On these farms the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of stock go hand in hand, to the great advantage of both.
In Sardinia the cultivation is extensive, but receives little attention.
There is a special cultivation of hops in the district north-west of 's Hertogenbosch.
The state controls its cultivation, which is allowed only in a limited number of departments.
Cultivation has well-nigh exterminated it.
Much of the island is stony and unproductive; but cultivation has not been extended nearly as much as would be possible, and the implements are primitive.
The area of oats cultivation is 1.5% of the total area.
Parts of the island are fertile, and the cultivation of vines, and the tunny and sardine fishery, also give employment to a part of the population.
The means of subsistence are mainly provided by the cultivation of grain and cattle-rearing.
Rice cultivation and fishing occupy practically all the inhabitants of the district.
The cultivation of the vine prevails far more in the province of Cagliari than in that of Sassari, considerable progress having been made both in the extent of land under cultivation and in the ratio of produce to area.
The elevation of a large part of the department gives it a temperate climate and permits the cultivation of cereals and other products of the temperate zone.
At one time, such plants were probably of more general occurrence: now they have been extirpated in the intermediate localities, chiefly owing to the cultivation of the land in these places by man.
Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale.
Accurate statistics with regard to the area occupied in different forms of cultivation are difficult to obtain, both on account of their varied and piecemeal character and from the lack of a complete cadastral survey.
The coffee cultivation has, however, considerably diminished.
The cultivation of vines had also increased, and wine industries had been initiated, chiefly in Tashkent and Samarkand.
The cultivation of potatoes on the sandgrounds in the south and the fen colonies along the Stads-Canal invite general comparison with the industries of Drente (q.v.).
Under a high state of cultivation, being manured with the hearts and brains of men!
The cultivation of green forage is extensive and is divided into the categories of temporary and perennial.
Rain is very scarce, but the canals supply ample water for cultivation and all other purposes.
A large number of hybrids exist in cultivation.
Next to cereals and the vine the most important object of cultivation is the olive.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
The cultivation of oranges, lemons and their congeners (collectively designated in Italian by the term agrumi) is of comparatively modern date, the introduction of the Citrus Bigarcidia being probably due to the Arabs.
In the olive there is great variety of kinds, and the methods of cultivation differ greatly in different districts; in Ban, Chieti and Lecce, for instance, there are regular woods of nothing but olive-trees, while in middle Italy there are olive-orchards with the interspaces occupied by crops of variotis kinds.
The possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social justice.
Since tobacco is a government monopoly, its cultivation is subject to official concessions and prescriptions.
The cultivation of olives is widespread in the districts of Sassari, Bosa, Iglesias, Alghero and the Gallura.
from any field under cultivation.
They are to be found mainly in the fertile plains of north Italy, where they enjoy considerable success, removing the cause of labor troubles and strikes, and providing for cultivation on a sufficiently large scale.
Little attention is paid to methods of cultivation, and the farmer has no resources to help him if the cereal crops fail.
Sugar.The manufacture of sugar is carried on in the departments of the north, in which the cultivation of beetroot is general Aisne, Nord, Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Oise and Seine-et-Marne, the three first being by far the largest producers.
The chief grain crops are oats, rye and wheat, and the cultivation of potatoes is general.
The chief occupation of the inhabitants is the cultivation of the vineyards of the surrounding hills, which produce the red Erlauer wine, one of the best in Hungary.
Through the resultant scarcity of labor, much land fell out of cultivation.
Even now with every possible hindrance in the way of cultivation it is an important centre of fruit-growing.
Tea is grown in considerable quantities and the cultivation is under a department of the penal settlement.
The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average crop and leave the field in good tilth.
double flowers, phyllody of floral parts, contortions and fascinations, dwarfing, malformed leaves, &c.can not only be transmitted in cultivation, but occur ii.
Great success had attended the cultivation of cotton, and the high prices obtained for the Turkestan article (most of which is grown in Ferghana, where 742,000 acres were cultivated in 1915), coupled with the increase of railways, led to the abandonment of corn in favour of the cultivation of cotton, and, although W.
Great developments have been made of recent years in the cultivation of rubber in British Malaya.
The cultivation of this tree in Europe forms one of the most important branches of the forester's art.
He is the constant companion of Dionysus, whom he was said to have instructed in the cultivation of the vine and the keeping of bees.
If the debtor did not cultivate the field himself he had to pay for the cultivation, but if the cultivation was already finished he must harvest it himself and pay his debt from the crop. If the cultivator did not get a crop this would not cancel his contract.
The style of cultivation vanes according to the)43 209,942 266,982 nature of the ground, terraces sup ~52 14,709 11,910 ported by stone walls being much;83 173,537 322,627 used in mountainous districts.
The, importation has, however, enormously increased since 1882from 164,600 to 1,126,368 tons; while the extent of land devoted to corn cultivation has slightly decreased.
Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
Human cultivation has destroyed the abundant forests which sixty years ago made deer-hunting possible at Khersones.
But a long course of continuous cropping with these grain crops, without affording compensation to the soil in the form of manure or deep cultivation, has so ex.
The principal wealth of the island is derived from its olive groves; notwithstanding the destruction of many thousands of trees during each successive insurrection, the production is apparently undiminished, and will probably increase very considerably owing to the planting of young trees and the improved methods of cultivation which the Government is endeavouring to promote.
Cymbidium is well known in cultivation.
Conditions are well adapted to the cultivation of the plant, and since the cessation of the RussoJapanese War the Japanese have undertaken the development of the industry.
1 Its methods were stated to be: " To afford information to every country capable of producing cotton, both by the diffusion of printed directions for its cultivation, and sending competent teachers of cotton planting and cleaning, and by direct communication with Christian missionaries whose aid and co - operation it solicits; to supply, gratuitously, in the first instance, the best seeds to natives in every part of the world who are willing to receive them; to give prizes for the extended cultivation of cotton; and The Association published a weekly paper known as The Cotton Supply Reporter.
The principal industry is the raising of stock for the Chilean markets, as there is little cultivation.
But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation are prosecuted.
But the county is specially noted for the cultivation of fruit and hops.
