The third crusade numbered among its chiefs Floris III.
prevented him from carrying out his planned crusade against Bohemia, his successor was a scarcely less bitter enemy of the country.
The foremost heroes of the first crusade were Netherlanders.
Zara was recovered, and while still at Zara the leaders of the Crusade, supported by Dandolo, resolved for their own private purposes to attack Constantinople, instead of making for the Holy Land.
By analogy the term "crusade" is also given to any campaign undertaken in the same spirit.
The pope had already authorized the extensive grant of indulgences in order to secure funds for the crusade and more particularly for the rebuilding of St Peter's at Rome.
Valdemar cheerfully undertook a new crusade "for the honour of the Blessed Virgin and the remission of my own sins."
He proclaimed a crusade against Louis and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217).
The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.
He took part in the subsequent campaign, but when the treaty of Passau was signed in August 1552 he separated himself from his allies and began a crusade of plunder in Franconia.
Far more comprehensive was the second charter, granted by Philip's widow Mathilda, after his death on crusade in 1191, as the price paid for the faithfulness of the city to her cause.
In 1248 he accompanied Louis in the crusade to Egypt, but on the defeat of the Crusaders he was taken prisoner with his brother.
Dean was directed to spend all available weekend time on a door to door smiling and handshaking crusade, the first of many Fred had mapped out for his full-court press for making David Dean the sheriff of Ouray County, Colorado.
ioo), historian of the first crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aix-laChapelle.
He thought of going on the crusade to Barbary; but instead, in July 1390, went to serve with the Teutonic knights in Lithuania.
He appears on the first crusade at Constantinople as one of Godfrey's men; and he helped Tancred to occupy Bethlehem in June 1099.
The threat that seems to be conveyed in these words, of trying to promote a new crusade, was never carried out; the remaining years of Dominic's life were wholly given up to the founding of his order.
In 1218 he went on crusade to the Holy Land and took part in the capture of Damietta; then returning to England he died at Wallingford in October 1232.
When the First Crusade finally came, what was it but a penitentiary pilgrimage under arms - with the one additional object of conquering the goal of pilgrimage ?
in a crusade to north Africa, where the French king died of fever, and Charles, after defeating the soldan of Tunis, returned to Sicily.
He took part in the agitation for the First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097).
In order to undertake the crusade Godfrey sold the castle of Bouillon to the prince bishop of Liege, and the title of duke of Bouillon remained the appendage of the bishopric till 1678, or for 580 years.
The third crusade, famous for the participation of Richard I., was the occasion for bloody riots in England, especially in York, where 150 Jews immolated themselves to escape baptism.
Having become a haunt of pirates, and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
During this time, it is the judgment of the most recent Protestant writer on St Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavoured to carry his spiritual activity on the same lines as before.
After much negotiation the leader, Mr William Lane, a Brisbane journalist, decided on Paraguay, and he tramped across the continent, preaching a new crusade, and gathering in funds and recruits in his progress.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
Torquemada to be grand inquisitor of Spain; and he offered plenary indulgence to all who would engage in a crusade against the Waldenses.
During preparations for a crusade he died in Rome on the 13th or 14th of December 1124.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
He established himself firmly in Tyre (refusing admission to Guy, the king of Jerusalem); and from it he both sent appeals for aid to Europe - which largely contributed to cause the Third Crusade - and despatched reinforcements to the crusaders, who, from 1188 onwards, were engaged in the siege of Acre.
It was alleged that, while accompanying her husband on the Second Crusade (1146-1149) Eleanor had been unduly familiar with her uncle, Raymond of Antioch.
intervened so as to leave Matthias free to engage in a projected crusade against the Turks, which subsequent political complications, however, rendered impossible.
In 1147 a count of Montferrat took part in the Second Crusade; but the connexion with the Holy Land begins to be intimate in 1176.
During the second crusade (1145-1147) Bernard of Clairvaux heroically protested against similar inhumanities.
When the Fourth Crusade was proclaimed at Soissons, it was to Venice that the leaders applied for transport, and she agreed to furnish transport for 4500 horses, 9000 knights, 20,000 foot, and provisions for one year: the price was 85,000 silver marks of Cologne and half of all conquests.
(1281), who recommenced persecuting the Ghibellines, excommunicated the Greek emperor, Michael Palaeologus, proclaimed a crusade against the Greeks, filled every appointment in the papal states with Charles's vassals, and reappointed the Angevin king senator of Rome.
