But the relation of East and West during the Crusades was not merely hostile or negative.
The crusades subjected the Jews to this ordeal.
The Crusades of St Louis.
But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.
The Crusades had a favourable influence on the intellectual state of the Western nations.
As chivalry directed the layman to defend what was right, so the preaching of the Crusades directed him to attack what was wrong - the possession by "infidels" of the Sepulchre of Christ.
The culture developed in the West during the 13th century was not only permitted to develop by the protection of the Crusades, it grew upon materials which the Crusades enabled it to import from the East.
The History of the Kingdom and the Crusades from the Loss of Edessa in 1144 to the Fall of Jerusalem in 1187.
In the same way the Crusades themselves may be regarded as a stage in the clerical reformation of the fighting laymen.
As such a novum salutis genus, the Crusades connect themselves with the history of the penitentiary system; as the foreign policy of the Church they belong to that clerical purification and direction of feudal society and its instincts, which appears in the institution of "God's Truce" and in chivalry itself.
The Crusades are the offensive side of chivalry: chivalry is their parent - as it is also their child.
One can readily understand the popularity of the Crusades, when one reflects that they permitted men to get to the other world by fighting hard on earth, and allowed them to gain the fruits of asceticism by the ways of hedonism.
Here he joined Conrad (who had come by sea from Constantinople) and Baldwin III., and after some deliberation the three 1 We speak of First, Second and Third Crusades, but, more exactly, the Crusades were one continuous process.
Crusades appear to have been dignified by numbers when they followed some crushing disaster - the loss of Edessa in 1144, or the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 - and were led by kings and emperors; or when, like the Fourth and Fifth Crusades, they achieved some conspicuous success or failure.
Greeks; lastly, there are the Crusades waged by the papacy against revolted Christians - John of England and Frederick II.
It is noticeable that it was on French soil that the seed had been sown.3 Preached on French soil by a pope of French descent, the Crusades began - and they continued - as essentially a French (or perhaps better Norman-French) enterprise; and the kingdom which they established in the East was essentially a French kingdom, in its speech and its customs, its virtues and its vices.
Crusaders in fact they were before crusades were preached.
The knight who joined the Crusades might thus still indulge the bellicose side of his genius - under the aegis and at the bidding of the Church; and in so doing he would also attain what the spiritual side of his nature ardently sought - a perfect salvation and remission of sins.
But it is important to bear in mind the continuity of the Crusades - the constant flow of new forces eastward and back again westward; for this alone explains why the Crusades formed a great epoch in civilization, familiarizing, as they did, the West with the East.
The forty years from 1189 to 1229 form a period of incessant crusading, occupied by Crusades of every kind.
The lay basis of the Third Crusade made it, in one sense, the greatest of all Crusades, in which all the three great monarchs of western Europe participated; but it also made it a failure, for the kings of France and England, changing caelum, non animum, carried their political rivalries into the movement, in which it had been agreed that they should be sunk.
On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.
The history of the kingdom of Jerusalem is part of the history of the Crusades: the history of the other kingdoms or states touches the history of the Crusades less vitally.
This is one of the many facts which differentiate the Crusades of the 13th from those of the preceding century.
If the Third Crusade had been directed by the lay power towards the true spiritual end of all Crusades, the Fourth was directed by the lay power to its own lay ends; and the political and commercial motives, which were deeply implicit even in the First Crusade, had now become dominantly explicit.
No basis for the Crusades was ever to be found in the Latin empire of the East; and Innocent, after vainly hoping for the new Crusade which was to emerge from Constantinople, was by 1208 compelled to return to the old idea of a Crusade proceeding simply and immediately from the West to the East.
The glow and the glamour of the Crusades disappear save for the pathetic sunset splendours of St Louis, as Dandolo dies, and gallant Villehardouin drops his pen.
The Fifth Crusade is the last which is started in that pontificate of Crusades - the pontificate of Innocent III.
But for Innocent these outbursts of the revivalist element, which always accompanied the Crusades, had their moral: "the very children put us to shame," he wrote; "while we sleep 1 Already under Innocent III.
The Albigensian Crusades, however, belong to French history; and it can only be noted here that their ultimate result was the absorption of the fertile lands, and the extinction of the peculiar civilization, of southern France by the northern monarchy.
Alone of all Crusades (though the Fourth Crusade offers some analogy) it was not blessed but cursed by the papacy: alone of all the Crusades it was conducted without a single act of hostility against the Mahommedan.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the Crusades.
CRUSADES, the name given to the series of wars for delivering the Holy Land from the Mahommedans, so-called from the cross worn as a badge by the crusaders.
From this point of view, the Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the East - a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia.
Nor, indeed, must it be forgotten that the search for new and more direct connexions with the routes of Oriental trade is one of the motives underlying the Crusades themselves, and leading to what may be called the 13th-century discovery of Asia.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
The former was the driving force which made the First Crusade successful, where later Crusades, without its stimulus, for the most part failed; the latter was the one staunch ally which alone enabled Baldwin I.