Presumably their chief duty was to undertake a share in the cultivation of the demesne land.
The cultivation of fruit and vegetables on the other hand was probably almost entirely new.
On the whole it seems likely that the cultivation of the land was not generally interrupted for more than a very few years; hence the convenience of utilizing existing sites of villages would be obvious, even if the buildings themselves had been burnt.
Where rational cultivation has been introduced, it has almost always been by non-Sardinian capitalists.
Two-thirds of the population are dependent entirely on cultivation for their support, and this is mainly rice on irrigated land.
Printing, book-selling, the manufacture of surgical and scientific instruments, chemicals, gloves and vinegar, and the cultivation of hops, fruit and vines are among the leading occupations of the inhabitants.
It is grown largely in the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and in those of the Seine basin, the southern limit of its cultivation being roughly a line drawn from Bordeaux to Lyons.
At the close of 1905 the area devoted to tillage was 9,365,000 acres, the area utilized for the production of breadstuffs being 6,270,000 acres or over two-thirds of the whole extent of cultivation.
Its northern limit nearly coincides with that of successful wheat cultivation.
Cereal If 1,828 2,044 cultivation occupies the foremost 599 74,209 111,943 place in area and quantity though i68 2,966 2,715 it has been on the decline since f903, still representing, however, an)56 477,191 718,221 advance on previous years.
The P0 valley and the valleys of Emilia and the Romagna are best adapted for rice, but the area is diminishing on account of the competition of foreign rice and of the impoverishment of the soil by too intense cultivation.
C. autumnale and its numerous varieties as well as other species of the genus, are well known in cultivation, forming some of the most beautiful of autumn-flowering plants.
They are well known in cultivation, and owing to the wide distribution of the genus different methods are adopted with different species.
No doubt there was a class that knew only English; there may have been a much smaller class that knew only French; any man who pretended to high cultivation would speak all as a matter of course; Bishop Gilbert Foliot, for instance, was eloquent in all three.
Since 1890 the cultivation of the grape and the manufacture of wine have considerably extended, especially in the department of Salto, Montevideo, Canelones and Colonia.
The olive-planting industry is becoming important; the trees thrive well, and the area devoted to their cultivation is annually increasing.
Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.
There cultivation is possible only with the aid of a considerable quantity of manure.
But cultivation rapidly changes the physiognomy of the steppe.
Experiments hitherto made show that the cultivation of Oriental tobacco may.
which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.
On many of the islets numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no doubt escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs - the last large and fierce - which occur abundantly on most of the islands have escaped from domestication.
The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grosseto, &c., the average is only about I or 2% The methods of cultivation are varied; but the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant bushes is the exception.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
decussata) is found in some parts, and has also received cultivation.
Cultivation has been extended under European and American rule, and in 1904 the exports from the German islands had reached a value of 83,750, and those from the American islands of is'4200.
Macabebe's principal industries are the cultivation of rice and sugar cane, the distilling of nipa alcohol, and the weaving of hemp and cotton fabrics.
of the improved lands in 1899 were devoted to the cultivation of these crops.
In spite of the predominating interest in stock-raising, intensive cultivation of the soil is practicable where the water supply is sufficient.
Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to mature unmolested as in the good old times.
The soil is very fertile, and many of the inhabitants have acquired much wealth from the cultivation of rice.
The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.
The cultivation of silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it.
The loss to the country in wealth exported and land going out of cultivation has been very serious.
In the neighbourhood are remains of Coptic buildings, including a subterranean church (discovered 1895) in the desert half a mile beyond the limits of cultivation.
Mississippi is devoted largely to the cultivation of cotton.
Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.
There is a large variety of fruits, and the cultivation of grapes for winemaking is developing into a profitable industry.
This large number is partly accounted for by the diligent search in all countries that has been made for these plants for purposes of cultivation - they being held at present in the greatest esteem by plantlovers, and prices being paid for new or rare varieties which recall the days of the tulipomania.
The cultivation of orchids is treated under Horticulture.
Masderallia is common in cultivation and has often brilliant scarlet, crimson or orange flowers.
Laeliinae, with 22 genera, natives of the warmer parts of America, including three of those best known in cultivation, Epidendrum, Cattleya and Laelia.
Vanda (Asia) and Angraecum (Africa and Madagascar) are known in cultivation.
The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.
The lower levels are in climate and cultivation quite similar to the regions in the same latitude on the Malay peninsula.
This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
North of the tropic the winter cold is sufficient to admit of the cultivation of almost all the cereals and vegetables of Europe, wheat being sown in November and reaped early in April.
In southern India, and the other parts of Asia and of the islands having a similar climate, the difference of the winter and summer half-years is not sufficient to admit of the proper cultivation of wheat or barley.
The methods of cultivation are primitive: the curious water-wheels, made of brushwood with pots tied on to them, and turned by a blindfolded donkey, may be noted.
The cultivation of the palm is indeed the principal occupation; and though the dates are inferior to those of the Barbary States, upwards of 2 2, 500 tons are annually exported.
In recent times they enter military service less and less, betaking themselves mainly to cultivation and to the carrying business connected with agriculture.
In these two situations he made a close study of local economic conditions, personally supervising the cultivation of his lands, and entering into relations with the principal merchants of Rouen.
In these high and stony valleys every available patch of ground is utilized for the cultivation of barley, even up to altitudes of 7000 and 8000 ft.
The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts.
Melons and water-melons are also important objects of cultivation.
After discussing the evolution of the different systems of cultivation, the nature of exchange and barter, money, and the functions of capital, he sets forth the theory of the impotunique, i.e.
- A little over seven-tenths of the total area of the county is under cultivation.
The cultivation of the pear extends to the remotest antiquity.
Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.
It Progress of agricul- is probable that very little improvement had taken ture from place, either in the cultivation of the soil or in the 1688 to management of live stock, from the Restoration down 1760.
Large districts still clung to the old common-field system, to the old habits of ploughing with teams of four or eight, and to slovenly methods of cultivation.
The passing of some 3500 enclosure bills, affecting between 5 and 5z million acres, during the reign of George III., before which the whole number was between 200 and 250, shows how rapidly the break-up of the common-field husbandry and the cultivation of new land now proceeded.
