favour of a return to the unqualified protective system.
sovereign, elected in common, with one diet and one currency.
In 1 7 26 he fixed the standard of the currency and secured the credit of the government by the regular payment thenceforward of the interest on the debt.
The reputation of Elias Levita and Buxtorf led to this view of Ezra's activity being adopted by other scholars, and so it acquired general currency.
Some important contributions towards a right critical method of using the material collected have been made - in particular by Lagarde, who has also opened up a valuable line of critical work, along which much remains to be done, by his restoration of the Lucianic recension, one of the three great recensions of the Greek text of the Old Testament which obtained currency at the close of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th centuries A.D.
Particular states also not unfrequently introduced fixed eras, which obtained a more or less extensive currency, as the era of the first Olympiad (776 B.C.), of the foundation of Rome (753 B.C.), and of the Seleucidae at Antioch (312 B.C.), which is followed by the Jewish author of the first book of Maccabees.
This computation attained currency among the later Jews (Josephus and others; cf.
Moreover, the wide currency in early times of the tradition of the single-year ministry (Ptolemaeus, ap. Iren, loc. cit.; Clementine Homilies, xvii.
The first banking currency in Kentucky was issued in 1802 by a co-operative insurance company established by Mississippi Valley traders.
His chief financial expedient was to debase, or rather ruin, the currency by issuing copper tokens redeemable in better times; but it was no fault of his that Charles XII., during his absence, flung upon the market too enormous an amount of this copper money for Gertz to deal with.
in the United States), the scientific surveys of the state (the first of such public surveys), the criminal law commission, and the preservation of a sound currency during the panic of 1837.
The "tola" (180 grains) is properly the Government unit of weight for currency; and 80 tolas make the "Government seer."
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
The financial condition at the close of the War of Independence was alarming, and in September 1785 a mob at Exeter demanded relief through the issue of more paper currency.
The gold value of the currency peso (75 = £1 in 1903, 70 = £I in 1904, 58 = £1 in 1905) fluctuates between limits so wide that conversion into sterling (especially for a series of years), with any pretension to accuracy, is impracticable.
According to the official statement, the gold debt, which runs chiefly at 4% and is held in Germany and England, amounted to £1,987,905 on the 1st of January 1905; the currency debt (note issues, internal loans, &c.) amounted to £704,730; total £2,692,635, a decrease since 1900 of about £300,000.
Barillas (1845-1907) proclaimed his intention of establishing a silver currency, and gained, to a great extent, the sympathy of the German and British residents; he had been the sole Guatemalan president who had not sought to prolong his own tenure of office.
The most important committees are the following: ways and means, rules, elections, appropriations (with several committees for different branches of public expenditure), rivers and harbours, banking and currency, and foreign.
The two main functions of the treasury department are the administration of the government revenues and expenditures, and of the banking and currency laws.
This tale, which still finds a place in Burke's Peerage in the account of the baron Kingsale, a descendant of the de Courci family, is a legend without historic foundation which did not obtain currency till centuries after John de Courci's death.
The rival school of Basra, on the other hand, has given currency to a story that the original collection made by al-Mufaddal included a much smaller number of poems. The Berlin MS. of al-Marzugi's commentary states that the number was thirty, but a better reading of the passage, found elsewhere,' mentions eighty; and that al-Asma`i and his school added to this nucleus poems which increased the number to a hundred and twenty.
The banking system of the country was put on a sound footing by a series of acts culminating in 1871, and in the same year a uniform system of decimal currency was established for the whole Dominion.
Calculating roundly a cent as equal to a halfpenny, and eight bushels to the quarter, the above would appear in English currency as follows: Chicago to New York in Shillings and Pence per Quarter.
Scholars since the Renaissance have not always been above inventing codices to obtain currency for their own conjectures.
Numerous and striking discrepancies may be due to the fact that there was more than one edition or recension of it in early times, or to the author leaving his work in such a condition that such discrepancies must inevitably gain currency.
His special gift lay in the power to make what had been traditionally received impressive, to give to it its proper form, and to gain for it new currency.
In the German Reichstag he was the leading authority on matters of finance and economics, as well as a clear and persuasive speaker, and it was chiefly owing to him that a gold currency was adopted and that the German Imperial Bank took its present form; in his later years he wrote and spoke strongly against bimetallism.
His most important works are those on the currency, on the French war-indemnity, his criticism of socialism and his apology for the Secession.
The Democrats adopted a platform declaring in favour of indefinitely enlarging the volume of the irredeemable paper currency which the Civil War had left behind it.
In the following year he published a pamphlet on the currency system, which confirmed his reputation as the ablest financier of his time; but his free-trade principles did not accord with those of his party.
Legislative interference with agricultural operations or with the distribution of food-supplies, currency restrictions and failure of transport, which have all caused famines in the past, are unlikely thus to operate again; nor is it probable that the modern speculators who attempt to make "corners" in wheat could produce the evil effects contemplated in the old statutes against forestallers and regrators.
British currency has been introduced instead of Chandori rupees, which were much depreciated.
But, at least in the south, market centres had sprung up, town life was beginning, houses of a better type were perhaps coming into use, and the southern tribes employed a gold coinage and also a currency of iron bars or ingots, attested by Caesar and by surviving examples, which weigh roughly, some two-thirds of a pound, some 21 lb, but mostly I g lb.
In 1888 Mr Balfour served on the Gold and Silver Commission, currency problems from the standpoint of bimetallism being among the more academic subjects which had engaged his attention.
Nor does early currency in Rome prove that the epistle was written to Rome, any more than do the words "they of Italy salute you."
And thus the prestige of the papacy was sensibly diminished by the view, to which the jealousy of the nations soon gave currency, that the supreme dignity of the Church was simply a convenient tool for French statecraft.
Thus Clement XI., at war with Austria in 1708, debased the currency; Clement (1730-1740) issued paper money and set up a government lottery, excommunicating all subjects who put their money into the lotteries of Genoa or Naples; Benedict XIV.
