Crystalline Sentence Examples

crystalline
  • They are solid crystalline compounds.

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  • The glycols are somewhat thick liquids, of high boiling point, the pinacones only being crystalline solids; they are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether.

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  • In some cases the plastid disappears and the crystalline pigment only is left.

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  • They consist of a series of unfossiliferous crystalline slates.

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  • There is a foundation of schists and crystalline rocks upon which rests a series of sandstones.

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  • The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.

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  • Close to them is the remarkable dart-sac ps, a thick-walled sac, in the lumen of which a crystalline four-fluted rod or dart consisting of carbonate of lime is found.

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  • It is a red-brown crystalline powder, which is soluble in water.

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  • If the matrix, however, is originally crystalline it does not seem probable that perlitic structure can develop in it.

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  • Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.

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  • By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.

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  • The coating of silver obtained by this process is coherent and homogeneous, while that deposited from a solution of silver nitrate, as the result of the primary action of the current, is crystalline and easily detached.

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  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.

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  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.

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  • The Eastern Cordillera is composed of gneiss, mica and chlorite schist and other crystalline rocks of ancient date; the Western Cordillera, on the other hand, is formed of porphyritic eruptive rocks of Mesozoic age, together with sedimentary deposits containing Cretaceous fossils.

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  • The island is composed largely of crystalline and metamorphic rocks, but contains some cretaceous areas which hold extensive beds of coal, especially on the east coast.

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  • It is a colourless crystalline solid, readily soluble in water and alcohol; it deliquesces on exposure to air.

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  • It has strong basic properties, absorbs carbon dioxide readily, and forms welldefined crystalline salts.

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  • Cuprous sulphite, CuS0 3 H 2 O, is obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous hydrate with sulphurous acid.

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  • They are mostly crystalline solids which distil unchanged.

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  • He investigated the optical constants of the eye, measured by his invention, the ophthalmometer, the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens for near and far vision, explained the mechanism of accommodation by which the eye can focus within certain limits, discussed the phenomena of colour vision, and gave a luminous account of the movements of the eyeballs so as to secure single vision with two eyes.

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  • Besides the crystalline gneiss and halleflinta there are also sedimentary deposits which are believed to be of pre-Cambrian age.

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  • In the western and northern alpine part of Sweden, near the boundaries of Norway, the Silurian strata are covered by crystalline rocks, mica schists, quartzites, &c., of an enormous thickness, which have been brought into their present positions upon a thrust-plane.

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  • Lithologically they are crystalline schists, together with granite, diorite, gabbro and other igneous rocks.

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  • It also yields crystalline compounds with many aromatic hydrocarbons and bases.

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  • In the eastern section the prevailing rock is crystalline chalk, similar to that of Buru.

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  • Boiling alcohol extracts from the root a neutral substance in the form of crystalline prisms, which crystallize in scales from boiling water.

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  • Antimony is a silvery white, crystalline, brittle metal, and has a high lustre.

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  • It is a white powder, almost insoluble in water, and when volatilized, condenses in two crystalline forms, either octahedral or prismatic. It is insoluble in sulphuric and nitric acids, but is readily soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids and in solutions of the caustic alkalies.

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  • It forms a yellowish crystalline precipitate which in moist air goes to a thick liquid.

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  • The amorphous variety may be obtained from the crystalline form by dissolving it in caustic potash or soda or in solutions of alkaline sulphides, and precipitating the hot solution by dilute sulphuric acid.

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  • This winding way conducts one to River Hall, beyond which lie the crystalline gardens that have been described.

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  • The second is the zone of the snowy peaks and of the lower Himalaya, and is composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks together with unfossiliferous sedimentary beds supposed to be of Palaeozoic age.

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  • The southern parts of the central range are composed of granites, syenites, porphyries and crystalline slates, while in the north of Ichinskaya volcano, which is the highest summit of the peninsula (16,920 ft.), the mountains consist chiefly of Tertiary sandstones and old volcanic rocks.

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  • He studied the formation of aldehyde from alcohol by various methods, also obtaining its crystalline compound with ammonia, and he was the discoverer of furfurol.

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  • The beauty of this range of mountains consists in its pure crystalline torrents, in the numerous blue lakes of its valleys, and above all in the magnificent forests of oak and pine with which its sides are covered.

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  • That which flows from the lower incisions is often collected on tiles or on a concave piece of the prickly pear (Opuntia), but is less crystalline and more glutinous, and is less esteemed.

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  • Crude acetone may be purified by converting it into the crystalline sodium bisulphite compound, which is separated by filtration and then distilled with sodium carbonate.

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  • Other minerals, which are not found in commercial quantities, are lead in the form of galena, in Sussex county; graphite, in the crystalline schistose rocks of the Highlands; molybdenum, in the form of a sulphide, in Sussex county; and barytes in Mercer and Sussex counties.