The disastrous American War for a time interfered with the national prosperity; but with the return of peace in 1783 the cultivation of the country made more rapid progress.
The latter was accidentally discovered in 1788, and both soon came into general cultivation.
Improved varieties, obtained by cross-impregnation either naturally or artificially brought about, were carefully propagated and generally adopted, and increased attention was bestowed on the cultivation of the natural grasses.
The most notable feature in connexion with the cropping of the land of the United Kingdom between 1875 and 1905 was the lessened cultivation of the cereal crops associated with an expansion in the area of grass land.
There was thus a withdrawal during the period of over 22 million acres from cereal cultivation.
Nevertheless there are distinctions of result dependent on differences in the habits of the two plants, and in the conditions of their cultivation accordingly.
On heavy soils, however, the farmer cannot afford to curtail the time necessary for thorough cultivation of the land.
The progress of steam cultivation has not justified the hopes that were once entertained in the United Kingdom concerning this method of working implements in the field.
Much advantage arises from the steam working of bastard fallows in summer, and after harvest a considerable amount of autumn cultivation can be done by steam power, thus materially lightening the work in the succeeding spring.
To Boer cultivation the valley of the Marico river owes its fertility.
Moral goodness cannot be limited to, still less constituted by, the cultivation of self-regarding virtues, but consists in the attempt to realize in practice that moral ideal which self-analysis has revealed to us as our ideal.
Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 lb in 1850 to 34,735,235 lb in 1880, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 lb, grown on 90,000 acres.
The town carries on the manufacture of earthenware and pottery, leather, &c. and the cultivation of fruit and wine.
Several are only known in cultivation, and we have but little knowledge of the wild parent forms from which they have descended.
This plant, known only in cultivation, is usually regarded as native to the West Indies.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.
In either case an adequate but not excessive rainfall, increasing from the time of sowing to the period of active growth, and then decreasing as the bolls ripen, with a dry picking season, combined with sunny days and warm nights, provide the ideal conditions for successful cotton cultivation.
The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.
It is not necessarily deep culture, and during the growing season the cultivation is preferably very shallow.
The only time the hoe is used is to thin out the cotton in the row; all the rest of the cultivation is by various forms of ploughs and so-called cultivators.
The actual amounts differ with different varieties, conditions of cultivation, methods of ginning, &c.; a recent estimate in the United States gives 35% of lint for Upland cotton and 25% for Sea Island cotton as more accurate.
Cultivation in Egypt.
For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.
Channels formed at right angles to the cultivation ridges provide for the access of water to the crop. The seeds, previously soaked, are sown, usually in March, on the sides of the ridges, and the land watered.
Attention was drawn to it in 1862, when it caused the abandonment of cotton cultivation about Monclova in Mexico.
United States of America.-The cultivation of cotton as a staple crop in the United States dates from about 1770, 1 although efforts appear to have been made in Virginia as far back as 1621.
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.
The cultivation is of very old standing.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
The government is encouraging recent efforts to re-establish the cultivation.
Egypt.-The position of Egypt as the third cotton-producing country of the world has already been pointed out, and the varieties grown and the mode of cultivation described.
The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.
The people, though remarkable for their intelligence whilst Europe was in a state of barbarism, made no approximation to the mechanical operations of modern times, nor was the cultivation of cotton either improved or considerably extended.
Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.
In the future Korea may become an important source of supply for Japan, especially if, as appears likely, Korea proves suited to the cultivation of American cotton.
- Smyrna is the principal centre of cotton cultivation in this region.
In Fiji the cotton exported in the 'sixties and 'seventies was worth £93,000 annually; but the cultivation has been practically abandoned.
Estimates are published of the area under cotton cultivation, and conditions of the American crop are issued by the American agricultural bureau at the beginning of the months of June, July, August, September and October of each year.
Professor Wyndham Dunstan of the Imperial Institute, on a reference from the government, made favourable reports as to the possibilities of extending cotton cultivation.
The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.
They are generally grown in cultivation as stove-plants.
As regards the cultivation of the soil Syria remains stable; but the soil is becoming relatively poorer, the value of the imports constantly gaining upon that of the exports.
Florida, the richest class, which require drainage to fit them for cultivation.
North and west of a line passing through Cedar Keys and Fernandina the climate is distinctly " southern," similar to that of the Gulf states; from this line to another extending from the mouth of the Caloosahatchee to Indian river inlet the climate is semi-tropical, and is well suited to the cultivation of oranges; S.
of this the climate is sub-tropical, well adapted to the cultivation of pineapples.
The cultivation of pineapples, in sub-tropical Florida, is proving successful, the product far surpassing that of California, the only other state in the Union in which pineapples are grown.
The cultivation of strawberries and vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, beets, beans, tomatoes, egg-plant, cucumbers, water-melons, celery, &c.) for northern markets, and of orchard fruits, especially plums, pears and prunes, has likewise proved successful.
Civil in place of military government was instituted; immigration began; and Andrew Turnbull, an Englishman, brought over a band of about 1500 Minorcans (1769), whom he engaged in the cultivation of indigo at New Smyrna.
In planting rice three methods are in use: the cultivation of swamp-rice in irrigated fields; the planting of ploughed areas; and the planting of hill-rice by sowing each grain separately in holes bored for the purpose.
The fragments indicate the great 'variety of subjects discussed: the origin of the appeal to the people (provocatio); the use of elephants in the circus games; the wearing of gold rings; the introduction of the olive tree; the material for making the toga; the cultivation of the soil; certain details as to the lives of Cicero and Terence.
A little more than one-fourth of the land is under cultivation and in 1899 more than three-fifths of the working population were engaged in agriculture.
About 13,000 head of cattle were exported annually from 1901 to 1905, but much of the best grazing land has since been devoted to the cultivation of sugar-cane.
nuda, was found by Bunge in waste ground about Peking; it was identified by the botanist Lindley with the pilcorn of the old agriculture, and we see from Rogers 1 that it was in cultivation in England in the 13th century.
This was American, even local, in character; its inception was due to a desire to improve the cultivation and manufacture of cotton; but it brought to the notice of the whole country the industrial transformation wrought in the Southern states during the last quarter of the 19th century.