This history begins at the time of the council of Clermont, deals with the fortunes of the first crusade and the earlier history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and ends somewhat abruptly in 11 21.
A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
This was Bonif ace of Montferrat, the younger brother of Conrad, who was chosen leader of the Fourth Crusade in 1201, on the death of Theobald of Champagne.
After the second crusade the German Jews fell into the class of servi camerae, which at first only implied that they enjoyed the immunity of imperial servants, but afterwards made of them slaves and pariahs.
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
Though in his ten years of preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian.
The last Crusade had, after all, been under papal control: if Richard I.
None the less the emperor sailed on his Crusade in the summer of 1228, affording to astonished Europe the spectacle of an excommunicated crusader, and leaving his territories to be invaded by papal soldiers, whom Gregory IX.
Yet in the course of the crusade he showed himself not unsubmissive to Innocent III., who was entirely opposed to such a diversion.
To turn now to the external events which followed on the Fourth Crusade.
In pursuance of its terms the crusaders evacuated Egypt, and the Fifth Crusade was at an end.
4 He had promised the pope, at his coronation in 1220, to begin his Crusade in August 1221.
It was in 1215 that the leader of this strange Crusade had first taken the vow; it was twelve years afterwards when he finally attempted to carry the vow into effective execution.
After the failure of the Fifth Crusade - for which these delays were in part responsibleHonorius III.
It was thus as king of Jerusalem that Frederick began his Crusade in the autumn of 1227.
The paradox of Frederick's Crusade is indeed astonishing.
Here was a crusader against whom a Crusade was proclaimed in his own territories; and when he arrived in the Holy Land he found little obedience and many insults from all but his own immediate followers.
But the preaching of the Crusade by Innocent IV.
In 1269 James the Conqueror of Aragon, at the bidding of the pope, turned from the long Spanish Crusade to a Crusade in the East in order to atone for his offences against the law matrimonial.
Charles of Anjou had succeeded, as a result of the long "crusade" waged by the papacy against the Hohenstaufen from the council of Lyons to the battle of Tagliacozzo (1245-1268), in establishing himself in the kingdom of Sicily.
With these bases at his disposal he began to prepare a new Crusade, to be directed primarily (like that of Henry VI.
in 1197, and like his own projected Crusade of 1270) against Constantinople.
To arrest his progress, a Crusade, preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mezieres, divisio and pro Aria voluntas, were the ruin of the crusading army, and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated.
The logical result of the union was the Crusade of 1443.
In 1197 Hermann went on crusade.
proclaimed the first crusade.
He is constantly admitting that on such and such an occasion he was terribly afraid; he confesses without the least shame that, when one of his followers suggested defiance of the Saracens and voluntary death, he (Joinville) paid not the least attention to him; nor does he attempt to gloss in any way his refusal to accompany St Louis on his unlucky second crusade, or his invincible conviction that it was better to be in mortal sin than to have the leprosy, or his decided preference for wine as little watered as might be, or any other weakness.
1-3) that there was a resumption of intercourse more than once between Rome and Constantinople after 1054, and that the overbearing character of the Norman crusaders, and finally the horrors of the sack of Constantinople in the fourth crusade ' After the words " and in the Holy Ghost " of the Apostles' Creed the Constantinopolitan creed added " who proceedeth from the Father."
In the time of the first crusade 153 still survived; now there are scarcely 20, 14 of which are metropolitan sees.
Toulouse was, as in days long after, the seat of an heretical power, against which the forces of northern Gaul marched as on a crusade.
he draws on William of Poitiers; for the first crusade he mainly follows Fulcher of Chartres; his knowledge of Anselm's primacy comes mainly from Eadmer; and at least up to 1 100, he makes use of an English chronicle.
The rapid extension of the railway system was also largely due to his energy and financial ingenuity, and he embarked on a crusade against the evils of drunkenness by organizing a government monopoly for the sale of alcohol.
during his first crusade.
1205), emperor of Romania, count of Flanders and Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the fourth crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the East Roman empire, and the foundation of the Latin empire of Romania.