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  • Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.

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  • The great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, and there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active; many of the islands, however, are not wholly volcanic, but contain crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of lignite.

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  • The hills of the north-western shore afford a variety of granites and crystalline slates of the Laurentian system, whilst Valamo island is made up of a rock which Russian geologists describe as orthoclastic hypersthenite.

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  • And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated.

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  • But on the south side the crystalline rocks are succeeded by a broad belt of slates, as to the age of which the evidence is at present conflicting and the opinion of geologists divided.

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  • They are composed of friable crystalline schists..

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  • Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.

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  • These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..

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  • Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation.

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  • In the centre of the fan lies a band of crystalline rocks which disappears towards the east.

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  • The crystalline band is lost.

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  • The red crystalline variety is obtained by crystallization of selenium from carbon bisulphide, or by leaving the amorphous form in contact with the same solvent.

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  • It is a white solid which can be obtained crystalline by sublimation in a current of chlorine.

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  • Selenious acid, H 2 SeO 3, is obtained in the crystalline form when a solution of selenium dioxide in water is concentrated over sulphuric acid.

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  • Selenium sulphoxide, SeS0 3, is formed as a yellowish crystalline mass when selenium is warmed with sulphur trioxide.

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  • It occurs in a colourless crystalline powder, having the formula C20H24N202.2HC1.3H20.

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  • To the south of the lake rises the south-eastern prolongation of the Cordillera of the Andes, with ridges of a uniform height of 3500 ft., in which predominate crystalline schists which do not seem to be very old.

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  • It is also a common constituent, as irregular grains, in many gneisses and crystalline schists, a quartz-schist being composed largely of quartz.

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  • The fracture is distinctly crystalline; large crystals, either regular dodecahedra or octahedra, may be obtained by crystallization from carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, &c., or by sublimation.

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  • Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid.

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  • It forms a lustrous, nearly black crystalline mass, composed of minute rhombohedra.

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  • Hypophosphorous acid, HP(OH) 2, discovered by Dulong in 1816, and obtained crystalline by Thomson in 1874 (Ber., 7, P. 994), is prepared in the form of its barium salt by warming phosphorus with baryta water, removing the excess of baryta by carbon dioxide, and crystallizing the filtrate.

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  • The commonest form is P 3 N 3 C1 6, a crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether.

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  • Its high crystalline rocks, covered with sedimentary formations, descend abruptly towards the delta, but more gradually towards the south, where the Bulgarian steppes encroach upon Rumanian soil.

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  • In the Dobrudja crystalline rocks, presumably of ancient date, rise through the Tertiary and recent deposits and form the hills which lie between the Danube and the Black Sea.'

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  • On the western side of this depression there are red sandstones with coal-seams, possibly Tertiary; the floor and the eastern side consist chiefly of ancient crystalline and schistose rocks.

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  • The Central Cordillera is the direct continuation of the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador, and is formed chiefly of gneiss and other crystalline rocks, but sedimentary deposits of Cretaceous age also occur.

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  • During the life of the whale the contents of these cavities are in a fluid condition, but no sooner is the "head matter" removed than the solid wax spermaceti separates in white crystalline flakes, leaving the oil a clear yellow fluid having a fishy odour.

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  • The islands are of ironstone formation overlying quartzite and crystalline schists.

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  • Where the nitrous fumes prevail and there is less water present, sulphur dioxide combines with nitrous acid and oxygen to form nitroso-sulphuric acid, a crystalline substance of the formula SO 2 (OH)(ONO).

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  • All these parts are supported by plates or ossicles of crystalline carbonate of lime.

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  • The formation of the lower part is Nubian sandstone, that of the upper part is a hard dark-grey crystalline limestone belonging to the Neocomian period, and full of fossils.

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  • Ferric oxide or iron sesquioxide, Fe203, constitutes the valuable ores red haematite and specular iron; the minerals brown haematite or limonite, and gothite and also iron rust are hydrated forms. It is obtained as a steel-grey crystalline powder by igniting the oxide or any ferric salt containing a volatile acid.

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  • It forms red crystalline double salts with the chlorides of the metals of the alkalis and of the 1 By solution in concentrated hydrochloric acid, a yellow liquid is obtained, which on concentration over sulphuric acid gives yellow deliquescent crusts of ferroso-ferric chloride, Fe3C118H20.

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  • Lavas dip in all directions from the central crystalline core, pointing to the conclusion that the main portion of the mountain represents a single volcanic mass.

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  • The Vavau group consists entirely of coral limestone, which is occasionally crystalline, and contains stalactitic caves of great beauty.

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  • The latest Cretaceous is the Ripley formation, which lies west of the northern part of the last-named, and, about Scooba, in a small strip, the most southerly of the Cretaceous - it is composed of coarse sandstones, hard crystalline white limestones, clays, sands, phosphatic greensands, and darkcoloured, micaceous, glauconitic marls; its greatest thickness is about 280 ft.

