She stopped in front of one at last, taking in the cuneiform writing.
Before the decipherment of the cuneiform texts our knowledge of its history, however, was scanty and questionable.
Cuneiform inscriptions and bas-reliefs have been found at the sources of both the western and eastern Tigris, as well as at various points on the cliffs along the upper course of both branches.
The cuneiform symbols on his back were purple, marking him as a servant to the Others.
According to the developed cuneiform system of writing, words may be written by means of a sign (or combination of signs) expressive of the entire word, or they may be spelled out phonetically in syllables.
Several of his guardsmen stood nearby, their uniforms emblazoned with green cuneiform symbols.
It was a silver coin, warmed by his skin, with a circle of cuneiform symbols surrounding a star with two arrows.
54, &c.), the Kassi of the cuneiform inscriptions.
The cuneiform inscriptions are on the rock pinnacles above the town, with some rock chambers, indicating a town or fortress of the Vannic period.
At the ferry on the Malatia-Kharput road (cuneiform inscription) it flows eastwards in a valley about a quarter of a mile wide, but soon afterwards enters a remarkable gorge, and forces its way through Mount Taurus in a succession of rapids and cataracts.
The race who first developed it spoke an agglutinative language, and to them was due the invention of the pictorial hieroglyphs which became the running-hand or cuneiform characters of later days, as well as the foundation of the chief cities of the country and the elements of its civilization.
At Rishire, some miles south of Bushire, and near the summer quarters of the British resident and the British telegraph buildings, there are extensive ruins among which bricks with cuneiform inscriptions have been found, showing that the place was a very old Elamite settlement.
On one side of this a lion is engraved, and also a line of cuneiform characters, in which is the name of Sargon, king of Assyria, 722 B.C. Fragments of coloured glasses were also found there, but our materials are too scanty to enable us to form any decided opinion as to the degree of perfection to which the art was carried in Assyria.
The cuneiform system of writing Semitic. w as still in process of growth when it was borrowed influence p g and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older language of the country, borrowing its words and even its grammatical usages.
No people would have abandoned cuneiform for such a clumsy method of writing.
The right arm was the original bed, and the left arm, on which Babylon was built, the artificial deviation, as is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions.
Doubtless much still remains to be done; but the essential thing, from the present standpoint, is that a sufficient knowledge of the Assyrian language has been acquired to ensure trustworthy translations of the cuneiform texts.
10 No doubt the Hittites learnt the use of cuneiform from these people.
ARSACES, a Persian name, which occurs on a Persian seal, where it is written in cuneiform characters.
Layard at Nineveh opened up a new world, coinciding as they did with the successful decipherment of the cuneiform system of writing.
This double method of writing words arises from the circumstance that the cuneiform syllabary is of non-Semitic origin, the system being derived from the non-Semitic settlers of the Euphrates valley, commonly termed Sumerians (or Sumero-Akkadians), to whom, as the earlier settlers, the origin of the cuneiform script is due.
A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninib and Nergal, perhaps due to the traces of two different conceptions regarding these two solar deities.
In the deepest part of the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even retain their primitive pictorial forms.
The subsequent discovery of a document written in Babylonian cuneiform at Lachish (Tell el Hesy), and more recently still of another in the excavations at Ta`annek, have established the fact beyond all dispute.
This racial question can hardly be determined till those Hatti records, whether in cuneiform or pictographic script, which are couched in a native tongue, not in Babylonian, are read.
the os magnum of the second row articulating mainly with the lunar of the first, or with the cuneiform, but not with the scaphoid.
U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; 1, lunar; s, scaphoid; u, unciform; m, magnum; td, trapezoid; tm, trapezium.
Isaiah has been the discovery of two cuneiform texts relative to the fall of Babylon and the religious policy of Cyrus.
HITTITES, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts, and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely distributed over Asia Minor and N.