In this region the sandstone rocks are generally overlaid with heavy black soil formed from the decaying trap, which is principally devoted to the cultivation of the spring crops, wheat and grain, while rice and hill millets are sown in the lighter and more sandy soils.
Agriculture is important, more than three-fifths of the total area being under cultivation.
The part of the island under cultivation is very fertile, and the air is remarkable for its purity.
or 73,313 acres, of which about io,000 are under cultivation.
In 1903 a beginning was made in the cultivation of cotton in the dry river beds, where water can always be obtained at a depth of 10 ft.
In other districts lack of water impedes cultivation, though after the rains pasturage is abundant, and resinous plants are so varied and numerous as to justify the ancient name of the region.
In the pastoral stage slaves will be captured only to be sold, with the exception of a few who may be required for the care of flocks or the small amount of cultivation which is then undertaken.
The Peloponnesian War introduced a change; s and after that time the proprietors resided at Athens, and the cultivation was in the hands of slaves.
We have seen that free persons had all along been to some extent employed in the cultivation of land as hired labourers, and, as we shall presently find, also as tenants on the great estates.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
About one-sixth of the total area is under cultivation, oats and barley being the chief grain, and potatoes (introduced in 1730) and turnips (1807) the chief green crops.
At the end of 1905 it was officially estimated that 16% was in cultivation.
In 1902 it was officially estimated that the public land available for permanent agrarian cultivation, including forest lands, was only 186,967 hectares (416,995 acres), almost wholly in the province of Oriente.
The methods of cultivation, however, are still distinctly extensive, and the returns are much less than they would be (and in some other cane countries are) under more intensive and scientific methods of cultivation.
In the markets of the world Cuban tobacco has always suffered less competition than Cuban sugar, and still less has been done than in the case of sugar cane in the study of methods of cultivation, which in several respects are far behind those of other tobacco-growing countries.
At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an article of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subsequently, during the American war of independence, colonists arri.ved in great.
Cotton cultivation was now attempted on a large scale.
In 1783, at Long Island, Boo slaves were at work, and nearly 4000 acres of land under cultivation.
prevailed; the red bug destroyed the cotton crops in 1788 and again in 1794, and by the year 1800 cotton cultivation was almost abandoned.
They set the fashion of ghazel-writing; and their appearance was the signal for a more regular cultivation of poetry and a greater attention to literary style and to refinement of language.
The Cambodians show skill in working gold and silver; earthenware, bricks, mats, fans and silk and cotton fabrics, are also produced to some small extent, but fishing and the cultivation of rice and in a minor degree of tobacco, coffee, cotton, pepper, indigo, maize, tea and sugar are the only industries worthy of the name.
In the few instances where it is said to have been found wild the probabilities are that the tree was an escape from cultivation.
Once established, its cultivation would readily extend westward, or, on the other hand, by Cabul to north-western India, where its cultivation is not ancient.
Whenever the cultivation 'of his estate and the vigorous championship of his Samoan retainers gave him the leisure, Stevenson was during these years almost wholly occupied in writing romances of Scottish life.
The vine, the cotton plant and barley are the main objects of cultivation.
An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
Its cultivation and use are described on the mural tablets of the ancient Assyrians.
The flowers spring in branching spadices from the axils of the leaves, and as the trees are unisexual it is necessary in cultivation to fertilize the female flowers by artificial means.
The fruit varies much in size, colour and quality under cultivation.
The cultivation and collection of the rubber being troublesome, it is unlikely to be attended to in those countries in which Hevea is successful.
The Castilloa tree appears to be suitable for cultivation only in districts where the Para rubber would grow equally well.
Many of the plants are annuals; among these are some of the commonest weeds of cultivation, shepherd's purse (Capsella Bursa-pastoris), charlock (Brassica Sinapis), and such common FIG.
Under cultivation this root becomes much enlarged, as in turnip, swede and others.
are suitable for cultivation.
In the lowlands of West Siberia cultivation is carried on up to 61 ° N.'
After four to twelve years' cultivation the land is allowed to lie fallow for ten years or more.
The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted European methods of cultivation.
The hills also, as far as possible, are terraced for cultivation and in some instances are planted with dwarf pine and scrub oak.
Of all countries, however, France is the one which has shown most brightly in the cultivation of the sermon.
Silkworm-rearing and the cultivation of peaches, chestnuts and other fruits are also carried on.
The business of the town is chiefly connected with the interests of the sheep and cattle farmers of the Riverina district, a plain country, in the main pastoral, but suited in some parts for cultivation.
4,091,490 ac., only 2,978,570 were under cultivation in 1920, with 473,410 ac. under winter rye against 862,400 in 1913.
This double cultivation of his scientific powers had the happiest effect on his subsequent work; for the greatest achievements of Riemann were effected by the application in pure mathematics generally of a method (theory of potential) which had up to this time been used solely in the solution of certain problems that arise in mathematical physics.
Gloriosa, well known in cultivation, climbs by means of its tendril-like leaftips; it has handsome flowers with decurved orange-red or yellow petals; it is a native of tropical Asia and Africa.
The mountain slopes are still masses of dense forest, though their lower elevations and neighbouring valleys have been cleared for cultivation and by dealers in rosewood and other valuable woods.
Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.
In 1906 Sao Paulo offered premiums for its cultivation in the state.
The product of the elevated inland regions is good, but the costs of transportation and the small profits afforded have prevented its extensive cultivation, and it is imported from the La Plata republics for consumption along the coast.
Much has been said in regard to the production of wheat, and efforts have been made in various places to promote its cultivation.
Very little attention has thus far been given to the cultivation of fruit for exportation, the exceptions being bananas for the Argentine and Uruguayan markets, and oranges and pineapples for European markets.
to Rio de Janeiro is adapted to the cultivation of a great variety of fruits of a superior quality.
It is a region of light rainfall, and cultivation depends chiefly on the Gash flood.
In 1877 renewed efforts were made to induce tea cultivation, and by 1881 it had become an established industry.
More important is the cultivation of the black wattle (Acacia mollissima), which began in 1886, the bark being exported for tanning purposes, the wood also commanding a ready sale.