So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
It is indeed true that to thousands the hope of acquiring spiritual merit must have been a great motive; it is also true, as the records of crusading sermons show, that there was a strong element of "revivalism" in the Crusades, and that thousands were hurried into taking the cross by a gust of that uncontrollable enthusiasm which is excited by revivalist meetings to-day.
To the Normans particularly the Crusades had an intimate appeal.
They appealed to the old Norse instinct for wandering - an instinct which, as it had long before sent the Norseman eastward to find his El Dorado of Micklegarth, could now find a natural outlet in the expedition to Jerusalem: they appealed to the Norman religiosity, which had made them a people of pilgrims, the allies of the papacy, and, in England and Sicily, crusaders before the Crusades: finally, they appealed to that desire to gain fresh territory, upon which Malaterra remarks as characteristic of Norman princes.
The union of Mardin and Aleppo under the sway of these two amirs, connecting as it did Mesopotamia with Syria, marks an important stage in the revival of Mahommedan power (Stevenson, Crusades in the East, p. 109).
But the strength of the kingdom lay less perhaps in the army than in the magnificent fortresses which the nobility, and especially the two orders, had built; and the most visible relic of the crusades to-day is the towering ruins of a fortress like Krak (Kerak) des Chevaliers, the fortress of the Knights of St John in the principality of Tripoli.
in lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted in 1183.
in 1271-1272 - all famous Crusades, which are not reckoned in the usual numbering.
To the Netherlands, as to the rest of western Europe, the result of the crusades was in the main advantageous.
With regard to the carpet manufactory, it is said locally to date from the time of the Crusades, and it is presumed that the Crusaders learnt the art from the Saracens.
Though crusades had not yet been preached, the strife with the Mussulman at once brought in the crusading element; to the Christian people of the island they were in many cases real deliverers; still, the actual process by which Sicily was won was not so very different from that by which Apulia had been won.
They first entered Poland from Germany during the era of the crusades, and soon spread through Lithuania, Courland, the Ukraine, and, in the 18th century, Bessarabia.
Economically and socially the crusades had disastrous effects upon the Jews.
Somewhat later the Crusades kept up communication with the Levant, and established there the power of the Roman Church, somewhat to the detriment of oriental Christianity, but intercourse with farther Asia was limited to the voyages of a few travellers.
She now commanded the route to the Holy Land and could supply the necessary transport, and from the Crusades her growing aristocracy reaped large profits.
Yet the debt of Europe to the Crusades in this last respect has perhaps been unduly emphasized.
The doge assumed the title of duke of Dalmatia, and a great step was taken towards the supremacy of Venice in the Adriatic, which was essential to the free development of her commerce and also enabled her to reap the pecuniary advantages to be derived from the Crusades.
The Meaning of the Crusades.
Historical Causes of the Crusades.
But it must also be admitted that there were motives of this world to attract the masses to the Crusades.
It was natural that France should be the home of the Crusades.
Such aid is recorded to have been given on the Third and the Fifth Crusades.
The kingdom of Lesser Armenia, established in 1195, may also be regarded as a result of the Crusades.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
It is unique in the annals of the Crusades.
Two things gave the Mongols an influence on the history of the Holy Land and the fate of the Crusades.
The Crusades thus widen out, towards their close, into a general scheme for the christianization of all the known world.'
It was in the year 1260 when it first seemed likely that any results definitely affecting the course of the Crusades would flow from the action of the Mongols.
More serious were the plans and the attempts of Charles of Anjou and Louis IX., in which the Crusades may be said to have finally ended, save for sundry disjointed epilogues in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Louis had been led to think that the bey of Tunis might be converted, and in that hope he resolved to begin this eighth and last of the Crusades by an expedition to Tunis.
Two projects of Crusades were started before the final expulsion of the Latins from Syria.
The Franks evacuated Syria altogether, leaving behind them only the ruins of their castles to bear witness, to this very day, of the Crusades they had waged and the kingdom they had founded and lost.
The Ghost of the Crusades.
France, always the natural home of the Crusades, was too fully occupied, first by war with England and then by a struggle with the papacy, to turn her energies towards the East.
But it is often the case that theory develops as practice fails; and as the theory of the Holy Roman Empire was never more vigorous than in the days of its decrepitude, so it was with the Crusades.
Particularly in the first quarter of the 14th century, writers were busy in explaining the causes of the failures of past Crusades, and in laying down the lines along which a new Crusade must proceed.
Several causes are recognized by these writers as accounting for the failure of the Crusades.
Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen.
Others again find in the princes of Europe the authors of the ruin of the Crusades; they too had preferred their own national or dynastic interests to the cause of a common Christianity.
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
But one might enumerate ad infinitum the causes of the failure of the Crusades.
It is simplest, as it is truest, to say that the Crusades did not fail - they simply ceased; and they ceased because they were no longer in joint with the times.
in 1307, advocates a general council of Europe to maintain peace and prevent the dissensions which - as, for instance, in 1192 - had helped to cause the failure of past Crusades.