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  • Eyes are open invaginations without crystalline lens.

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  • Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.

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  • In the southern region, which is by far the better known, the oldest rocks are granites, crystalline schists and other rocks of Archean aspect.

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  • All four mono-hydroxyxanthones are known, and are prepared by heating salicylic acid with either resorcin, pyrocatechin or hydroquinone; they are yellow crystalline solids, which act as dyestuffs.

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  • To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.

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  • Hittorf, who carefully investigated the effects produced by heat; crystalline selenium possesses a very striking property, viz.

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  • The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."

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  • They are either colourless liquids, which boil without decomposition, or crystalline solids; and are both basic and acidic in character.

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  • The calcium salt, CaN 2 O 2.4H 2 O, formed by the action of calcium chloride on the silver salt in the presence of a small quantity of nitric acid, is a lustrous crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water but readily soluble in dilute acids.

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  • These crystals have, as a rule, very good crystalline form, but the quartz and felspar are often filled with enclosures of glass.

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  • Red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, Pb304, is a scarlet crystalline powder of specific gravity 8.6-9.1, obtained by roasting very finely divided pure massicot or lead carbonate; the brightness of the colour depends in a great measure on the roasting.

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  • Aconitine (C33H45N013, according to Dunstan; C34H47NOH, according to Freund) is a crystalline base, soluble in alcohol, but very sparingly in water; its alcoholic solution is dextrorotatory, but its salts are laevorotatory.

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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.

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  • These are colourless crystalline compounds, which are most readily prepared by passing ammonia gas into an ethereal solution of the aldehyde.

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  • The hydrazones are crystalline substances which are of value in the characterization of the aldehydes.

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  • The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.

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  • Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.

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  • The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

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  • The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.

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  • The plateau is built up of granites, gneisses and crystalline schists of Archean and probably Primary age.

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  • These sodium salts are crystalline solids which are readily soluble in water and are very explosive.

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  • Uranyl chloride, UO 2 C1 2, is a yellow crystalline mass formed when chlorine is passed over uranium dioxide at a red heat.

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  • A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.

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  • Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.

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  • A tin ingot is distinctly crystalline; hence the characteristic crackling noise, or "cry" of tin, which a bar of tin gives out when being bent.

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  • The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.

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  • It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.

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  • In this way is produced the crystalline, devitrified material, known as Reaumur's porcelain.

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  • The element exists in two forms, one amorphous, the other crystalline.

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  • The specific gravity of the amorphous form is 2.35 (Vigouroux), that of the crystalline variety varying, according to the method of preparation, from 2.004 to 2.493.

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  • They are both very stable crystalline solids.

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  • Perhaps all metals are crystalline, only the degree of visibility of the crystalline arrangement is very different in different metals, and even in the same metal varies according to the slowness of solidification and other circumstances.

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  • The crystalline structure which exists on both sides becomes visible only in the metals of the first class, and only there manifests itself as brittleness.

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  • It forms crystalline needles soluble in alkalis, chloroform and Zoo parts of water.

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  • It forms hard crystalline crusts (with 1H 2 0) made up of hard white needles.

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  • Remains of the city walls, with traces of one gate and several towers, of a total length of over 3 m., still exist, and belong to three different periods, in all of which the crystalline limestone of the locality is used.

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  • Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.

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  • In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.

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  • Towards the north the crystalline floor is overlaid by the great sandstone series which covers nearly the whole of the country north of Hail.

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  • In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.

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  • The commonest titanium mineral is rutile or titanium dioxide, T102; anatase and brookite are crystalline allotropes.

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  • The alkaline titanate first produced is converted into crystalline fluotitanate, K 2 TiF 6, which is with difficulty soluble and is extracted with hot water and filtered off.

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  • Titanium tetrabromide, TiBr 4, is an amber-coloured crystalline mass.

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  • It forms many crystalline salts and absorbs carbon dioxide.

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  • The residue crystallizes slowly, and the crystalline product is almost wholly d-benzyl-allyl-phenyl-ammonium-d-sulphonate, the corresponding /-compound remaining as a syrupy residue.

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  • The primary amines are colourless liquids or crystalline solids, which are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in the common organic solvents.

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  • The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.

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  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.

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  • Moissan succeeded in obtaining a crystalline variety.

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  • A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

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  • It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.

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  • Lofty summits are separated by comparatively low passes, which lie at the level of crystalline rocks and schists constituting the original uplands upon which the summits have been piled by volcanic action.

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  • These they call respectively the southern schist range, the northern schist range, and the snow range, the last consisting mainly of old crystalline massive rocks.

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  • Also in the hills bordering on the plain of Kwantd these old crystalline rocks are widely spread.

