Much. Would've wiped out the island by now and half of Cuba without realizing he'd done so.
Convincing evidence is offered by the qualities of the Spanish race in Cuba that white men of temperate lands can be perfectly acclimatized in this tropical island.
The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.
As for diseases, some common to Cuba and Europe are more frequent or severe in the island, others rarer or milder.
There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.
Yellow fever (which first appeared in Cuba in 1647) was long the only epidemic disease, Havana being an endemic focus.
There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.
On the other hand, it would be a pledge to the world that we intend to stand by our declaration of war, and give Cuba to the Cubans, as soon as we have fitted them to assume the duties and responsibilities of a self-governing people....
PINAR DEL RIO, capital of Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba, about 107 m.
PINAR DEL RIO, capital of Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba, about 107 m.
The fauna of Cuba, like the flora, is still imperfectly known.
The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature.
The remarkable sanitary work begun during the American occupation and continued by the republic of Cuba, has shown that the ravages of this and other diseases can be greatly diminished.
Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.
Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.
In the next year (March - April) he inspected the Panama Canal and also visited Cuba and Porto Rico.
Colon, Cuba >>
Atlantic squadron, and conducted the blockade of Cuba.
The American Jews bore their share in the Civil War (7038 Jews were in the two armies), and have always identified themselves closely with national movements such as the emancipation of Cuba.
In 1518 Juan de Grijalva followed the same coast, but added othing to the information .sought by the governor of Cuba.
6 Governor Quitman resigned because of charges against him of aiding Lopez's expedition against Cuba.
During the SpanishAmerican War United States troops were encamped in De Soto Park in Tampa, and Port Tampa was the point of embarkation for the United States army that invaded Cuba.
He seems to have touched at the island of Tortugas, so named on account of the large number of turtles found there, and to have landed at several places, but many of his men succumbed to disease and he himself was wounded in an Indian attack, dying soon afterward in Cuba.
The unsettled political condition of Spain during the next forty years was reflected in the disturbed political conditions of Porto Rico and Cuba.
Since about 1880 there have been central factories, and their increase has been a very prominent factor in the development of the industry, as it has been in Cuba.
The valley of the Yumuri, near Matanzas, a small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.
It is the Tertiary limestones which form the predominant feature in the geology of Cuba.
The royal palm is the most characteristic tree of Cuba.
Since then yellow fever has ceased to be a scourge in Cuba.
The manufacturing industries of Cuba have never been more than insignificant as compared with what they might be.
The total commerical movement of the island in the five calendar years 1902-1906 averaged $177,882,640 (for the five fiscal years 1902-1903 to 1906-1907, $185,987,020) annually, and of this the share of the United States was $108,431,000 yearly, representing 45.8% of all imports and 1 In these same years the trade of the United States with Cuba and Porto Rico was: importations from the islands, $59,221,444 annually; exportations to the islands, $20,017,156.
The first railroad in Cuba (and the first in Spanish lands) was opened from Havana to Gaines in 1837.
Various censuses were taken in Cuba beginning in 1774; but the results of those preceding the abolition of slavery, at least, are probably without exception extremely untrustworthy.
The average of settlement per square mile varied from 169.7 in Havana province to 11.8 in Camaguey, and was 46.4 for all of Cuba; the percentage of urban population (in cities, that is, with more than 1000 inhabitants) in the different provinces.
Mainly owing to the large element of transient foreign whites without families (long characteristic of Cuba), males outnumber females - in 1907 as 21 to 19.
Conjugal conditions in Cuba are peculiar.
In Guantanamo, in Santiago de Cuba, and in seven other towns they exceeded the whites in number.
Cuba is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic in religion, but under the new Republic there is a complete separation of church and state, and liberalism and indifference are increasing.
The constitution upon which the government of Cuba rests was framed during the period of the United States military government; it was adopted the 21st of February 1901, and certain amendments or conditions required by the United States were accepted on the 12th of June 1901.
Originally - P Y g Y residents at Santiago de Cuba, the captains-general resided after 1589 at Havana.
Because of the isolation of the eastern part of the island, the dangers from pirates, and the important considerations which had caused Santiago de Cuba (q.v.) to be the first capital of the island, Cuba was divided in 1607 into two departments, and a governor, subordinate in military matters to the captain-general at Havana, was appointed to rule the territory east of Puerto Principe.