18 the theorists who speculated and wrote on the Crusades), he attempted to revive the old crusading spirit throughout the west of Europe.
sought to unite the king of Hungary and the king of Cyprus in a common Crusade against the Turks; but it was not till 1396 that an attempt was at last made to supplement by a land Crusade the naval Crusades of 1344 and 1345.
Not the Western Crusades but an Eastern rival, Timur (Tamerlane), king of Transoxiana and conqueror of southern Russia and India, was destined to arrest the progress of Bayezid; and from the battle of Angora (1402) till the days of Murad II.
An army of cosmopolitan adventurers, led by the Cardinal Caesarini, joined the 1 The dream of a Crusade to Jerusalem survived de Mezieres; a society which read "romaunts" of the Crusades, could not but dream the dream.
Yet the ghost of the Crusades still lingered.
and Ferdinand of Aragon for the partition of Naples in 1500, was excused as a thing necessary in the interests of the Crusades.
Results of the Crusades.
- In one vital respect the result of the Crusades may be written down as failure.
The Crusades began with the Seljukian Turk planted at Nicaea; they ended with the Ottoman Turk entrenched by the Danube.
A wide missionary activity had begun in the 13th century - an activity which was the product of the Crusades and the contact with the Moslem which they brought, but which yet helped to check the Crusades, substituting as it did peaceful and spiritual conquests of souls for the violence and materialism of even a Holy War.
But the history of the Crusades must be viewed rather as a chapter in the history of civilization in the West itself, than as an extension of Western dominion or religion to the East.
It is a chapter very difficult to write, for while on the one hand an ingenious and speculative historian may refer to the influence of the Crusades almost everything which was thought or done between r too and 1300, a cautious writer who seeks to find Brehier, L'Eglise et l'Orient, p. 347.
While from this point of view the Crusades appear as a failure, it must not be forgotten that elsewhere than in the East Crusades did attain some success.
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
If we seek the peculiar and definite results of the Crusades, we must turn to narrower issues.
In the first place, the Crusades represent the attempt of a feudal system, bound under the law of primogeniture to dispose of its younger sons.
In the second place, as has already been noticed, the Crusades represent the attempt of Western commerce to find new and more easy routes to the wealth of the East; and in this respect they led to various results.
Partly as a result of this trade, ever pushing its way farther east, and partly as a result of the Asiatic missions, which were themselves an accompaniment and effect of the Crusades, a third great result of the Crusades came to light in the 13th century - the discovery of the interior of Asia, and an immense accession to the sphere of geography.
Colonization, trade, geography - these then are three things closely connected with the history of the Crusades.
The development of the art of war, and the growth of a systematic taxation, are two debts which medieval Europe also owed to the Crusades.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
He depreciates unduly the Western civilization of the early middle ages, and exalts the civilization of the Arabs; and starting from these two premises, he concludes that modern civilization is the offspring of the Crusades, which first brought East and West together.
The military development which sprang from the Crusades is thus largely a matter of borrowing; the financial development is independent and indigenous in the West.
had imposed a tax in the interests of the Crusades; and that tax had been repeated by Louis, and imitated by Henry II.
But it was not only to the lay power that the Crusades gave an excuse for taxation; the papacy also profited.
Tithes for the Crusades were first imposed on the clergy by Innocent III.
Henceforth tithes for the Crusades are regular; under Gregory IX.
In many other ways the Europe over which the Crusades had passed was different from the Europe of the 11th century.
Always in large part French, the Crusades had on the whole contributed to exalt the prestige of France, until it stood at the end of the r3th century the most considerable power in Europe.
Of the other great powers of Europe, England and Germany had been little changed by the Crusades, save that Germany had been extended towards the East by the conquests of the Teutonic Order; but the Eastern empire had been profoundly modified, and the papacy had suffered a great change.
The papacy, on the other hand, had grown as a result of the Crusades.
Through them the popes had deposed the emperors of the West from their headship of the world, partly because through the Crusades the popes were able to direct the common Christianity of Europe in a foreign policy of their own without consultation with the emperor, partly because in the 13th century they were ultimately able to direct the Crusade itself against the empire.
Yet while they had magnified, the Crusades had also corrupted the papacy.
It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent victory, only served in the long run to lower its a It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
When we turn from the sphere of politics to the history of civilization and culture, we find the effects of the Crusades as deeply impressed, if not so definitely marked.
The Crusades had sprung from the policy of a theocratic government counting on the motive of otherworldliness; they had helped in their course to overthrow that motive, and with it the government which it had made possible.
The spirit of Nathan der Weise may not have been exactly the spirit engendered by the Crusades; and yet it is not without reason that Lessing stages the fable which teaches toleration in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic imagination.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
But the new field of poetic literature afforded by the Crusades is still more striking than this development of science.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
The Crusades afforded new details which might be inserted into old matters, and a new spirit which might be infused into old subjects; and a crusading complexion thus came to be put upon old tales like those of Arthur and Charlemagne.