Here he resumed his crusade against Mahommedanism, raised the fanatical spirit of the inhabitants, was stoned outside the city walls and died of his wounds on the 29th of June 1315.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
It is most picturesquely situated in the valley under the rocky ridge on which are still the very well preserved remains of the castle of Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the first crusade.
Historically the battle is interesting because it was the last example of an encounter on a great scale between fleets of galleys and also because it was the last crusade.
Nicaean emperor, Theodore Lascaris, whom his own father brought home with him from his crusade.
In the latter case, however, he was allowed a respite until he returned from the projected crusade.
were divided into French and Italian factions, which wrangled over the election for nearly three years in the midst of great popular excitement, until finally, stirred by the eloquence of St Bonaventura, the Franciscan monk, they entrusted the choice to six electors, who hit on Visconti, at that time accompanying Edward of England on the crusade.
confirmed the Sicilian agreement on conditions even more favourable to Charles, who sailed in 1265, and conferred on the expedition all the privileges of a crusade.
Chronology is against this hypothesis, since Louis and she lived on good terms together for two years after the Crusade.
Later in birth than the Templars and Hospitallers, the Teutonic Order traces its first beginnings from the third Crusade.
places under the control of the Hospitallers, with the stipulation that the prior and servants alone shall necessarily be of German birth.(fn1) But it is amidst the privations and plague which attended the siege of Acre, during the third Crusade, that the first certain beginnings of the Order appear.
Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness of Edward, the pope exhorted him to make peace with Scotland, and three years later Randolph, now earl of Moray, procured the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by promising aid for a crusade.
The fall of Tyre marks a great advance in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards that complete command of the Levant which she established after the Fourth Crusade.
- Within fifteen years of the Hegira Jerusalem fell before the arms of Omar (637), and it continued to remain in the hands of Mahommedan rulers till the end of the First Crusade.
On the one hand, the reconquest of lost territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event, the immediate occasion of the holy war.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
Gregory listened to the appeal; he projected - not, indeed, as has often been said, a crusade,' but a great expedition, which should recover ' Tradition credits a pope still earlier than Gregory VII.
with the idea of a crusade.
The same appeal was made, more than once, to Urban II.; and the answer was the First Crusade.
The First Crusade was not, indeed, what Alexius had asked or expected to receive.
It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.
It would be almost truer, though only half the truth, to say that the clergy gave the name of Crusade to sanctify interests and ambitions which, while set on other ends than those of the Church, happened to coincide in their choice of means.
The former was the driving force which made the First Crusade successful, where later Crusades, without its stimulus, for the most part failed; the latter was the one staunch ally which alone enabled Baldwin I.
of France, and there on the 26th of November delivered the great speech which was followed by the First Crusade.
Thousands at once took the cross; the first was Bishop Adhemar of Puy, whom Urban named his legate and made leader of the First Crusade (for the holy war, according to Urban's original conception, must needs be led by a clerk).
The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
The idea of the crusade had thus already ripened in French poetry, before Urban preached his sermon.
Course of the First Crusade.
- The First Crusade falls naturally into two parts.
One of these may be called the Crusade of the people: the other may be termed the Crusade of the princes.
Of these the people's Crusade - prior in order of time, if only secondary in point of importance - may naturally be studied first.
By the end of October they had perished utterly at the hands of the Seljuks; a heap of whitening bones also remained to testify to the later crusaders, when they passed in the spring of 1097, of the fate of the people's Crusade.
Bohemund of Otranto, the destined leader of the Crusade, with his nephew Tancred, led a fine force of Normans by sea to Durazzo, and thence by land to Constantinople, which he reached about the same time as Raymund.
To the same great rendezvous other leaders also gathered, some of higher rank than Godfrey or Raymund or Bohemund, but none destined to exercise an equal influence on the fate of the Crusade.
2 Later legend ascribed the origin of the First Crusade to the preaching of Peter the Hermit.
We have already seen that among the princes who joined the First Crusade there were some who were rather politiques than devots, and who aimed at the acquisition of temporal profit as well as of spiritual merit.
The political motives of these three princes, and the interaction of their different policies, was thus a great factor in determining the course and the results of the First Crusade.
The influence of the Italian towns did not make itself greatly felt till after the end of the First Crusade, when it made possible the foundation of a kingdom in Jerusalem, in addition to the three principalities established by Bohemund, Baldwin and Raymond; but during the course of the Crusade itself the Italian ships which hugged the shores of Syria were able to supply the crusaders with provisions and munition of war, and to render help in the sieges of Antioch and Jerusalem.4 Sea-power had thus some influence in determining the victory of the crusaders.