The captaincy-general of Cuba was not originally, however, by any means so broad in powers as the viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru; and by the creation in 1765 of the office of intendant - the delegate of the national treasury - his faculties were very greatly curtailed.
There has been a great change in the budget of Cuba since the advent of the Republic. In 1891-1896 the average annual income was $20,738,930, the annual average expenditure $ 2 5,9 6 7, 1 39.
Archaeological study in Cuba has been limited, and has not produced results of great importance.
Almost nothing is actually known of prehistoric Cuba; and a few skulls and implements are the only basis existing for conjecture.
Cuba was discovered by Columbus in the course of his first voyage, on the 27th of October 1492.
His control of the entire administrative life Cuba was part of a continent.
Baracoa (the landing point), Bayamo, Santiago de Cuba, Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad and the original Havana were all founded by 1515.
From Cuba went the expeditions that discovered Yucatan (1517), and explored the shores of Mexico, Hernando Cortes's expedition for the invasion of Mexico, and de Soto's for the exploration of Florida.
The last two had a pernicious effect on Cuba, draining it of horses, money and of men.
As a result of the transfer of Jamaica to England, the population of Cuba was greatly augmented by Jamaican immigrants to about 30,000 in the middle of the 17th century.
The government of Spain, beginning in 1764, made notable breaches in the old monopolistic system of colonial trade throughout America; and Cuba received special privileges, also, that were a basis for real prosperity.
After the cession of the Spanish portion of San Domingo to France hundreds of Spanish families emigrated to Cuba, and many thousand more immigrants, mainly French, followed them from the entire island during the revolution of the blacks.
Under a succession of liberal governors (especially Luis de las Casas, 1790-1796, and the marques de Someruelos, 1799-1813), at the end of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th, when the wars in Europe cut off Spain almost entirely from the colony, Cuba was practically independent.
General Las Casas, in particular, left behind him in Cuba an undying memory of good efforts.
between those born in Cuba and those born in Spain), the question of annexation to the United States or possibly to some other power, the plotting for independence, all go back to the early years of the century.
The good he did was limited to the spheres of public works and police; in other respects his rule was a pernicious influence for Cuba.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
The inapplicability of many laws passed for the Peninsula - all of which under a constitutional system would apply to Cuba as to any other province, unless that system be modified - was indeed notorious; and Cuban opinion had repeatedly, through official bodies, protested against laws thus imposed that worked injustice, and had pleaded for special consideration of colonial conditions.
in the matter of office-holding, a grievance centuries old in Cuba as in other Spanish colonies, and guarantees of personal liberties.
There is no more evidence to warrant the wholly erroneous statement sometimes made that emancipation was an economic set-back to Cuba than could be gathered to support a similar statement regarding the United States.
The Spanish constitution of 1876 was proclaimed in Cuba in 1881.
As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
Reciprocity with the United States was in force from 1891 to 1894 and was extremely beneficial to Cuba.
Sagasta, announced the policy of autonomy, and the new dispensation was proclaimed in Cuba in December.
Other operations in Cuba were slight.
In the determination of the relations that should subsist between the new republic and the United States certain definite conditions known as the Platt Amendment were finally imposed by the United States, and accepted by Cuba (12th of June 1901) as a part of her constitution.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
The status of the Isle of Pines was left an open question by the treaty of Paris, but a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States has declared it (in a question of customs duties) to be a part of Cuba, and though a treaty to the same end did not secure ratification (1908) by the United States Senate, repeated efforts by American residents thereon to secure annexation to the United States were ignored by the United States government.
Pechardo, Geografia de la isla de Cuba (4 tom., Havana, 1854); M.
Gannett, " A Gazetteer of Cuba."
Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico with the other West Indies (New York, 1898).
Poey et al., Repertorio fisico-natural de la isla de Cuba (2 vols., Havana, 1865-1868), and F.
Cuba (3 torn., Havana, 1851-1860); Ramon de la Sagra, with many collaborators, Historia fiscca, politica y natural de.
Cuba (Paris, 1842-1851, 12 vols.; issued also in French; vols.
de Morales, Flora arboricola de Cuba aplicada (Havana, 1887, only part published); D.