His successors, Patrick Gordon and George Thomas, under the proprietorship of John, Thomas and Richard Penn, continued Keith's popular policy of issuing a plentiful paper currency; but with Thomas the assembly renewed its old struggle, refusing to grant him a salary or supplies because of his efforts to force the colony into supporting the Spanish War.
One of the most universal articles of consumption in Tibet is the Chinese brick-tea, which even passes as currency.
The Gurkhas, however, in 1788 and following years continued to strike coins of progressively debased quality, which were rude imitations of the old Nepalese mintage, and to endeavour to force this currency on the Tibetans, eventually making the departure of the latter from old usage a pretext for war and invasion.
But of late years there has been an enormous influx of Anglo-Indian rupees, so that these have become practically the currency of the country, even to the frontier of China, and are now counted, instead of being valued as bullion.
Failing to obtain currency for his radical'propaganda, he retired to his native province, and there established a school (the Risshi-sha) for teaching the principles of government by the people, thus earning for himself the epithet of "the Rousseau of Japan."
The study of Montesquieu seems to have directed his attention towards economic questions; and his first publication (1762) was a tract on the derangement of the currency in the Milanese states, with a proposal for its remedy.
His first step was to recover control of the mint, and place it in the hands of capable middle-class merchants and bankers, like Caspar Beer, Jan Thurzo, Jan Boner, the Betmans, exiles for conscience' sake from Alsace, who had sought refuge in Poland under Casimir IV., Justus Decyusz, subsequently the king's secretary and historian, and their fellows, all practical economists of high integrity who reformed the currency and opened out new ways for trade and commerce.
TOUCAN, the Brazilian name of a bird,' long since adopted into nearly all European languages, and apparently first given currency in England (though not then used as an English word) in 1668 2 by W.
Gibbs (Lord Aldenham), Colloquy on the Currency; for Hume's relation to Adam Smith, John Rae's Life of Adam Smith (London, 1895).
The normal value of the paper or currency dollar is about 4s.
(For purposes of conversion the gold dollar has been taken at 5 =£1 throughout this article, and the currency dollar at 50 = £1.) Weights and Measures.
Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
Those are freely used.in the preparation of small tablets, compressed to such a condition of hardness as to resemble wood or stone, and commonly passed round as currency in certain districts of Russia.
His administration of the treasury department, through a more than ordinarily trying period, was marked by a conservative policy, looking toward the strengthening of the gold standard, the securing of greater flexibility in the currency, and a more perfect adjustment of the relations between the government and the National banks.
CurrencyThe German empire adopted a gold currency by the law of the 4th of December 1871.
The currency reform was at first 1904 6 facilitated by the French indemnity, a great part of which was paid in gold.
By the currency law of the 9th of July 1873, the present coinage system was established and remains, with certain minor modifications, now in.
The reform of the currency was the first task oftheempire.
Everywhere, except in Bremen, the currency was on a silver basis.
In 1871 a common system for the whole empire was established, the unit being the Mark (= I 1~d.), which was divided into a hundred Pfennige: a gold currency was introduced (Doppel-Kronen =20 M.; Kronen 10 M.); no more silver was to be coined, and silver was made a legal tender only up to the sum of twenty marks.
Great quantities of thalers, which hitherto had been the staple of the currency, were sold.
All paper currency, except that issued by the empire, ceased, and in 1873 the Prussian Bank was converted into the Imperial Bank (Reichsbank).
Closely connected with the reform of the currency and the codification of the commercial law was the reform of the banking laws.
That period of crisis witnessed two great changes in American financial policy, the establishment of a national banking system and the issue of a legal tender paper currency.
It not only secured an immediate market for government bonds, but it also provided a permanent uniform national currency, which, though inelastic, is absolutely stable.
In addition to these " common affairs " the Hungarians, indeed, recognized that there were certain other matters which it was desirable should be managed or identical principles in the two halves of the monarchy - namely, customs and excise currency; the army and common railways.
The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
The result of these and other laws was an improvement in financial conditions, which enabled the government at last to take in hand the long-delayed task of reforming the currency.
Hitherto the currency had been partly in silver (gulden), the "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, currency partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank.
The notes, therefore, formed an inconvertible paper currency.
The credit of the state has risen, the chronic deficit has disappeared, the currency has been put on a sound basis, and part of the unfunded debt has been paid off.
posals for the renewal of the Bank charter, the reform of the currency, the renewal of the Customs Union, and the new taxes on beer and brandy, which were laid before parliament both at Vienna and Pest, were not carried in either country; this time, therefore, the existing arrangements had to be prolonged provisionally by imperial and royal warrant both in Austria and Hungary.
Of course an administration of this kind could not take a definite line on any controversial question, but during 1894 they carried through the commercial treaty with Russia and the laws for the continuance of the currency reform.
In Latin literature, however, a great mass of Hellenistic tradition in a derived form was maintained in currency, wherever, that is, culture of any kind continued to exist.
Ibn 'Abbas, a cousin of Mahomet, and the chief source of the traditional exegesis of the Koran, has, on theological and other grounds, given currency to a number of falsehoods; and at least some of his pupils have emulated his example.
The last is interesting as being the first poem containing that form of the story of Aeneas's flight to which Virgil afterwards gave currency in his Aeneid.
The legal currency, and that in general use, is British sterling.
Currency.Tbe monetary system in force dates from 1885, when through the efforts of Sir Edgar Vincent the currency was placed on a sound basis.
in English currency.
The history of the currency reform in Egypt is interesting as affording a practical example of a system much discussed in connection with the currency question in India, namely, a gold standard without a gold coinage.
Under the existing system the fluctuating requirements of the currency are met without the expense of alternately minting and melting down.
But the early coins that have been found there are mainly Greek, and especially Athenian, and it was not until the introduction of a regular currency in the three metals under the Ptolemies that much use was made of coined money.