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  • It is a white crystalline powder which is almost insoluble in cold water.

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  • When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.

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  • If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.

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  • Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.

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  • Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol.

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  • It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.

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  • In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.

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  • It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.

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  • Auric chloride, or gold trichloride, AuC1 3, is a dark rubyred or reddish-brown, crystalline, deliquescent powder obtained by dissolving the metal in aqua regia.

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  • The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.

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  • The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.

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  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

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  • It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.

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  • The action of water on this solution produces a crystalline precipitate of basic nitrate, probably Bi(OH)2N03, though it varies with the amount of water employed.

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  • When heated to 200 0 it assumes the crystalline form of bismuthite.

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  • Some amalgams are liquids, especially when containing a large proportion of mercury; others assume a crystalline form.

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  • The tetrachloride is a white crystalline solid which is formed by the action of chlorine on the dichloride or by sulphur chloride on the element.

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  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which readily fuses to a yellow liquid.

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  • The free acid may be obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid and concentrating the solution, when a crystalline mass of composition H 2 Te04.2H 2 O separates.

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  • Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in perpendicular planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.

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  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.

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  • Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.

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  • It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.

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  • Calcium carbide, as formed in the electric furnace, is a beautiful crystalline semi-metallic solid, having a density of 2.22, and showing a fracture which is often shot with iridescent "non-automatic."

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  • In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.

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  • In Rossel Island (Roua or Arova) occur crystalline schistose and volcanic rocks, and in Misima (St Aignan) limestones and lavas in addition.

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  • In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

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  • The chloride, SmCl 2, is a brown crystalline powder which is decomposed by water with liberation of hydrogen and the formation of the oxide, Sm 2 O 3, and an oxychloride, SmOC1.

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  • In the nature and position of the upland rocks - mainly crystalline schists and gneisses, excessively complicated and disordered in mass, and also internally deformed - there is found abundant proof that the peneplain is a degraded mountain region.

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  • Systematic quarrying of siliceous crystalline rocks in New England began at Quincy in about 1820.

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  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

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  • For separating liquids from solids of a fibrous or crystalline character "hydroextractors" or "centrifugals" are frequently employed.

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  • They are crystalline solids showing a characteristic green metallic lustre; they are readily soluble in water and dye red or violet.

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  • The metal has a blue-grey colour, and may be obtained in the crystalline state by solution in tin.

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  • The powdery metal burns readily in air; the crystalline metal requires to be heated in an oxyhydrogen flame before it catches fire.

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  • Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.

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  • Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished.

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  • Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.

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  • The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.

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  • They occur (a) in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks as an original constituent, (b) in veins associated with igneous rocks, and (c) in sedimentary rocks either as organic fragments or in secondary concretionary forms.

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  • The first mode of occurrence is of little significance practically, for the crystalline rocks generally contain too little phosphate to be valuable, though occasionally an igneous rock may contain enough apatite to form an inferior fertilizing agent, e.g.

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  • This is a very ancient mountain mass of crystalline rocks resembling more the Laurentian mountains of Canada than the Appalachians.

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  • Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.

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  • While igneous and metamorphic crystalline rocks form the bulk of the Adirondack area, it is surrounded by a ring of ancient Palaeozoic sediments in which these peripheral lowlands have been developed.

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  • On the New York side of the Hudson the rocks are crystalline, the surface a region of low hills, a continuation of the crystalline area of Connecticut, and comparable with the Piedmont plateau of the Southern states.

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  • Near Gouverneur, St Lawrence county, is a large quarry of coarsely crystalline magnesian limestone, used as monumental marble.

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  • Hardy in 1875 (Ber., 8, p. 1594), and is a crystalline, very hygroscopic solid.

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  • It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.

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  • Of the acid orthophosphates, the mono-calcium salt, CaH4(P04)2, may be obtained as crystalline scales, containing one molecule of water, by evaporating a solution of the normal salt in hydrochloric or nitric acid.

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  • The normal phosphate, (NH4)3P04,is obtained as a crystalline powder, on mixing concentrated solutions of ammonia and phosphoric acid, or on the addition of excess of ammonia to the acid phosphate (NH 4) 2 HPO 4.

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  • Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.

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  • Hard rock (mostly granite and crystalline schists, with red sandstone in places) appears only in the transverse glens, which are often choked with their debris in the form either of gravel-and-shingle or loose blocks of stone or both.

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  • Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride, British and United States pharmacopoeiae) as used in medicine is a white crystalline odourless powder having a saline taste.

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  • In the moist and plastic slate the mineral particles slowly enlarged by the addition of new crystalline molecules.

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  • The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.

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  • Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.

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  • The paraquinones are generally crystalline solids of a yellowish colour, having a characteristic sharp odour and being volatile in steam.

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  • The orthoquinones more resemble the a-diketones; they are crystalline solids of a red or yellow colour, but differ from the paraquinones in being devoid of smell and not volatile in a current of steam.

