The moss-like covering of the "bedeguars" of the wild rose, the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodites rosae, represents leaves which have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma between their fibro-vascular bundles; and the " artichoke-galls " or " oak-strobile," produced by Aphilothrix L., which insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, with a peduncular, oviform, inner ga11.4 E.
The latter are borne three together, invested by a cupule of four green bracts, which, as the fruit matures, grow to form the tough green prickly envelope surrounding the group of generally three nuts.
The generally one-seeded nut-like fruit is associated with the persistent often hardened or greatly enlarged bracts forming the so-called cupule which gives the name to the group. The group is subdivided as follows, and these subdivisions are now generally regarded either as distinct natural orders or the first two as sub-orders of one natural order.
Bracts forming a fleshy or hard cupule which envelops the one to several fruits.
- Cupule of Quercus Aegilops.
Cp, Cupule; gl, fruit.
Restoration of a seed, enclosed in the lobed cupule, which bears numerous glands.
- Capitate gland on the cupule of Lagenostoma Lomaxii.
When mature) enclosed in a husk or cupule, which completely enveloped it when young, but was ultimately open (figs.
The seed was stalked, and there is an exact agreement in structure between the vascular strands of the stalk and cupule of the seed, and those of the rachis and leaflets of Lyginodendron, thus confirming the evidence from the glands.
C, Cupule, surrounding seed.
Vb, Vascular bundles of stalk, cupule and integument.