In any case, it hampered the Mahommedans as much as the jealousy between Alexius and the Latins hampered the progress of the Crusade.
1 But the caliph preferred to act for 1 Thus already on the First Crusade the path of negotiation is attempted simultaneously with the Holy War.
But though the leaders of the First Crusade did not succeed in utilizing the dissensions of the Mahommedans as fully as they desired, it still remains true that these dissensions very largely explain their success.
We are now in a position to follow the history of the First Crusade.
The excitement communicated itself to the whole army; and the nervous strength which it gave enabled the crusaders to meet and defeat Crusade, and above all on the - Sixth, this path was still more seriously attempted.
It is interesting, too, to notice the part which the laity already plays in directing the course of the Crusade.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
So, on that day of July, the First Crusade came to an end.
In 1100, indeed, it might appear that a new Crusade from the West, which the capture of Antioch in 1098 had begun, and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 had finally set in motion, was destined to achieve great things for the nascent kingdom.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
One of the great mistakes made by the Franks was the breach of the alliance in 1147 - a breach which was widened by the attack directed against Damascus during the Second Crusade; and the conquest of Damascus by Nureddin in 1154 was ultimately fatal to the Latin kingdom, removing as it did the one possible ally of the Franks, and opening the way to Egypt for the atabegs of Mosul.
Before we turn to describe the Second Crusade, which the loss of Edessa provoked, and to trace the fall of the kingdom, which the Second Crusade rather hastened than hindered, we may pause at this point to consider the organization of the Frankish colonies in Syria.
The Templars were founded about the year 1118 by a Burgundian knight, Hugh de Paganis; the Hospitallers sprang from a foundation in Jerusalem erected by merchants of Amalfi before the First Crusade, and were reorganized under Gerard le Puy, master until 1120.
The Teutonic knights date from the Third Crusade.
The commercial motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally prosperous.
Finally, when one remembers how, during the First Crusade, the pedites had marched side by side with the principes, and how, from the beginning of 1099, they had practically risen in revolt against the selfish ambitions of princes like Count Raymund, it becomes easy to understand the independent position which the burgesses assumed in the organization of the kingdom.
But the greatest success was attained when St Bernard - no great believer in pilgrimages, and naturally disposed to doubt the policy of a second Crusade - was induced by the pope to become the preacher of the new movement.
Thus was begun the Second Crusade, 1 under auspices still more favourable than those which attended the beginning of the First, seeing that kings now took the place of knights, while the new crusaders would no longer be penetrating into the wilds, but would find a friendly basis of operations ready to their hands in Frankish Syria.
Conrad, related by marriage to Manuel, decided in favour of the land route, which Manuel desired because it brought the Crusade more under his direction, and because, if the route by sea were followed, Roger of Sicily might be able to divert the crusading ships against Constantinople.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
The Second Crusade now collapsed.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
The result of the failure of the Second Crusade was the renewal of Nureddin's attacks.
in deciding the question of the succession during the Third Crusade.
The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
Thus it was on a kingdom of crusaders who had lost the crusading spirit that a new Crusade swept down; and Saladin's army in 1187 had the spirit and the fire of the Latin crusaders of 1099.
The fingers of the clock had been pushed back; once more things were as they had been at the time of the First Crusade; once more the West must arm itself for the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem - but now it must face a united Mahommedan world, where in 1096 it had found political and religious dissension, and it must attempt its vastly heavier task without the morning freshness of a new religious impulse, and with something of the weariness of a hundred years of struggle upon its shoulders.
Conrad of Montferrat was, as much as any one man, responsible for the Third Crusade.
Meanwhile the papacy, as soon as the news reached Rome, despatched encyclicals throughout Europe; and soon a new Crusade was in full swing.
But the Third Crusade, unlike the First, does not spring from the papacy, which was passing through one of its epochs of depression; it springs from the lay power, which, represented by the three strong monarchies of Germany, England and France, was at this time dominant in Europe.
In Germany it was the solemn national diet of Mainz (Easter 1188) which "swore the expedition" to the Holy Land; in France and England the agreement of the two kings decided upon a joint Crusade.
took, in order to further the Crusade, show its lay aspect.