No person shall by word of mouth or in writing or in any newspaper, periodical, book, circular, or other printed publication (a) Spread false reports or make false statements; or (b) spread reports or make statements intended or likely to cause disaffection to His Majesty, or to interfere with the success of His Majesty's forces or of the forces of any of His Majesty's allies by land or sea, or to prejudice His Majesty's relations with foreign powers; or (c) spread reports or make statements intended or likely to preju- :lice the recruiting of persons to serve in any of His Majesty's forces, or in any body of persons enrolled for employment under the Army Council or Air Council or entered for service under the direction of the Admiralty, or in any police force or fire brigade, or to prejudice the training, discipline or administration of any such force, body, or brigade; or (d) spread reports or make statements intended or likely to undermine public confidence in any bank or currency notes which are legal tender in the United Kingdom or any part thereof, or to prejudice the success of any financial measures taken or arrangements made by His Majesty's Government with a view to the prosecution of the war;..
Though utterly baseless, the story gained currency in the Mirrour for Magistrates, and was adopted in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.
On occasion, a chain or ring was fastened about his body, that his condition might be obvious to all; and soon all manner of fables gained currency: how, here or there, the iron had sprung apart by a miracle, in token that the sinner was thereby absolved by God.
There are five kinds of currency in the islands, consisting of beads of glass and enamel, to which a supernatural origin is ascribed.
The justification for their continued existence has been found in the climatic conditions of the Gulf, which make it difficult for the Persian Government to staff their own offices adequately, and in the fact that the rupee is the only currency common to all ports of the Gulf and to India, while the trade of these ports is mainly with India.
Currency.-Persian currency alone is legal in Persia, but the rupee is freely current in Persian ports.
Persian currency is also in use, principally in Bahrein.
When the internal circulation failed, he issued a forced currency of copper, which is said to have deranged the whole commerce of the country.
The currency was struck in her name, and in her hands centred all the intrigues that made up the work of administration.
He reorganized the customs system, imposed an income tax and licence duty and created a state paper currency.
Meanwhile considerable difficulties had been experienced with the Indian currency, which was on a purely silver basis.
Before 1873 the fluctuations in the value of silver as The compared with gold had been comparatively small, currency.
In Sicily, however, Charles's government soon made itself odious by its exactions, the insolence and cruelty of the king's French officials and favourites, the depreciation of the currency, and the oppressive personal services, while the nobles were incensed at the violation of their feudal constitution.
The currency of Mauritius is rupees and cents of a rupee, the Indian rupee (=16d.) being the standard unit.
In September 1833 he ordered the public deposits in the bank to be transferred to selected local banks, and entered upon the "experiment" whether these could not act as fiscal agents for the government, and whether the desire to get the deposits would not induce the local banks to adopt sound rules of currency.
Aiming at a currency to consist largely of specie, he caused the payment of these claims to be received and imported in specie as far as possible; and in 1836 he ordered land-agents to receive for land nothing but specie.
Until 1904 the finances of Korea were completely disorganized; the currency was chaotic, and the budget was an official formality making little or no attempt at accuracy.
He had to contend against corrupt officialdom, indiscriminate expenditure, and absence of organization in the collection of revenue, apart from the confusion with regard to the currency.
The currency of Korea being thus fixed, the first step was to reorganize the nickel coinage.
P.-P.) Oriental Theosophy The term "theosophy" has in recent years obtained a somewhat wide currency in a restricted signification as denominating the beliefs and teachings of the Theosophical Society.
He gave currency, moreover, to the empirical rule known as "Bode's Law," which was actually announced by Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg in 1772.
The currency is the Mexican and British dollar, the company issuing its own copper coin - viz.
The currency is mostly paper, notes being issued directly by the treasury and by the bank.
Although the distress was caused by the reactionary effect of a disordered currency and the inflated prices of the war of 1812, he ascribed it to the country's dependence on foreign supply and foreign markets.
The term " utilitarian " was put into currency by J.
A similar idea also occurs in legends of world-wide currency, the best known of these being the Greek, and the medieval Norse, Celtic and Arab legends which describe an earthly Paradise in the Western or Atlantic Ocean (see Atlantis).
The legend rapidly attained a wide diffusion throughout Christendom; its currency in the East is testified by its acceptance by Mahomet (sur.
This ability was shared by private banks with solidary responsibility until 1903, but under a reform of 1897 the riksbank took over, from 1904, the whole right of issuing paper currency, which is in wide use.
In 1906 the receipts from all sources were estimated at 149,100,000 pesos, of which 62,200,000 pesos gold were credited to the tax on nitrate, 39,800,000 pesos gold to import duties, and 23,500,000 pesos currency to railway receipts.
During these years of fiscal prosperity the country suffered much from financial crises caused by industrial stagnation, an excessive and depreciated paper currency and political disorder.
As a considerable part of the expenditures were in gold, the practice was adopted of keeping the gold and currency accounts separate.
The ordinary and extraordinary receipts and expenditures for the five years 1899-1903, in gold and currency, in pesos of 18d., were as follows: - For 1906 the expenditures were fixed at 149,000,000 pesos, and the revenues were estimated to produce 149,100,000 pesos, which included 62,200,000 pesos gold from nitrate taxes, 39,800,000 pesos gold and 200,000 pesos paper from import duties, 23,500,000 pesos paper from the state railways, 2,500,000 pesos paper from postal and telegraph receipts, and 15,000,000 pesos gold from loans.
The custom of dividing receipts and expenditures into ordinary and extraordinary, of treating the receipts from loans as revenue, of adding six months to the fiscal year for closing up accounts, and of dividing receipts and expenditures into separate gold and currency accounts, leads to much confusion and complication in the returns, and is the cause of unavoidable discrepancies and contradictions.
The monetary circulation in Chile consists almost wholly of paper currency, nominally based on a gold standard of 1 The expenditures of 1902 are also given as 25,882,702 pesos gold, and 108,844,693 pesos currency.
The conversion law of 1895 made the currency convertible at this rate, although the gold peso was rated at 48d.
On the 1st of January 1890 the national issues stood at 22,487,916 pesos, and the bank issues at 16,679,790 pesos, making a total of 39,167,706 pesos currency in circulation.
per peso, and that new issues should be made only through the issue department and against deposits of gold, which deposits would be returned to depositors on the presentation of the currency issued.
