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crystalline Sentence Examples

  • They are solid crystalline compounds.

  • The glycols are somewhat thick liquids, of high boiling point, the pinacones only being crystalline solids; they are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether.

  • There is a foundation of schists and crystalline rocks upon which rests a series of sandstones.

  • They consist of a series of unfossiliferous crystalline slates.

  • In some cases the plastid disappears and the crystalline pigment only is left.

  • The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.

  • The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.

  • The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.

  • Allotropic Modifications.-Sulphur assumes crystalline, amorphous and (possibly) colloidal forms. Historically the most important are the rhombic (Sa) and monoclinic (So) forms, discussed by E.

  • But whereas the crystalline form of a chemical substance is stable and fixed, the organized form of a living organism is unstable and subject to change.

  • Good building materials are obtained from many of the rocks of the country, among which the Raialo limestone (a fine-grained crystalline marble) and the Jaisalmer limestone stand pre-eminent.

  • The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.

  • Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.

  • Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.

  • Granite is the most widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with.

  • The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.

  • Just as every crystallizable chemical substance assumes a definite and constant crystalline form which cannot be accounted for otherwise than by regarding it as one of the properties of the substance, so every living organism assumes a characteristic form which is the outcome of the properties of its protoplasm.

  • Each of these contains an active substance, which can be obtained in crystalline foi m, and is known as podophyllotoxin.

  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.

  • Sulphur sesquioxide, S203, is formed by adding well-dried flowers of sulphur to melted sulphur trioxide at about 12-15° C. The sulphur dissolves in the form of blue drops which sink in the liquid and finally solidify in blue-green crystalline crusts.

  • It is a crystalline body, soluble only in concentrated alcohol.

  • It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.

  • It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.

  • It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43° C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.

  • A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.

  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.

  • The insoluble residue contains a mixture of two sulphides, one of which is converted into the sulphate by nitric acid, whilst the other (a crystalline solid) is insoluble in acids.

  • On cooling it solidifies to a crystalline mass which fuses at - 80° C. (Ruff, ibid.).

  • The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.

  • As stream tin it occurs abundantly in some of the alluvial deposits derived from the crystalline area, especially on the west coast.

  • It is a dark-coloured crystalline solid which melts at 194° C. and boils at 268° C. It fumes in moist air and deliquesces gradually.

  • The starch grain may thus be regarded as a crystalline structure of the nature of a spherecrystal, as has been suggested by many observers.

  • Close to them is the remarkable dart-sac ps, a thick-walled sac, in the lumen of which a crystalline four-fluted rod or dart consisting of carbonate of lime is found.

  • It is a red-brown crystalline powder, which is soluble in water.

  • If the matrix, however, is originally crystalline it does not seem probable that perlitic structure can develop in it.

  • Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.

  • By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.

  • The coating of silver obtained by this process is coherent and homogeneous, while that deposited from a solution of silver nitrate, as the result of the primary action of the current, is crystalline and easily detached.

  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.

  • It freezes at - 15° to a yellowish crystalline mass; on heating it loses chlorine and forms lead dichloride.

  • It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.

  • It may be obtained crystalline by heating manganese sulphate and potassium sulphate to a bright red heat (H.

  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.

  • Ann., 18 74, 1 5 1, 449) obtained a crystalline variety by melting sulphur with anhydrous manganous sulphate and dry potassium carbonate, extracting the residue and drying it in a current of hydrogen.

  • The Eastern Cordillera is composed of gneiss, mica and chlorite schist and other crystalline rocks of ancient date; the Western Cordillera, on the other hand, is formed of porphyritic eruptive rocks of Mesozoic age, together with sedimentary deposits containing Cretaceous fossils.

  • The island is composed largely of crystalline and metamorphic rocks, but contains some cretaceous areas which hold extensive beds of coal, especially on the east coast.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid, readily soluble in water and alcohol; it deliquesces on exposure to air.

  • It has strong basic properties, absorbs carbon dioxide readily, and forms welldefined crystalline salts.

  • Nutmeg butter yields on distillation with water a volatile oil to the extent of about 6%, consisting almost entirely of a hydrocarbon called myristicene, CioHis, boiling at 165° C. It is accompanied by a small quantity of an oxygenated oil, myristicol, isomeric with carvol, but differing from it in not forming a crystalline compound with hydrosulphuric acid.

  • Cuprous sulphite, CuS0 3 H 2 O, is obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous hydrate with sulphurous acid.

  • They are mostly crystalline solids which distil unchanged.

  • He investigated the optical constants of the eye, measured by his invention, the ophthalmometer, the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens for near and far vision, explained the mechanism of accommodation by which the eye can focus within certain limits, discussed the phenomena of colour vision, and gave a luminous account of the movements of the eyeballs so as to secure single vision with two eyes.

  • It forms a crystalline powder which melts at 213° C. It is insoluble in alcohol, and nearly insoluble in cold water.

  • The fundamental rocks of Sweden belong to the Azoic or pre-Cambrian formation, and consist of crystalline rocks.

  • Besides the crystalline gneiss and halleflinta there are also sedimentary deposits which are believed to be of pre-Cambrian age.

  • In the western and northern alpine part of Sweden, near the boundaries of Norway, the Silurian strata are covered by crystalline rocks, mica schists, quartzites, &c., of an enormous thickness, which have been brought into their present positions upon a thrust-plane.

  • Lithologically they are crystalline schists, together with granite, diorite, gabbro and other igneous rocks.

  • It also yields crystalline compounds with many aromatic hydrocarbons and bases.

  • In the eastern section the prevailing rock is crystalline chalk, similar to that of Buru.

  • Boiling alcohol extracts from the root a neutral substance in the form of crystalline prisms, which crystallize in scales from boiling water.

  • Antimony is a silvery white, crystalline, brittle metal, and has a high lustre.

  • It is a white powder, almost insoluble in water, and when volatilized, condenses in two crystalline forms, either octahedral or prismatic. It is insoluble in sulphuric and nitric acids, but is readily soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids and in solutions of the caustic alkalies.

  • It forms a yellowish crystalline precipitate which in moist air goes to a thick liquid.

  • Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.

  • The amorphous variety may be obtained from the crystalline form by dissolving it in caustic potash or soda or in solutions of alkaline sulphides, and precipitating the hot solution by dilute sulphuric acid.

  • This winding way conducts one to River Hall, beyond which lie the crystalline gardens that have been described.

  • The second is the zone of the snowy peaks and of the lower Himalaya, and is composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks together with unfossiliferous sedimentary beds supposed to be of Palaeozoic age.

  • The bark of the horse-chestnut contains a greenish oil, resin, a yellow body, a tannin, C26 H 24012, existing likewise in the seeds and various parts of the tree, and decomposable into phloroglucin and aesciglyoxalic acid, C 7 H 6 O 3, also aesculetin hydrate, and the crystalline fluorescent compound aesculin, of the formulaC21H24013 (Rochleder and Schwarz), with which occurs a similar substance fraxin, the paviin of Sir G.

  • The southern parts of the central range are composed of granites, syenites, porphyries and crystalline slates, while in the north of Ichinskaya volcano, which is the highest summit of the peninsula (16,920 ft.), the mountains consist chiefly of Tertiary sandstones and old volcanic rocks.

  • He studied the formation of aldehyde from alcohol by various methods, also obtaining its crystalline compound with ammonia, and he was the discoverer of furfurol.

  • The beauty of this range of mountains consists in its pure crystalline torrents, in the numerous blue lakes of its valleys, and above all in the magnificent forests of oak and pine with which its sides are covered.