Segui, Ojeado sobre la flora medica y toxica de Cuba (Havana, 1900); J.
de Castro,"Pruebas paleontologicas de que la isla de Cuba ha estado unida al continento americano y breve idea de su constitution geologica," Bol.
de Castro and P. Salterain y Legarra, " Croquis geologico de la isla de Cuba," ibid.
C. Brown, " Report on Mineral Resources of Cuba."
P. Porter (Special Commissioner of the United States government), Industrial Cuba (New York, 1899); W.
Clark, Commercial Cuba (New York, 1898); reports of foreign consular agents in Cuba; and the statistical annuals of the Hacienda on foreign commerce and railways.
See United States Department of War, Report on the Census of Cuba 1899 (Washington, 18 99); U.S. Bureau of the Census, Cuba: Population, History and Resources, 1907 (1909).
de voces Cubanas (Havana, 1836, 4th ed., 1875; all editions with many errors); Antonio Bachiller y Morales, Apuntes Para la historia de las letras y de la instruction publica de Cuba (3 tom., Havana, 1859-1861); J.
Masse, L' Pe de Cuba (Paris, 1825); D.
Madden, The Island of Cuba (London, 1853) - two very important books regarding slavery; J.
Rosemond de Beauvallon, L'Ã®le de Cuba (Paris, 1844); J.
Taylor, The United States and Cuba (London, 1851); F.
Ballou, History of Cuba, or Notes of a Traveller (Boston, 1854); R.
Dana, To Cuba and Back (Boston, 18J9); J.
Piron, L' p le de Cuba (Paris, 1876).
Matthews, The New-Born Cuba (New York, 1899); R.
Davey, Cuba Past and Present (London, 1898).
Also: Leandro Garcia y Gragitena, Guia del empleado de hacienda (Havana, 1860), with very valuable historical data; Carlos de Sedano y Cruzat, Cuba desde 18 5 0 a 1873.
Coleccion de informes, memorias, proyectos y antecedentes sobre el gobierno de la isla de Cuba (Madrid, 1875); Vicente Vasquez Queipo, Informe fiscal sobre fomento de la poblacion blanca (Madrid, 1845); Informacion sobre reformas en Cuba y Puerto Rico celebrada en Madrid en 1866 y 67 por los representantes de ambas islas (2 tom., New York, 1867; 2nd ed., New York, 1877); and the Diccionario of Pezuela.
Valdes Dominguez, Los Antiguos Diputados de Cuba (Havana, 1879); B.
Huber, A percu statistique de file de Cuba (Paris, 1826); Humboldt; Sagra, vols.
Cuba (Havana, 1831); treatises on administrative law in Cuba by J.
Romero Palafox, Agenda de la republica de Cuba (Havana, 1905).
Cuba (Havana, 1874); Jacobo de la Pezuela, Diccionario geogrdfico-estadistico-historico de..
Cuba (4 torn., Madrid, 1863-1866); Historia de.
Cuba, (4 tom., Madrid, 1868-1878; supplanting his Ensayo historico de.
Cuba, Madrid and New York, 1842); and Jose Antonio Saco, Cbras (2 vols., New York, 1853), Papeles (3 tom., Paris, 1858-1859), and Coleccion postuma de Papeles (Havana, 1881).
Cuba (2 vols., New York, 1865-1866).
Zaragoza, Las Insurrecciones en Cuba.
Fort y Roldan, Cuba indigena (Madrid, 1881); M.
Bachiller y Morales, Cuba primitive (Havana, 1883).
For the history of the Cuban international problem consult Jose Ignacio Rodriguez, Idea de la anexion de la isla de Cuba a los Estados Unidos de America (Havana, 1900), and J.
Callahan, Cuba and International Relations (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1898), which supplement each other.
Galiano, Cuba en 1858 (Madrid, 1859); Jose de la Concha, twice Captain-General of Cuba, Memorias sobre el estado politico, gobierno y administracion de.
Cuba (Madrid, 1853 A.
Lopez de Letona, Isla de Cuba, reflexiones (Madrid, 1856); F.
Aimes, History of Slavery in Cuba, 1511-1868 (New York, 1907); F.
Armas y Cespedes, De la esclavitud en Cuba (Madrid, 1866), and Regimen politico de las Antillas Espanolas (Palma, 1882); R.
