About 20 gallons of lemon juice should yield about 1 0 lb of crystallized citric acid.
By heating crystallized silicon with boron in the electric furnace H.
Beudant in 1824) also has reference to the azure-blue colour; the name chessylite, also in common use, is of later date (1852), and is from the locality, Chessy near Lyons, which has supplied the best crystallized specimens of the mineral.
Thomsen then investigated heats of combustion of various benzenoid hydrocarbons - benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c. - in the crystallized state.
The best crystallized specimens of any mica are afforded by the small brilliant crystals of biotite, which encrust cavities in the limestone blocks ejected from Monte Somma, Vesuvius.
Coal is an amorphous substance of variable composition, and therefore cannot be as strictly defined as a crystallized or definite mineral can.
The imposition of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No taxation without representation."
In Cornwall and Devon it is associated with cassiterite in the tinlodes, but is also found in the copper-lodes: well crystallized specimens have been obtained from the neighbourhood of Tavistock, Redruth and St Agnes.
Troost produced crystallized zirconium by fusing the double fluoride with aluminium in a graphite crucible at the temperature of melting iron, and extracting the aluminium from the melt with hydrochloric acid.
Mineral acids generally attack the crystallized metal very little even in the heat; aqua regia, however, dissolves it readily, and so does hydrofluoric acid.
The name is of Arabic origin and was long applied to crystallized pyrites (q.v.); it was restricted to the present species by W.
- Those varieties of native calcium phosphate which are not distinctly crystallized, like apatite, but occur in fibrous, compact or earthy masses, often nodular, and more or less impure, are included under the general term phosphorite.
The crystallized salt dissolves very readily in water with a considerable absorption of heat; hence its use in forming "freezing mixtures."
The anhydrous nitrate, obtained by heating the crystallized salt, is very phosphorescent, and constitutes "Baldwin's phosphorus."
The carefully dried crystallized salt is pressed into the basin, and, after the lid has been fitted on, is exposed to a long-lasting moderate heat.
It may be obtained crystallized in the quadratic system by melting in a sealed tube containing hydrogen, allowed to cool partially, and then pouring off the still liquid portion by inverting the tube.
GRAPHITE, a mineral species consisting of the element carbon crystallized in the rhombohedral system.
The term prior was most commonly used to denote the superiors in a monastery, at first with an indefinite significance, but later, as monastic institutions crystallized, describing certain definite officials.
It may be obtained crystallized in quadratic octahedra of a greenish-blue colour, by melting in a sealed tube containing an inert gas, and inverting the tube when the metal has partially solidified.
He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy.
Gabriel called the soul to him silently and watched the green fog form around his hand before it crystallized into an emerald.
The scary, confusing world she.d entered weeks before crystallized and grew clear as she watched the lethal battle.
The moment he saw Jessi's still body, his scattered thoughts crystallized into one and any anger he felt fled.
Language has crystallized them into certain definite notions and expressions, without which we cannot proceed a single step, but which we have accepted without knowing their exact meaning, much less their origin.
As the doctrine of two kingdoms, one of this world and one of the world of the dead, becomes crystallized, the dominions of the two sisters are sharply differentiated from one another.
It forms a well-crystallized hydrazone with phenylhydrazine; and a-nitroso propionic acid with hydroxylamine.
The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.
Sulphur is occasionally found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs also in Calabria.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
Received the Copley medal from the Royal Society "for his various memoirs on electricity, and particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension," which it was hoped would lead to increased knowledge of the "recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral kingdom."
The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
Large sheets of muscovite, such as are of commercial value, are found only in the very coarsely crystallized pegmatite veins traversing granite, gneiss or micaschist.
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
It may be that, just as the usages of civilized nations have slowly crystallized into international law, so there may come a time when the political principles that govern states in relation to each other will be so clearly defined and so generally accepted as to acquire something of a legal or quasi-legal character.
ALUM, in chemistry, a term given to the crystallized double sulphates of the typical formula M 2 SO 4 ï¿½ MP' ï¿½(S04) 324H20, where M.
They discriminate between the red or erythro-salts, which are well crystallized, very explosive and unstable compounds, and which regenerate the colourless nitrolic acid on the addition of dilute mineral acids, and the leuco-salts, which are colourless salts obtained by warming the erythro-salts or by exposing them to direct sunlight.
Western Syria, on the contrary, had partaken with Alexandria in the reaction from Nestorianism which finally crystallized in the Monophysite doctrine, that spread so widely through Egypt and Western Asia towards the end of the 5th century.
The product is a crystalline solid of specific gravity 2.34, and melts at about 1430° C. See also German Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from silica and carborundum.
Wailer (Ann., 1857, 104, p. 94), is formed by heating crystallized silicon in hydrochloric acid gas at a temperature below red heat, or by the action of hydrochloric acid gas on copper silicide, the products being condensed by liquid air and afterwards fractionated (0.
Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
When slowly crystallized it forms large monoclinic prisms which are readily soluble in water but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
The crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals.
When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
The clear juice thus obtained is evaporated in a multiple-effect evaporator and crystallized in a vacuum pan, and the sugar is purged in centrifugals.
Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
When crystallized from water, crystals belonging to the orthorhombic system, and having a prism angle of 61 0 10', are obtained; they are often twinned on the prism planes, giving rise to pseudo-hexagonal groups resembling aragonite.
A solution of zinc chloride is easily produced from the metal and hydrochloric acid; it cannot be evaporated to dryness without considerable decomposition of the hydrated salt into oxychloride and hydrochloric acid, but it may be crystallized as ZnC1 2 H 2 O.
The crystallized anthracene is then removed by a centrifugal separator and the process of solution in the pyridine bases is repeated.
Superhuman qualities and powers, too, are commonly ascribed to both, an important difference, however, being that whatever worship may have been paid to the Teutonic heroes never crystallized into a cult.
Bib.) finds nothing by Micah in iv.-vii., thinks these chapters have crystallized round two central passages, viz.
It also possesses a splendid purple Here, the large dark masses are the silver or silver-rich substance that crystallized above the eutectic temperature, and the more minute black and white complex represents the eutectic. It is not safe to assume that the two ingredients we see are pure silver and pure copper; on the contrary, there is reason to think that the crystals of silver contain some copper uniformly diffused through them, and vice versa.
Moreover in 454 (probably) the changed relations were crystallized by the transference (proposed by the Samians) of the treasury to Athens (Corp. Inscr.
More characteristic, however, than the crystallized are the irregular forms,which, when large, are known as "nuggets" or " pepites," and when in pieces below - to z oz.
The most important is naphthionic acid, I-amino-4sulphonic acid, produced by heating a-naphthylamine and sulphuric acid to 170-180° C. with about 3% of crystallized oxalic acid.
Tantalum pentoxide, Ta205, is a white amorphous infusible powder, or it may be crystallized by strongly heating, or by fusing with boron trioxide or microcosmic salt.
In "cold galvanizing" the zinc is deposited electrolytically from a bath, preferably kept neutral or slightly acid, containing a io% solution of crystallized zinc sulphate, ZnSO 4.7H20.
An important distinction separates true mixed crystals and crystallized double salts, for in the latter the properties are not linear functions of the properties of the components; generally there is a contraction in /10.591 volume, while the re fractive indices and other physical properties do not, in general, obey the additive law.
The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55%, H = 6.9-7'.3%,N = 15-19%,S =0.32.4%7 0=1 92 4%, General char- crystallized albumin is C = 51.48%, H = 6.76%, N= acters.