  • the name given to a thick, viscid liquid, containing much dissolved (generally crystalline) matter, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.

  • - The chemical investigation of opium dates from 1803 when C. Derosne isolated a crystalline compound which he named " opium salt."

  • That which flows from the lower incisions is often collected on tiles or on a concave piece of the prickly pear (Opuntia), but is less crystalline and more glutinous, and is less esteemed.

  • Crude acetone may be purified by converting it into the crystalline sodium bisulphite compound, which is separated by filtration and then distilled with sodium carbonate.

  • Other minerals, which are not found in commercial quantities, are lead in the form of galena, in Sussex county; graphite, in the crystalline schistose rocks of the Highlands; molybdenum, in the form of a sulphide, in Sussex county; and barytes in Mercer and Sussex counties.

  • Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.

  • It is a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. and boils at 204° C. It can only be diazotized in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, and even then the free diazonium sulphate is not stable, readily passing in the presence of water to a-oxypyridine.

  • The great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, and there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active; many of the islands, however, are not wholly volcanic, but contain crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of lignite.

  • The hills of the north-western shore afford a variety of granites and crystalline slates of the Laurentian system, whilst Valamo island is made up of a rock which Russian geologists describe as orthoclastic hypersthenite.

  • And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated.

  • But on the south side the crystalline rocks are succeeded by a broad belt of slates, as to the age of which the evidence is at present conflicting and the opinion of geologists divided.

  • They are composed of friable crystalline schists..

  • Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.

  • These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..

  • Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation.

  • In the centre of the fan lies a band of crystalline rocks which disappears towards the east.

  • The crystalline band is lost.

  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.

  • The red crystalline variety is obtained by crystallization of selenium from carbon bisulphide, or by leaving the amorphous form in contact with the same solvent.

  • The grey crystalline form is obtained by heating the other varieties, and is the most stable form from ordinary temperatures up to 217°.

  • It is a white solid which can be obtained crystalline by sublimation in a current of chlorine.

  • Selenious acid, H 2 SeO 3, is obtained in the crystalline form when a solution of selenium dioxide in water is concentrated over sulphuric acid.

  • Selenium sulphoxide, SeS0 3, is formed as a yellowish crystalline mass when selenium is warmed with sulphur trioxide.

  • It occurs in a colourless crystalline powder, having the formula C20H24N202.2HC1.3H20.

  • in circumference, entirely composed of crystalline carbonate of lime (satin-spar), fluted and snow-white.

  • To the south of the lake rises the south-eastern prolongation of the Cordillera of the Andes, with ridges of a uniform height of 3500 ft., in which predominate crystalline schists which do not seem to be very old.

  • By cooling the aqueous solution, hyacinth-red octahedra of a crystalline hydrate of composition Br 4H 2 O or Br2.8H20 are obtained (Bakhuis Roozeboom, Zeits.

  • It forms a colourless syrup, of specific gravity 1.2485 (1 5°/4°), and decomposes on distillation under ordinary atmospheric pressure; but at very low pressures (about i mm.) it distils at about 85° C., and then sets to a crystalline solid, which melts at about 18° C. It possesses the properties both of an acid and of an alcohol.

  • Lactide, O` CH (CH 3) CO >O, a crystalline solid, of melting-point CO CH(CH3) C., is one of the products obtained by the distillation of lactic acid.

  • It is also a common constituent, as irregular grains, in many gneisses and crystalline schists, a quartz-schist being composed largely of quartz.

  • The fracture is distinctly crystalline; large crystals, either regular dodecahedra or octahedra, may be obtained by crystallization from carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, &c., or by sublimation.

  • Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid.

  • It forms a lustrous, nearly black crystalline mass, composed of minute rhombohedra.

  • Phosphonium Salts.-The chloride, PH 4 C1, was obtained as a crystalline solid by Ogier (Comptes rendus, 1879, 89, p. 705) by combining phosphine and hydrochloric acid gas under a pressure of from 14-20 atmospheres; it can also be obtained at -30° to -35° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure.

  • The boiling-points of some members of the series are shown in the table: The alkyl phosphinic acids are colourless crystalline compounds which are easily soluble in water and alcohol.

  • Hypophosphorous acid, HP(OH) 2, discovered by Dulong in 1816, and obtained crystalline by Thomson in 1874 (Ber., 7, P. 994), is prepared in the form of its barium salt by warming phosphorus with baryta water, removing the excess of baryta by carbon dioxide, and crystallizing the filtrate.

  • The acid forms a white crystalline mass, melting at 17.4° and having a strong acid reaction.

  • The commonest form is P 3 N 3 C1 6, a crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether.

  • Its high crystalline rocks, covered with sedimentary formations, descend abruptly towards the delta, but more gradually towards the south, where the Bulgarian steppes encroach upon Rumanian soil.

  • In the Dobrudja crystalline rocks, presumably of ancient date, rise through the Tertiary and recent deposits and form the hills which lie between the Danube and the Black Sea.'

  • On the western side of this depression there are red sandstones with coal-seams, possibly Tertiary; the floor and the eastern side consist chiefly of ancient crystalline and schistose rocks.

  • The Central Cordillera is the direct continuation of the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador, and is formed chiefly of gneiss and other crystalline rocks, but sedimentary deposits of Cretaceous age also occur.

  • During the life of the whale the contents of these cavities are in a fluid condition, but no sooner is the "head matter" removed than the solid wax spermaceti separates in white crystalline flakes, leaving the oil a clear yellow fluid having a fishy odour.

  • The islands are of ironstone formation overlying quartzite and crystalline schists.

  • They are both crystalline solids, the former melting when anhydrous at 199-200°, and the latter at 52° C. ' Of the homologues of quinoline, the most important are quinaldine, lepidine, -y-phenylquinoline, and flavoline.

  • It freezes to a colourless crystalline mass, melting at 10 5°.

  • Where the nitrous fumes prevail and there is less water present, sulphur dioxide combines with nitrous acid and oxygen to form nitroso-sulphuric acid, a crystalline substance of the formula SO 2 (OH)(ONO).

  • All these parts are supported by plates or ossicles of crystalline carbonate of lime.

  • Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.

  • Gypsum (in beautiful crystalline form) is found in an almost continuous bed across the state running northeast and south-west with three principal areas, the northern in Marshall county, the central in Dickinson and Saline counties, and the southern (the heaviest, being 3 to 40 ft.

  • The formation of the lower part is Nubian sandstone, that of the upper part is a hard dark-grey crystalline limestone belonging to the Neocomian period, and full of fossils.

  • - Wisconsin forms part of the inner margin of an ancient coastal plain and the oldland of crystalline rocks about which the plain sediments were deposited.

  • Ferric oxide or iron sesquioxide, Fe203, constitutes the valuable ores red haematite and specular iron; the minerals brown haematite or limonite, and gothite and also iron rust are hydrated forms. It is obtained as a steel-grey crystalline powder by igniting the oxide or any ferric salt containing a volatile acid.

  • It forms red crystalline double salts with the chlorides of the metals of the alkalis and of the 1 By solution in concentrated hydrochloric acid, a yellow liquid is obtained, which on concentration over sulphuric acid gives yellow deliquescent crusts of ferroso-ferric chloride, Fe3C118H20.

  • r 265 at 15° C., possessing a somewhat sweet taste; below o° C. it solidifies to a white crystalline mass, which melts at 17° C. When heated alone it partially volatilizes, but the greater part decomposes; under a pressure of 12 mm.

  • Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

  • The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.

  • Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.

  • So far as is known, the Malay Peninsula consists of an axial zone of crystalline rocks, flanked on each side by an incomplete band of sedimentary deposits.

  • It is a black crystalline powder, resembling graphite in appearance.

  • Acetamide,, CH 3 �Conh 2j is a white deliquescent crystalline solid, which melts at 82-83° C. and boils at 222° C. It is usually prepared.

  • Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.

  • Lavas dip in all directions from the central crystalline core, pointing to the conclusion that the main portion of the mountain represents a single volcanic mass.

  • The Vavau group consists entirely of coral limestone, which is occasionally crystalline, and contains stalactitic caves of great beauty.

  • The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.

  • Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in Canada.

  • Eyes are open invaginations without crystalline lens.

  • Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 29 0 -30 0 C. and boils at 218°-219° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol and ether.

  • In the southern region, which is by far the better known, the oldest rocks are granites, crystalline schists and other rocks of Archean aspect.

  • It forms a golden yellow crystalline mass, which sublimes slowly in vacuo, and melts at 25.5° C. It blackens on exposure to moisture, and decomposes when exposed to light.

  • All four mono-hydroxyxanthones are known, and are prepared by heating salicylic acid with either resorcin, pyrocatechin or hydroquinone; they are yellow crystalline solids, which act as dyestuffs.

  • To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.

  • Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, viz.

  • The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."

  • Crystalline Form and Composition.

  • They are either colourless liquids, which boil without decomposition, or crystalline solids; and are both basic and acidic in character.

  • At low temperatures it is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at -10.14° C. (W.

  • The calcium salt, CaN 2 O 2.4H 2 O, formed by the action of calcium chloride on the silver salt in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid, is a lustrous crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water but readily soluble in dilute acids.

  • It is a reddish-yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water and melting at 178° C. It explodes readily when melted or subjected to shock.

  • kidneys, pancreas and the thyroid gland, also in muscle-plasma; " crystalline," a globulin occurring in two forms a and /3, is found in the lens of the eye; " egg-globulin " and " lactoglobulin " occur respectively in the white of egg and in milk.

  • These crystals have, as a rule, very good crystalline form, but the quartz and felspar are often filled with enclosures of glass.

  • Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.

  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.

  • Aconitine (C33H45N013, according to Dunstan; C34H47NOH, according to Freund) is a crystalline base, soluble in alcohol, but very sparingly in water; its alcoholic solution is dextrorotatory, but its salts are laevorotatory.

  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.

  • For crystalline bodies the value of or -) is nearly always small and constant, the magnetization being therefore independent of the form of the body and proportional to the force.

  • These are colourless crystalline compounds, which are most readily prepared by passing ammonia gas into an ethereal solution of the aldehyde.

  • The hydrazones are crystalline substances which are of value in the characterization of the aldehydes.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which sublimes at 112°-115° C. It is insoluble in water, and is only slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.

  • The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.

  • Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.

  • The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

  • The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.

  • The plateau is built up of granites, gneisses and crystalline schists of Archean and probably Primary age.

  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 15° C. and has the properties of a strong acid.

  • The silver salt, obtained by shaking an ether solution of nitroform with freshly prepared, slightly moist silver oxide, reacts with methyl iodide to form trinitroethane, a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. Concentrated caustic potash decomposes the latter compound, forming the potassium salt of dinitroethane, CH3 C(N02)2K.

  • Tetranitromethane, C(N02)4, obtained by adding nitroform to a hot mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, is a crystalline solid which melts at 13° C. Chlorpicrin, CC1 3 NO 2, is a liquid of suffocating odour obtained by the action of nitric acid and chloride of lime on many organic compounds.

  • Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.

  • Uranyl chloride, UO 2 C1 2, is a yellow crystalline mass formed when chlorine is passed over uranium dioxide at a red heat.

  • A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.

  • Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.

  • Barberton and Swaziland Crystalline schists, quartzites, conglomSeries.

  • A tin ingot is distinctly crystalline; hence the characteristic crackling noise, or "cry" of tin, which a bar of tin gives out when being bent.

  • Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.

  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

  • The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.

  • It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.

  • In this way is produced the crystalline, devitrified material, known as Reaumur's porcelain.

  • The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other crystalline.

  • Another crystalline form, differing from the former by its solubility in hydrofluoric acid, was prepared by H.

  • The product is a crystalline solid of specific gravity 2.34, and melts at about 1430° C. See also German Patent 108817 for the production of crystallized silicon from silica and carborundum.

  • brown coloured powder, the crystalline variety being grey, but it presents somewhat different appearances according to the method used for its preparation.

  • The specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2.35 (Vigouroux), that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method of preparation, from 2.004 to 2.493.

  • They are both very stable crystalline solids.

  • Perhaps all metals are crystalline, only the degree of visibility of the crystalline arrangement is very different in different metals, and even in the same metal varies according to the slowness of solidification and other circumstances.

  • Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.

  • Tin also is crystalline: a thin bar, when bent, "creaks" audibly from the sliding of the crystal faces over one another; but the bar is not easily broken, and exhibits an apparently non-crystalline fracture.

  • The crystalline structure which exists on both sides becomes visible only in the metals of the first class, and only there manifests itself as brittleness.

  • It forms crystalline needles soluble in alkalis, chloroform and Zoo parts of water.

  • - Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.

  • - The only possible biose is glycollic aldehyde, CHO.CH20H, obtained impure by Fischer from bromacetaldehyde and baryta water, and crystalline by Fenton by heating dihydroxymaleic acid with water to 60°.

  • It melts at 160°, and on cooling solidifies to a glassy mass, which on standing gradually becomes opaque and crystalline.

  • It forms hard crystalline crusts (with 1H 2 0) made up of hard white needles.

  • Remains of the city walls, with traces of one gate and several towers, of a total length of over 3 m., still exist, and belong to three different periods, in all of which the crystalline limestone of the locality is used.

  • It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.

  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.

  • It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 30° C. and boils at 190 8° C. Fusion with alkalis converts it into salicylic acid.

  • In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.

  • Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.

  • In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.

  • aquifolium, Hydrastis canadensis, &c. It is a yellow, crystalline solid, insoluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in 41 parts of water at 21°, and moderately soluble in alcohol.

  • The commonest titanium mineral is rutile or titanium dioxide, T102; anatase and brookite are crystalline allotropes.

  • The alkaline titanate first produced is converted into crystalline fluotitanate, K 2 TiF 6, which is with difficulty soluble and is extracted with hot water and filtered off.

  • Titanium tetrabromide, TiBr 4, is an amber-coloured crystalline mass.

  • The aqueous solution of the amines is now shaken up with diethyl oxalate, when the primary amine forms a crystalline dialkyl oxamide and the secondary amine an insoluble liquid, which is an ethyl dialkyl oxamate, the tertiary amine not reacting: (C02C2H5)2+ 2NH 2 R = (CO�NHR) 2 -{- 2C 2 H S OH; (CO 2 C 2 H 5) 2 -}- NHR 2 = C 2 H S O 2 C�Conr 2 -1-C 2 H S Oh.

  • It forms many crystalline salts and absorbs carbon dioxide.

  • The residue crystallizes slowly, and the crystalline product is almost wholly d-benzyl-allyl-phenyl-ammonium-d-sulphonate, the corresponding /-compound remaining as a syrupy residue.

  • The primary amines are colourless liquids or crystalline solids, which are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in the common organic solvents.

  • The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.

  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.

  • Moissan succeeded in obtaining a crystalline variety.