Tell Halaf in Mid-Mesopotamia, near Ras el-Ain; sculptures on portico of a temple or palace; cuneiform inscriptions.
It occupies a site of great antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan.
through a deep rocky gorge, in which it receives the Gunig Su (right), to Palu (where there are cuneiform inscriptions); and continues through more open country to its junction with the Frat Su.
Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 5th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
Hincks devoted his spare time to the study of hieroglyphics, and to the deciphering of the cuneiform script, in which he was a pioneer.
The Tell el-Amarna despatches are crowded with evidences of Canaanite forms and idioms impressed on the Babylonian language of these cuneiform documents.
The text and rendering of the passage are doubtful in the cuneiform letter discovered by Sellin in Ta'annek (biblical Ta'anach, near Megiddo) addressed by Abi-jawi (?
One has hitherto supposed that he was related to the Mediterraneans, the race to which the Bronze Age Greeks and Italians belonged; but this supposed connexion may well break down in the matter of skull form, as the Hittite skull, like that of the modern Anatolian, probably inclined to be brachycephalic. whereas that of the Mediterranean inclined in the other direction, And now the Bohemian Assyriologist Prof. Hrozny has brought forward evidence s that the cuneiform script adopted by the Hittites from the Mesopotamians expressed an Indo-European tongue, nearly akin to Latin!
A group of signs carved on some rocks near Visegrad have been regarded as cuneiform writing, but are probably medieval masonic symbols.
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
Schrader, Cuneiform Inscr.
- In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.
(1901), pp. 320 seq., 415; other cuneiform evidence in E.
The hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt and the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria are rich in records of the movements and achievements of armies, the conquest of towns and the subjugation of peoples; but though many of the recorded sites have been identified, their discovery by wandering armies was isolated from their subsequent history and need not concern us here.
Whether the national hieroglyphic system of the Hittites expressed the same Indo-European language as, according to Hrozny, their cuneiform does, we do not know, as further attempts to elucidate it made by Campbell Thompson 11 and Cowley," while in themselves very interesting experiments, do not seem to take us further than previous attempts by Sayce and others.
Other Cuneiform Records.
Round the rim was a cuneiform legend, and in the field a Hittite figure with six Hittite symbols engraved twice over on either hand of it.
Hittite, cuneiform and old Aramaean monuments were found with many small objects, most of which have been taken to Berlin; but no Hittite inscriptions came to light.
A memorial of its trading long remained in Asia in the shape of the weight-measure called in cuneiform records the maneh " of Carchemish."
cuneiform on clay tablets.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
He is nowhere mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achaemenidae, although Darius and his successors were without doubt devoted adherents of Zoroastrianism.
Through the fortunate discovery of cuneiform tablets deposited by his successor in the archives at Tell el-Amarna, we can see how the rulers of the great kingdoms beyond the river, Mitanni, Assyria and even Babylonia, corresponded with Amenophis, gave their daughters to him in marriage, and congratulated themselves on having his friendship. The king of Cyprus too courted him; while within the empire the descendants of the Syrian dynasts conquered by his father, having been educated in Egypt, ruled their paternal possessions as the abject slaves of Pharaoh.
The discovery of a cuneiform tablet containing a copy of this same treaty, in the Babylonian language, was reported from Boghaz Keui in Cappadocia by H.
On the other hand in the Diplarthra, the tcl group to which the vast majority of modern Ungulates A i n belong, the second or lower row has been shifted altogether towards the inner side of the limb, so that the magnum is brought considerably into relation with the scaphoid, and is entirely removed from the cuneiform, as in most existing mammals.
Winckler undertook the work, and great numbers of cuneiform tablets were found.
Cuneiform tablets; some Babylonian, others in a native language.
Cuneiform tablets and small objects possibly, but not certainly, Hittite.
They were no doubt expelled or absorbed by the Hittites, but we have the proof of their existence and of the fallacy of the statement that the Semite never crossed the Taurus, in the cuneiform tablets written in their language which have been found near Kaisariyeh and are now being published by various scholars.