The lay basis of the Third Crusade made it, in one sense, the greatest of all Crusades, in which all the three great monarchs of western Europe participated; but it also made it a failure, for the kings of France and England, changing caelum, non animum, carried their political rivalries into the movement, in which it had been agreed that they should be sunk.
Spiritually, therefore, the Third Crusade is inferior to the First, however imposing it may be in its material aspects.
We may conceive of the Third Crusade under the figure of a number of converging lines, all seeking to reach a common centre.
of Germany, using a diplomacy which corresponds to the lay character of the Third Crusade, had sought to prepare his way by embassies to the king of Hungary, the Eastern emperor and the sultan of Iconium.
The emperor Isaac Angelus had not only the old grudge of all Eastern 1 The "economic" motive for taking the cross was strengthened by the papal regulations in favour of debtors who joined the Crusade.
Thousands must have joined the Third Crusade in order to escape paying either their taxes or the interest on their debts; and the atmosphere of the gold-digger's camp (or of the cave of Adullam) must have begun more than ever to characterize the crusading armies.
The difficulties between Frederick and Isaac Angelus became acute: in November 1189 Frederick wrote to his son Henry, asking him to induce the pope to preach a Crusade against the schismatic Greeks.
Here, with the burden of the day now past, the fine old crusader - he had joined before in the Second Crusade, forty years ago - perished by accident in the river; and of all his fine army only a thousand men won their way through, under his son, Frederick of Swabia, to join the ranks before Acre (October 1190).
The enforced inactivity of a whole winter was the mother of disputes and bad blood; and when Philip sailed for the Holy Land, at the end of March 1191, the failure of the Crusade was already decided.
They show the lay aspect of the Third Crusade; they anticipate the Crusade of Frederick II.
They show again the closer approximation and better understanding with the Mahom.medans, which marks this Crusade.
The Crusade had failed - failed because a leaderless army, torn by political dissensions and fighting on a foreign soil, could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal under the banner of a leader like Saladin.
The difficulties which had arisen between Isaac Angelus and Frederick Barbarossa contain the germs of the Fourth Crusade; the negotiations between Richard and Saladin contain the germs of the Sixth.
National rivalries had been accentuated and national differences brought into prominence by the meeting of the nations in a common enterprise; while, on the other hand, Mahommedans and Christians had fraternized as they had never done before during the progress of a Crusade.
But what the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the secular state - organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation.
On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.
contrary, the thing once done would go further; and the state would take up the name of Crusade in order to cover, and under such cover to achieve, its own objects and ambitions, as in the future it was destined again and again to do.
The history of the Fourth Crusade is a history of the predominance of the lay motive, of the attempt of the papacy to escape from that predominance, and to establish its old direction of the Crusade, and of the complete failure of its attempt.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
The project of a Crusade and of an attack on Constantinople wove themselves into a single thread, in a way which very definitely anticipates the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204.
In 1195 Henry took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade.
Thus armed he pushed forward the preparations for the Crusade in Germany - a Crusade whose first of.ject would have been an attack on Alexius III.; but in the middle of his preparations he died in Sicily in the autumn of 1197, and the Crusade collapsed.
made the Crusade his ultimate object, and attempted to bring it back to its old religious basis and under its old papal direction.
By the spring of 1200, owing to Innocent's exertions, a new Crusade was in full progress, especially in France, where Fulk of Neuilly played the part once played by Peter the Hermit.
Like the First Crusade, the Fourth Crusade also - in its personnel, but not its direction - was a French enterprise; and its leading members were French feudatories like Theobald of Champagne (who was chosen leader of the Crusade), Baldwin of Flanders (the future emperor of Constantinople), and the count of Blois.
called La Question d'Orient, shows how, in spite of the pope, the Fourth Crusade was in its very beginnings a lay enterprise.
But, with Syria in the hands of the Mahommedans, the attack on Egypt must necessarily be directed by sea; and thus the Crusade henceforth becomes - what the Third Crusade, here as elsewhere the turning-point in crusading history, had already in part been - a maritime enterprise.
Accordingly, early in 1201, envoys from each of the three chiefs of the Fourth Crusade (among whom was Villehardouin, the historian of the Crusade) came to Venice to negotiate for a passage to Egypt.
But the Fourth Crusade was not to be plain sailing to Egypt.