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  • It is a yellow crystalline solid readily volatile in steam.

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  • They are crystalline solids which are readily converted into para-alkylated phenols by reducing agents.

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  • Archean rocks form the cores of the ancient crystalline masses within the littoral zone from Algiers to Bona.

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  • They consist of gneiss, mica-schist, quartzites, crystalline limestones and conglomerates.

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  • Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.

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  • Many species have a special glandular organ at the back of the head, which Sida crystalline uses for attaching itself to various objects.

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  • At the southern extremity of the great table-land, however, in the state of Puebla, there is a considerable mass of crystalline rocks which is believed to be of Archaean age.

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  • Galena is of wide distribution, and occurs usually in metalliferous veins traversing crystalline rocks, clay-slates and limestones, and also as pockets in limestones.

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  • It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.

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  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

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  • In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.

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  • In a south-western section the crystalline belt again assumes importance in breadth and height, and the plateau member maintains the strength that it had in the middle section, but the intermediate stratified belt again has fewer ridges, -because of the infrequence here of ridge-making strata as compared to their frequency in the middle section.

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  • The crystalline belt of the middle Appalachians, 60 or 80 m- wide, is to-day of moderate height because the Tertiary upwarping was there of moderate amotint.

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  • Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.

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  • For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.

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  • The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.

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  • The community of characteristics that is suggested by the association of six north-eastern states under the name New England The North- is in large measure warranted by the inclusion of easternA all these states within the broadened crystalline belt palachians of the north-eastern Appalachians, which is here 150 m.

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  • The Appalachian trends (N.E.S.W.) that are so prominent in the stratified belt of the middle Appalachians, and are fairly well marked in the crystalline belt of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are prevailingly absent in New England.

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  • As in the north-east, so in the south-west, the crystalline belt widens and gains in height; but while New England is an indivisible unit, the southern crystalline belt must be subdivided The Southinto a higher mountain belt on the north-west, 60 m.

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  • The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.

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  • Although composed chiefly of crystalline rocks, which are commonly associated with a rugged landscape, and although possessing a greatly deformed structure, which must at some ancient period have been associated with strong relief, the upland as a whole is gently rolling, and the inter-stream surfaces are prevailing plateau-like in their evenness, with altitudes of 1400 to 1600 ft.

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  • When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.

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  • The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.

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  • This mountain mass is of flat-arched, dome-like structure, now well dissected by radiating consequent streams, so that the weaker uppermost strata have been eroded down to the level of the plains where their upturned edges are evenly truncated, and the next following harder strata have been sufficiently eroded to disclose the core of underlying crystalline rocks in about half of the domed area.

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  • The Rocky Mountains begin in northern Mexico, where the axial crystalline rocks rise to 12,000 ft.

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  • Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.

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  • A pyloric caecum connected with the stomach is commonly found, containing a tough flexible cylinder of transparent cartilaginous appearance, called the " crystalline style " (Mactra).

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  • The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system.

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  • The Piedmont Plateau is a lowland worn down by erosion on hard crystalline rocks, then uplifted to form a plateau.

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  • The largest and southernmost, a broad belt extending from the " fall-line " to a line passing through Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Bartow county and Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), is known as the Piedmont Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint relief eroded on highly complicated crystalline rocks.

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  • The former region consists of detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not yet eroded down to the level of the Piedmont Belt.

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  • On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.

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  • Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.

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  • Chromic sulphide, Cr2S3, results on heating chromium and sulphur or on strongly heating the trioxide in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen; it forms a dark green crystalline powder, and on ignition gives the sesquioxide.

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  • Their configuration was determined by their relationship to their oxalo-derivatives; the cis-dichloro chloride, [CrC 2 H 4 (NH 2) 2 C1 2 ]Cl-H 2 0, compound with potassium oxalate gave a carmine red crystalline complex salt, [Cr{C2H4(NH2)2}C204][CrC2H4(NH2)2-(C204)2]12H20, while from the trans-chloride a red complex salt is obtained containing the unaltered trans-dichloro group [CrC2H4(NH2)2 C12]

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  • It is an orange crystalline powder which is soluble in water, forming a yellow solution.

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  • Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).

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  • Magnesium Nitrate, Mg(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is a colourless, deliquescent, crystalline solid obtained by dissolving magnesium or its carbonate in nitric acid, and concentrating the solution.

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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

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  • The islands of these outer arcs consist chiefly of crystalline schists and limestones, overlaid by Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits.

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  • In the later years of his life he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in physical properties.

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  • Both of these ranges of hills are composed of hard crystalline rocks, and between them lies the lowland eroded on the weaker sandstones and sediments.

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  • Deposits of crystalline graphite are found in Chester and Berks counties.

