This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

crystalline

crystalline

crystalline Sentence Examples

  • Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.

  • The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.

  • Each of these contains an active substance, which can be obtained in crystalline foi m, and is known as podophyllotoxin.

  • It is a crystalline body, soluble only in concentrated alcohol.

  • It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.

  • They are solid crystalline compounds.

  • Acetamide,, CH 3 �Conh 2j is a white deliquescent crystalline solid, which melts at 82-83° C. and boils at 222° C. It is usually prepared.

  • Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.

  • Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.

  • It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.

  • It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43° C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.

  • A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.

  • So far as is known, the Malay Peninsula consists of an axial zone of crystalline rocks, flanked on each side by an incomplete band of sedimentary deposits.

  • Granite is the most widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with.

  • The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.

  • As stream tin it occurs abundantly in some of the alluvial deposits derived from the crystalline area, especially on the west coast.

  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.

  • The glycols are somewhat thick liquids, of high boiling point, the pinacones only being crystalline solids; they are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether.

  • Good building materials are obtained from many of the rocks of the country, among which the Raialo limestone (a fine-grained crystalline marble) and the Jaisalmer limestone stand pre-eminent.

  • It is a dark-coloured crystalline solid which melts at 194° C. and boils at 268° C. It fumes in moist air and deliquesces gradually.

  • It is a black crystalline powder, resembling graphite in appearance.

  • In some cases the plastid disappears and the crystalline pigment only is left.

  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.

  • The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.

  • Just as every crystallizable chemical substance assumes a definite and constant crystalline form which cannot be accounted for otherwise than by regarding it as one of the properties of the substance, so every living organism assumes a characteristic form which is the outcome of the properties of its protoplasm.

  • But whereas the crystalline form of a chemical substance is stable and fixed, the organized form of a living organism is unstable and subject to change.

  • There is a foundation of schists and crystalline rocks upon which rests a series of sandstones.

  • Allotropic Modifications.-Sulphur assumes crystalline, amorphous and (possibly) colloidal forms. Historically the most important are the rhombic (Sa) and monoclinic (So) forms, discussed by E.

  • The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.

  • On cooling it solidifies to a crystalline mass which fuses at - 80° C. (Ruff, ibid.).

  • It is easily liquefied, the liquid boiling at - 8° C., and it becomes crystalline at - 72.7° C. (Walden, Zeit.

  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.

  • Sulphur sesquioxide, S203, is formed by adding well-dried flowers of sulphur to melted sulphur trioxide at about 12-15° C. The sulphur dissolves in the form of blue drops which sink in the liquid and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts.

  • They consist of a series of unfossiliferous crystalline slates.

  • Lavas dip in all directions from the central crystalline core, pointing to the conclusion that the main portion of the mountain represents a single volcanic mass.

  • The Vavau group consists entirely of coral limestone, which is occasionally crystalline, and contains stalactitic caves of great beauty.

  • The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.

  • r 265 at 15° C., possessing a somewhat sweet taste; below o° C. it solidifies to a white crystalline mass, which melts at 17° C. When heated alone it partially volatilizes, but the greater part decomposes; under a pressure of 12 mm.

  • Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in Canada.

  • The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.

  • Eyes are open invaginations without crystalline lens.

  • RHIPIDOGL0ssA.-Aspidobranchia with a palliovisceral anastomosis (dialyneurous); eye-vesicle closed, with crystalline lens; ctenidia, osphradia and hypobranchial glands paired or single.

  • Close to them is the remarkable dart-sac ps, a thick-walled sac, in the lumen of which a crystalline four-fluted rod or dart consisting of carbonate of lime is found.

  • Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.

  • The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 29 0 -30 0 C. and boils at 218°-219° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol and ether.

  • In the southern region, which is by far the better known, the oldest rocks are granites, crystalline schists and other rocks of Archean aspect.

  • Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

  • It forms a golden yellow crystalline mass, which sublimes slowly in vacuo, and melts at 25.5° C. It blackens on exposure to moisture, and decomposes when exposed to light.

  • It is a red-brown crystalline powder, which is soluble in water.

  • The insoluble residue contains a mixture of two sulphides, one of which is converted into the sulphate by nitric acid, whilst the other (a crystalline solid) is insoluble in acids.

  • The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.

  • All four mono-hydroxyxanthones are known, and are prepared by heating salicylic acid with either resorcin, pyrocatechin or hydroquinone; they are yellow crystalline solids, which act as dyestuffs.

  • To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.

  • The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.

  • Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, viz.

  • The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."

  • Crystalline Form and Composition.

  • They are either colourless liquids, which boil without decomposition, or crystalline solids; and are both basic and acidic in character.

  • At low temperatures it is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at -10.14° C. (W.

  • The calcium salt, CaN 2 O 2.4H 2 O, formed by the action of calcium chloride on the silver salt in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid, is a lustrous crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water but readily soluble in dilute acids.

  • It is a reddish-yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water and melting at 178° C. It explodes readily when melted or subjected to shock.

  • kidneys, pancreas and the thyroid gland, also in muscle-plasma; " crystalline," a globulin occurring in two forms a and /3, is found in the lens of the eye; " egg-globulin " and " lactoglobulin " occur respectively in the white of egg and in milk.

  • These crystals have, as a rule, very good crystalline form, but the quartz and felspar are often filled with enclosures of glass.

  • If the matrix, however, is originally crystalline it does not seem probable that perlitic structure can develop in it.

  • Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.

  • By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.

  • The coating of silver obtained by this process is coherent and homogeneous, while that deposited from a solution of silver nitrate, as the result of the primary action of the current, is crystalline and easily detached.

  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.

  • It freezes at - 15° to a yellowish crystalline mass; on heating it loses chlorine and forms lead dichloride.

  • It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.

  • Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.

  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.

  • Aconitine (C33H45N013, according to Dunstan; C34H47NOH, according to Freund) is a crystalline base, soluble in alcohol, but very sparingly in water; its alcoholic solution is dextrorotatory, but its salts are laevorotatory.

  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.

  • For crystalline bodies the value of or -) is nearly always small and constant, the magnetization being therefore independent of the form of the body and proportional to the force.

  • These are colourless crystalline compounds, which are most readily prepared by passing ammonia gas into an ethereal solution of the aldehyde.

  • The hydrazones are crystalline substances which are of value in the characterization of the aldehydes.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which sublimes at 112°-115° C. It is insoluble in water, and is only slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.

  • The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.

  • Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.

  • The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

  • The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.

  • The plateau is built up of granites, gneisses and crystalline schists of Archean and probably Primary age.

  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 15° C. and has the properties of a strong acid.

  • The silver salt, obtained by shaking an ether solution of nitroform with freshly prepared, slightly moist silver oxide, reacts with methyl iodide to form trinitroethane, a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. Concentrated caustic potash decomposes the latter compound, forming the potassium salt of dinitroethane, CH3 C(N02)2K.

  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.

  • Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.

  • Uranyl chloride, UO 2 C1 2, is a yellow crystalline mass formed when chlorine is passed over uranium dioxide at a red heat.

  • A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.

  • Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.

  • Barberton and Swaziland Crystalline schists, quartzites, conglomSeries.

  • A tin ingot is distinctly crystalline; hence the characteristic crackling noise, or "cry" of tin, which a bar of tin gives out when being bent.

  • Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.

  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

  • The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.

  • It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.

  • In this way is produced the crystalline, devitrified material, known as Reaumur's porcelain.

  • The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other crystalline.

  • Another crystalline form, differing from the former by its solubility in hydrofluoric acid, was prepared by H.

  • The product is a crystalline solid of specific gravity 2.34, and melts at about 1430° C. See also German Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from silica and carborundum.

  • brown coloured powder, the crystalline variety being grey, but it presents somewhat different appearances according to the method used for its preparation.