  • The amorphous form readily slakes with water, and the aqueous solution yields a crystalline hydrated hydroxide approximating in composition to Sr(OH) 2.8H 2 O or Sr(OH) 2.9H 2 O, which on standing in vacuo loses some of its water of crystallization, leaving the monohydrated hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 H 2 O.

  • A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

  • It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.

  • A strontium boride, SrB6, was obtained as a black crystalline powder by H.

  • Lofty summits are separated by comparatively low passes, which lie at the level of crystalline rocks and schists constituting the original uplands upon which the summits have been piled by volcanic action.

  • These they call respectively the southern schist range, the northern schist range, and the snow range, the last consisting mainly of old crystalline massive rocks.

  • The strike of the old crystalline rocks follows, in general, the main direction of the islands (S.W.

  • Also in the hills bordering on the plain of Kwantd these old crystalline rocks are widely spread.

  • It is a crystalline powder difficultly soluble in water and melting at 210° C. (with decomposition).

  • It is a white crystalline powder which is almost insoluble in cold water.

  • When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.

  • If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.

  • Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.

  • Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol.

  • It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.

  • In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.

  • It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.

  • Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuC1 3, is a dark rubyred or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained by dissolving the metal in aqua regia.

  • The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.

  • east of the Great Fault (already mentioned) the beds are more regular, comprising, in descending order, (a) Upper Coralline Limestone; (b) Yellow, Black or Greensand; (c) Marl or Blue Clay; (d) White, Grey and Pale Yellow Sandstone; (e) Chocolate-coloured nodules with shells, &c.; (f) Yellow Sandstone; (g) Lower Crystalline Limestone.

  • The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.

  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

  • It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.

  • The dichloride, BiC1 2, is obtained as a brown crystalline powder by fusing the metal with the trichloride, or in a current of chlorine, or by heating the metal with calomel to 250°.

  • The action of water on this solution produces a crystalline precipitate of basic nitrate, probably Bi(OH)2N03, though it varies with the amount of water employed.

  • When heated to 200 0 it assumes the crystalline form of bismuthite.

  • Some amalgams are liquids, especially when containing a large proportion of mercury; others assume a crystalline form.

  • The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which readily fuses to a yellow liquid.

  • The free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution, when a crystalline mass of composition H 2 Te04.2H 2 O separates.

  • Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in perpendicular planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.

  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.

  • Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.

  • It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.

  • Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent "non-automatic."

  • In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.

  • In Rossel Island (Roua or Arova) occur crystalline schistose and volcanic rocks, and in Misima (St Aignan) limestones and lavas in addition.

  • In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

  • The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.

  • In the nature and position of the upland rocks - mainly crystalline schists and gneisses, excessively complicated and disordered in mass, and also internally deformed - there is found abundant proof that the peneplain is a degraded mountain region.

  • Systematic quarrying of siliceous crystalline rocks in New England began at Quincy in about 1820.

  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

  • For separating liquids from solids of a fibrous or crystalline character "hydroextractors" or "centrifugals" are frequently employed.

  • They are crystalline solids showing a characteristic green metallic lustre; they are readily soluble in water and dye red or violet.

  • The metal has a blue-grey colour, and may be obtained in the crystalline state by solution in tin.

  • The powdery metal burns readily in air; the crystalline metal requires to be heated in an oxyhydrogen flame before it catches fire.

  • Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.

  • Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished.

  • Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.

  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

  • The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.

  • They occur (a) in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks as an original constituent, (b) in veins associated with igneous rocks, and (c) in sedimentary rocks either as organic fragments or in secondary concretionary forms.

  • The first mode of occurrence is of little significance practically, for the crystalline rocks generally contain too little phosphate to be valuable, though occasionally an igneous rock may contain enough apatite to form an inferior fertilizing agent, e.g.

  • This is a very ancient mountain mass of crystalline rocks resembling more the Laurentian mountains of Canada than the Appalachians.

  • Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.

  • While igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks form the bulk of the Adirondack area, it is surrounded by a ring of ancient Palaeozoic sediments in which these peripheral lowlands have been developed.

  • side by the Highlands, a belt of ancient crystalline rocks which extends N.E.

  • On the New York side of the Hudson the rocks are crystalline, the surface a region of low hills, a continuation of the crystalline area of Connecticut, and comparable with the Piedmont plateau of the Southern states.

  • Near Gouverneur, St Lawrence county, is a large quarry of coarsely crystalline magnesian limestone, used as monumental marble.

  • Cubebin, CH2[O]2C6H3 CH:CH CH20H, is a crystalline substance existing in cubebs, discovered by Eugene Soubeiran and Capitaine in 1839; it may be prepared from cubebene, or from the pulp left after the distillation of the oil.

  • wide and bordered on the inner side by the main mass of limestone and crystalline rocks which have in general a height of 4000 or 5000 ft.

  • Hardy in 1875 (Ber., 8, p. 1594), and is a crystalline, very hygroscopic solid.

  • It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.

  • Of the acid orthophosphates, the mono-calcium salt, CaH4(P04)2, may be obtained as crystalline scales, containing one molecule of water, by evaporating a solution of the normal salt in hydrochloric or nitric acid.

  • It is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate, sparingly soluble in water (Loo parts of water dissolve 24 of the salt at 15° C.), by mixing solutions of a sulphate and a calcium salt; it is more soluble in solutions of common salt and hydrochloric acid, and especially of sodium thiosulphate.

  • Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.

  • It can be obtained in three different crystalline forms, the transition points of which are 35° C., 83° C. and 125° C. It is easily soluble in water, a considerable lowering of temperature taking place during the operation; on this account it is sometimes used in the preparation of freezing mixtures.

  • The normal phosphate, (NH4)3P04,is obtained as a crystalline powder, on mixing concentrated solutions of ammonia and phosphoric acid, or on the addition of excess of ammonia to the acid phosphate (NH 4) 2 HPO 4.

  • Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.

  • Hard rock (mostly granite and crystalline schists, with red sandstone in places) appears only in the transverse glens, which are often choked with their debris in the form either of gravel-and-shingle or loose blocks of stone or both.

  • Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride, British and United States pharmacopoeiae) as used in medicine is a white crystalline odourless powder having a saline taste.

  • Sodium hydride, NaH, is a crystalline substance obtained directly from sodium and hydrogen at about 400°.

  • In the moist and plastic slate the mineral particles slowly enlarged by the addition of new crystalline molecules.

  • Graphite occurs mainly in the older crystalline rocks - gneiss, granulite, schist and crystalline limestone - and also sometimes in granite: it is found as isolated scales embedded in these rocks, or as large irregular masses or filling veins.

  • The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.

  • Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.

  • The paraquinones are generally crystalline solids of a yellowish colour, having a characteristic sharp odour and being volatile in steam.

  • The orthoquinones more resemble the a-diketones; they are crystalline solids of a red or yellow colour, but differ from the paraquinones in being devoid of smell and not volatile in a current of steam.

  • It is a yellow crystalline solid readily volatile in steam.

  • They are crystalline solids which are readily converted into para-alkylated phenols by reducing agents.

  • Archean rocks form the cores of the ancient crystalline masses within the littoral zone from Algiers to Bona.

  • They consist of gneiss, mica-schist, quartzites, crystalline limestones and conglomerates.