Cabrera, Cuba y sus Jueces (Havana, 1887; 9th ed., Philadelphia, 1895; 8th ed., in English, Cuba and the Cubans, Philadelphia, 1896); P. de Alzola y Minondo, El Problema Cubano (Bilbao, 1898); various works by R.
Pepper, To-morrow in Cuba (New York, 1899); A.
Robinson, Cuba and the Intervention (New York, 1905).
It is estimated to consist of 29 islands, 661 cays and 2387 rocks, and extends along a line from Florida on the northwest to Haiti on the south-east, between Cuba and the open Atlantic, over a distance of about 630 m., from 80° 50' to 72° 50' W., and 22° 25' to 26° 40' N.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
In 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took the island of New Providence; he soon, however, abandoned it as untenable, but in 1781 it was retaken by the Spanish governor of Cuba.
Agassiz, "A Reconnaissance of the Bahamas and of the Elevated Reefs of Cuba in the steam yacht ` Wild Duck,' January to April 1893," Bull.
In 1857 he became a regular attendant at the meetings of the famous Boston Saturday Club, to the members of which he dedicated his account of a vacation trip, To Cuba and Back (1857).
It is found also in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Cuba and Hayti, and in Panama with another species of Castilloa, and on the W.
slope of the Sierra Maestra in Santiago province, Cuba.
Down the river Cauto, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th century the leading town of Cuba.
The best quality is that from the Capadare district, in the state of Falcon, which rivals that of the Vuelta Abajo of Cuba.
No effort is made to improve the Venezuelan product, a part of which is exported to Cuba for cigar making.
Cuba, in Santiago province.
Baracoa is the oldest town in Cuba, having been settled by Diego Velazquez in 1512.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.
This is due to conditions of climate, which are much less favourable for the formation of saccharine in the canes than in Cuba.
In Australia, Demerara, Cuba, Java and Peru double crushing and maceration (first used on a commercial scale in Demerara by the late Hon.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run direct, and there limed and heated.
A modification of the system of double-bottom defecators has lately been introduced with considerable success in San Domingo and in Cuba, by which a continuous and steady discharge of clear defecated juice is obtained on the one hand, and on the other a comparatively hard dry cake of scum or cachaza, and without the use of filter presses.
When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
The Krajewski crusher was invented some years ago by a Polish engineer resident in Cuba, who took out a patent for it and gave it his name.
The process of continuous defecation which was introduced into Cuba from Santo Domingo about 1900 had by 1910 borne the test of some ten years' use with notable success.
From this species the tobaccos of Cuba, the United States, the Philippine Islands and the Latakia of Turkey are derived, and it is also largely cultivated in India; the variety macrophylla is the source of the Maryland tobaccos.
for Cuba and Sumatra types.
So successful have the results been that American-grown tobacco of the Sumatra type is now exported even to Cuba.
The other tobacco-producing provinces in order of importance are Havana, Santa Clara and Santiago de Cuba.
Cultivation under shade was recently tried with satisfactory results; " 166.65 acres cultivated under cheesecloth produced in 1903 10 bales of wrappers and 1.5 bales of fillers of tobacco per acre, the output under the old system having been 4'5 bales of tobacco per acre of which only 10% represented wrappers of good colour " (Diplomatic and Consular Report on Cuba, 1904, No.
Mexican tobacco approximates more or less closely to that of Cuba, and is cultivated and prepared in very similar ways.
Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico (1897).
PUERTO PRINCIPE (officially, Camaguey), a city and the capital of the province of Camaguey in east-central Cuba, about 528 m.
MATANZAS, an important city of Cuba, capital of Matanzas Province, situated on a large deep bay on the N.
The broad Paseo de Marti (Alameda de Versalles, Paseo de Santa Cristina) extends along the edge of the harbour, and is perhaps the handsomest parkway and boulevard in Cuba.
Near Matanzas are two of the most noted natural resorts of Cuba: the valley of the Yumuri, and the caves of Bellamar.
MANZANILLO, an important commercial city of Cuba, in Santiago province, on the gulf of Guacanabo, about 17 m.
HOLGUIN, a town of the high plateau country in the interior of Oriente province, Cuba, about 65 m.
of Santiago de Cuba.
Green mud abounds off the east coast of North America seawards of Cape Hatteras, also to the north of Cuba, and on the west off the coast of California.