By the side of these greater things it may seem little, and yet, just because it is little, it is all the more significant that the Crusades should have familiarized Europe with new plants, new fruits, new manufactures, new colours, and new fashions in dress.
from the Arabic); the use of powder and of glass mirrors, and also of the rosary itself - all these things came to Europe from the East and as a result of the Crusades.
When all is said, the Crusades remain a wonderful and perpetually astonishing act in the great drama of human life.
Yet it would be treason to the majesty of man's incessant struggle towards an ideal good, if one were to deny that in and through the Crusades men strove for righteousness' sake to extend the kingdom of God upon earth.
- In dealing with the literature of the Crusades, it is perhaps better, though ideally less scientific, to begin with chronicles and narratives rather than with documents.
One of the results of the Crusades, as has just been suggested above, was a great increase in the writing of history.
Crusaders themselves kept diaries or itineraria; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West - monks like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like Balderich of Dol - found a fertile subject for their pens in the history of the Crusades.
Chronicles and Narratives of the Crusades - (1) Collections.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.
1 In the Chanson des che'tifs and the Chanson d'Antioche the legend of the Crusades more certainly finds its expression.
He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at least twice on political business, and with the history of the Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books, with a fragment of a twentythird) - the Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum.
His book thus begins to be a real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century of the Crusades.
The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth, enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned; while the Historia orientalis of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition).
The Secreta fidelium Crucis of Marino Sanudo, a history of the Crusades written by a Venetian noble between 1306 and 1321, is also of value, particularly for the Crusade of Frederick II.
For the Crusades of St Louis the chief authorities are Joinville's life of his master (whom he accompanied to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade), and de Nangis' Gesta Ludovici regis.
The documents bearing on the history of the Crusades and the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem are various.
- The best modern account of the original authorities for the Crusades is that of A.
Prutz has also a short account of some of the historians of the Crusades (Kulturgeschichte, pp. 453-4 6 9).
Rohricht present the soundest, if not the brightest, account of the Crusades.
Luchaire's volume on Innocent III: La Question d'Orient; while for the whole of the Crusades Norden's Papstum and Byzanz is of value.
Brehier's L'Eglise et l'orient au moyen age (Paris, 1907) contains not only an up-to-date account of the Crusades, but also a full and useful bibliography, which should be consulted for fuller information.
Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization.
PHOENICIA; PALESTINE; LEBANON; HITTITES; CRUSADES; TURKEY; PERSIA: Ancient History.
Among countries represented on a larger scale on maps, Palestine not unnaturally occupies a prominent place in this age of pilgrimages and crusades (1095-1291).
One of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in Gesta Francorum, a history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).
In it he deals with ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penances, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the pope and the council, marriage and divorce.
It first became a flourishing place under the Normans and during the crusades, but attained the acme of its prosperity as a seat of trade with the East under the Angevin princes.
The age of the crusades had gone.
He was a pious, peaceloving monk with no ambition save for the church, the crusades and the extirpation of heresy.
Writing in the name of the desolate church at Jerusalem he sounded the first trumpet-call of the crusades, though almost a century was to pass away before his note was repeated by Peter the Hermit and Urban II.'
The crusaders found them everywhere in Syria and Palestine, and corrupted their name to Publicani, under which name, often absurdly conjoined with Sadducaei, we find them during the ages following the crusades scattered all over Europe.
The controversial introduction is later than the Crusades; but the rituals, as far as Regarding Paulician beliefs we have little except hostile evidence, which needs sifting.
The second duke was Henry's son Leopold I., who succeeded him in 1177 and took part in the crusades of 1182 and 1190.
It is needless to point out the influence of the crusades in making Eastern ideas known in the Western world.
It is well established that Urban preached the sermon at Clermont which gave the impetus to the crusades.
It is a late production; for Ishmaelites are spoken of, the Crusades, and the taking of Jerusalem.
The Latin church tried in vain during the Crusades to secure their adhesion to Rome.
In the time of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II.
He is at once the gigantic eater of Turpin, the huge warrior eight feet high, who could lift the armed knight standing on his open hand to a level with his head, the crusading conqueror of Jerusalem in days before the crusades, and yet with all this the temperate drinker and admirer of St Augustine, as his character had filtered down through various channels from the historical pages of Einhard.
He collected the works of several French writers who as contemporaries described the crusades, and published them under the title Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611).
The transference of the scene to Constantinople is a reminiscence of the events of the Crusades and Theodebert's projected campaign against that city.
Rother may be the Lombard king Rothari (636-650), transferred to the period of the Crusades.
Sword-blades have been made here since the early middle ages, and tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by smiths from Damascus.
His ancestors had also ruled in Egypt as caliphs of the BeniFatimites for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades.
The chronicle of Villehardouin is justly held to be the very best presentation we possess of the spirit of chivalry - not the designedly exalted and poetized chivalry of the romances, not the self-conscious and deliberate chivalry of the 14th century, but the unsophisticated mode of thinking and acting which brought about the crusades, stimulated the vast literary development of the 12th and 13th centuries, and sent knights-errant, principally though not wholly of French blood, to establish principalities and kingdoms throughout Europe and the nearer East.