The British settlers soon realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrow-root were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee.
This latter process is growing every year, and is coupled with great improvements in agricultural methods, such as more intensive cultivation, the use of the most modern implements and the application of scientific discoveries.
Sheep are not stocked so extensively as cattle, and are tending rapidly to decrease, a result due to the spread of intensive cultivation and the rise in value of the soil.
It is a region of lakes and morasses, of arid plains and high temperatures, but experiments with irrigation toward the end of the 19th century were highly successful and considerable tracts have since been brought under cultivation.
The amount of land under cultivation is very small in comparison with the area of the province.
In 1904 only 951,802 acres, or 1.26% of the total acreage was under cultivation, and of the cultivated land nearly half was farmed by natives.
The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands.
Oranges are cultivated chiefly in the Rustenburg, Waterberg, Zoutpansberg and Pretoria districts, grapes in Potchefstroom, Pretoria and Marico, as well as in the Zoutpansberg and Waterberg, to which northern regions the cultivation of the banana is confined.
In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice.
The chief seat of cultivation in early times, however, was the town of Corycus (modern Korghoz) in Cilicia, and from this central point of distribution it may not improbably have spread east and west.
==Agriculture and other Industries== The cultivation of rice, which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce made from decaying fish, constitute the chief industries of Annam.
Much the greater part of the republic is fertile and adapted to cultivation.
The long dry season of the llanos and surrounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultivation, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic irrigation.
Other industries of the colonial period were the cultivation of indigo and tobacco.
The plant is indigenous and grows well, but, unlike cacau, it requires much manual labour in its cultivation and picking and does not seem to be favoured by the planters.
Several states are offering bounties to encourage its cultivation at home.
They declare that moral righteousness, the gaining of wisdom, divine contemplation, charity and the cultivation of devotional feelings are their rites and ceremonies.
They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation.
The rich land round about the holy city of Pandharpur, sacred to Vithoba the national Mahratta form of (Krishna)- Vishnu, is wholly restricted to the cultivation of the tulsi plant.
The Zulu gives little attention to the cultivation of the soil.
Desolate bogs, incapable of cultivation, alternate with the mountains; and the inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence by fishing and tillage, or by seeking employment in England and Scotland during the harvesting.
The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma.
Outside these reserves enormous tracts of forest and jungle still remain for clearance and cultivation, reservation being mostly confined to forest land unsuitable for crops.
During the decade 1891-1901 the population increased by 19.8% and cultivation by 53%.
Large areas of cultivable waste have been brought under cultivation, and the general result has been a contented people.
obtained large concessions in the interior to develop the cultivation of the oil-palm and to erect factories on the spot for crushing the oil.
There are also iron, zinc and chemical manufactures, and the cultivation of agricultural seeds is carried on.
Thanks to this system of irrigation the cultivation of the soil was highly advanced in Babylonia.
The western portion is hilly, and intersected by ravines, and only the simplest kind of cultivation is possible.
There are also some vineyards of old date, and much garden cultivation.
The cultivation of the vine must also have been introduced into Italy at a very early period.
In Virgil's time the varieties in cultivation seem to have been exceedingly numerous; and the varied methods of training and culture now in use in Italy are in many cases identical with those described by Columella and other Roman writers.
It is a curious fact that at the present day much or even most of the wine of finest quality is made at or near to the northern limits of possible cultivation with profit.
This circumstance is probably explained by the greater care and attention bestowed both on the cultivation of the vine and on the manufacture of the wine in northern countries than in those where the climate is more propitious.
In any case, it is obvious that these facts might be turned to practical ends in cultivation.
The cultivation of vines in pots is very commonly practised with good results, and pot-vines are very useful to force for the earliest crop. The plants should be raised from eyes, and grown as strong as possible in the way already noted, in rich turfy loam mixed with about one-third of horse dung and a little bone dust.
At the same time there was a certain healthy aspect in the cultivation of the Meistergesang among the German middle classes of the 15th and 16th centuries; the Meistersinger poetry, if not great or even real poetry, had - especially in the hands of a poet like Hans Sachs - many germs of promise for the future.
Production of flowers is uncertain under cultivation and seed is formed very rarely.
Its native country is unknown, but it probably originated in India or some parts of eastern tropical Asia where it has been cultivated from great antiquity and whence its cultivation spread westwards and eastwards.
The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.
In the best organized modern cane sugar estates as much as 122% of the weight of the canes treated is obtained in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%.
As an instance of the influence of climatic conditions combined with high cultivation the cane lands of the Sandwich Islands may be cited.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
The roots were grown under exactly the same cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangel-wurzel - that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and manuring of the usual root crops.
The cultivation of the cane in the West spread from Khuzistan in Persia.
In the age of discovery the Portuguese and Spaniards became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; the cane was planted in Madeira in 1420; it was carried to San Domingo in 1494; and it spread over the occupied portions of the West Indies and South America early in the 16th century.
It formerly abounded in sandalwood, and consists of a central plateau surrounded by a belt of cultivation.
There is little doubt, however, that in the near future means will be devised to obtain the most efficient work from these minute organisms, either by special artificial cultivation and subsequent application to the soil, or by improved methods of encouraging their healthy growth and activity in the land where they already exist.
The paring and burning of land, although formerly practised as an ordinary means of improving the texture and fertility of arable fields, can now only be looked upon as a practice p to be adopted for the purpose of bringing rapidly into cultivation very foul leys or, land covered with a coarse turf.
No operation brings old turf into cultivation so rapidly.
- Tobacco cultivation dates in the States from the very early years of the 17th century, when it was taken up in Virginia.
A general description has already been given of the methods of cultivation and preparation.
Great care is given to the cultivation, and damp atmospheric conditions are desirable during the ripening stages.
The cultivation was formerly a monopoly of the Spanish crown, but from 1817 payment of a tax, usually heavy, has been the only restriction.
Cultivation under shade was recently tried with satisfactory results; " 166.65 acres cultivated under cheesecloth produced in 1903 10 bales of wrappers and 1.5 bales of fillers of tobacco per acre, the output under the old system having been 4'5 bales of tobacco per acre of which only 10% represented wrappers of good colour " (Diplomatic and Consular Report on Cuba, 1904, No.