In 1851 he interposed promptly but ineffectively in thwarting the projects of the " filibusters," under Narciso Lopez for the invasion of Cuba.
Some attention is also being given to the manufacture of alcohol for power purposes in Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philippines; and in Cuba, from the molasses produced as a by-product in the sugar refineries.
With it'hie sailed from Palos in Andalusia on the 3rd of August 1492, reached Guanahani on the 12th of October, touched on the coast of Cuba and Hispaniola, established a small post on the latter, and returned to Lisbon on the 4th of March 1493, and thence to Spain.
Cuba was occupied by Diego de Velazquez in 1511.
European plants and animals were introduced into Hispaniola and Cuba, and sugar plantations were set up. But the main object of the Spaniards, who could not labour in the tropics even if they had wished to do so, was always gold, to be won by slave labour.
In that and the following year the coasts of Yucatan and of the Gulf of Mexico were explored successively by Francisco Hernandez Cordova and Juan de Grijalva, who both sailed from Cuba.
From Cuba it was that Hernan Cortes sailed on the 10th (or 18th) of February 1519 for the conquest of Mexico.
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
The discovery of the Bermudas resulted from the shipwreck of Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard (whose name they now bear), when on a voyage from Spain to Cuba with a cargo of hogs, early in the 16th century.
In 1511 he passed over to Cuba to take part in the work of "population and pacification," and in 1513 or 1514 he witnessed and vainly endeavoured to check the massacre of Indians at Caonao.
He was minister to Spain from 1869 to 1873, and took part in the negotiations growing out of the "Virginius Affair" (see Santiago, Cuba).
The conditions in Cuba had long convinced him that war with Spain was inevitable, and that, for humane reasons alone, it was both right and necessary to drive the Spanish power out from the Carribean Sea.
He determined that Cuba should not be taken over by the United States, as all Europe expected it would be, and an influential section of his own party hoped it would be, but should be given every opportunity to govern itself as an independent republic; by assuming supervision of the finances of San Domingo, he put an end to controversies in that unstable republic, which threatened to disturb the peace of Europe; and he personally inspired the body of administrative officials in the Philippines, in Porto Rico and (during American occupancy) in Cuba, who for efficiency and unselfish devotion to duty compare favourably with any similar body in the world.
He fled to Cuba, but was recalled to command against the invading army from the United States in 1846.
The export trade is chiefly with the Peninsula, France, Italy, Algeria and with Cuba and Porto Rico.
A distinction is made between the Greater Antilles, including Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, and Porto Rico; and the Lesser Antilles, covering the remainder of the islands.
Lepidophyma flavomaculatum, Central America; and Cricosaura typica in Cuba.
The society's foreign agencies extend to China, Japan, Korea, the Turkish empire, Bulgaria, Egypt, Micronesia, Siam, Mexico, Central America, the South American republics, Cuba and the Philippines.
The greater part is consumed in the country, but there is a considerable export of cattle to the United States, Cuba and Central America, and of hides and skins to the United States and Europe.
Meanwhile, attacks on Spanish ships off Cuba by a Mexican squadron, commanded by an American, David Porter, had induced Spain to send an expedition to reconquer Mexico (1829) which was checked at Tampico by Santa Anna.
Cuba 107,334,716 48,217,689
Trinidad, Cuba >>
army corps, but took no part in the actual operations in Cuba.
Lee (1894) in the "Great Commanders" series, and Cuba's Struggle Against Spain (1899).
CIENFUEGOS (originally Fernandina De Jagua), one of the principal cities of Cuba, in Santa Clara province, near the central portion of the S.
The surrounding country is one of the prettiest and most fertile regions in Cuba, varied with woods, rivers, rocky gulches, beautiful cascades and charming tropic vegetation.
The hutia (Capromys pilorides) is nearly as large, arboreal in habits, and a native of Cuba, where it is the largest indigenous mammal.
Other species occur in Cuba, Jamaica and the Bahamas, while a Venezuelan species, Procapromys geayi, represents a separate genus.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Cuba, June 19, 1909.
Two years afterwards he became captain, and was sent to Cuba at his own request.
After Marshal Campos had failed to pacify Cuba, the Conservative government of Canovas del Castillo sent out Weyler, and this selection met the approval of most Spaniards, who thought him the proper man to crush the rebellion.