If every other contemporary record of the crusades perished, we should still be able by aid of this to understand and realize what the mental attitude of crusaders, of Teutonic knights, and the rest was, and without this we should lack the earliest, the most undoubtedly genuine, and the most characteristic of all such records.
The famous description of the crusades, gesta Dei per Francos, was evidently to Villehardouin a plain matter-of-fact description, and it no more occurred to him to doubt the divine favour being extended to the expeditions against Alexius or Theodore than to doubt that it was shown to expeditions against Saracens and Turks.
(d) The later middle ages saw many minor migratory movements, such as those accompanying the crusades, the pushing of German colonization among the Sla y s, and the introduction of Flemish weavers into England.
from the crusades) and Thomas I.
He won a reputation as a bold knight in the fields of chivalry and in the crusades, and he inaugurated a new policy for his house by devoting more attention to his Italian possessions than to those on the French side of the Alps and in Switzerland.
The account of the pilgrimage of Charlemagne and his twelve paladins to the Holy Sepulchre must in its first form have been earlier than the Crusades, as the patriarch asks the emperor to free Spain, not the Holy Land, from the Saracens.
There were medieval chroniclers who did not fear to assert that Charles rose from the dead to take part in the Crusades.
The popes took the direction of the matter into their own hands towards the end of the 11th century as they realized the necessity of promoting peace among Christians in order to unite them successfully in the crusades against the Mahommedans; and the first decree of the Council of Clermont (1095), at which Urban II.
Lady Duff-Gordon published in 1861 an English translation of part of this book, to which are added lectures on the crusades delivered in Munich in 1858, under the title History and Literature of the Crusades.
Indeed, it is not too much to say that, until the days of Sobieski, the Cossacks were invariably the chief cause of the breaches between the Porte and the Republic. We have seen how carefully the Jagiellos avoided participating in any of the crusades directed by the Holy See against the arch-enemies of the Cross.
Absalon never neglected his ecclesiastical duties, and even his wars were of the nature of crusades.
Religion was not really the cause of her external dangers, for the time had passed for crusades, and no foreign power seriously contemplated an armed invasion of England for religion's sake.
From Constantinople to Antioch Bohemund was the real leader of the First Crusade; and it says much for his leading that the First Crusade succeeded in crossing Asia Minor, which the Crusades of 1101, 1147 and 1189 failed to accomplish.
See also the bibliography to CRUSADES.
A determined opponent of the Latin church and an enthusiastic admirer of the Byzantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the Crusades as a danger both political and religious.
The Hungarians undertook many crusades against the heretics in Bosnia, but towards the close of the 15th century the conquest of that country by the Turks put an end to their persecution.
It kept its importance down to the time of the Crusades.
The great figure of this period is unquestionably the French Cluniac Urban II., who led the Hildebrandine reformation with more vehemence than Gregory himself and was the originator of the crusades.
was alone capable of giving rise to two crusades organized privately and without the influence or even the approval of the pope.
From the age of the crusades on, the Armenians of Cilicia, whose patriarch sat at Sis, improved their acquaintance with Rome; and more than one of their patriarchs adopted the Roman faith, at least in words.
phorus Gregoras; and the sources for the Fourth Crusade (see CRUSADES).
At the time of the crusades, "Liche," as Jacques de Vitry says it was popularly called, was a wealthy city.
During the Crusades vast armies were set on foot in which feudal rights s Stubbs, Const.
Again, it was owing to the crusades that the church took the profession of arms under her peculiar protection, and thenceforward the ceremonies of initiation into it assumed a religious as well as a martial character.
The last case was that of Sir Francis Michell in 1621, whose spurs were hacked from his heels, his sword-belt cut, and his sword broken over his head by the heralds in Westminster Hall.8 Roughly speaking, the age of chivalry properly so called may be said to have extended from the beginning of the crusades to the end of the Wars of the Roses.
The old families had lost heavily from generation to generation, partly by personal extravagances, but also by gradual alienations of land to the Church and by the enormous expenses of the crusades.
The brilliant side comes out most clearly in Joinville, the Chronique de Du Guesclin, and the Histoire de Bayart; the darker side appears in the earlier chronicles of the crusades, and is especially emphasized by preachers and moralists like Jacques de Vitry, Etienne de Bourbon, Nicole Bozon and John Gower.
In the same year appeared his first work on the Crusades, Quellenbeitrage zur Geschichte der Kreuzzage, and a series of monographs on the same subject culminated in 1883 in the notable Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzzuge.
Out of the crusades, however, arose other efforts to develop the work which Nestorian missionaries from Bagdad, Edessa and Nisibis had already inaugurated along the Malabar coast, in the island of Ceylon, and in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea.
During the Crusades, and in the middle ages, the term Belgicae principes is of frequent occurrence, and when in 1790 the Walloons rose against Austria during what was called the Brabant revolution, their leaders proposed to give the country the name of Belgique.