Tobacco cultivation is an important industry, and the home production is carried out under government supervision.
Tobacco is an important crop in Turkey, where its cultivation and manufacture are monopolies.
The cultivation of Turkish tobaccos has been taken up in various parts of the world, e.g.
The method of cultivation in Turkey is simple, and the plants are set out close together.
Tobacco cultivation is a government monopoly, and in 1905 the crop amounted to about 106,572,000 ib, yielding a profit to the government of some £3,500,000.
The cultivation is widespread throughout Southern China.
The high quality of Sumatra tobacco is due in part to the local conditions of soil and climate, and perhaps to an even greater degree to the care taken at every stage in its cultivation and preparation.
- Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab.
The cultivation was begun in the island in 1883 by planters seeking new lands free from the heavy taxation to which they were subjected in Sumatra.
The greater portion of the most suitable land appears to be already under cultivation and there is little immediate prospect for much expansion of the industry.
In the British African possessions the outlook for tobacco cultivation is in several instances favourable.
Tobacco cultivation has made considerable progress in Nyasaland (British Central Africa).
In nearly all civilized countries the cultivation of tobacco and its manufacture are conducted under state supervision and form an important source of public revenue.
In some, for instance, France, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the cultivation is a state monopoly, and in other countries the crop is subject to heavy excise duties.
In more recent years tobacco has been grown in Ireland, but up to 1910 it had been found impracticable to obtain from the government sufficient relaxation from fiscal restrictions to encourage the home cultivation, though in 1907 the prospect of licences being issued was held out.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
The absence of swamps, the porous nature of the soil, and the extent of cultivation account for the freedom of the island from miasma.
- The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultivation, became the staple product of the island.
The central zone includes Hejaz (or Hijaz), Nejd and El Hasa; much of it is a dry, stony or sandy steppe, with few wells or watering-places, and only occupied by nomad tribes; but the great wadis which intersect it contain many fertile stretches of alluvial soil, where cultivation is possible and which support a considerable settled population, with several large towns and numerous villages.
The Egyptian pilgrim road crosses the peninsula from Suez to Akaba, passing the post of An Nakhl, with a reservoir and a little cultivation, about half way; a steep descent leads down from the edge of the Tih plateau to Akaba.
Water is found in it a few feet below the surface, and a little cultivation is carried on at the small oases of Kaf and Ithri, whence salt produced in the neighbouring salt lakes is exported.
The flood-water is controlled by a system of dams and channels constructed so as to utilize every drop, and the extent of cultivation is limited more by the supply of water available than by the amount of suitable soil.
The Arhab district, through which these two great wadis run, was formerly the centre of the Himyar kingdom; cultivation is now only to be found in the lower parts on the borders of the watercourses, all above being naked rock from which every particle of soil has been denuded.
In the higher parts there are fine plains where Glaser found numerous Himyaritic remains, and which he considers were undoubtedly cultivated formerly, but they have long fallen out of cultivation owing to denudation and desiccation - the impoverishment of the country from these causes is increasing.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
Quite close to the sea, all along the coast from Hammamet to Sfax, there are great fertility and much cultivation; but a little distance inland the country has a rather wild and desolate aspect, though it is nowhere a desert until the latitude of Sfax has been passed.
In the third quarter of the 19th century not more than a tenth part of the fertile land was under cultivation, and the yearly charge on the public debt exceeded the whole annual revenue.
In 1808 he went to Winchester, and in 1810 he was elected to a demyship at Magdalen College, Oxford, where the lectures of Dr Kidd first awakened in him a desire for the cultivation of natural science.
The development of alfalfa cultivation is extending the area of cattle-breeding somewhat and is improving the quality of the beef Livestock.
The cultivation of wheat, vines and olives, and European domestic animals were introduced.
Nowhere is the eye relieved by the evidences of cultivation or fertility.
- Beyond the cultivation of vegetable gardens there is practically no agricultural industry in the colony.
But although only 400 acres are cultivated on Hong-Kong island, and the same number of acres in Kowloon, there are 90,000 acres under cultivation in the new territory, of which over 7000 acres were in 1900 planted with sugar-cane.
From these, or rather from some of these, by cultivation and hybridization, have arisen the very numerous modern varieties.
The family, which is so important an element of the Comtist scheme of things, exists to carry the influence of woman over man to the highest point of cultivation.
The poppy was formerly extensively cultivated, but after the anti-opium edict of 1906 vigorous measures were taken to stamp out the cultivation of the plant.
An orchard for experimental cultivation has met with considerable success.
In former times the area of land under cultivation increased in a marked degree.
In the western portion of the county are the Few Mountains, a chain of abrupt hills mostly incapable of cultivation.
The men devote to the loom those hours which are not required for the cultivation of their little farms; the women spin and reel the yarn during the intervals of their other domestic occupations.
The Anthology Club was established at Boston in 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultivation of literature and the discussion of philosophy.
He had prepared to distinguish himself as an orator by the elaborate cultivation of his voice, which was naturally harsh and shrill.
Although the age did not afford free scope and stimulus to individual energy and enterprise, it furnished more material and social advantages for the peaceful cultivation of letters.
Alfalfa and grapes are the principal products, and considerable attention is given to the cultivation of other fruits, such as figs, peaches and melons.
The farm colony at Hadleigh in Essex has a large acreage under cultivation, with fruit and market gardens and various industrial undertakings.
Cultivation does not begin till the limits of this dismal region are passed.
The intermediate tract is a region of rich cultivation, dotted with great banyan trees, thickets of bamboos, exquisite palm foliage and mango groves.
About onefourth of the area is under cultivation by private owners and tenants.
The chief industry is the cultivation of oysters in four large beds in the Mare Piccolo; besides oysters, Taranto carries on a large trade in cozze, a species of large black mussel, which is packed in barrels with a special sauce.
Around the cottages in the mountains the land is cleared for cultivation, and produces thriving crops of barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, mustard, chillies, etc. Turnips of excellent quality are extensively grown; they are free from fibre and remarkably sweet.