  • The specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2.35 (Vigouroux), that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method of preparation, from 2.004 to 2.493.

  • They are both very stable crystalline solids.

  • Perhaps all metals are crystalline, only the degree of visibility of the crystalline arrangement is very different in different metals, and even in the same metal varies according to the slowness of solidification and other circumstances.

  • Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.

  • Tin also is crystalline: a thin bar, when bent, "creaks" audibly from the sliding of the crystal faces over one another; but the bar is not easily broken, and exhibits an apparently non-crystalline fracture.

  • The crystalline structure which exists on both sides becomes visible only in the metals of the first class, and only there manifests itself as brittleness.

  • It forms crystalline needles soluble in alkalis, chloroform and Zoo parts of water.

  • - Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.

  • - The only possible biose is glycollic aldehyde, CHO.CH20H, obtained impure by Fischer from bromacetaldehyde and baryta water, and crystalline by Fenton by heating dihydroxymaleic acid with water to 60°.

  • It melts at 160°, and on cooling solidifies to a glassy mass, which on standing gradually becomes opaque and crystalline.

  • It forms hard crystalline crusts (with 1H 2 0) made up of hard white needles.

  • Remains of the city walls, with traces of one gate and several towers, of a total length of over 3 m., still exist, and belong to three different periods, in all of which the crystalline limestone of the locality is used.

  • It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.

  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 30° C. and boils at 190 8° C. Fusion with alkalis converts it into salicylic acid.

  • In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.

  • Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.

  • In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.

  • aquifolium, Hydrastis canadensis, &c. It is a yellow, crystalline solid, insoluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in 41 parts of water at 21°, and moderately soluble in alcohol.

  • The commonest titanium mineral is rutile or titanium dioxide, T102; anatase and brookite are crystalline allotropes.

  • The alkaline titanate first produced is converted into crystalline fluotitanate, K 2 TiF 6, which is with difficulty soluble and is extracted with hot water and filtered off.

  • Titanium tetrabromide, TiBr 4, is an amber-coloured crystalline mass.

  • The aqueous solution of the amines is now shaken up with diethyl oxalate, when the primary amine forms a crystalline dialkyl oxamide and the secondary amine an insoluble liquid, which is an ethyl dialkyl oxamate, the tertiary amine not reacting: (C02C2H5)2+ 2NH 2 R = (CO�NHR) 2 -{- 2C 2 H S OH; (CO 2 C 2 H 5) 2 -}- NHR 2 = C 2 H S O 2 C�Conr 2 -1-C 2 H S Oh.

  • It forms many crystalline salts and absorbs carbon dioxide.

  • The residue crystallizes slowly, and the crystalline product is almost wholly d-benzyl-allyl-phenyl-ammonium-d-sulphonate, the corresponding /-compound remaining as a syrupy residue.

  • The primary amines are colourless liquids or crystalline solids, which are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in the common organic solvents.

  • The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.

  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.

  • Moissan succeeded in obtaining a crystalline variety.

  • The amorphous form readily slakes with water, and the aqueous solution yields a crystalline hydrated hydroxide approximating in composition to Sr(OH) 2.8H 2 O or Sr(OH) 2.9H 2 O, which on standing in vacuo loses some of its water of crystallization, leaving the monohydrated hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 H 2 O.

  • A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

  • It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.

  • A strontium boride, SrB6, was obtained as a black crystalline powder by H.

  • Lofty summits are separated by comparatively low passes, which lie at the level of crystalline rocks and schists constituting the original uplands upon which the summits have been piled by volcanic action.

  • These they call respectively the southern schist range, the northern schist range, and the snow range, the last consisting mainly of old crystalline massive rocks.

  • The strike of the old crystalline rocks follows, in general, the main direction of the islands (S.W.

  • Also in the hills bordering on the plain of Kwantd these old crystalline rocks are widely spread.

  • It is a crystalline powder difficultly soluble in water and melting at 210° C. (with decomposition).