At the time of the crusades it was still a large village.
With not less adroitness than Venice, Genoa saw and secured all the advantages of the great carrying trade which the crusades created between Western Europe and the East.
He is perhaps best remembered by his destruction of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (1010), a measure which helped to provoke the Crusades, but was only part of a general scheme for converting all Christians and Jews in his dominions to his own opinions by force.
Mostalis succession was not carried through without an attempt on the part of Nizr to obtain his rights, the title which Th he chose being al-Mo~-tafa lidin allah; for a time he Crusades, maintained himself in Alexandria, but the energetic measures of his brother soon brought the civil war to an end.
The beginning of this reign coincided with the beginning of the Crusades, and al-Aflal made the fatal mistake of helping the Franks by rescuing Jerusalem from the Ortokids, thereby, facilitating its conquest by the Franks in 1099.
Much of Saladins time was spent in Syria, and his famous wars with the Franks belong to the history of the Crusades and to his personal biography.
But the most celebrated devotional expedition before the Crusades was that of the four bishops - Sigfrid of Mainz, Gunther of Bamberg, William of Utrecht, and Otto of Regensburg.
This fact, after the close of the 11th century, led to the Crusades (q.v.), which in many respects are to be regarded as armed pilgrimages.
For the old dream of the pilgrim, to view the country where God had walked as man, lived on in the Crusades - a fact which is demonstrated by the letters of Bernard of Clairvaux, with the songs of Walther von der Vogelweide and other Crusaders.
This placed the pilgrimage to Rome on a level with the crusades - the only mode of obtaining a plenary indulgence.
2 In the East, too, Antichrist prophecies were extraordinarily flourishing during the period of the rise of Islam and of the Crusades.
He took part in no less than five crusades with the Teutonic order against the heathen Lithuanians and Prussians.
In 1198 and 1204 took place the Fourth and Fifth Crusades - mere expeditions, as abortive as the third.
And as though it were foreordained that no element of horror should be wanting from the history of the crusades, in 1212 there took place one of the most ghastly tragedies that has ever happened in the world - the Crusade of the Children.
The other four crusades which took place from time to time down to 1272 are of no special importance, though there is a certain amount of interest in the fact that after the sixth crusade, in 1229, emperor Frederick II.
On the other hand it may be mentioned that on the 30th of June 18J5 the cross was for the first time since the crusades borne aloft through the streets of Jerusalem on the occasion of the visit of a European prince; and that in 1858 the sacred area of the Haramesh-Sherif - the mosque on the site of the Temple of Jerusalem - was for the first time thrown open to Christian visitors.
- William of Tyre is the great primary authority for his reign; Cinnamus and Ibn-al-athir (see Bibliography to the article CRUSADES) give the Byzantine and Mahommedan point of view.
Thus, while Christendom was still preoccupied with the Crusades, two main forces of the Renaissance, naturalism and enthusiasm for antique modes of feeling, already brought their latent potency to light, prematurely indeed and precociously, yet with a promise that was destined to be kept.
who embarked from Aigues-Mortes in 1248 and 1270 for the seventh and eighth crusades.
The battle of 1189, fought on the ground to the west of Acre, affords a good example of battles of the Crusades.
During the Crusades it was alternately in the possession of the Franks and the Mahommedans, but finally fell into the hands of the latter in 1291.
(3) In 1415 began a period of crusades and discoveries, culminating in the discovery of an ocean-route to India (1497-1499).
Some anecdotes of the king's "justice," his favourite and distinguishing attribute during the sixteen years which intervened between the two crusades, are given; then comes the story of Joinville's own refusal to join the second expedition, a refusal which bluntly alleged the harm done by the king's men who stayed at home to the vassals of those who went abroad as the reason of Joinville's resolution to remain behind.
till as late, apparently, as 1697, and especially in the time of the Crusades.
He was associated with the elder Hosea Ballou in editing The Universalist Quarterly Review; edited an edition of Sismondi's History of the Crusades (1833); and wrote the Ancient History of Universalism, down to A.D.
In 1071 it fell into the hands of the Normans, and frequently appears in the history of the Crusades.
He was depicted as the leader of the crusades, the king of Jerusalem, the legislator who laid down the assizes of Jerusalem.
Bohemund was the leader of the crusades; Baldwin was first king; the assizes were the result of a gradual development.
In the time of the first crusades the main power was in the hands of the Arslan family, which, however, suffered so severely in wars with the Franks, that it was superseded by the Tnuhs, who, holding Beirut and nearly all the Phoenician coast, came into conflict with the sultans of Egypt.
The antiquities of Galilee include dolmens and rude stone monuments, rock-cut tombs, and wine-presses, with numerous remains of Byzantine monasteries and fine churches of the time of the crusades.
It was in Gaul that the decisive revolutions of the time were first prepared; Constantines crusades to overthrow the altars of paganism, and Julians campaigns to set them up again.
These elder sons of the Church made themselves responsible for carrying out the work of God, and French pilgrims in the Holy Land prepared the great movement of the Crusades against the infidels.