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  • Every river which rises in Tibet washes down sands impregnated with gold, and it has been proved that this gold is not the product of intervening strata, but must have existed primarily in the crystalline rocks of the main axes of upheaval.

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  • Crystals of ice may lie side by side with crystals of common salt, but each crystalline individual is either ice or salt; no one crystal contains both components in proportions which can be varied continuously.

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  • The possibility of these phenomena should be borne in mind when attempts are made to interpret the structure of crystalline bodies in terms of the theory of equilibrium.

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  • The filtrate, now containing roughly two molecules of alumina to one of soda, is concentrated to the original gravity of 1.45, and employed instead of fresh caustic for the attack of more bauxite; the precipitate is then collected, washed till free from soda, dried and ignited at about looo C. to convert it into a crystalline oxide which is less hygroscopic than the former amorphous variety.

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  • This powder, provided that it has not been too' strongly ignited, is soluble in strong acids; by ignition it becomes denser and nearly as hard as corundum; it fuses in the oxyhydrogen flame or electric arc, and on cooling it assumes a crystalline form closely resembling the mineral species.

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  • Outside this arc lies a depression along which the waters of the upper Danube and the lower Rhone find their way towards the sea; and beyond rise the ancient crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France, together with the intervening Mesozoic beds of southern Germany and the Jura.

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  • In the case of the Alps it seems natural enough that the crystalline masses of Bohemia, the Black Forest and the central plateau of France should be firmer than the more modern sedimentary deposits; but it is not so easy to understand why the Mesozoic rocks of southern Germany resisted the folding, while those of the Jura yielded.

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  • The Eastern Alps consist of a central mass of crystalline and schistose rocks flanked on each side by a zone of Mesozoic beds and on the north by an outer band of Tertiary deposits.

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  • The central zone of crystalline rock consists chiefly of gneisses and schists, but folded within it is a band of Palaeozoic rocks which divides it longitudinally into two parts.

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  • Palaeozoic beds also occur along the northern and southern margins of the crystalline zone.

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  • On the southern side of the chain the Mesozoic zone disappears entirely a little west of Lago Maggiore and the crystalline rocks rise directly from the plain.

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  • The main chain is formed chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks, which on the Italian side rise directly from the plain without any intervening zone of Mesozoic beds.

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  • Upon the outer side of the arc the central zone of crystalline rocks is flanked by Mesozoic and Tertiary belts; towards the west, indeed, the individuality of these belts is lost, to a large extent, but the rocks remain.

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  • The beds of chert are utilized in the pottery industry, and some of the harder and more crystalline limestones are beautiful marbles, capable of taking a high polish.

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  • It forms a crystalline compound with picric acid.

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  • They are crystalline, hygroscopic compounds and are employed for the manufacture of the naphthols.

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  • Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.

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  • In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.

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  • They are colourless crystalline solids which turn brown on exposure.

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  • This salt is a colourless crystalline substance of composition CH30 C6H4 N2 CN HCN 2H20, and has the properties of a metallic salt; it is very soluble in water and its solution is an electrolyte, whereas the solutions of the synand anticompounds are not electrolytes.

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  • They are yellow crystalline solids, which do not unite with acids.

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  • To purify the oxide, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid until the acid is neatly neutralized, the solution is cooled, filtered, and baryta water is added until a faint permanent white precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide appears; the solution is now filtered, and a concentrated solution of baryta water is added to the filtrate, when a crystalline precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide, Ba0 2 8 H 2 0, is thrown down.

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  • Digitalin, is crystalline and is also insoluble in water.

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  • The majority of minerals are found commonly in masses which can with difficulty be recognized as aggregates of crystalline grains, and occur comparatively seldom as distinct crystals; but the diamond is almost always found in single crystals, which show no signs of previous attachment to any matrix; the stones were, until the discovery of the South African mines, almost entirely derived from sands or gravels, but owing to the hardness of the mineral it is rarely, if ever, water-worn, and the crystals are often very perfect.

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  • Bort (or Boart) is the name given to impure crystals or fragments useless for jewels; it is also applied to the rounded crystalline aggregates, which generally have a grey colour, a rough surface, often a radial structure, and are devoid of good cleavage.

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  • Carbonado or " black diamond," found in Bahia (also recently in Minas Geraes), is a black material with a minutely crystalline structure somewhat porous, opaque, resembling charcoal in appearance, devoid of cleavage, rather harder than diamond, but of less specific gravity; it sometimes displays a rude cubic crystalline form.

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  • This series is overlain unconformably by a younger quartzite of similar character, and itself rests upon the crystalline schists.

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  • Among the commonest associates of the diamond are quartz, topaz, tourmaline, rutile, zircon, magnetite, garnet, spinel and other minerals which are common accessory constituents of granite, gneiss and the crystalline schists.