  • These deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following minerals: sylvine, KC1; carnallite, KC1 MgC12.6H20 (transparent, deliquescent crystals, often red with diffused oxide of iron); kainite, K 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 MgC1 2 6H 2 O (hard crystalline masses, permanent in the air); kieserite MgS04 H20 (only very slowly dissolved by water); besides polyhalite, MgSO 4 K 2 SO 4.2CaSO 4.2H20anhydrite, CaSO 4; salt, NaC1, and some minor components.

  • Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.

  • Many species have a special glandular organ at the back of the head, which Sida crystalline uses for attaching itself to various objects.

  • At the southern extremity of the great table-land, however, in the state of Puebla, there is a considerable mass of crystalline rocks which is believed to be of Archaean age.

  • Galena is of wide distribution, and occurs usually in metalliferous veins traversing crystalline rocks, clay-slates and limestones, and also as pockets in limestones.

  • It exists in two different crystalline forms, the more stable or a form melting at 27.2° C., and the less stable or /3 form melting at 13.9° C. It is readily decomposed by water.

  • Iodine Pentoxide, 1205, the best-known oxide, is obtained as a white crystalline solid by heating iodic acid to 170° C.; it is easily soluble in water, combining with the water to regenerate iodic acid; and when heated to 300° C. it breaks up into its constituent elements.

  • It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.

  • It is a colourless, crystalline, deliquescent solid which melts at 135° C., and at 140° C. is completely decomposed into iodine pentoxide, water and oxygen.

  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

  • This mountain system consists essentially of two belts: one on the south-east, chiefly of ancient and greatly deformed crystalline rocks, the other on the north-west, a heavy series of folded Palaeozoic strata; and with these it will be convenient to associate a third belt, farther north-west, consisting of the same Palaeozoic strata lying essentially horizontal and constituting the Appalachian plateau.

  • The crystalline belt represents, at least in part, the ancient highlands from whose ruins the sandstones, shales and limestones of the stratified series were formed, partly as ~narine, partly as fluviatile deposits.

  • In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.

  • In a south-western section the crystalline belt again assumes importance in breadth and height, and the plateau member maintains the strength that it had in the middle section, but the intermediate stratified belt again has fewer ridges, -because of the infrequence here of ridge-making strata as compared to their frequency in the middle section.

  • The crystalline belt of the middle Appalachians, 60 or 80 m- wide, is to-day of moderate height because the Tertiary upwarping was there of moderate amotint.

  • Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.

  • The Pennsylvania portionof the crystalline belt is narrow, as has been said, because of encroachment upon it by the inward overlap of the coastal olain: it ~s low because of small Tertiary unlift: but.

  • ment of its drainage: its chief rivers rise in the plateau belt and flow across the ridges and valleys of the stratified belt and through the uplands of the crystalline belt to the sea.

  • For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.

  • The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.

  • The community of characteristics that is suggested by the association of six north-eastern states under the name New England The North- is in large measure warranted by the inclusion of easternA all these states within the broadened crystalline belt palachians of the north-eastern Appalachians, which is here 150 m.

  • The Appalachian trends (N.E.S.W.) that are so prominent in the stratified belt of the middle Appalachians, and are fairly well marked in the crystalline belt of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are prevailingly absent in New England.

  • As in the north-east, so in the south-west, the crystalline belt widens and gains in height; but while New England is an indivisible unit, the southern crystalline belt must be subdivided The Southinto a higher mountain belt on the north-west, 60 m.

  • The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.

  • Itis determined The Great structurally by a belt of topographically weak limestones VaJie and shales (or slates) next inland from the crystalline ~ uplands; hence, whatever the direction of the rivers which drain the belt, it has been worn down by Tertiary erosion to a continuous lowland from the Gulf of St Lawrence to central Alabama.

  • Although composed chiefly of crystalline rocks, which are commonly associated with a rugged landscape, and although possessing a greatly deformed structure, which must at some ancient period have been associated with strong relief, the upland as a whole is gently rolling, and the inter-stream surfaces are prevailing plateau-like in their evenness, with altitudes of 1400 to 1600 ft.

  • When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.

  • The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.

  • In the same way the western side of the em- Mississippi ~ayment, trending south and south-west, passes along the Emba.vmeni.lower south-eastern side of the dissected Ozark plateau of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, which in many ways resembles the Appalachian plateau, and along the eastern end of the Massern ranges of the Ouachita mountain system in central Arkansas, which in geological history and topographical form present many analogies with the ridges and valleys of the Appalachians; and as the coastal plain turns westward to Texas it borders the Arbuckle hills in Oklahoma, a small analogue of the crystalline Appalachian belt.

  • This mountain mass is of flat-arched, dome-like structure, now well dissected by radiating consequent streams, so that the weaker uppermost strata have been eroded down to the level of the plains where their upturned edges are evenly truncated, and the next following harder strata have been sufficiently eroded to disclose the core of underlying crystalline rocks in about half of the domed area.

  • The Rocky Mountains begin in northern Mexico, where the axial crystalline rocks rise to 12,000 ft.

  • Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.

  • The benzene layer on evaporation deposits the antipyrine as a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 113° C. and is soluble in water.

  • A pyloric caecum connected with the stomach is commonly found, containing a tough flexible cylinder of transparent cartilaginous appearance, called the " crystalline style " (Mactra).

  • The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system.

  • The Piedmont Plateau is a lowland worn down by erosion on hard crystalline rocks, then uplifted to form a plateau.

  • The largest and southernmost, a broad belt extending from the " fall-line " to a line passing through Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Bartow county and Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), is known as the Piedmont Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint relief eroded on highly complicated crystalline rocks.

  • The former region consists of detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not yet eroded down to the level of the Piedmont Belt.

  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

  • Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.

  • Chromic sulphide, Cr2S3, results on heating chromium and sulphur or on strongly heating the trioxide in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen; it forms a dark green crystalline powder, and on ignition gives the sesquioxide.

  • Their configuration was determined by their relationship to their oxalo-derivatives; the cis-dichloro chloride, [CrC 2 H 4 (NH 2) 2 C1 2 ]Cl-H 2 0, compound with potassium oxalate gave a carmine red crystalline complex salt, [Cr{C2H4(NH2)2}C204][CrC2H4(NH2)2-(C204)2]12H20, while from the trans-chloride a red complex salt is obtained containing the unaltered trans-dichloro group [CrC2H4(NH2)2 C12]

  • It is an orange crystalline powder which is soluble in water, forming a yellow solution.

  • It is an orange-red crystalline compound which melts at 154° C. Ortho-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N (1) C6H4.

  • Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).

  • Jacques Curie, born at Paris on the 29th of October 1856, published an elaborate memoir on the specific inductive capacities of crystalline bodies (Ann.

  • A crystalline form was obtained by M.

  • Magnesium Nitrate, Mg(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is a colourless, deliquescent, crystalline solid obtained by dissolving magnesium or its carbonate in nitric acid, and concentrating the solution.

  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

  • The islands of these outer arcs consist chiefly of crystalline schists and limestones, overlaid by Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits.

  • In the later years of his life he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in physical properties.

  • Both of these ranges of hills are composed of hard crystalline rocks, and between them lies the lowland eroded on the weaker sandstones and sediments.

  • Deposits of crystalline graphite are found in Chester and Berks counties.

  • Every river which rises in Tibet washes down sands impregnated with gold, and it has been proved that this gold is not the product of intervening strata, but must have existed primarily in the crystalline rocks of the main axes of upheaval.

  • Crystals of ice may lie side by side with crystals of common salt, but each crystalline individual is either ice or salt; no one crystal contains both components in proportions which can be varied continuously.

  • The possibility of these phenomena should be borne in mind when attempts are made to interpret the structure of crystalline bodies in terms of the theory of equilibrium.