It is significant of the final result of these things that already in 1147 Roger of Sicily, engaged in war with Manuel, had proposed the sea-route for the Second Crusade, perhaps with some intention of diverting it against Constantinople; and in the winter of 1189-1190 Barbarossa, as we have seen, had actually thought and spoken of an attack on Constantinople.
planning a Crusade which would primarily have been directed against Constantinople.
It is this Hohenstaufen policy which becomes the primary occasion of the diversion of the Fourth Crusade.
planning a Guelph Crusade, which should be under the direction of the church; and to this Guelph project he opposed the Ghibelline plan of Henry VI., with such success that he transmuted the Fourth Crusade into a political expedition against Constantinople.
On Christmas day 1201, Philip, Alexius and Boniface all met at Hagenau 1 and formulated (one may suppose) a plan for the diversion of the Crusade.
It took time and effort to bring them round to the diversion: the pope - naturally enough - set his face sternly against the project, the more as the usurper, Alexius III., was in negotiation with him in order to win his support against the Hohenstaufen, and Innocent hoped to find, as Alexius promised, a support and a reinforcement for the Crusade in an alliance with the Greek empire.
If Venetian cupidity had not originally deflected the Crusade (and it was the view of contemporary writers that Venice had committed her first treason against Christianity by diverting the Crusade from Egypt in order to get commercial concessions from Malik-al-Ad11, 2 yet it had at any rate profited exceedingly from that deflection; and the Hohenstaufen and their protégé Alexius only reaped dust and ashes.
For, however Ghibelline might be the original intention, the result was not commensurate with the subtlety of the design, and the power of the pope was rather increased than diminished by the event of the Crusade.
Yet the result of the Fourth Crusade was on the whole disastrous both for the papacy and for the crusading movement.
Venice is not the primary agent in the deflection of the Fourth Crusade.
The Crusade lost its élan when it became a move in a political game.
If the Third Crusade had been directed by the lay power towards the true spiritual end of all Crusades, the Fourth was directed by the lay power to its own lay ends; and the political and commercial motives, which were deeply implicit even in the First Crusade, had now become dominantly explicit.
No basis for the Crusades was ever to be found in the Latin empire of the East; and Innocent, after vainly hoping for the new Crusade which was to emerge from Constantinople, was by 1208 compelled to return to the old idea of a Crusade proceeding simply and immediately from the West to the East.
But before St Louis sailed for Damietta there intervened the miserable failure of one Crusade, and the secular and diplomatic success of another.
The Fifth Crusade is the last which is started in that pontificate of Crusades - the pontificate of Innocent III.
The pathos of the Children's Crusade of 1212 only nerved him to fresh efforts.
the benefits of the Crusade were promised to those who went to the assistance of the Latin empire of the East.
Thus was begun the First Crusade against heresy.
Raymund at once submitted to the pope, but the Crusade continued none the less, because, as Luchaire says," the baronage of the north and centre of France had finished their preparations,"and were resolved to annex the rich lands of the south.
Before this great gathering of all Christian Europe he proclaimed a Crusade for the year 1217, and in common deliberation it was resolved that a truce of God should reign for the next four years, while for the same time all trade with the Levant should cease.
This statesmanlike beginning of a Crusade, preached, as no Crusade had ever been preached before, in a general council of all Europe, presaged well for its success.
in 121 5 as the goal of attack, and it was accordingly resolved to begin the Crusade by the siege of Damietta, on the eastern delta of the Nile.
The original leader of the Crusade was John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband, Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command.
consented to defer his Crusade until March 1222.
The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) succeeded as signally as the Fifth Crusade had failed; but the circumstances under which it took place and the means by which it was conducted made its success still more disastrous than the failure of 1221.
had directed the Third Crusade, and the policy of the Hohenstaufen and the Venetians had directed the Fourth, it was a papal legate who had steered the Fifth to its ultimate fate.
Alone of all Crusades (though the Fourth Crusade offers some analogy) it was not blessed but cursed by the papacy: alone of all the Crusades it was conducted without a single act of hostility against the Mahommedan.
After all, there was nothing of the holy war about the Sixth Crusade: there was simply huckstering, as in an Eastern bazaar, between a free-thinking, semi-oriental king of Sicily and an Egyptian sultan.