Previous to Professor Friedrich Delitzsch's masterly work on the origin of the most ancient Babylonian system of writing,' no one had correctly understood the facts regarding the beginnings of the cuneiform system, which is now generally recognized as having been originally a pure picture writing which later developed into a conventionalized ideographic and syllabic sign-list.
Professor Paul Haupt may be termed the father of Sumerian etymology, as he was really the first to place this study on a scientific basis in his Sumerian Family Laws and Akkadian and Sumerian Cuneiform Texts.
He had already shown a keen interest in the explorations of Layard and Rawlinson, and during the next few years he devoted all his spare time to studying the cuneiform inscriptions at the British Museum.
Fortunately the native records are largely supplemented by others: valuable information comes from cuneiform literature, belonging to two widely separated periods.
A few cuneiform transcriptions, reaching as far back as the XVIIIth Dynasty, give valuable hints as to how Egyptian was pronounced in the 15th century B.C. Coptic itself is of course quite inadequate to enable us to restore Old Egyptian.
Thanks to Wincklers discoveries, the cuneiform text of this treaty from Boghaz Keui can now be compared with the hieroglyphic text at Karnak.
But he became best known by his studies on the cuneiform inscriptions.
She wiped dirt from the grooves of the cuneiform.
Ahmar (on left bank of Euphrates); large stela with sculpture and long relief inscription, found in 1908 with several sculptured slabs and two gateway lions, inscribed in cuneiform.
(X 8.) have existed since the Early U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; Eocene period.
Smith was thus enabled to make his first discovery (the date of the payment of the tribute by Jehu to Shalmanezer), and Sir Henry suggested to the trustees of the Museum that he should be associated with himself in the preparation of the third volume of Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western A sia.
Of great importance is the Creation Legend, a cuneiform compiled from older records during the reign of Assur-bani-pal, c. 650 B.C., in which there occurs a passage interpretable as pointing to the acceptance of 36 constellations: 12 northern, 12 zodiacal and 12 southern.
Although at Edessa itself no cuneiform documents have yet been found, a little more than four hours journey eastwards, at Anaz (= Gullab?) = Dar of Tiglath-pileser IV.
The letting on the seal was identified as the cursive form of ancient Assyrian cuneiform!
Back to top Scholars used the Latin noun for a wedge (cuneus) in calling the Sumerian writing cuneiform.
And this becomes more instructive when comparison is made between cuneiform or Egyptian sources extending over many centuries and particular groups of evidence (Amarna letters, Canaanite and Aramaean inscriptions, the Old Testament and later Jewish literature to the Talmud), and pursued to the customs and beliefs of the same area to-day.
Thus he is called - in the cuneiform letters - their Shamash or their Addu.
He is probably also " the lord of the gods " (the head of a pantheon) invoked in a private cuneiform tablet unearthed at Taanach.
The cuneiform script, which continued in Egypt during the XIXth and XXth Dynasties, was perhaps still used in Palestine; it was doubtless familiar at least during the Assyrian supremacy.
As the tenth patriarch Noah corresponds to the tenth prehistoric Babylonian king, Xisuthros in Berossus, Ut-napistim or Atrahasis in the cuneiform tablets, the hero of the Babylonian flood story.
It is significant that in the royal collection of cuneiform literature made by King Assur-bani-pal of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) and deposited in his palace at Nineveh, the omen collections connected with the astral theology of Babylonia and Assyria form the largest class.
Of special texts and monographs bearing on the religion may be mentioned various volumes in the new series of cuneiform texts from Babylonian tablets, &c., in the British Museum (London, 1901 -), especially parts v., xii., xv., xvii., xviii., xx.
to xii., and the same author's monumental catalogue of the cuneiform tablets in the Kuyunjik collection of the British Museum (5 vols., London, 1889-1899).