But his principal work was Historiae Philippicae in forty-four In the trogon of Cuba, Prionotelus, they are most curiously scooped out, as it were, at the extremity, and the lateral pointed ends diverge in a way almost unique among birds.
After the SpanishAmerican War (1898) he became one of the chief promoters of railway and industrial enterprise in Cuba.
Algeria, Canada, Cuba and India have valuable ore bodies.
SANTIAGO DE CUBA, a city and seaport of Cuba, on the S.
It is connected by the Cuba railway with Havana, 540 m.
In the cathedral, which is in better taste than the cathedral of Havana, Diego Velazquez (c. 1460-1524), conqueror of Cuba, was buried.
Probably the oldest building in Cuba is the convent of San Francisco (a church since the secularization of the religious orders in 1841), which dates in part from the first half of the 16th century.
Santiago is the hottest city of Cuba (mean temperature in winter about 82° F., in summer about 88°), owing mainly to the mountains that shut off the breezes from the E.
Santiago is less important politically under the Republic than it was when Cuba was a Spanish dependency.
The most notable military and naval events (in Cuba) of the Spanish-American War (q.v.) of 1898 took place at and near Santiago.
Accord ' This " manifesto," which was bitterly attacked in the North, was agreed upon (October 18, 1854) by the three ministers after several meetings at Ostend and at Aix-la-Chapelle, arranged in pursuance of instructions to them from President Pierce to " corn-, pare opinions, and to adopt measures for perfect concert of action in aid of the negotiations at Madrid " on the subject of reparations demanded from Spain by the United States for alleged injuries to American commerce with Cuba.
In the manifesto the three ministers asserted that " from the peculiarity of its geographical position, and the considerations attendant upon it, Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present members "; spoke of the danger to the United States of an insurrection in Cuba; asserted that " we should be recreant to our duty, be unworthy ingly on his return from England in 1856 he was nominated by the Democrats as a compromise candidate for president, and was elected, receiving 174 electoral votes to 114 for John C. Fremont, Republican, and 8 for Millard Fillmore, American or " Know-Nothing."
of our gallant forefathers, and commit base treason against our posterity, should we permit Cuba to be Africanized and become a second Santo Domingo, with all its attendant horrors to the white race, and suffer the flames to extend to our own neighboring shores, seriously to endanger or actually destroy the fair fabric of our Union "; and recommended that " the United States ought, if practicable, to purchase Cuba as soon as possible."
The most startling declaration of the manifesto was that if Spain should refuse to sell " after we have offered a price for Cuba far beyond its present value," and if Cuba, in the possession of Spain, should seriously endanger " our internal peace and the existence of our cherished Union," then " by every law, human and divine, we shall be justified in wresting it from Spain if we have the power."
Timber comes chiefly from North America and Scandinavia, alcohol from Cuba and the United States, wheat and flour from various British possessions, maize from Morocco and Argentina.
Habana or, more fully, San Cristobal de la Habana), the capital of Cuba, the largest city of the West Indies, and one of the principal seats of commerce in the New World, situated on the northern coast of the island in 23° 9' N.
The general characteristics of the climate of Havana are described in the article Cuba.
The former monastery of the Jesuits, now the Jesuit church of Belen (1704), at the corner of Luz and Compostela Streets, is one of the most elegant and richly ornamented in Cuba.
In the same year the residence of the governor of the island was moved from Santiago de Cuba to Havana.
Their occupation greatly stimulated commerce, and from it dates the modern history of the city and of the island (see CuBA).
Like the rest of Cuba, Havana has frequently suffered severely from hurricanes, the most violent being those of 1768 (St Theresa's), 1810 and 1846.
Bachiller y Morales, Monografia historica (Habana, 1883), minutely covering the English occupation (the best account) of 1762-1763; Maria de los Mercedes, comtesse de Merlin, La Havana (3 vols., Paris, 1844); and the works cited under Cuba.
Towards the close of the 19th century this industry suffered from labour troubles, from the competition of Tampa, Florida, and from the commercial improvement of Havana, Cuba; but soon after 1900 the tobacco business of Key West began to recover.
According to tradition the native Indian tribes of Key West, after being almost annihilated by the Caloosas, fled to Cuba.
Reinforcements were on the way from Spain, but the demands of Cuba had already depleted the Peninsula of the best fighting material.