President Montt then took in hand the question of a reform of the currency, the abolition of inconvertible paper money, and the re-establishment of a gold basis as the monetary standard of the republic. This reform of the currency became the keynote of the president's policy during the remainder of his term of office.
Great opposition was raised by the representatives of the debtor class in congress to the suppression of the inconvertible paper money, but in the end President Montt carried the day, and on the 11th of February 1895 a measure finally became law establishing a gold currency as the only legal tender in Chile.
These unsettled political circumstances checked any continuity of policy, and tended to block the passage of all useful legislation to help forward the economic development of the country and inhabitants; on the other hand, the financial situation was better by the end of 1899 than in the previous year, since all proposals for a fresh paper issue had been vetoed; and the elections for congress and municipal office at the opening of 1900 returned a majority favourable to a stable currency policy.
At the opening of 1901 the country was chiefly interested in the forthcoming presidential election, for which the candidates were Don Pedro Montt (Conservative and Clerical) currency once more on an inconvertible paper money P P Y basis until 1902.
27), but a later narrative gives currency to a tradition that 400 virgins were also brought to Shiloh, the survivors of a massacre of the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead.
In 1889 the shah granted a concession to Baron Julius de Reuter for the formation of a state bank with the exclusive right of issuing bank-notes not exceeding 8oo,000 without special assent of the Persian governmenton the basis of the local currency, the silver kran.
Side by side with the Persian, the Aramaic, which had long been widely diffused as ~ ~eech of commerce, enjoyed currency in all the western hail of the empire as a second dominant language.
In the extreme west, a money currency in its most highly developed formthat of coinage minted by the state, or an autonomous communityhad developed since the 7th century among the Lydians and Greeks.
Indeed, a money currency only began to make headway in these districts in the 4th century B.C. In the eastern provinces, on the other hand, the primitive method Of exchange by barter still held the field.
The Greek mercenaries, on the contrary, had to be paid in currency; nor could the satrapsof the west dispense with hard cash.
Iranian divinities, however, predominate on his currency: Mithras (Mihro or Hel-ios); the Moon Mah (also Selene); Athro, the Fire; Orthragno (Verethragna); Pliarro =Farna (hvarna), the majesty of kingship; Teiro =Tir (Tistrya the archer); Nana (Nanaia); and others.
their coinage with its Greek inscriptions and nomenclature; their Attic standard of currency; and, doubtless, a great part of their administration also.
Fairbairn holds that it was the fame of Petau which gave currency to the new coinage "dogmatic theology"; and though the same or kindred phrases had been used repeatedly by writers of less influence since Reinhard and Essenius, F.
He also insisted, however, upon personal conviction in writers on dogmatic. The expression Glaubenslehre - doctrine of faith - which he did much to bring into a wider currency, and which Schweizer, the most loyal of all his disciples, holds to be alone fitted for Protestant use, emphasizes the latter requirement.
Amongst his economic works may be mentioned Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical, but wonderfully fresh and original in treatment and full of suggestiveness, a Primer on Political Economy (1878), The State in Relation to Labour (1882), and two works published after his death, namely, Methods of Social Reform and Investigations in Currency and Finance, containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime.
Alwar was the first native state to accept a currency struck at the Calcutta mint, of the same weight and assay as the imperial rupee, with the head of the British sovereign on the obverse.
The dilapidated finances were set in good order by the "currency realization ordinance" of 1777.
Sec. 16 contains a provision empowering the chief governor and privy council of Ireland by a proclamation under the great seal of Ireland to suspend the act during such time only as there shall be an actual invasion or rebellion in Ireland; and it is enacted that during the currency of the proclamation no judge or justices shall bail or try any person charged with being concerned in the rebellion or invasion without an order from the lord lieutenant or lord deputy and senior of the privy council.
In the Proposals for an Economical and Secure Currency (1816) he first disposes of the chimera of a currency without a specific standard, and pronounces in favour of a single metal, with a preference for silver, as the standard.
In his Plan for the Establishment of a National Bank, published posthumously in 1824, he proposes that the issue of the paper currency should be taken out of the hands of the Bank of England and vested in commissioners appointed by the government.
The criticisms to which Ricardo's general economic scheme is open do not hold with respect to his treatment of the subjects of currency and banking.
Few writers have added so much to the currency of quotation.
As this tenure is very ancient, though modified in 1832 and 1867, the value of such holdings has been greatly enhanced with the improvement of the land and the decline in the purchasing power of currency.
Gold is the standard of value, but the actual currency is chiefly Bank of Portugal notes.
By the law of the 26th of February 1892 30% was deducted from the internal debt payable in currency; by the law of the 20th of April 1893 663% was deducted from the interest on the external debt, due in gold.
The paper currency of the republic consists of bank-notes issued by four private banks, and is therefore no part of the public debt.
The silver boliviano, however, is rarely seen in circulation because of the cheaper paper currency.
In 1300 the theological professors of Paris agreed in the rejection of sixteen propositions taken from Lombard, but their decision was far from obtaining universal currency.
Only a few provisions were made, and those ineffectual, for the protection of the public: later in the same year the legislature passed an act for the suspension of specie payments until the 6th of May 1838, and the consequence was that the state was flooded with irredeemable paper currency.
In spite of powerful pressure the paper currency was not increased a dollar during his tenure of the office.
notes bearing interest at 7.3% payable in currency in three years or convertible at the option of the holder into 6% 5-20 year gold bonds).
After leaving Congress he became one of the earliest champions of the "Ohio idea" (which he is said to have originated), demanding that the government should pay the principal of its 5-20-year 6% bonds in the "greenback" currency instead of in coin.
At the same time he succeeded by drastic measures in putting a stop to the great fluctuations in the value of the paper currency and in resuming specie payments.
On the lower Congo transactions are in cash, but on the middle and upper Congo the use of coins in place of barter or the native brass wire currency makes but slow progress.