Fisher, Excavations at Nippur (1st part 1905, 2nd part 1906); Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, a monumental edition of the cuneiform texts found at Nippur, with brief introductions and notes of a more general character (1893 foil.).
For another fragment of the Atar-khasis legend of the same period, see Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, pt.
For other Semitic legends of this early period, see Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, pt.
His inscriptions are written in cuneiform, in Assyrian, whilst those of his successors are in cuneiform, in their own language, which is neither Aryan nor Semitic. The kings of Biainas extended their kingdom eastward and westward, and defeated the Assyrians and Hittites.
Lynch, Armenia (1901); Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of Lake Van," in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vols.
pounded by Deecke 7 in 1877, that the Phoenician alphabet had developed out of the late Assyrian cuneiform, never met with much acceptance and has really no evidence in its favour.
Even while long and important documents in Assyria were still written on clay tablets, in cuneiform, a docket or prï¿½s of the contents was made upon the side in Aramaic, which thus became the alphabet of cursive writing - a fact which explains its later development.
the cuneiform writing, already long in use for the languages of Mesopotamia, that was adopted for this purpose.
The cuneiform inscriptions of Van are very numerous, the town having been the capital of the Vannic kingdom of the Assyrian period.
See Sayce, "Cuneiform Inscriptions of Lake Van," in Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vols.
Colebrooke, began to make known the treasures of Sanskrit literature, which the great scholars of Germany and France proceeded to develop. In Egypt the discovery of the Rosetta stone placed the key to the hieroglyphics within Western reach; and the decipherment of the cuneiform character enabled the patient scholars of Europe to recover the clues to the contents of the ancient libraries of Babylonia and Assyria.
king of Persia, had engraved a great cuneiform inscription (1 i or 12 ft.
The inscriptions are composed in the three languages which are written with cuneiform signs, and were used in all official inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings: the chief place 1 A passage in the inscription runs: - "Thus saith Darius the king: That which I have done I have done altogether by the grace of Ahuramazda.
In 1835 the difficult and almost inaccessible cliff was first climbed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, who copied and deciphered the inscriptions (1835-1845), and thus completed the reading of the old cuneiform text and laid the foundation of the science of Assyriology.
An ordinance signed We see this title in its old Persian form, Khshayathiya Khshayathiy, in the cuneiform inscriptions; as Bao-iMwr Bao-nX&ip on the coins of the Arsacides, and as the Pahlavi Malkan MaTha on the coins and in the inscriptions of the Sassanians.
In the cuneiform letters from Tell el-Amarna in Egypt (1400 B.C.), we find among the princelings of Syria and Palestine names like Artamanya, Arzawiya, Shuwardata, a name terminating in -warzana, &c.; while the kings of Mitanni on the Euphrates are Artatama, Shutarna, Artashumara, and Dushratt anames too numerous and too genuinely Iranian to allow of the hypothesis of coincidence.
The orders of the court were issued in a very simple form of the cuneiform script, probably invented by the Medes.
The cuneiform script could only be written on stone or clay.
With such materials the cuneiform script could not be used; instead, the Persian language was written in, Aramaic characters, a method which later led to the so-called Pahlavi, i.e.
In the south of Babylonia, in the district of Mesene (the modern Maisan), after the fall of Antiochus Sidetes (129 s.c.), an Arabian prince, Hyspaosines or Spasines (in a cuneiform inscription of 127, on a clay tablet dated after this year, he is called Aspasine) founded a kingdom which existed till the rise of the Sassanian Empire.
)ld Persian inscriptions are writ ten in the cuneiform character the simplest form, known as the first class.
Most of the criptions have besides two translations into the more complied kinds of cuneiform character of two other languages of the rsian Empire.
There is nothing to justify us in looking the true Median language either in the cuneiform writings of second class or in Zend.