  • It is a white crystalline powder which is almost insoluble in cold water.

  • When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.

  • If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.

  • Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.

  • Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol.

  • It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.

  • In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.

  • It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.

  • Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuC1 3, is a dark rubyred or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained by dissolving the metal in aqua regia.

  • The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.

  • east of the Great Fault (already mentioned) the beds are more regular, comprising, in descending order, (a) Upper Coralline Limestone; (b) Yellow, Black or Greensand; (c) Marl or Blue Clay; (d) White, Grey and Pale Yellow Sandstone; (e) Chocolate-coloured nodules with shells, &c.; (f) Yellow Sandstone; (g) Lower Crystalline Limestone.

  • The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.

  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

  • It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.

  • The dichloride, BiC1 2, is obtained as a brown crystalline powder by fusing the metal with the trichloride, or in a current of chlorine, or by heating the metal with calomel to 250°.

  • The action of water on this solution produces a crystalline precipitate of basic nitrate, probably Bi(OH)2N03, though it varies with the amount of water employed.

  • When heated to 200 0 it assumes the crystalline form of bismuthite.

  • Some amalgams are liquids, especially when containing a large proportion of mercury; others assume a crystalline form.

  • The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which readily fuses to a yellow liquid.

  • The free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution, when a crystalline mass of composition H 2 Te04.2H 2 O separates.

  • Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in perpendicular planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.

  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.

  • Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.

  • It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.

  • Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent "non-automatic."

  • In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.

  • In Rossel Island (Roua or Arova) occur crystalline schistose and volcanic rocks, and in Misima (St Aignan) limestones and lavas in addition.

  • In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

  • The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.

  • In the nature and position of the upland rocks - mainly crystalline schists and gneisses, excessively complicated and disordered in mass, and also internally deformed - there is found abundant proof that the peneplain is a degraded mountain region.

  • Systematic quarrying of siliceous crystalline rocks in New England began at Quincy in about 1820.

  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

  • For separating liquids from solids of a fibrous or crystalline character "hydroextractors" or "centrifugals" are frequently employed.

  • They are crystalline solids showing a characteristic green metallic lustre; they are readily soluble in water and dye red or violet.

  • The metal has a blue-grey colour, and may be obtained in the crystalline state by solution in tin.

  • The powdery metal burns readily in air; the crystalline metal requires to be heated in an oxyhydrogen flame before it catches fire.

  • Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.

  • Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished.

  • Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.

  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

  • The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.

  • They occur (a) in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks as an original constituent, (b) in veins associated with igneous rocks, and (c) in sedimentary rocks either as organic fragments or in secondary concretionary forms.

  • The first mode of occurrence is of little significance practically, for the crystalline rocks generally contain too little phosphate to be valuable, though occasionally an igneous rock may contain enough apatite to form an inferior fertilizing agent, e.g.

  • This is a very ancient mountain mass of crystalline rocks resembling more the Laurentian mountains of Canada than the Appalachians.

  • Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.

  • While igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks form the bulk of the Adirondack area, it is surrounded by a ring of ancient Palaeozoic sediments in which these peripheral lowlands have been developed.

  • side by the Highlands, a belt of ancient crystalline rocks which extends N.E.

  • On the New York side of the Hudson the rocks are crystalline, the surface a region of low hills, a continuation of the crystalline area of Connecticut, and comparable with the Piedmont plateau of the Southern states.

  • Near Gouverneur, St Lawrence county, is a large quarry of coarsely crystalline magnesian limestone, used as monumental marble.

  • Cubebin, CH2[O]2C6H3 CH:CH CH20H, is a crystalline substance existing in cubebs, discovered by Eugene Soubeiran and Capitaine in 1839; it may be prepared from cubebene, or from the pulp left after the distillation of the oil.

  • wide and bordered on the inner side by the main mass of limestone and crystalline rocks which have in general a height of 4000 or 5000 ft.