Whatever the currency in classical circles of the epistle as a literary form, it is irrational to put first in the development of Christian literature a general epistle, couched in fluent, even rhetorical, Greek, and afterwards the Pauline letters, which both as to origin and subsequent circulation were a product of urgent conditions.
Trade and Currency.
Until the end of the 19th century the usual currency was the Maria Theresa dollar, bars of rock-salt and cartridges.
This new coinage gradually superseded the older currency.
voov/2EVov, a thing known, from voeiv), a philosophical term put into currency by Kant and not much used except in definite reference to his doctrine.
He was a member of the committee on finance throughout his service in the Senate, and his first speech in that body was a defence of the free coinage of silver and a plea for the preservation of the full legal tender value of greenback currency, though in 1893 he voted to repeal the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act.
The occurrence of the words "Achademia Leonardi Vinci" on certain engravings, done after his drawings, of geometric "knots" or puzzle-patterns (things for which we have already learned his partiality), helped to give currency to this impression not only in Italy but in the North, where the same engravings were copied by Albrecht Diirer.
He tried hard to procure a unification of coinage and weights and measures, but failed owing to the opposition of the estates, who were afraid of the new taxation necessary to meet the loss involved in raising the standard of the coinage, and who held to their local measures and currency partly from conservatism, partly as a relic of local liberty.
One of the chief wants of Ireland in that day, and for many a day afterwards, was that of small currency adapted to the daily transactions of life.
He fiercely opposed Archbishop Boulter's plans for the reform of the Irish currency, but admitted that his real objection was sentimental: the coins should be struck as well as circulated in Ireland.
After the Crimean War, a bimetallic currency was adopted, with the le g (franc) of loo bani (centimes) as the unit of value.
In financial matters Colombia is known abroad chiefly through repeated defaults in meeting her bonded indebtedness, and through the extraordinary depreciation of her paper currency.
- The monetary system, which has been greatly complicated by the use of two depreciated currencies, silver and paper, has been undergoing a radical reform since 1905, the government proposing to redeem the depreciated paper and establish a new uniform currency on a gold basis.
In 1894 the Banco Nacional ceased to exist as a corporation, and thenceforward the currency was issued for account of the national treasury.
This suicidal policy continued until February 28, 1903, when, according to an official statement, the outstanding paper circulation was: - 700,598,865.30 So great was the depreciation of this currency that before the end of the war loo American gold dollars were quoted at 22,500 pesos.
This depreciation (10,000) was equivalent to a loss of 99% of the nominal value of the currency, a paper peso of loo centavos being worth only one centavo gold.
International commercial transactions were based on the American gold dollar, which was usually worth loo pesos of this depreciated currency.
In 1903 Congress adopted a gold dollar of 1.672 grammes weight .900 fine (equal to the U.S. gold dollar) as the monetary standard created a redemption bureau for the withdrawal of the paper circulation, prohibited the further issue of such currency, and authorized free contracts in any currency.
Previous to that time the law required all contracts to specify payments in paper currency.
On the 1st of January 1906, another monetary act came into operation, with additional provisions for currency redemption and improvement of the monetary system.
A supplementary act of 1906 also created a new national banking institution, called the Banco Central, which is made a depository of the public revenues and is charged with a considerable part of their administration, including payments on account of the foreign debt and the conversion of the paper currency into coin.
York Powell) (1879) furnishes the English student with a pleasant and trustworthy path to a sound knowledge of Icelandic. The Grimm Centenary Papers (1886) give good examples of the range of his historic work, while his Appendix on Icelandic currency to Sir G.
Gilbert's Trade and Currency in Early Oregon, in the Columbia University Studies in Economics, vol.
As to foreign particular constitutions in England, there are a great number of them, of which it has been and is admitted, that they have currency in England.
The idea of spiritual re-birth, so soon associated with baptism, was of wide currency in ancient religions.
The seaports soon recovered from their losses in the Black Death, and English shipping was beginning to appear in the distant seas of Portugal and the Baltic. Nothing illustrates the growth of English wealth better than the fact that the kingdom had, till the time of Edward IlL, contrived to conduct all its commerce with a currency of small silver, but that within thirty years of his introduction of a gold coinage in 1343, the English noble was being struck in enormous quantities.
In 1826 Lord Palmerston, himself a member of the government, wrote: On the Catholic question, on the principles of commerce, on the corn laws, on the settlement of the currency, on the laws relating to trade in money, on colonial slavery, on the game laws..
In the same year the necessity of renewing the charter of the Bank of England afforded Sir Robert Peel an opportunity of reforming the currency.
In 1901 the state currency of Babashai rupees was withdrawn, and the British rupee was introduced.
In June 1904, under the terms of an agreement with the American Secretary of War, Panama adopted the gold standard with the balboa, equivalent to an American gold dollar, as the unit; and promised to keep in a bank in the United States a deposit of American money equal to 15% of its issue of fractional silver currency, which is limited to four and a half million balboas.
This agreement put an end to the fluctuations of the paper currency previously used.
Currency of Panama is legal tender in the Canal Zone, and that of the United States in the Republic of Panama.
In 1691 currency and finance were much in his thoughts, and in the following year he addressed an important letter to Sir John Somers on the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and Raising the Value of Mono).
In 1695 a revival of controversy about the currency diverted Locke's attention.
On the security of the church lands it based a paper currency (the famous assignats).
A new system of weights and measures, a new currency, a Rev°lu new chronological era (that of the Republic), and a new calendar were introduced (see the section Republican Calendar below).
For example, we find him arguing for the legitimacy of judicial punishments and military service against an over-literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount; and he took an important part in giving currency to the distinction between evangelical " counsels " and " commands," and so defending the life of marriage and temperate enjoyment of natural good against the attacks of the more extravagant advocate of celibacy and self-abnegation; although he fully admitted the superiority of the latter method of avoiding the contamination of sin.
In antithesis to this list, an enumeration of the " deadly sins " obtained currency.