The Tell el-Amarna tablets found in Upper Egypt in 1887 are a series of despatches in cuneiform script from Babylonian kings and Phoenician and Palestinian governors to the Pharaohs (c. 1400 B.C.).
Armenier, 1898, 13); but no cuneiform text referring to Samosata by name seems yet to have been published.
Impressions are to be found on many of the cuneiform clay tablets.
If Belshazzar had ever held such a position, which is extremely unlikely in the absence of any evidence from the cuneiform documents, he would hardly have been given the unqualified title "king of Babylon" as occurs in Daniel.
On his return in 1854 he occupied himself in digesting the results of the expedition in so far as they concerned cuneiform inscriptions, and published an important work upon them (Dechrifrement des inscriptions cuneiformes, 1861).
At any rate the name Mordecai (the vocalization is uncertain) looks very much like Marduk, which, with terminations added, often occurs in cuneiform documents as a personal name.'
The first and last are nearer to the original name as it is found on the cuneiform monuments, viz.
Alexander was murdered in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar, which must therefore have been still standing, and cuneiform texts show that, even under the Seleucids, E-Saggila was not wholly a ruin.
No such place has yet been found mentioned in cuneiform texts.
Of the planets five were recognized - Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury and Mars - to name them in the order in which they appear in the older cuneiform literature; in later texts Mercury and Saturn change places.
The three bones of the first row of the carpus (scaphoid, lunar and cuneiform) are subequal in size.
The pisiform is large and prominent, flattened and curved; it articulates partly with the cuneiform and partly with the lower end of the radius.
The cuboid is small, and the internal and middle cuneiform bones are small and united together.
It may be mentioned here that on the first of these sites a cuneiform tablet belonging to the Amarna series was discovered; at Gezer, a deed of sale; at Tell-el-Hasy the remains of a Babylonian stele, three seals, and three cylinders with Babylonian mythological representations; at Tell-el-Mutasellim, a seal bearing a Babylonian legend, and at Taannek, twelve tablets and fragments of tablets were found near the fragments of the terracotta box in which they were stored.
It is a remarkable fact that the kings or chiefs of the neighbourhood should have used Babylonian cuneiform in their own official correspondence.
The name, which first occurs in the cuneiform inscriptions of Darius Hystaspis, supplanted the earlier Urardhu, or Ararat, but its origin is unknown.
The Greeks supposed it to be the capital of Media, confusing the Manda, of whom Astyages was king, with the Mada or Medes of Media Atropatene, and ascribed its foundation to Deioces (the Daiukku of the cuneiform inscriptions), who is said to have surrounded his palace in it with seven concentric walls of different colours.
1841), but the cuneiform texts imply that there was only one city of the name, and Takht-i-Suleiman is the Gazaca of classical geography.
fertilis, from the Pottsville beds (Millstone Grit) of West Virginia, the rhomboidal seeds, flattened and winged like those of Cordaiteae, are borne terminally on the lateral pinnae of a frond, which elsewhere bears the characteristic cuneiform leaflets.
The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history.
compendious printed volume will be produced, richly illustrated with images of cuneiform signs.
The tablets from Ugarit were found to have been written in an alphabetic cuneiform that might have preceded the Phoenician alphabet.
A combined posterior medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and Evans osteotomy was used, with transfer of FDL to the medial cuneiform and TA lengthening.
cuneiform tablets forms an important part of the program.
cuneiform inscriptions to the right of the snake on the item offered for sale.
cuneiform script of ancient Babylon dating back at least 5,000 years.
cuneiform writing did not usually indicate the second type of function in the writing.
cuneiform signs can be described.
decipher the cuneiform inscriptions of Nineveh, Assyria.
Also focuses on the decipherment and decoding of cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Linear B, and Mayan Glyphs.
He considers pictographic languages ranging from the natural Mayan hieroglyphics and Sumerian cuneiform, to recent experiments such as Elephant's Memory.
Closer study of the cuneiform inscriptions raised the first doubts.
In ancient transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.