  • - Many lichens, as is well known, exhibit a vivid colouring which is usually due to the incrustation of the hyphae with crystalline excretory products.

  • The filtrate, now containing roughly two molecules of alumina to one of soda, is concentrated to the original gravity of 1.45, and employed instead of fresh caustic for the attack of more bauxite; the precipitate is then collected, washed till free from soda, dried and ignited at about looo C. to convert it into a crystalline oxide which is less hygroscopic than the former amorphous variety.

  • This powder, provided that it has not been too' strongly ignited, is soluble in strong acids; by ignition it becomes denser and nearly as hard as corundum; it fuses in the oxyhydrogen flame or electric arc, and on cooling it assumes a crystalline form closely resembling the mineral species.

  • So obtained, it is a white crystalline solid, which slowly sublimes just below its melting point 094 0).

  • Outside this arc lies a depression along which the waters of the upper Danube and the lower Rhone find their way towards the sea; and beyond rise the ancient crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France, together with the intervening Mesozoic beds of southern Germany and the Jura.

  • In the case of the Alps it seems natural enough that the crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France should be firmer than the more modern sedimentary deposits; but it is not so easy to understand why the Mesozoic rocks of southern Germany resisted the folding, while those of the Jura yielded.

  • The Eastern Alps consist of a central mass of crystalline and schistose rocks flanked on each side by a zone of Mesozoic beds and on the north by an outer band of Tertiary deposits.

  • The central zone of crystalline rock consists chiefly of gneisses and schists, but folded within it is a band of Palaeozoic rocks which divides it longitudinally into two parts.

  • Palaeozoic beds also occur along the northern and southern margins of the crystalline zone.

  • On the southern side of the chain the Mesozoic zone disappears entirely a little west of Lago Maggiore and the crystalline rocks rise directly from the plain.

  • The main chain is formed chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks, which on the Italian side rise directly from the plain without any intervening zone of Mesozoic beds.

  • Upon the outer side of the arc the central zone of crystalline rocks is flanked by Mesozoic and Tertiary belts; towards the west, indeed, the individuality of these belts is lost, to a large extent, but the rocks remain.

  • The beds of chert are utilized in the pottery industry, and some of the harder and more crystalline limestones are beautiful marbles, capable of taking a high polish.

  • It forms a crystalline compound with picric acid.

  • They are crystalline, hygroscopic compounds and are employed for the manufacture of the naphthols.

  • Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.

  • brittle in the cold, apparently because it increases the size and the sharpness of demarcation of the crystalline grains of which the mass is made up. The specific effect of sulphur is to make the metal red-short, i.e.

  • brittle when at a red heat, by forming a network of iron sulphide which encases these crystalline grains and thus plays the part of a weak link in a strong chain.

  • - The Archaean crystalline rocks abound in deposits of magnetite and red haematite, many of them very large and rich.

  • In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.

  • They are colourless crystalline solids which turn brown on exposure.

  • Replacement of - NH 2 by - NO 2 :-A well - cooled concentrated solution of potassium mercuric nitrate is added to a cooled solution of benzene diazonium nitrate, when the crystalline salt 2C6H5N2 N03, Hg(N02)2 is precipitated.

  • Phenyl nitramine, C 6 H S NH N02, is a colourless crystalline solid, which melts at 46° C. Sodium amalgam in alkaline solution reduces it to phenylhydrazine.

  • This salt is a colourless crystalline substance of composition CH30 C6H4 N2 CN HCN 2H20, and has the properties of a metallic salt; it is very soluble in water and its solution is an electrolyte, whereas the solutions of the synand anticompounds are not electrolytes.

  • They are yellow crystalline solids, which do not unite with acids.

  • To purify the oxide, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid until the acid is neatly neutralized, the solution is cooled, filtered, and baryta water is added until a faint permanent white precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide appears; the solution is now filtered, and a concentrated solution of baryta water is added to the filtrate, when a crystalline precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide, Ba0 2 8 H 2 0, is thrown down.

  • Digitalin, is crystalline and is also insoluble in water.

  • The majority of minerals are found commonly in masses which can with difficulty be recognized as aggregates of crystalline grains, and occur comparatively seldom as distinct crystals; but the diamond is almost always found in single crystals, which show no signs of previous attachment to any matrix; the stones were, until the discovery of the South African mines, almost entirely derived from sands or gravels, but owing to the hardness of the mineral it is rarely, if ever, water-worn, and the crystals are often very perfect.

  • Bort (or Boart) is the name given to impure crystals or fragments useless for jewels; it is also applied to the rounded crystalline aggregates, which generally have a grey colour, a rough surface, often a radial structure, and are devoid of good cleavage.

  • Carbonado or " black diamond," found in Bahia (also recently in Minas Geraes), is a black material with a minutely crystalline structure somewhat porous, opaque, resembling charcoal in appearance, devoid of cleavage, rather harder than diamond, but of less specific gravity; it sometimes displays a rude cubic crystalline form.

  • The sandstones and conglomerates belong to the Vindhyan formation and overlie the old crystalline rocks: the diamantiferous beds are well defined, often not more than 1 ft.

  • This series is overlain unconformably by a younger quartzite of similar character, and itself rests upon the crystalline schists.

  • Among the commonest associates of the diamond are quartz, topaz, tourmaline, rutile, zircon, magnetite, garnet, spinel and other minerals which are common accessory constituents of granite, gneiss and the crystalline schists.

  • Cohen, who regarded the pipes as of the nature of a mud volcano, and the blue ground as a kimberlite breccia altered by hydrothermal action, thought that the diamond and accompanying minerals had been brought up from deep-seated crystalline schists.

  • Adolf Knop suggested that this may have first yielded hydrocarbons by contact with water, and that from these the crystalline diamond has been formed.

  • The boulder is a crystalline rock consisting of pyroxene (chrome-diopside), garnet, and a little olivine, and is studded with diamond crystals; a portion of it is preserved in the British Museum (Natural History).

  • Some regard the eclogite boulders as derived from deep-seated crystalline rocks, others as concretions in the blue ground.

  • The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resembling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide.

  • Beautiful isolated tetrahedra of transparent yellow blende are found in the snow-white crystalline dolomite of the Binnenthal in the Valais, Switzerland.

  • It forms a deliquescent crystalline mass.

  • The animating spirit of love, moreover, has here deepened and intensified into a crystalline harmony of earthly passion with the love that is divine and transcending; the outward manifestation is regarded as a symbol of a sentiment at once eternal and quintessential.

  • Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.

  • Between the Palaeozoic area near Ottawa, and Georgian Bay to the north of the region just referred to, there is a southward projection of the Archaean protaxis consisting of granite and gneiss of the Laurentian, enclosing bands of crystalline limestone and schists, which are of interest as furnishing the only mines of "Old Ontario."

  • The mountain range that runs out towards the north-east of Sicily is composed of crystalline rocks precisely similar to those forming the parallel range of Aspromonte in Calabria, but both of these are girt about by sedimentary strata belonging in part to an early Tertiary epoch.

  • The steep and narrow crystalline ridge which trends north-eastwards, and is known to geographers by the name of the Peloritan Mountains, does not reach 4000 ft.

  • The Monti Peloritani at the north-eastern extremity of the island consists of gneiss and crystalline schists; but with this exception the whole of Sicily is formed of Mesozoic and later deposits, the Tertiary beds covering by far the greater part.

  • The fundamental formation consists of crystalline rocks.