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  • Cohen, who regarded the pipes as of the nature of a mud volcano, and the blue ground as a kimberlite breccia altered by hydrothermal action, thought that the diamond and accompanying minerals had been brought up from deep-seated crystalline schists.

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  • Adolf Knop suggested that this may have first yielded hydrocarbons by contact with water, and that from these the crystalline diamond has been formed.

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  • The boulder is a crystalline rock consisting of pyroxene (chrome-diopside), garnet, and a little olivine, and is studded with diamond crystals; a portion of it is preserved in the British Museum (Natural History).

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  • Some regard the eclogite boulders as derived from deep-seated crystalline rocks, others as concretions in the blue ground.

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  • The mineral is also frequently found massive, with a coarse or fine granular structure and a crystalline fracture; sometimes it occurs as a soft, white, amorphous deposit resembling artificially precipitated zinc sulphide.

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  • Beautiful isolated tetrahedra of transparent yellow blende are found in the snow-white crystalline dolomite of the Binnenthal in the Valais, Switzerland.

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  • It forms a deliquescent crystalline mass.

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  • The animating spirit of love, moreover, has here deepened and intensified into a crystalline harmony of earthly passion with the love that is divine and transcending; the outward manifestation is regarded as a symbol of a sentiment at once eternal and quintessential.

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  • Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.

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  • Between the Palaeozoic area near Ottawa, and Georgian Bay to the north of the region just referred to, there is a southward projection of the Archaean protaxis consisting of granite and gneiss of the Laurentian, enclosing bands of crystalline limestone and schists, which are of interest as furnishing the only mines of "Old Ontario."

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  • The mountain range that runs out towards the north-east of Sicily is composed of crystalline rocks precisely similar to those forming the parallel range of Aspromonte in Calabria, but both of these are girt about by sedimentary strata belonging in part to an early Tertiary epoch.

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  • The steep and narrow crystalline ridge which trends north-eastwards, and is known to geographers by the name of the Peloritan Mountains, does not reach 4000 ft.

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  • The Monti Peloritani at the north-eastern extremity of the island consists of gneiss and crystalline schists; but with this exception the whole of Sicily is formed of Mesozoic and later deposits, the Tertiary beds covering by far the greater part.

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  • The fundamental formation consists of crystalline rocks.

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  • The apex is occupied by a massif of crystalline rocks.

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  • The oldest rocks, consisting of crystalline schists with numerous intrusions of granite, porphyry and diorite, occupy the eastern portion of the country between the Nilesouth of Assuan and the Red Sea.

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  • His investigation (also in 1826) of the two crystalline modifications of sulphur threw much light on the fact that the two minerals calc-spar and aragonite have the same composition but different crystalline forms, a property which Mitscherlich called dimorphism.

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  • It consists largely of crystalline and schistose rocks.

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  • The core is formed by the mountain masses of Rhodope, Belasitza, Perin and Rila; and here Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds are absent, and the earliest sedimentary deposits belong to the Tertiary period and lie flat upon the crystalline rocks.

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  • It bears to ordinary slowly-cooled slag a similar relation to that borne by plastic sulphur to ordinary crystalline sulphur.

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  • Cements of the Portland type differ in kind from those of the pozzuolanic class; they are not mechanical mixtures of lime and active silica ready to unite under suitable conditions, but consist of definite chemical compounds of lime and silica and lime and alumina, which, when mixed with water, combine therewith, forming crystalline substances of great mechanical strength, and capable of adhering firmly to clean inert material, such as stone and sand.

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  • Thallous bromide, TIBr, is a light yellow crystalline powder; it is formed analogously to the chloride.

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  • Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island.

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  • Urea may be recognized by its crystalline oxalate and nitrate, which are produced on adding oxalic and nitric acids to concentrated solutions of the base; by the white precipitate formed on adding mercuric nitrate to the neutral aqueous solutions of urea; and by the so-called "biuret" reaction.

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  • In that region the Silurian rocks have been invaded by large bosses of granite and have undergone a variable amount of metamorphism which has in some places altered them into hard crystalline schists.

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  • Any such basins belonging to the time of the folding of the crystalline schists would have been filled up and effaced long ago.

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  • They rise into prominent pyramidal mountains, which, as the stratification is usually almost horizontal, present in their terraced sides a singular contrast to the neighbouring heights, composed of highly plicated crystalline schists.

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  • In general the stratified deposits lie nearly flat and in regular conformable succession, the lowest resting upon the floor of ancient crystalline rocks.

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  • Broadly the malleable and ductile metals and alloys show a fibrous character when ruptured, the fusible ones a crystalline fracture.

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  • A piece of cast iron, or steel or bronze, shows on rupture a granular, crystalline surface destitute of any fibre.

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  • The ductile metals and alloys also extend from Jo to 30 with reduction of area before they fracture, the crystalline ones snap shortly without warning.