Although peace brought a more favourable condition of the money market, Dallas's attempt to fund the treasury notes on a satisfactory basis was unsuccessful, but a bill, reported by Calhoun, as chairman of the committee on national currency, for the establishment of a national bank, became law on the 10th of April 1816.
The currency and weights and measures are British.
Statistics of exports and imports were compiled for various years by writers like Newenham, Arthur Young and Cesar Moreau, but these are vitiated by being given in Irish currency which was altered from time to time, and by the fact that the method of rating at the custom-house also varied.
The legal currency is the French 5-franc piece and the smaller French coins.
Margaret also reformed the Danish currency, substituting good silver coins for the old and worthless copper tokens, to the great advantage both of herself and the state.
The extent of French influence is indicated by the fact that the five-franc piece, locally known as a dollar, is largely circulated throughout the protectorate, and is accepted as legal tender, although the currency in the colony proper is the English coinage.
Spartiates were absolutely debarred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the perioeci (q.v.), and were forbidden to possess either gold or silver, the currency consisting of bars of iron: but there can be no doubt that this prohibition was evaded in various ways.
xiv.) and thus restored the Law which had been lost; a view which, through the early Christian Fathers, gained currency and has enjoyed a certain popularity to the present day.
His need of money led him to debase the currency eighty-one times between 1350 and 1355.
Exactions, debasement of the currency and extortionate taxation were ruinous palliatives, and insufficient to supply a treasury which the revenue from crown lands and various rights taken from the nobles could not fill even in times of peace.
This was a political coup detat, and when the time had expired he attempted a financial coup detat by debasing the currency.
Disease and famine; crushing imposts and extortions; official debasement of the currency; bankruptcy; state prisons; religious and political inquisition; suppression of all institutions for the safe-guarding of rights; tyranny by the intendants; royal, feudal and clerical oppression burdening every faculty and every necessary of life; monstrous and incurable luxury; the horrible drama of poison; the twofold adultery of Madame de Montespan; and the narrow bigotry of Madame de Maintenon-~--all concurred to make the end of the reign a sad contrast with the splendour of its beginning.
Bank-notes and silver coin have been 4sractically the currency for many years.
In the case of the currency the old Spanish name of peseta was retained for the unit (the franc, 91/2d.).
He wrote on the currency question, and published a History of the United States in our Own Times (1904) and other works on American history and economics.
It is certainly true that he anticipated, in these fields of thought, some of the most striking ideas to which Roger Bacon subsequently gave a wider currency.
Trade is increasing and a cash currency has been introduced.
The Master will then make an order for the sterling equivalent of the judgment expressed in foreign currency as verified by such affidavit.
barter deals being impervious to currency fluctuations.
beauty pageant terms, the dollar is a grotesquely fat currency wrapped in a skimpy bathing suit.
beaver skin became the basic unit of currency over much of the western United States.
On interest rates, limits were agreed at $ 200,000 per currency bloc in delta terms.
bloodstock sales Currency Brokers Buying Overseas Pr... .. .
borrowed in foreign currency and sold the foreign currency to the EEA for sterling.
No foreign currency borrowing has received exchange cover since 1987 and none is planned.
Patient empowerment is fast gaining currency, not just as a political buzzword but as a clinical model.
You can perform foreign exchange rate calculations, using live, up-to-the-minute mid market currency rates.
chequek out what is best - travelers checks, sterling, dollars or local currency.
browse the classifieds for properties abroad » CURRENCY CONVERTER Use the currency converter to compare foreign prices to your country's currency.
It required the Ukrainian authorities to abandon all State controls over the exchange rate, leading to a catastrophic collapse of the currency.
There was an outflow of hard currency, leaving the colonists with no medium of exchange.
Once used exclusively by jet-setting business travelers, miles have become a regular currency among holidaymakers and long-distance commuters.
Try couching down into embroidery for elements of texture. £ 1.90 per 100g cone [Convert Currency] Giant Gems *New* BARGAIN OFFER!
Hand wash, dry flat, do not iron £ 2.50 per 250g cone [Convert Currency] Festival Knops BARGAIN OFFER!
Your payment card company will perform any currency conversion.
The website provides a free currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency.
MONEY The Ugandan Shilling is a stable, fully convertible currency, fluctuating very little from day to day.
All prices are in pounds sterling - use the currency convertor to convert to your local currency.
Its handy travel features include a currency convertor and alarm clock.
counterfeit the national currency for private gain.
counterfeit currency still remains buried in these aquatic depths cannot accurately be told.
It turns out that this coin can be easily counterfeited using a 500 won (Korean currency) coin worth only 50 yen.
However, it is very different than its conventional currency counterparts.
The losers are the lenders, who are repaid in devalued currency.
Britain should join a successful single currency, provided the economic conditions are met.
It allows America to fund its wars and consumption with a depreciating currency.
Take into account the cost of converting currency or sending money outside the UK.
The export of foreign currency is limited to the amount declared on arrival.
Shares may be issued in any recognizable currency or in more than one recognizable currency.
The single currency was the theme of the Nineties.
During the 1960s the Irish government decided to adopt a decimal currency like many of its European neighbors.
I simply don't believe that we need to be part of a single European currency to prosper.
The website provides a free currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency.
currency fluctuations, however, is a classic problem of guessing the future.
currency exchange rates on the Exchange Rates website.
currency overlay is the management of the foreign exchange risk inherent in a portfolio of foreign assets.
currency devaluation has inflated prices.
Support for the euro currency will be available in the FCS release of version 1.2.
Calais stores take UK credit cards and many take sterling currency, albeit at less than the normal rate of exchange.
There are no exchange controls but transactions in foreign currency must be through an authorized dealer.
debased the entire currency of complaints.
debauching the currency of European bigwigs.
delicacytry tickets to Toast include £ 10 worth of restaurant currency, to give all visitors the opportunity to sample the gourmet delicacies.
Shogun bond Straight bond denominated in foreign currency, other than JPY, issued by a foreign issuer on the Japanese capital market.
denominated in any currency.
denomination of each coin reflects the currency shown on the coins.
denominations of Portuguese currency being bought or sold.