  • deepand Assuan (First Cataract), the course of the river is interrupted by outcrops of granites and other crystalline rocks, which have been uncovered by the, erosion of the overlying sandstone, and to-day form the mass of islands, with numerous small rapids, which are described not very accurately as cataracts; no good evidence exists in support of the view that they are the remains of a massive barrier, broken down and carried away by some sudden convulsion.

  • The apex is occupied by a massif of crystalline rocks.

  • The oldest rocks, consisting of crystalline schists with numerous intrusions of granite, porphyry and diorite, occupy the eastern portion of the country between the Nilesouth of Assuan and the Red Sea.

  • His investigation (also in 1826) of the two crystalline modifications of sulphur threw much light on the fact that the two minerals calc-spar and aragonite have the same composition but different crystalline forms, a property which Mitscherlich called dimorphism.

  • It consists largely of crystalline and schistose rocks.

  • The core is formed by the mountain masses of Rhodope, Belasitza, Perin and Rila; and here Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds are absent, and the earliest sedimentary deposits belong to the Tertiary period and lie flat upon the crystalline rocks.

  • It bears to ordinary slowly-cooled slag a similar relation to that borne by plastic sulphur to ordinary crystalline sulphur.

  • Cements of the Portland type differ in kind from those of the pozzuolanic class; they are not mechanical mixtures of lime and active silica ready to unite under suitable conditions, but consist of definite chemical compounds of lime and silica and lime and alumina, which, when mixed with water, combine therewith, forming crystalline substances of great mechanical strength, and capable of adhering firmly to clean inert material, such as stone and sand.

  • Thallous bromide, TIBr, is a light yellow crystalline powder; it is formed analogously to the chloride.

  • The chloride when anhydrous is a crystalline mass which melts at 24°.

  • Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island.

  • Urea may be recognized by its crystalline oxalate and nitrate, which are produced on adding oxalic and nitric acids to concentrated solutions of the base; by the white precipitate formed on adding mercuric nitrate to the neutral aqueous solutions of urea; and by the so-called "biuret" reaction.

  • Lachmann, Ann., 1895, 288, p. 281), is a crystalline powder, soluble in water, and which decomposes on heating.

  • In that region the Silurian rocks have been invaded by large bosses of granite and have undergone a variable amount of metamorphism which has in some places altered them into hard crystalline schists.

  • Any such basins belonging to the time of the folding of the crystalline schists would have been filled up and effaced long ago.

  • They rise into prominent pyramidal mountains, which, as the stratification is usually almost horizontal, present in their terraced sides a singular contrast to the neighbouring heights, composed of highly plicated crystalline schists.

  • Geologically, the core of the island consists of crystalline rocks; but in the W.

  • In general the stratified deposits lie nearly flat and in regular conformable succession, the lowest resting upon the floor of ancient crystalline rocks.

  • Broadly the malleable and ductile metals and alloys show a fibrous character when ruptured, the fusible ones a crystalline fracture.

  • A piece of cast iron, or steel or bronze, shows on rupture a granular, crystalline surface destitute of any fibre.

  • The ductile metals and alloys also extend from Jo to 30 with reduction of area before they fracture, the crystalline ones snap shortly without warning.

  • Wrought iron and mild steel may be made to show a short and crystalline fracture by a sudden application of stress, while if drawn asunder slowly they develop the silky, fibrous appearance.

  • Lower Palaeozoic strata lap up on to the crystalline rocks on all sides of the mountain group. The region is rich in magnetic iron ores, which though mined for many years are not yet fully developed.

  • The oldest rocks of this region consist of gneiss, granite and other crystalline rocks.

  • Excellent iron-ore occurs in the crystalline rocks south of the Damuda river as also in many other parts of India.

  • The central plateau consists of ancient crystalline rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones and conglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age.

  • The median zone is composed largely of crystalline rocks with granites and some Palaeozoic unfossiliferous rocks.

  • By heating gallium in a regulated stream of chlorine the dichloride GaC1 2 is obtained as a crystalline mass, which melts at 164° C. and readily decomposes on exposure to moist air.

  • It exists in two crystalline forms. Nitric acid passed into its chloroform solution gives phenyl diazonium nitrate.

  • Triphenylmethane is a white crystalline solid, melting at 9 2° and boiling at 358°.

  • In the solid state triphenyl is colourless, crystalline and bimolecular.

  • From Morphinae Tartras, a white crystalline powder, are prepared, Injectio Morphinae Hypodermica, containing 5% of morphine tartrate, and Liquor Morphinae Tartratis.

  • forms several crystalline hydrates.

  • It is readily soluble in acids, forming salts, the rate of solution being rapid if the oxide is in the amorphous condition, but slow if the oxide is crystalline.

  • It forms crystalline compounds with ammonia and the organic bases.

  • The monosulphide, NiS, is obtained by heating nickel with sulphur, by heating the monoxide with sulphuretted hydrogen to a red heat, and by heating potassium sulphide with nickel chloride to 160-180° C. When prepared by dry methods it is an exceedingly stable, yellowish, somewhat crystalline mass.

  • It boils at 43° C. (751 mm.), and sets at -25° C. to a mass of crystalline needles.

  • Crystalline schists occupy a large part of the country, forming all the higher mountain ranges.

  • Evaporation of the aqueous solution at 15° C. deposits a crystalline hydrated hydroxide of composition RbOH 2H 2 O (R.

  • Rubidium carbonate, Rb2C03, formed by the addition of ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide, is a crystalline mass which melts in its water of crystallization when heated.

  • It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).

  • The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.

  • The metal has a crystalline structure, and melts at about 2800°.

  • A crystalline form was obtained by Debray as olive-green prisms by igniting a mixture of sodium tungstate and carbonate in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, and by Nordenskjold by heating hydrated tungstic acid with borax.

  • Of the salts, the normal tungstates are insoluble in water with the exception of the alkaline tungstates; they are usually amorphous, but some can be obtained in the crystalline form.

  • 2KF WO 2 F 2 H 2 O, is obtained as crystalline scales by dissolving normal potassium tungstate in hydrofluoric acid and adding potassium hydroxide till a permanent precipitate is just formed.

  • This gives the tetrachloride as a greyishbrown crystalline powder.

  • It forms black lustrous crystals, or when quickly condensed, a dark green crystalline powder.

  • The hydrides of the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which resemble one another very strongly.

  • On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.

  • The geology of Borneo is very imperfectly known The mountain range which lies between Sarawak and the Dutch possessions, and may be looked upon as the backbone of the island, consists chiefly of crystalline schists, together with slates, sandstones and limestones.

  • These formations lie at the base of the lowest Cambrian strata and may possibly be included in the pre-Cambrian, though in Norway they are clearly resting upon a striated floor of crystalline rocks.

  • On the Norwegian side the Cambrian is perhaps represented by the Roros schists which lie at the base of a great series of crystalline schists, the probable equivalent of Ordovician and Silurian rocks.

  • Farther south there are zones of serpentine, and of crystalline and schistose rocks, some of which are probably Palaeozoic. The direction of the folds of this region is from west to east, but on the borders of Phrygia and Mysia they meet the north-westerly extension of the Taurus folds and bend around the ancient mass of Lydia.

  • Roscoe, pure perchlo: is acid distils over at first, but if the distillation be continued a white crystalline mass of hydrated perchloric acid, HC104 H20, passes over; this is due to the decomposition of some of the acid into water and lower oxides of chlorine, the water produced then combining with the pure acid to produce the hydrated form.

  • The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution.