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  • Wrought iron and mild steel may be made to show a short and crystalline fracture by a sudden application of stress, while if drawn asunder slowly they develop the silky, fibrous appearance.

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  • Lower Palaeozoic strata lap up on to the crystalline rocks on all sides of the mountain group. The region is rich in magnetic iron ores, which though mined for many years are not yet fully developed.

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  • Excellent iron-ore occurs in the crystalline rocks south of the Damuda river as also in many other parts of India.

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  • The central plateau consists of ancient crystalline rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones and conglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age.

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  • The median zone is composed largely of crystalline rocks with granites and some Palaeozoic unfossiliferous rocks.

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  • It exists in two crystalline forms. Nitric acid passed into its chloroform solution gives phenyl diazonium nitrate.

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  • In the solid state triphenyl is colourless, crystalline and bimolecular.

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  • From Morphinae Tartras, a white crystalline powder, are prepared, Injectio Morphinae Hypodermica, containing 5% of morphine tartrate, and Liquor Morphinae Tartratis.

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  • It is readily soluble in acids, forming salts, the rate of solution being rapid if the oxide is in the amorphous condition, but slow if the oxide is crystalline.

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  • It forms crystalline compounds with ammonia and the organic bases.

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  • Crystalline schists occupy a large part of the country, forming all the higher mountain ranges.

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  • Rubidium carbonate, Rb2C03, formed by the addition of ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide, is a crystalline mass which melts in its water of crystallization when heated.

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  • It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).

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  • The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.

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  • A crystalline form was obtained by Debray as olive-green prisms by igniting a mixture of sodium tungstate and carbonate in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, and by Nordenskjold by heating hydrated tungstic acid with borax.

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  • Of the salts, the normal tungstates are insoluble in water with the exception of the alkaline tungstates; they are usually amorphous, but some can be obtained in the crystalline form.

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  • This gives the tetrachloride as a greyishbrown crystalline powder.

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  • It forms black lustrous crystals, or when quickly condensed, a dark green crystalline powder.

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  • The hydrides of the halogens are all colourless, strongly fuming gases, readily soluble in water and possessing a strong acid reaction; they react readily with basic oxides, forming in most cases well defined crystalline salts which resemble one another very strongly.

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  • On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.

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  • The geology of Borneo is very imperfectly known The mountain range which lies between Sarawak and the Dutch possessions, and may be looked upon as the backbone of the island, consists chiefly of crystalline schists, together with slates, sandstones and limestones.

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  • These formations lie at the base of the lowest Cambrian strata and may possibly be included in the pre-Cambrian, though in Norway they are clearly resting upon a striated floor of crystalline rocks.

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  • On the Norwegian side the Cambrian is perhaps represented by the Roros schists which lie at the base of a great series of crystalline schists, the probable equivalent of Ordovician and Silurian rocks.

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  • Farther south there are zones of serpentine, and of crystalline and schistose rocks, some of which are probably Palaeozoic. The direction of the folds of this region is from west to east, but on the borders of Phrygia and Mysia they meet the north-westerly extension of the Taurus folds and bend around the ancient mass of Lydia.

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  • The sloping surface is gently rolling, and has resulted from the uplift and dissection of a nearly level plain of erosion developed on folded, crystalline rocks.

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  • The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility.

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  • The remainder of Finland is built up of the oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period.

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  • It is obtained as a fine red crystalline precipitate by reducing an alkaline copper solution with sugar.

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  • It dissolves in the excess of acid, and is precipitated as a white crystalline powder on the addition of water.

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  • The geological structure is remarkably uniform, the plateau consisting mainly of sedimentary deposits resting on crystalline rocks.

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  • The geological structure, consisting chiefly of eruptive rocks and crystalline limestone, is similar to that of northern Amboyna.

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  • Ferrous iodide, FeI2, is obtained as a grey crystalline mass by the direct union of its components.

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  • It then forms a yellowish crystalline mass, which readily dissolves in acids with the liberation of sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • It occurs in nature as the mineral melanterite, either crystalline or fibrous, but usually massive; it appears to have been formed by the oxidation of pyrite or marcasite.

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  • Fe2P forms crystalline needles insoluble in acids except aqua regia; it is obtained by fusing copper phosphide with iron.

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  • The inner zone of crystalline and schistose rocks which forms the main chain of the Alps, is absent in the Apennines except towards the southern end.

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  • But that in Tertiary times there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines.

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  • On the Italian border of this land there was raised a mountain chain with an inner crystalline zone and an outer zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds.

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  • In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here been sunk beneath the sea.

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  • The manufactures of Quincy were long unimportant, with the exception of "Quincy granite,'" which was first quarried in 1825,-this being the first "systematic siliceous crystalline rock quarrying" in New England-and of which the output in the form of tombstones and monuments in 1905 was valued at $2,018,198, and in the form of "marble and stone work" was valued at $364,924.

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