It was from his Sicilian predecessors, who had made trade treaties with Egypt, that he had learned to make even the Crusade a matter of treaty.
- As the loss of Jerusalem in 1187 produced the Third Crusade, so its loss in 1244 produced the Seventh: as the preaching of the Fifth Crusade had taken place in the Lateran council of 1215, so that of the Seventh Crusade began in the council of Lyons of 1245.
On the one hand he repeated the provisions of the Fourth Lateran council on behalf of the Crusade to the Holy Land; on the other hand he preached a Crusade against Frederick II., and promised to all who would join the full benefits of absolution and remission of sins.
It was at the end of the year in which Jerusalem had fallen that St Louis had taken the cross, and by all the means in his power he attempted to ensure the success of his projected Crusade.
The 1 It may be argued that the Crusade against a revolted Christian like Frederick II.
The answer is partly that men like St Louis did think that the Crusade was misplaced, and partly that Frederick was really attacked not as a revolted Christian, but as the would-be unifier of Italy, the enemy of the states of the church.
The one answer was the Shepherds' Crusade, or Crusade of the Pastoureaux - "a religious Jacquerie," as it has been called by Dean Milman.
It had some of the features of the Children's Crusade of 1212.
That, too, had begun with a shepherd boy: the leader of the Pastoureaux, like the leader of the children, promised to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas; and tradition even said that this leader, "the master of Hungary," as he was called, was the Stephen of the Children's Crusade.
measure for the success of the Sixth Crusade; and it has been seen that the battle of Gaza was an act in the long drama of strife between Egypt and northern Syria.
But the policy of Charles, which thus prepared the way for a Crusade similar to those of 1197 and 1202, was crossed by that of his brother Louis IX.
St Louis had barely landed in Tunis when he sickened and died, murmuring "Jerusalem, Jerusalem" (August 1270); but Charles, who appeared immediately after his brother's death, was able to conduct the Crusade to a successful conclusion.
Baulked of any opportunity of joining in the main Crusade, Edward, after wintering in Sicily, conducted a Crusade of his own to Acre in the spring of 1271.
In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.
All the princes of western Europe took the cross; not only so, but Gregory was successful in uniting the Eastern and Western churches for the moment, and in securing for the new Crusade the aid of the Palaeologi, now thoroughly alarmed by the plans of Charles of Anjou.
Thus was a papal Crusade begun, backed by an alliance with Constantinople, and thus were the plans of Charles of Anjou temporarily thwarted.
died, and all his plans died with him; there was to be no union of the monarchs of the West with the emperor of the East in a common Crusade.
This was the last serious attempt at a Crusade on behalf of the dying kingdom of Jerusalem which was made in the West; and its collapse was quickly followed by the final extinction of the kingdom.
Particularly in the first quarter of the 14th century, writers were busy in explaining the causes of the failures of past Crusades, and in laying down the lines along which a new Crusade must proceed.
Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen.
They had indeed, as has been already noticed, done even more; they had used the name of Crusade, from the days of Henry VI.
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
Along with this advocacy of internationalism goes a plea for the disendowment of the Church, in order to provide an adequate financial basis for the future Crusade.
Isolated enterprises somewhat of the character of a Crusade, but hardly serious enough to be dignified by that name, recur during the 14th century.
or the Emperor Charles IV.; and Peter was forced to begin the Crusade with such volunteers as he could collect for himself.
was the last to attempt, a Crusade after the old fashion - an offensive war against Egypt for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre.'
From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.
In 1344 a Crusade, in which Venice, the Cypriots, and the Hospitallers all joined, ended in the conquest of Smyrna; in 1345 another Crusade, led by Humbert, dauphin of Vienne, ended in failure.
sought to unite the king of Hungary and the king of Cyprus in a common Crusade against the Turks; but it was not till 1396 that an attempt was at last made to supplement by a land Crusade the naval Crusades of 1344 and 1345.
An army of cosmopolitan adventurers, led by the Cardinal Caesarini, joined the 1 The dream of a Crusade to Jerusalem survived de Mezieres; a society which read "romaunts" of the Crusades, could not but dream the dream.
Here the last Crusade ended; and nine years afterwards, in 1 453, Mahommed II., the successor of Murad, captured Constantinople.
It was in vain that the popes sought to gather a new Crusade for its recovery; Pius II., who had vowed to join the crusade in person, only reached Ancona in 1464 to find the crusaders deserting and to die.