Bhutias do not care to extend their cultivation, as an increased revenue is exacted in proportion to the land cultivated, but devote their whole energies to make the land yield twice what it is estimated to produce.
The area under cultivation in 1906 was 41,534 acres.
Though most of the land is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free port till1845-1846allowed what was once the great emporium of European commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is still of very considerable extent.
The total value of farm products in 1900 was $9,190,777, an increase of 30% over that of 1890, while the cultivation of cereals suffered on account of the competition of the western states.
The leaders, one of whom was Captain David P. de Vries, wished " to plant a colony for the cultivation of grain and tobacco as well as to carry on the whale fishery in that region."
Successful attempts have been made to introduce fruit cultivation.
Certainly no other has so many acres of improved land, or so large a proportion - from 85 to 90% - of its land subject to cultivation.
This tract consists of a succession of stony ridges of trap rock, enclosing valleys or basins of fertile soil, to which cultivation is for the most part confined, except where the shallow soil on the tops of the hills has been turned to account.
European traders settled in the country, good permanent houses were built, roads were made and kept in repair, and many new industries introduced, chief among which were the expression of oil from various oilseeds and the cultivation of coffee.
Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
The country has little water and only a small part of it is under cultivation, the remainder being composed of arid, waterless plains, deserts - some stony, others with moving sands - barren hills and mountains.
It finally became a prey to the malaria which arose when the plain fell out of cultivation, and under Turkish rule disappeared altogether.
The tea trade of Wen-chow-Fu, formerly important, has declined owing to careless cultivation.
High cultivation, however, has produced valuable marketgardens about Boston and the larger towns; and industry has made tillage remunerative in most other parts.
The work was carried out in the years 174 6 - 1 753, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off, and the main stream successfully confined to the canal, 12 M.
The rainfall, however, is light, about 20 to 25 in., but, with the assistance of irrigation, it serves to sustain a considerable degree of cultivation in the neighbourhood of the city.
The chief cultivation is rice, with about two acres of dry or hill rice to one of wet bottom.
The hill fields are left fallow for ten years after two years' cultivation.
In 1607 the first lasting settlement was made in Virginia, and after a period of struggle began to flourish by the cultivation of tobacco.
The inhabitants are engaged in cattlerearing, the cultivation of corn, hops and fruit, shipbuilding and the shipping trade, and the manufacture of cloth, paper and cutlery.
Except a few acres of tobacco, all the cultivation is rice.
It attains its greatest perfection under cultivation, and, as it flowers throughout the summer, is used with good effect for garden borders; a variety, M.
Of the species in cultivation, M.
It possesses considerable natural strength, and consists of a small hill, the original acropolis, occupied byy the modern castle and the village surrounding it, and a larger one, now given over to cultivation, where the city stood.
They have no word for plough in their language, and they still follow the nomadic form of tillage known as jum cultivation.
The cultivation of tea was introduced in 1856, and is now a large industry.
Cinchona cultivation was introduced by the government in 1862, and has since been taken up by private enterprise.
half of the state and in the valley of the Hudson, and the greater part of Long Island under cultivation is devoted to market gardening, floriculture and nurseries.
New York was in 1904 more extensively engaged in oyster culture than any other state, and was making more rapid progress in the cultivation of hard clams. In 1909 there were distributed from state fish hatcheries 1 531,293,721 fishes (mostly smelt, pike-perch, and winter flatfish); a large number of fish and eggs were also placed in New York waters by the United States Bureau of Fisheries.
instructed to issue to any immigrant applying for land a patent for as large a farm as he required for cultivation and pasturage, to be free of all charges for ten years and thereafter subject only to a quit-rent of one-tenth of the produce.
Barley is the most hardy of all cereal grains, its limit of cultivation extending farther north than any other; and, at the same time, it can be profitably cultivated in sub-tropical countries.
The cultivation of barley in ancient Egypt is indicated in Exod.
Apart from the growth-habits of the plant itself, the consideration that chiefly determines the routine of barley cultivation is the demand on the part of the maltster for uniformity of sample.
Less care is required in its cultivation when it is intended for feeding live-stock.
Rich strips of alluvial soil, however, seam a cold clay-marl, needing intensive cultivation to become highly productive.
The smaller size of the flocks and the breeding of sheep for meat rather than for wool, the cultivation of English grasses and of extensive crops of turnips and other roots on which to fatten sheep and lambs, all tend to change sheep-farming from the mere grazing of huge mobs on wide, unimproved runs held by pastoral licences.
Europeans introduced the cultivation of coffee, which gives good results.
In 1909 about 3000 acres in this project were watered and under cultivation.
The cultivation of potatoes and tobacco largely increased between the census years 1890 and 1904.
This locality is generally known as the Cinnamon Gardens, as it was formerly a Dutch reserve for the cultivation of the cinnamon bush, many of which are still growing here.
The rainfall is sufficient for good grazing, but except in the Flathead valley cultivation was long considered to be dependent on irrigation; and consequently farming was only incidental to stock raising and mining until after 1870, and as late as 1900 the ratio of improved farm land to the total land area was less than in any other state or territory except New Mexico, Wyoming, Arizona and Hawaii.
The lowest lands are the most productive, and fertility diminishes as we ascend towards the south, until on the bleak crest of the Erzgebirge cultivation ceases altogether.
The cultivation of the vine in Saxony is respectable for its antiquity, though the yield is insignificant.
A considerable area was devoted to the cultivation of apples, plums and cherries.
The soil is varied in character, but on the whole rich and under high cultivation.
About threequarters of the total area is under cultivation.
On the ground that an acre of cultivable land under fruit and vegetable cultivation will produce from two to twenty times as much food as if the same land were utilized for feeding cattle.
The cultivation of paddi (unhusked rice) forms the occupation of practically the whole population of Siam outside the capital.
They were at first appropriated chiefly to the cultivation of medicinal plants.
The cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the Dutch; and to them also is due the introduction of tea.
They have greatly encouraged the cultivation of the coco-nut among the natives, and it flourishes.
The cultivation of pepper, cochineal, cinnamon and indigo for the government had already ceased; De Waal restricted the area of the sugar plantations (carried on by forced native labour) as from 1878, and provided for their abolition after 1890.