The Reserve Bank's governor Gideon Gono meanwhile said the bank would not hesitate to issue further currency denominations.
depository bonds are issued in local currency into national central securities depositories.
depreciatet countries in Africa Malawi relies heavily on imports and the cost of these rises with a depreciating currency.
Interest rates also have to be held down to secure a currency depreciation.
depreciation of the Chinese currency has also severely lowered the standard of living.
deridelly, only a few months ago, some currency traders were openly deriding the euro.
It only takes a slump or a sudden currency devaluation to bring back the pain of the 1980s.
Draw your own conclusion but the EUropean Union is already on route with its collapsing currency to violent disintegration.
They may have held some currency in the 1880s and 90s, but their wisdom was always disputable.
Economy The official currency is the Bahamian dollar which the Government maintains its value on par with the US Dollar.
Most welcome is the simple, but remarkably efficient, currency converter.
euro as a single currency.
euro currency will be available in the FCS release of version 1.2.
Choose from a variety of the UKs favorite foreign currency exchange specialists.
You can convert them to your own currency at today's exchange rates.
export of local currency is prohibited.
Foreign currency We have no significant foreign currency exposure.
fiat reserve currency can accrue great economic benefits.
fiat currency system.
foreign currency is currently lying around in UK homes.
foyer with 24-hour reception, & currency exchange facility.
The US dollar is the world's reserve currency and is seemingly immune to the normal disciplines.
Online negotiates Interchange Of the Foreign currency Release the information on how and where to interchange Of the Foreign currency Release the information on how and where to interchange modernity.
Currency: Bahamian Dollar, on par and freely interchangeable with the US Dollar.
irrevocable in the context of joining the single currency.
Privately multiplied debt issuances are the currency of the global corporate gang's control.
Currency The unit of currency in Estonia is the Estonian kroon.
The country introduced its own currency, the Lat, in 1993: this is now the sole legal tender.
The whole point about an urban legend is hat everyone knows them: they are common currency.
liquidated assets would receive compensation in German currency.
On Friday 24 December 1999 the Bank of England published, on its webpage, data on UK foreign currency liquidity for end-November 1999.
Major political parties in Italy are now talking openly about having the lira back as a parallel currency to the euro.
Alternatively you can make foreign currency lodgments at the counter.
long distancexclusively by jet-setting business travelers, miles have become a regular currency among holidaymakers and long-distance commuters.
meltdown of the international fiat currency system.
EuroGroup The currency mnemonic for the Euro is " EUR " .
In order to resuscitate the economy, Ahadi has decided to trim a few noughts off the value of the old currency.
That's where currency overlay managers have found their most valuable selling point.
Textiles were also tangible standards of value that were used as currency, as payment of taxes, and as symbols of imperial patronage.
pay the dividend on some of the shares in a currency other than sterling.
pontificateys of the results, their spokesman was on Newsnight pontificating about the need to persuade the electorate to accept the single currency.
Includes pockets for pen, cards, passport, tickets etc, and a large zippered pouch to hold currency safely.
Food & Drink Water is considered drinkable, normal precautions should be observed with food Currency Italian Lira (Lit ).
Factors affecting a change in currency exchange include political factors, economic factors, market factors, even psychological factors.
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people's contributions.
Shares may be issued in any recognizable currency or in more than one recognizable currency or in more than one recognizable currency.
If the Social Chapter is a broken reed, the Single Currency is not.
referendum on the single currency next year.
reproduction of photos of United States currency.
Currency code: SAR EXCHANGE RATE 6.12 Saudi riyal = £ 1 sterling (fluctuating rate ).
On 10 June the Prime Minister launched a roadshow to sell the single currency to the British people.
Imagine, if the Euro, similar in more aspects to the Russian rouble than any currency, took Britain over.
Money And Tipping Up until 1992 the currency was still the old soviet rouble.
Currency The Mauritian rupee (Rs) is divided into 100 cents.
sabotage an economy by reducing international confidence in a nation's currency, or causing an adversary to default on payments.
Lists a currency converter, currency cheat sheet and a travel expense manager.
Money The official unit of currency is the Tanzanian shilling (Tsh) and there are no smaller denominations.
The US is more obviously in this situation than the UK, but is better placed to withstand a currency shock.
short-run costs of entry into the single currency would be significant for retail financial services.
singe currency was clear and had not changed.
single currency by twelve EU countries been of benefit to them?
Currency overlay now a source of alpha for investors Pension funds do not snub currency overlay anymore.
I would also want a Tobin tax levied on currency speculation viii.
Aurelian (Emperor of Rome, 270-5) had tried to restore currency stability.
stealing currency Transferring the money So, youÃ¢ve stolen a march on BIG plc and captured the market in Chinese-made digital underpants.
sterling's remarkable strength against the new currency of the euro.
Forward Book the difference between aggregate forward commitments to sell sterling for foreign currency and forward commitments to buy sterling for foreign currency and forward commitments to buy sterling with foreign currency.
We will pay a monthly stipend of £ 200 equiv local currency.
An economic straightjacket of a single currency and an inflexible social model are the real perpetrators.
Swap spreads are widening in favor of the UK, " said Naeem Wahid, currency strategist at HBOS Treasury Services.
The wallet has six international currency symbols on one side, and the same six symbols on the opposite side.
The 1780 taler The silver taler was the currency of the Empire and of the Austrian hereditary lands.
I guess I always assumed that they would do the currency translation themselves.
The Chinese triads are a solar system away from the Jamaican Yardies - they almost seem to be dealing in a different currency.
trillions of pounds of currency transfers made very year.
urban legend is hat everyone knows them: they are common currency.
Currency issue had previously been controlled by the various warlords, who seemed to have little regard for the hyperinflationary consequences of their actions.
Authorized credit cards (shown above) may be used anywhere worldwide - currency exchange transactions are fully automated.