The townsman enriched by commerce and the emancipated peasant tried more or less valiantly to shake off the yoke of the feudal system, which had been greatly weakened, if not entirely broken down, by the crusades.
But Louis IX.s worst error was his obsession with regard to the crusades, to which he sacrificed everything.
France had not escaped any of these conflicts; but Philip the Fair was the initiator or the instrument (it is difficult to say which) who was to put an end to both imperial and theocratic dreams, and to the international crusades; who was to remove the political axis from the centre of Europe, mueh to the benefit of the western monarchies, now definitely emancipated from the feudal yoke and firmly organized against both the Church and the barons.
But he had not insisted; because Philip, between feudal vassals ruined by the crusades and lower classes fleeced by everybody, had threatened to forbid the exportation from France of any ecclesiastical gold and silver.
Of course this military religious order had lost utility and justification when the Holy Philip the Land had been evacuated and the crusades were over.
There was a dramatic completeness about this unexpected result of the crusades.
Leaving dreams about crusades to the poets, and to a papacy delivered from schism, Charles VII.
Castile ceased to be an isolated kingdom, and became an advance guard of Europe in not the least vital part of the crusades.
The crusades were probably the means of introducing fresh strains of blood into England, and of giving opportunity for fresh crossings.
This Christian kingdom in the midst of Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the leaders of the crusades, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy, had a stormy existence of about 300 years.
But four crusades, directed by the bishop of Vercelli, were required to reduce the little army of the heresiarch, entrenched in the mountains in the neighbourhood of Vercelli.
Harris, The Dioscuri in Christian Legend (1903), and The Cult of the Heavenly Twins (1906); the histories of Rome, Persia, Crusades, Mongols, &c.; Rubens Duval, Histoire politique, religieuse et litteraire d'Edesse jusqu'a la premiere croisade (1892), a useful compilation reprinted from the Journ.
Sadly, the crusades were often marred by unnecessary bloodshed.
People joined the crusades for a variety of reasons.
We all have our moral crusades that we feel strongly about.
embalmed heart carried on the crusades.
In the 1950's the American evangelist, Dr. Billy Graham, took the nation by storm with his Crusades at Earls Court.
hanger-on these men and even women became the hangers-on in various crusades.
His story became popular among soldiers fighting in the Crusades and he became patron saint of the English army, and of England.
I hope you see that the Crusades are the complete perversion of the command by Jesus to spread the GOOD news.
medieval pilgrimages ranged from an individual's visit to the shrine of a local saint through to the political posturing of the Crusades.
Men, on the other hand, tend to like signing up to crusades and confrontations and getting punchy about their politics.
The Mahommedans held Jerusalem until 1099, when it was captured by the crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon, and became the capital of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (see Crusades, vol.
At the close of the nth century the system of feudal states had been firmly established in the Netherlands under stable dynasties hereditary or episcopal, and, despite the The continual wars between them, civilization had begun to crusades.
In the winter of 1201-1202 he went to Germany to visit Philip of Swabia; and there it has been suggested, he arranged the diversion of the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople (see Crusades).
Economically and socially the crusades had disastrous effects upon the Jews (see J.
" Before the crusades the Jews had practically a monopoly of trade in Eastern products, but the closer connexion between Europe and the East brought about by the crusades raised up a class of merchant traders among the Christians, and from this time onwards restrictions on the sale of goods by Jews became frequent " (op. cit.).
Nor was the Church merely able, through the Crusades, to direct the martial instincts of 1 Fulcher of Chartres, 1, i.
But it would be a mistake to regard the Crusades (as it would be a mistake to regard the Carolingian empire) as a pure creation of the Church, or as merely due to the policy of a theocracy directing men to the holy war which is the only war possible for a theocracy.
There are the Third, Fifth and Sixth Crusades against the "infidel" Mahommedans encamped in the Holy Land; there is the Albigensian Crusade against the heretic Cathars; there is the Fourth Crusade, directed in the issue against the schismatic 4 Stevenson argues (op. cit.
see the helm of the Crusades wrenched from his grasp; and the Albigensian Crusade against the heretics of southern France was soon afterwards to show that the example could be followed, and that the land-hunger of the north French baronage could exploit a Crusade as successfully as ever did Hohenstaufen policy leagued with Venetian cupidity.
Here were two things attempted - neither, indeed, for the first time 3 - which 14th century pamphleteers on the subject of the Crusades unanimously advocate as the necessary conditions of success; there was to be peace in Europe and a commercial war with Egypt.
While the papacy thus bent its energies to the destruction of the Crusades in their genuine sense, and preferred to use for its own political objects what was meant for Jerusalem, a layman took up the derelict cause with all the religious zeal which any pope had ever displayed.
The moral character of Europe in 1300 was no longer the moral character of Europe in 110o; and the Crusades, which had been the active and objective embodiment of the other worldly Europe of I i oo, were alien to the secular, legal, scholastic Europe of 1300.