The earliest in cultivation were described in 1597 by Gerard (Herball, p. 146), who figures eight kinds of true lilies, which include L.
Elwes (Monograph of the Genus Lilium, 1880), who first tested all the species under cultivation, and has published every one beautifully figured by W.
A good account of the new species and principal varieties discovered since 1880, with much information on the cultivation of lilies and the diseases to which they are subject, will be found in the report of the Conference on Lilies, in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1901.
Here the oscilla were hung on trees, such as the vine and the olive, oak and the pine, and represented the faces of Liber, Bacchus or other deity connected with the cultivation of the soil (Virg.
Little of the soil is under cultivation except in the neighbourhood of the villages.
For the purchase and distribution of the land a " State Land Office" has been set up. A share in the distribution may be claimed on the one hand by private persons to the amount of 15 hectares (37 ac.) - the amount suitable for cultivation by one family; on the other hand by agricultural, housing and cooperative societies.
Czechoslovakia is the only European State which can export sugar: it is the second largest beet-sugar producer in the world, having I some 500,000 ac. of beet under cultivation.
Within the circuit which they enclose, now under cultivation, are two summits, one occupied by a Roman amphitheatre [the other by a tower (?)(?) of uncertain date]: a Roman cistern also is visible.
The prominence given by most of the Sophists to rhetoric, their cultivation of a subjective readiness as the essential equipment for life, their substitution of persuasion for conviction, all mark the sceptical undertone of their teaching.
For a long time the cultivation of Polish philology was in a low state, owing to the prevalence of Latin in the 17th century and French in the 18th.
These difficulties are further enhanced by the fact that, quite apart from any cross-breeding, the plants, when subjected to cultivation, vary so greatly in the course of two or three years from the original species from which they are directly descended that their parentage is scarcely recognizable.
Tulips are readily raised from seeds, and the seedlings when they first flower (after about 7 years cultivation) are of one colour - that is, they are self-coloured.
Cultivation Out of Doors.
From that time he gave up his life to study and scientific research, and soon took a prominent place in the band of inquirers, known as the "Invisible College," who devoted themselves to the cultivation of the "new philosophy."
Caecilius Metellus, who soon reduced them to obedience, settled amongst them 3000 Roman and Spanish colonists, founded the cities of Palma and Pollentia (Pollensa), and introduced the cultivation of the olive.
Most of the surface is capable of cultivation, and nineteen-twentieths of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture.
The plain of Fondi is the northernmost point in Italy where the cultivation of oranges and lemons is regularly carried on in modern times.
They did much, however, for the cultivation of original composition modelled on Cicero and Virgil.
More than 7,5 00, 000 acres are devoted to the cultivation of cereals.
Despite bad seasons and ravages of insects, cultivation extended, and in 1895 the vineyards covered 300,000 acres, the produce being 88,000,000 gallons.
There is also an American beetle, the Ambrosia beetle, belonging to the family of Swlytidae, which derives its name from its curious cultivation of a succulent fungus, called ambrosia.
The low coral islands suffer frequently from drought; their soil is sandy and unproductive, and in some cases the natives attempt cultivation by excavating trenches and fertilizing them with vegetable and other refuse.
oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
long; the river flows first in a gorge, then amidst thickets of rushes, and very small portions of its valley are fit for cultivation.
Land suitable for cultivation is found only in oases, where it is watered by irrigation canals, but these oases are very fertile.
The school of Athens returned to a stricter philosophical method and the cultivation of scholarship. Still holding by a religious philosophy, it undertook to reduce the whole Greek tradition, as seen in the light of Plotinus, to a comprehensive and closely knit system.
In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.
Better cultivation would probably increase the output and make it an article of export.
A peculiar and highly profitable branch of Mexican agriculture is the cultivation of the Agave for two widely different purposes - one for its fibre, which is exported, and the other for its sap, which is manufactured into intoxicating liquors called "pulque " and " mescal."
Its cultivation is the chief industry of the states of Mexico, Hidalgo, Puebla and Tlaxcala.
That in the palace gardens flowers from the tierra caliente were transplanted, and water-fowl bred near fresh and salt pools fit for each kind, that all kinds of birds and beasts were kept in well-appointed zoological gardens, where there were homes even for alligators and snakes - all this testifies to a cultivation of natural history which was really beyond the European level of the time.
The Mexicans understood digging channels for irrigation, especially for the cultivation of the cacahuatl, from which they taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage chocollatl; these native names passed into English as the words cacao, or coco and chocolate.
The of tencited poems attributed to Nezahualcoyotl may not be quite genuine, but at any rate poetry had risen above the barbaric level, while the mention of ballads among the people, court odes, and the chants of temple choirs would indicate a vocal cultivation above that of the instrumental music of drums and horns, pipes and whistles, the latter often of pottery.
The inhabitants of Kalocsa and its wide-spreading communal lands are chiefly employed in the cultivation of the vine, fruit, flax, hemp and cereals, in the capture of water-fowl and in fishing.
The chief species in cultivation are: Salix viminalis (the common osier) and S.
No crop responds more readily to careful husbandry and skilful cultivation.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
A pamphlet on the cultivation of osiers in the Fen districts is issued in England by the Board of Agriculture.
3 0 3; (38) Leishman and Statham, " The development of the Leishman body in cultivation," Journ.
The crops include grain of all kinds (not sufficient, however, for the needs of the province), peas and beans, buckwheat, potatoes, fruit and hemp. The cultivation of flax is very extensive, especially in the N.E.
Du Bellay maintained that the French language as it was then constituted was too poor to serve as a medium for the higher forms of poetry, but he contended that by proper cultivation it might be brought on a level with the classical tongues.
The land is excessively subdivided, and, owing to excellent cultivation, fetches very high prices.
This industry was ruined by the competition of chemical dyes, and a substitute was found in the cultivation of coffee.
The cultivation of bananas tends to increase, though more slowly than in other Central American countries.
The oil is similar to that in the true colza seeds but the plants do not yield so much per acre as the latter: they are, however, hardier and more adapted for cultivation on poor sandy soils.