  • Hardy in 1875 (Ber., 8, p. 1594), and is a crystalline, very hygroscopic solid.

  • It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.

  • Of the acid orthophosphates, the mono-calcium salt, CaH4(P04)2, may be obtained as crystalline scales, containing one molecule of water, by evaporating a solution of the normal salt in hydrochloric or nitric acid.

  • It is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate, sparingly soluble in water (Loo parts of water dissolve 24 of the salt at 15° C.), by mixing solutions of a sulphate and a calcium salt; it is more soluble in solutions of common salt and hydrochloric acid, and especially of sodium thiosulphate.

  • Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.

  • It can be obtained in three different crystalline forms, the transition points of which are 35° C., 83° C. and 125° C. It is easily soluble in water, a considerable lowering of temperature taking place during the operation; on this account it is sometimes used in the preparation of freezing mixtures.

  • The normal phosphate, (NH4)3P04,is obtained as a crystalline powder, on mixing concentrated solutions of ammonia and phosphoric acid, or on the addition of excess of ammonia to the acid phosphate (NH 4) 2 HPO 4.

  • Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.

  • Hard rock (mostly granite and crystalline schists, with red sandstone in places) appears only in the transverse glens, which are often choked with their debris in the form either of gravel-and-shingle or loose blocks of stone or both.

  • Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride, British and United States pharmacopoeiae) as used in medicine is a white crystalline odourless powder having a saline taste.

  • Sodium hydride, NaH, is a crystalline substance obtained directly from sodium and hydrogen at about 400°.

  • In the moist and plastic slate the mineral particles slowly enlarged by the addition of new crystalline molecules.

  • Graphite occurs mainly in the older crystalline rocks - gneiss, granulite, schist and crystalline limestone - and also sometimes in granite: it is found as isolated scales embedded in these rocks, or as large irregular masses or filling veins.

  • The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.

  • Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.

  • The paraquinones are generally crystalline solids of a yellowish colour, having a characteristic sharp odour and being volatile in steam.

  • The orthoquinones more resemble the a-diketones; they are crystalline solids of a red or yellow colour, but differ from the paraquinones in being devoid of smell and not volatile in a current of steam.

  • It is a yellow crystalline solid readily volatile in steam.

  • They are crystalline solids which are readily converted into para-alkylated phenols by reducing agents.

  • Archean rocks form the cores of the ancient crystalline masses within the littoral zone from Algiers to Bona.

  • They consist of gneiss, mica-schist, quartzites, crystalline limestones and conglomerates.

  • These deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following minerals: sylvine, KC1; carnallite, KC1 MgC12.6H20 (transparent, deliquescent crystals, often red with diffused oxide of iron); kainite, K 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 MgC1 2 6H 2 O (hard crystalline masses, permanent in the air); kieserite MgS04 H20 (only very slowly dissolved by water); besides polyhalite, MgSO 4 K 2 SO 4.2CaSO 4.2H20anhydrite, CaSO 4; salt, NaC1, and some minor components.

  • Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.

  • Many species have a special glandular organ at the back of the head, which Sida crystalline uses for attaching itself to various objects.

  • At the southern extremity of the great table-land, however, in the state of Puebla, there is a considerable mass of crystalline rocks which is believed to be of Archaean age.

  • Galena is of wide distribution, and occurs usually in metalliferous veins traversing crystalline rocks, clay-slates and limestones, and also as pockets in limestones.

  • It exists in two different crystalline forms, the more stable or a form melting at 27.2° C., and the less stable or /3 form melting at 13.9° C. It is readily decomposed by water.

  • Iodine Pentoxide, 1205, the best-known oxide, is obtained as a white crystalline solid by heating iodic acid to 170° C.; it is easily soluble in water, combining with the water to regenerate iodic acid; and when heated to 300° C. it breaks up into its constituent elements.

  • It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.

  • It is a colourless, crystalline, deliquescent solid which melts at 135° C., and at 140° C. is completely decomposed into iodine pentoxide, water and oxygen.