Before Primo de Rivera could make much headway against the insurgents affairs in Cuba became so serious that the Spanish government cabled him that pacification was most urgently desired.
barbacoa), originally a framework on posts placed over a fire on which to dry or smoke meat; hence, a gridiron for roasting whole animals, and in Cuba an upper floor on which fruit or grain is stored.
MARIANAO, a city of the province of Havana, Cuba, 6 m.
The regular session of Congress which opened in December was occupied chiefly with the situation in Cuba.
After a long discussion the peace treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on the 6th of February 1899; and in accordance with its terms Porto Rico, the Philippine Archipelago, and Guam were transferred by Spain to the United States, and Cuba came under American jurisdiction pending the establishment there of an independent government.
Arrangements were perfected for the termination of the American military occupation of Cuba and the inauguration of a Cuban Republic as a virtual protectorate of the United States, the American government having arranged with the Cuban constitutional convention for the retention of certain naval stations on the Cuban coast.
He was military governor of Cuba from 1899 to 1902 when the Cuban Republic was established.
In 1873, at the time of the "Virginius" incident (see Cuba), when an invasion of Spain was projected, Sheridan was designated to command the United States field army.
Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber called sabicu.
Cuba guarded him when he was old enough to exchange a cradle for a bed.
The command of the fleet off Santiago de Cuba was taken from Schley by Acting Rear-Admiral W.
P. occidentalis, a five-leaved pine with pale-green foliage and small ovate cones, is found on the high mountains of Santo Domingo and Cuba.
a commission as "adelantado of the Lands of Florida" and governor of Cuba.
Castelar sent out to Cuba all the reinforcements he could spare, and a new governor-general, Jovellar, whom he peremptorily instructed to crush the mutinous spirit of the Cuban militia, and not allow them to drag Spain into a conflict with the United States.
SANTIAGO DE LAS VEGAS, an inland city of Havana province, Cuba, about 12 m.
At the close of the war he escaped to Cuba, and from there went to Europe.
The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium are, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption.
He wrote a life of his father (1860), and a History of Cuba (1854).
GIBARA, or Jibara (once "Punta del Yarey" and "Yarey de Gibara"), a north-coast city of Oriente Province, Cuba, 80 m.
He served on the frontier against the Indians, notably in the capture of Chief Joseph in October 1877, became lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutantgeneral of volunteers in 1898, and served in Cuba in 1898-99.
Humboldt says it is not the "palma real" of Cuba (Oreodoxa regia), but in the Rio Sinn region is the Cocos butyracea, or the "palma dolce," from which palm wine is derived.
Live cattle, to a limited extent, are exported to Cuba and other West Indian markets, but the chief produce from this industry is hides.
An instance of this occurred in the promising export of live cattle to Cuba and Panama, which was completely suppressed in 1906 because of a new export tax of $3 gold per head.
But the untimely death of Mansfield nipped in the bud the only rational scheme of settlement which seems at any time to have animated this wild community; and Morgan, now elected commander, swept the whole Caribbean, and from his headquarters in Jamaica led triumphant expeditions to Cuba and the mainland.
28, 1854) of the American vessel " Black Warrior," the confiscation of her cargo, and the fining of her captain by the Cuban authorities, on the ground that this vessel had violated the customs regulations of the port of Havana, slavery propagandists sought to force the administration into an attitude that would lead to war with Spain and make possible the seizure of Cuba; and it was largely due to Marcy's influence that war was averted, Spain restoring the confiscated cargo and remitting the captain's fine.'
The secretary, however, was not averse to increasing his popularity and his chances for the presidency by obtaining Cuba in an honourable manner, and it was at his suggestion that James Buchanan, J.
GUANABACOA (an Indian name meaning "site of the waters"), a town of Cuba, in Havana province, about 6 m.
Thus the note communicated by the United States to Spain on 20th April 1898 demanded the "immediate withdrawal of all the land and sea forces from Cuba," and gave Spain three days to accept these terms. On the evening of 22nd April the United States seized several Spanish vessels, and hostilities were thus opened.
The series of Christian-Saracen buildings is continued in the country houses of the kings which surround the city, La Favara and Mimnerno, the works of Roger, and the better known Ziza and Cuba, the works severally of William the Bad and William the Good.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.