Capacity for work brought him places on important committees - he was chairman successively of the committee on military affairs, the committee on banking and currency, and the committee on appropriations, - and his ability as a speaker enabled him to achieve distinction on the floor of the House and to rise to leadership. Between 1863 and 1873 Garfield delivered speeches of importance on "The Constitutional Amendment to abolish Slavery," "The Freedman's Bureau," "The Reconstruction of Rebel States," "The Public Debt and Specie Payments," "Reconstruction,'" The Currency," Taxation of United States Bonds," Enforcing the 14th Amendment," National Aid to Education,' and "the Right to Originate Revenue Bills."
Such transactions are made easy by the foreign banks established in all the large cities of the republic. The conversion law of 1899, which gave a fixed gold value to the currency (44 centavos gold for each 100 centavos paper), has had beneficial influence on commercial transactions, through the elimination of daily fluctuations in the value of the currency, and the commercial and financial situation has been steadily improved, notwithstanding heavy taxation and tariff restrictions.
The more important subjects with which it deals are trade, shipping and railways; taxation, bounties, the borrowing of money on the credit of the Commonwealth; the postal and telegraphic services; defence, census and statistics; currency, coinage, banking, bankruptcy; weights and measures; copyright, patents and trade marks; marriage and divorce; immigration and emigration; conciliation and arbitration in industrial disputes.
Nevertheless the law of 1881 did not succeed in maintaining the value of the state notes at a par with the metallic currency, and from 1885 onwards there reappeared a gold premium, which during 1899 and 1900 remained at about 7%, but subsequently fell to about Direct Liability of State.) Notes issued Aggregate Date.
e by subsequent confession of Mancini,then characterized the attitude of the central powers; but he was opposed to any formal alliance, lest it might arouse French resentment, while the new Franco-Italian treaty was still unconcluded, and the foreign loan for the abolition of the forced currency had still to be floated.
Makonnen further concluded with the Italian premier, Crispi, a convention whereby Italy recognized Menelek as emperor of Ethiopia, Menelek recognized the Italian colony, and arranged for a special Italo-Abyssinian currency and for a loan.
according to the terms of a contract; for "legal tender," the currency which can legally be offered and must be accepted in payment, see Payment.
The British currency has been introduced, and in 1897-1898, Rs.
Now that the " industrial revolution " has extended practically all over the world, so that we have several countries carrying on production by modern methods, it is easily possible to sketch the main features of industrial and commercial organization at the present time, to describe the banking and currency systems of the principal nations, their means of transport and communication, their systems of commercial law and finance, and their commercial policy.
The copper coinage (113,000,000 piastres) and the paper currency (kaime) (1,600,000,000 piastres) referred to in the above sketch were withdrawn in 1880 by repudiation.
The revenues and expenditures have since then been calculated in gold and currency together, to the complete mystification of the average citizen, and the gold percentage of the duties on imports has been increased to 35 and 50% (in 1907), the higher rate to apply to specified articles and rule when exchange on London is above 14 pence per milreis, and the lower when it is below.
El Wad possesses a curious currency known as flous, consisting of obsolete copper coins of Algerian and Tunisian dynasties.
There was a considerable party in favour of debasing the currency indefinitely by inflation, and a bill with that object was passed by Congress in April 1874.
Tolman, History of Higher Education in Rhode Island (Washington, 18 94); Henry Phillips, Jr., Historical Sketches of the Paper Currency of the American Colonies (2 vols., Roxbury, Mass., 1865-1866); Thomas Durfee, Gleanings from the Judicial History of Rhode Island (Providence, 1883); and the works of Field, Richman and Mowry (see History, Bibliography).
In the Swedish House of Nobles his contributions to political discussion had great influence, and he dealt with such subjects as the currency, the decimal system, the balance of trade and the liquor laws (where he was the pioneer of the Gothenburg system) with marked ability.
He set about instructing the youth in the arts and graces appropriate to his pretended birth; but meanwhile a report having gained currency that the young earl of Warwick, son of Edward IV.'s brother George, duke of Clarence, had died in the Tower, Symonds decided that the impersonation of this latter prince would be a more easily credible deception.
The unit of currency is the tical (see Siam) .
Of recent years the use of " hydrography " as the equivalent of physical oceanography has acquired a certain currency, but as the word is also used with more than one other meaning (see Surveying) it ought not to be used for oceanography.
He wrote in 1729 A Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency, which argued that a plentiful currency will make rates of interest low and will promote immigration and home manufactures, and which did much to secure the further issue of paper money in Pennsylvania.
The Democratic-Republicans controlled the politics of the state without any serious opposition until the conflict in 1820-1826, arising from the demands for a more adequate system of currency and other measures for the relief of delinquent debtors divided the state into what were known as the relief and anti-relief parties.
Bessemer steel rails sold at $174 in the depre fated currency of 1868 (equivalent to about £25, 17s.
At any rate the letter in this form, along with a" second epistle to James "(on the Eucharist, church furniture, &c.), dating from the early 6th century, had separate currency long before the 9th century, when they were incorporated in the Decretals by the forger who raised the Clementine epistles to five (see Lightfoot, Clement, i.
A new system of weights and measures, a new currency, a RevÃ‚°lu new chronological era (that of the Republic), and a new calendar were introduced (see the section Republican Calendar below).
Crime.-The following table shows the number of persons committed for trial, convicted and acquitted in Ireland in 1886, 1891, 1900 and 1905: Of rthe 1367 convicted in 1905, 375 were charged with offences against the person, 205 with offences against property with violence, 545 with offences against property without violence, 52 with malicious injury to property, 44 with forgery and offences against the currency, and 146 with other offences.
It can overspend and rack up public debt and destroy the currency.
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people 's contributions.
The Prime Minister continues to drop hints about a referendum on the single currency next year.
There is a law in the US which requires FBI approval on reproduction of photos of United States currency.
How long will they continue to hold US dollars as their reserve currency?
Currency code: SAR EXCHANGE RATE 6.12 Saudi riyal = £ 1 sterling (fluctuating rate).
Money And Tipping Up until 1992 the currency was still the old Soviet rouble.
IW could sabotage an economy by reducing international confidence in a nation 's currency, or causing an adversary to default on payments.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.