  • The sloping surface is gently rolling, and has resulted from the uplift and dissection of a nearly level plain of erosion developed on folded, crystalline rocks.

  • of the Piedmont, and like it consisting of crystalline rocks, is the Blue Ridge, a mountain belt from 3 to 20 M.

  • The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility.

  • The remainder of Finland is built up of the oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period.

  • It undoubtedly contains a keto-group, for it reacts with hydrocyanic acid, hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine and ammonia; sodium bisulphite also combines with it to form a crystalline compound, hence it contains the grouping CH 3 �CO-.

  • It is obtained as a fine red crystalline precipitate by reducing an alkaline copper solution with sugar.

  • Cuprous fluoride, CuF, is a ruby-red crystalline mass, formed by heating cuprous chloride in an atmosphere of hydrofluoric acid at I g oo°-1200° C. It is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but it is not reprecipitated by water, as is the case with cuprous chloride.

  • It dissolves in the excess of acid, and is precipitated as a white crystalline powder on the addition of water.

  • Barium dioxide, Ba02, can be prepared as shown above, or in the hydrated condition by the addition of excess of barytawater to hydrogen peroxide solution, when it is precipitated in the crystalline condition as Ba0 2.8H 2 O.

  • The geological structure is remarkably uniform, the plateau consisting mainly of sedimentary deposits resting on crystalline rocks.

  • The geological structure, consisting chiefly of eruptive rocks and crystalline limestone, is similar to that of northern Amboyna.

  • Ferrous iodide, FeI2, is obtained as a grey crystalline mass by the direct union of its components.

  • It then forms a yellowish crystalline mass, which readily dissolves in acids with the liberation of sulphuretted hydrogen.

  • It occurs in nature as the mineral melanterite, either crystalline or fibrous, but usually massive; it appears to have been formed by the oxidation of pyrite or marcasite.

  • Fe2P forms crystalline needles insoluble in acids except aqua regia; it is obtained by fusing copper phosphide with iron.

  • The free base is a colourless, odourless, crystalline solid, melting at about 30 C., and boiling at 58° C. (under a pressure of 22 mm.).

  • The inner zone of crystalline and schistose rocks which forms the main chain of the Alps, is absent in the Apennines except towards the southern end.

  • But that in Tertiary times there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines.

  • There is now no crystalline region from which they could reach their present position; and this and other considerations have led the followers of E.

  • On the Italian border of this land there was raised a mountain chain with an inner crystalline zone and an outer zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds.

  • In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here been sunk beneath the sea.

  • The manufactures of Quincy were long unimportant, with the exception of "Quincy granite,'" which was first quarried in 1825,-this being the first "systematic siliceous crystalline rock quarrying" in New England-and of which the output in the form of tombstones and monuments in 1905 was valued at $2,018,198, and in the form of "marble and stone work" was valued at $364,924.

  • The black represents the cuticular product of the epidermal cells of the ocular area, taking the form either of))...,r,, f lens, cl, of crystalline body, cry, or of rhabdom, rhab; hy, hypodermis or epidermal cells; corn', laterallyplaced cells in the simpler stage, A, which like the nerve-end cells, vit' and ret', are corneagens or lens-producing; corn, specialized corneagen or lens-producing cells; vie, potential vitrella cells with cry', potential crystalline body now indistinguishable from retinula cells and rhabdomeres; vit, vitrella cell with cry, its contained cuticular product, the crystalline cone or body; ret', rhab', retinula cells and rhabdom of scorpion undifferentiated from adjacent cells, vit'; ret, retinula cell; rhab, rhabdom; nf, optic nerve-fibres.

  • The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.

  • In the south and west the sedimentary rocks most largely developed are of ancient, pre-Carboniferous date, interrupted by considerable patches of granite, serpentine and other crystalline rocks.

  • In the extreme north-east the crystalline scnists of the Carpathians extend to the south side of the Danube, and stretch parallel to the Morava in a band along its right bank.

  • It forms a black amorphous powder or a dark green crystalline mass, and is insoluble in water and in most acids.

  • It is an amorphous or crystalline mass of indigo-blue or steel-grey colour, which is insoluble in water and is also infusible.

  • According to Ditte (Comptes rendus, 101, p. 698) it exists in three forms: a red amorphous soluble form which results when ammonium metavanadate is heated in a closed vessel and the residue oxidized with nitric acid and again heated; a yellow amorphous insoluble form which is obtained when the vanadate is heated in a current of air at 440° C.; and a red crystalline form which is almost insoluble in water.

  • Gain (Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 823) by calcining ammonium metavanadate and saturating a solution of the resulting oxides with sulphur dioxide; the resulting blue solution (from which a sulphate of composition 2V 2 0 4.3S0 2.10H 2 O can be isolated) is then boiled with water, when sulphur dioxide is liberated and a pale red crystalline powder of hypovanadic acid, H4V205, is precipitated.

  • Vanadium dichloride, VC12, is a green crystalline solid obtained when the tetrachloride is reduced with hydrogen at a dull red heat.

  • It is usually obtained in an amorphous, scarcely ever in a crystalline state.

  • Its specific gravity is 2.6 or only a little less than that of crystalline quartz.

  • Microscopic sections show that flint is very finely crystalline and consists of quartz or chalcedonic silica; colloidal or amorphous silica may also be present but cannot form any considerable part of the rock.

  • It has been suggested that this change is due to the removal of the colloidal silica in solution, leaving behind the fibres and grains of more crystalline structure.

  • This line, at which the south-east flowing rivers fall from higher levels in the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont Plateau down to somewhat lower levels in the softer rocks of the Coastal Plain, passes in a general south-west direction from the North Carolina border north-east of Cheraw through Camden and Columbia to the Savannah river opposite Augusta, Georgia.

  • This elevated region is broken in all directions by mountains, from which the crystalline rocks show most frequently as huge bosses, and in certain regions present very varied and picturesque outlines, resembling Titanic castles,cathedrals,domes, pyramids and spires.

  • (I.) the Archean Region, which extends over the central and eastern portions of the island and occupies about two-thirds of its whole area, and is composed of crystalline schists; and (II.) the Western Region, of sedimentary rocks, including the remaining third of the island, in the centre of which, however, is an isolated patch of Archean rocks, near Cape St Andrew.

  • - This region, nearly coincident with the mountainous upper portion of the island, is chiefly composed of the following crystalline rocks: gneiss, which is the most common of them all, quartzite and quartz-schist, with occasional beds of crystalline limestone and mica-schist, although this latter rock is very rare.

  • In both cases the strike of the rocks is coincident with the direction of several large valleys, which mark huge faults in the crystalline rocks.

  • The lowest members of these rest directly upon the central mass of crystalline rocks, and consist of sandstones, conglomerates and shales, which have been supposed by some to belong to the Trias, without, however, the discovery of any fossil necessary to confirm this supposition, except some silicified trunks of trees.

  • Gold is found almost all over the region of crystalline rocks, except in and around the Antsihanaka province, the richest auriferous districts being a band of country parallel with the east coast and spreading at its southern end into the interior; and another tract, whose centre is about 100 m.

  • By condensing arsenic vapour in a glass tube, in a current of an indifferent gas, such as hydrogen, amorphous arsenic is obtained, the deposit on the portion of the tube nearest to the source of heat being crystalline, that farther along (at a temperature of about C.) being a black amorphous solid, while still farther along the tube a grey deposit is formed.

  • Bettendorff, Annalen, 1867, 144, p. rro], and by heating at about 358°-360° C. pass over into the crystalline variety.

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