  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

  • This mountain system consists essentially of two belts: one on the south-east, chiefly of ancient and greatly deformed crystalline rocks, the other on the north-west, a heavy series of folded Palaeozoic strata; and with these it will be convenient to associate a third belt, farther north-west, consisting of the same Palaeozoic strata lying essentially horizontal and constituting the Appalachian plateau.

  • The crystalline belt represents, at least in part, the ancient highlands from whose ruins the sandstones, shales and limestones of the stratified series were formed, partly as ~narine, partly as fluviatile deposits.

  • In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.

  • In a south-western section the crystalline belt again assumes importance in breadth and height, and the plateau member maintains the strength that it had in the middle section, but the intermediate stratified belt again has fewer ridges, -because of the infrequence here of ridge-making strata as compared to their frequency in the middle section.

  • The crystalline belt of the middle Appalachians, 60 or 80 m- wide, is to-day of moderate height because the Tertiary upwarping was there of moderate amotint.

  • Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.

  • The Pennsylvania portionof the crystalline belt is narrow, as has been said, because of encroachment upon it by the inward overlap of the coastal olain: it ~s low because of small Tertiary unlift: but.

  • ment of its drainage: its chief rivers rise in the plateau belt and flow across the ridges and valleys of the stratified belt and through the uplands of the crystalline belt to the sea.

  • For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.

  • The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.

  • The community of characteristics that is suggested by the association of six north-eastern states under the name New England The North- is in large measure warranted by the inclusion of easternA all these states within the broadened crystalline belt palachians of the north-eastern Appalachians, which is here 150 m.

  • The Appalachian trends (N.E.S.W.) that are so prominent in the stratified belt of the middle Appalachians, and are fairly well marked in the crystalline belt of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are prevailingly absent in New England.

  • As in the north-east, so in the south-west, the crystalline belt widens and gains in height; but while New England is an indivisible unit, the southern crystalline belt must be subdivided The Southinto a higher mountain belt on the north-west, 60 m.

  • The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.

  • Itis determined The Great structurally by a belt of topographically weak limestones VaJie and shales (or slates) next inland from the crystalline ~ uplands; hence, whatever the direction of the rivers which drain the belt, it has been worn down by Tertiary erosion to a continuous lowland from the Gulf of St Lawrence to central Alabama.

  • Although composed chiefly of crystalline rocks, which are commonly associated with a rugged landscape, and although possessing a greatly deformed structure, which must at some ancient period have been associated with strong relief, the upland as a whole is gently rolling, and the inter-stream surfaces are prevailing plateau-like in their evenness, with altitudes of 1400 to 1600 ft.

  • When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.

  • The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.

  • In the same way the western side of the em- Mississippi ~ayment, trending south and south-west, passes along the Emba.vmeni.lower south-eastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, which in many ways resembles the Appalachian plateau, and along the eastern end of the Massern ranges of the Ouachita mountain system in central Arkansas, which in geological history and topographical form present many analogies with the ridges and valleys of the Appalachians; and as the coastal plain turns westward to Texas it borders the Arbuckle hills in Oklahoma, a small analogue of the crystalline Appalachian belt.

  • This mountain mass is of flat-arched, dome-like structure, now well dissected by radiating consequent streams, so that the weaker uppermost strata have been eroded down to the level of the plains where their upturned edges are evenly truncated, and the next following harder strata have been sufficiently eroded to disclose the core of underlying crystalline rocks in about half of the domed area.

  • The Rocky Mountains begin in northern Mexico, where the axial crystalline rocks rise to 12,000 ft.

  • Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.

  • The benzene layer on evaporation deposits the antipyrine as a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 113° C. and is soluble in water.

  • A pyloric caecum connected with the stomach is commonly found, containing a tough flexible cylinder of transparent cartilaginous appearance, called the " crystalline style " (Mactra).

  • The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system.

Browse other sentences examples →