Hands-on experience with cuneiform tablets forms an important part of the program.
transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.
TIGRIS (Old Persian Tigra, Diklat of the cuneiform inscriptions, Hiddekel of the Old Testament, Diglath of the Targum, Digla of the Arabs), a great river of western Asia, rising from two principal sources.
So far no evidence has been found in the cuneiform inscriptions or elsewhere in support either of the genuineness of the episode in its present form, or of the antiquity which is attributed to it (see further, J.
Like the other languages of the non-Semitic tribes of Elam that of the Kassites was agglutinative; a vocabulary of it has been handed down in a cuneiform tablet, as well as a list of Kassite names with their Semitic equivalents.
The Uxii are described as a robber tribe in the mountains adjacent to Media, and their name is apparently to be identified with the title given to the whole of Susiana in the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, Uwaja, i.e.
Hincks devoted his spare time to the study of hieroglyphics, and to the deciphering of the cuneiform script (see Cuneiform), in which he was a pioneer, working out contemporaneously with Sir H.
Smith, Cuneiform Texts from Cappadocian Tablets in the British Museum, 1921; (11) Archaeologia, Lxiv.; (12) The Hittites (Schweich Lectures, 1918); (13) Hogarth, Carchemish I., 1914; Proc. Brit.
Reading the cuneiform as Tarqu-dimme sar mat Erme (i.e.
- Boghaz Keui (see Pteria); largecity with remains of palace, citadel, walls, &c. Long rock-cut inscription of ten lines in relief, two short relief inscriptions cut on blocks, and also cuneiform tablets in Babylonian and also in a native language, first found in situ in 1893, and showing the site to be the capital of Arzawa, whence came two of the Tell el-Amarna letters.
To his reign must belong the famous quadrilingual alabaster vases from Egypt (on which his name is written in Persian, Susian and Babylonian cuneiform characters and in hieroglyphics), for Artaxerxes II.
Among the Canaanite branch, the king-god is more prominent, and apart from the Ammonite variant Milcom, numerous names compounded with Milkare found on Phoenician inscriptions and among western Semites mentioned in cuneiform literature (H.
Even while long and important documents in Assyria were still written on clay tablets, in cuneiform, a docket or prÃ¯¿½s of the contents was made upon the side in Aramaic, which thus became the alphabet of cursive writing - a fact which explains its later development.
This mode of writing was obviOusly alone employed in the state-services since Darius I.; and so may be explained the fact that, under, the Achaemenids, the Persian language rapidly declined, and, in the inscriptions of Artaxerxes III., only appears in an extremely neglected guise (see CUNEIFORM INscRIPTIONs, ALPHABET).
Various attempts have been made, with little success, to identify fragments of unknown languages in cuneiform inscriptions with members of this group. The investigation has entered a new and more favourable stage as the result of the discoveries made by German excavators at Boghaz Keui (said to be identical with Herodotus' Pteria in Cappadocia), where treaties between the king of the Hittites and the king of Mitanni, in the beginning of the 14th century B.C., seem almost certainly to contain the names of the gods Mitra, Varuna and Indra, which belong to the early Aryan mythology (H.
from the city in a mountain gorge of Mount Elvend is the so-called Ganjnama (treasure-deed), which consists of two tablets with trilingual cuneiform inscriptions cut into the rock and relating the names and titles of Darius I.
Virolleaud, L'Astrologie chalddenne (Paris, 1905 - to be completed in 8 parts - transliteration and translations of cuneiform texts); Jastrow, Religion Babyloniens and Assyriens (Parts 13 and 14); also certain sections in BoucheLeclercq, Histoire de la divination dans l'antiquite (Paris, 1879), vol.
The navicular and the external cuneiform bones are broad and flat.
4, where the Chaldaeans are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very gradually.
Babylonian influence, as is now well known, was strongly felt for many centuries in Canaan, and even the cuneiform script was in common use among the high officials of the country.
Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primitive zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful evidence derived from interpretations of cuneiform inscriptions, we meet, in connexion with Mithraic and Mylittic legends, reminiscences of a zodiac and religious calendar in which the Bull led the way.'
See Egypt, Language; Cuneiform; Inscriptions and Writing.
The legend of the Omophorus and Splenditeneus, rival giants who sustain earth and luminous heavens on their respective shoulders, even if it already figures in the cuneiform texts of Assyria, is yet to be traced in Mithraic bas-reliefs.
The extracts containing the Babylonian cosmology, the list of the antediluvian kings of Babylonia, and the Chaldaean story of the Deluge, have been shown by the decipherment of the cuneiform texts to have faithfully reproduced the native legends; we may, therefore, conclude that the rest of the History was equally trustworthy.
It was from the special type of cuneiform developed there, apparently, that the later Assyrian forms were derived (Winckler, Altorient.
The Egyptian references are too contemptuous to name the rulers; but Shaushatar may have begun his reign during the lifetime of Tethmosis III., and from cuneiform sources we know the names of six other Mitanni rulers.
established more direct relations between Mesopotamia and Babylon, his work was presently undone by the vigorous campaigns of Tiglath-pileser I., who seems to have even won Egypt's sanction of his succession to the Hittite claims. The newly recovered (1909) tablet of Tukulti-Ninib, the grandfather of Shalmaneser II., is interesting from its account of an expedition down the course of the Tharthar to Hit = Id (river and town now first mentioned in cuneiform sources) and up the Euphrates to the Khabur district.
1.10), and Aramaic notes on cuneiform documents begin to appear.
It is improbable that cuneiform and the Babylonion language continued to be used in Mesopotamia during the Hellenistic period, as it did in Babylonia, where it was certainly written as late as the last century B.C.;1 and may have been a learned language till the second Christian century.
The immigration of Arabs 1 Probably the latest cuneiform document of certain date is a contract of 68 B.C. (cf.
14, 2) that the kings of Tyre ruled over Cyprus at the close of the 8th century; but a clear proof that the Phoenician rule was neither ancient nor uninterrupted is given by the fact that the Cyprian Greeks took the trouble to invent a Greek cuneiform character (Cypriote) modelled on the Assyrian.
As regards writing, it is most likely that the oldest Hebrew records were preserved in some form of cuneiform script.
Further, we know that in the 8th century B.C., there were observatories in most of the large cities in the valley of the Euphrates, and that professional astronomers regularly took observations of the heavens, copies of which were sent to the king of Assyria; and from a cuneiform inscription found in the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, the text of which is given by George Smith,5 we learn that at that time the epochs of eclipses of both sun and moon were predicted as possible - probably by means of the cycle of 223 lunations or Chaldaean Saros - and that observations were made accordingly.
The Babylonian name Shumer was used in the cuneiform inscriptions together with Akkad, viz.
These are (1) the origin of the cuneiform signs, (2) the etymology of the phonetic values, and (3) the elucidation of the many and varied primitive sign-meanings.
The whole length of the bird is from 43 to 46 in., of which, however, about 20 are due to the long cuneiform tail, while the pointed wings measure more than 30 in.
Of fundamental importance are the Amarna cuneiform tablets discovered in 1887, containing some of the political correspondence between Western Asia and Egypt for a few years of the reigns of Amenophis III.
3 The first Babylonian dynasty, now well known for its Khammurabi, belonged to the past, but the cuneiform script and language are still used among the Hittites of Asia Minor (centring at Boghaz-keui) and the kings of Syria and Palestine.
of Cuneiform Inscr.
Although cuneiform was used, the Palestinian letters show that the native language, as in the case of earlier proper-names, was most nearly akin to the later " Canaanite " (Hebrew, Moabite and Phoenician).
Untersuch., 26 sqq.; Schrader, Cuneiform Inscr.
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