But in 1369 he was assassinated, and the last romantic figure of the Crusades died, leaving only the legacy of his memory to his chancellor de Mezieres, who for nearly forty years longer continued to be the preacher of the Crusades to Europe, advocating - what always continued to be the "dream of the old pilgrim"- a new order of knights of the Passion of Christ for the recovery and defence of Jerusalem.
At most, therefore, it may be admitted that the Crusades contributed to the dissolution of feudalism by putting property on the market and disturbing the validity of titles; that they aided the development of towns by vastly increasing the volume of trade; and that they furthered the growth of scholasticism by bringing the West into contact with the mind of the East.
Even Prutz, in his Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige, over-estimates the influence of the Crusades as a chapter in the history of civilization.
To this day there are many Arabic words in the vocabulary of the languages of western Europe which are a standing witness of the Crusades - words relating to trade and seafaring, like tariff and corvette, or words for musical instruments, like lute or the Elizabethan word "naker."
The history of a series of actions like the Crusades must primarily be based on these accounts, and more particularly on the former: narratives must precede documents where one is dealing, not with the continuous life of an organized kingdom, but with a number of enterprises - especially when those enterprises have been, as in this case, excellently narrated by contemporary writers.
But Kemal-ud-din's History of Aleppo (composed in the 13th century) contains some details on the history of the First Crusade; and the Vie d'Ousama (the autobiography of a sheik at Caesarea in northern Syria, edited and paraphrased by Derenbourg in the Publications de l'Ecole des langues orientales vivantes) presents the point of view of an Arab whose life covered the first century of the Crusades (1095-1188).
At the same time intellectual life was enriched by a wealth of fresh views and new ideas, partly the result of the busy intercourse with the East to which the Crusades had given the first impetus, and which had been strengthened and extended by lively trade relations, partly of the revived study, eagerly pursued, of ancient philosophy and literature (see Renaissance).
After eight years he was raised for six months from his dungeon to his throne once more (see Crusades).
The conversion to Islam of Nikudar Abmad, the third of the Ilkhan rulers of Persia, and the consequent troubles in the western Mongol empire, let to a suspension of hostilities between Egypt and the Ilkhans (see PERSIA: History, B), though the latter did not cease to agitate in Europe for a renewal of the Crusades, with little result.
So was founded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, whose history is one of the most painful ever penned (see Crusades).
His reign is memorable chiefly for the growing power of the Assassins (q.v.) and for the first Crusade (see Crusades).
Sometimes his commands are merely presumptuous; sometimes as when, for example, he preaches crusades against Christians for purely secular reasonsthey are the most horrible form of blasphemy.
Religious faith, love of adventure, the hope of making advantageous conquests, anticipations of a promised paradise all combined to force this advance upon the Orient, which though failing to rescue the sepulchre of Christ, the ephemeral kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus, the dukedom of Athens, or the Latin empire of Constantinople, yet gained for France that prestige for military glory and religious piety which for centuries constituted her strength in the Levant (see CRUSADES).
But as early as Aegidius Romanus (1247-1316), Averroes had been stamped as the patron of indifference to theological dogmas, and credited with the emancipation which was equally due to wider experience and the lessons of the Crusades.
Is the movement of the peoples at the time of the Crusades explained by the life and activity of the Godfreys and the Louis-es and their ladies?
And the Vatican has apologized for the havoc that the Crusades wreaked on the people of the Middle East.
Additional themes may focus on art, romance, specialized history, the Crusades, and other uniquely Mediterranean adventures.
He has become a weekly headline on many video gaming sites with crusades against such games as Bully, Grand Theft Auto, The Sims 2, and Killer 7.
The Knights Templar did exist, and their purpose included escorting travelers through the Holy Land in the years of the Crusades.
It is said that this relic was given to Charlemagne before he departed for the holy land during the crusades.
It is, however, well documented that the church was an important gathering place for knights in the Middle Ages bound for the crusades.
However, my big current focus is a solo original fantasy trilogy, Terra Incognita, all about sailing ships, sea monsters, and the crusades.
A monument of the Crusades with a statue of Pope Urban II.
Nowhere was the call responded to with greater zeal than in the Netherlands, and nowhere had the spirit of adventure and the stimulus to enterprise, which was one of the chief fruits of the crusades, more permanent effects for good.
THE TEUTONIC ORDER, or Teutonic Knights of St Mary's Hospital at Jerusalem (Der deutsche Orden, Deutsche Ritter) was one of the three great military and religious orders which sprang from the Crusades.
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
The result of the first three Crusades was that Venice acquired trading rights, a Venetian quarter, church, market, bakery, &c., in many of the Levant cities, e.g.
- The Crusades may be regarded partly as the decumanus fluctus in the surge of religious revival, which had begun in western Europe during the loth, and had mounted high during the 11th century; partly as a chapter, and a most important chapter, in the history of the interaction of East and West.
Considered as holy wars the Crusades must be interpreted by the ideas of an age which was dominated by the spirit of otherworldliness, and accordingly ruled by the clerical power which represented the other world.
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