In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the Cross on their breasts."
3 "Don Henrique's scheme," it has been said, "represents the final effort of the crusading spirit; and the naval campaigns against the Moslem in the Indian seas, in which it culminated, forty years after Don Henrique's death, may be described as the last Crusade."
The Eastern mission had been begun by St Francis, who had visited and attempted to convert the sultan of Egypt during the Fifth Crusade (1220); within a hundred years the little seed had grown into a great tree.
Everywhere in the r5th century, in Europe and in Asia, the crescent was victorious over the cross; and Crusade and mission, whether one regards them as complementary or inimical, perished together.'
at the Lateran council of 1 2 15; and clerical taxation was thus part of the whole statesmanlike project of the Fifth Crusade as it was sketched by the great pope.
they become a great part of the papal resources in the Crusade against the Hohenstaufen; and in the 16th century they are still a normal part of the government of the Church.
Through them the popes had deposed the emperors of the West from their headship of the world, partly because through the Crusades the popes were able to direct the common Christianity of Europe in a foreign policy of their own without consultation with the emperor, partly because in the 13th century they were ultimately able to direct the Crusade itself against the empire.
It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent victory, only served in the long run to lower its a It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
The First Crusade, far more than any other, became the theme of a multitude of writings, whose different degrees of value it is allimportant to distinguish.
For the First Crusade William had followed Albert of Aix; and he had consequently depicted Peter the Hermit as the prime mover in the Crusade.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
In writing his account of the First Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary Western authorities - the Gesta Francorum, Raymond of Agiles, and Fulcher.
His view of the value of Albert of Aix, and his account of the First Crusade, have been generally followed (Kugler alone having attempted, to some extent, to rehabilitate Albert of Aix); and thus von Sybel's work may be said to mark a revolution in the history of the First Crusade, when its legendary features were stripped away, and its real progress was first properly discovered.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
He is the primary authority for the First Crusade.
He gives an ecclesiastic's account of the First Crusade, and is specially full on the spiritualistic phenomena which accompanied and followed the finding of the Holy Lance.
His account of the First Crusade itself is poor (he was absent at Edessa during its course), but otherwise he is an excellent authority.
(c) The growth of a legend, or perhaps better, a saga of the First Crusade began, according to von Sybel, even during the Crusade itself.
These instincts and impulses would be at work already among the soldiers during the Crusade, producing a saga all the more readily, as there were poets in the camp; for we know that a certain Richard, who joined the First Crusade, sang its exploits in verse, while still more famous is the princely troubadour, William of Aquitaine, who joined the Crusade of Iloo.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
Into the legendary overgrowth of the First Crusade we cannot here enter any further 2; but it is perhaps worth while to mention that the French legend of the Third Crusade equally perverted the truth, making Richard I.
His book thus begins to be a real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century of the Crusades.
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
Hagenmeyer inclines to believe in an original author, distinct from Albert the copyist; and he thinks that this original author (whether or no he was present during the Crusade) used the Gesta and also Fulcher, though he had probably also "eigene Notizen and Aufzeichnungen."
The Armenian view of the First Crusade and of Baldwin's principality of Edessa is presented in the Armenian Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa.
There is little in Arabic bearing on the First Crusade: the Arabic authorities only begin to be of value with the rise of the atabegs of Mosul (c. 1127).
For the Second Crusade the primary authority in the West is the work of Odo de Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII regis Francorum in Orientem.
during the Second Crusade; and he wrote home to Suger during the Crusade seven short letters, afterwards pieced together in a single work.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
The Third Crusade was narrated in the West from very different points of view by Anglo-Norman, French and German authorities.
The Third Crusade is also described from the English point of view by all contemporary writers of history in England, e.g.
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
His work is usefully supplemented by the narrative (La Prise de Constantinople) of On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866).
4 Of these writers see Archer's Crusade of Richard I., Appendix (in Nutt's series of Histories from Contemporary Writers).
Robert de Clary, a knight from Picardy, who presents the nonofficial view of the Crusade, as it appeared to an ordinary soldier.
The XpovcKOV Teel, ' (composed in Greek verse some time after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed also of the First) Crusade.
The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth, enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned; while the Historia orientalis of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition).
The Secreta fidelium Crucis of Marino Sanudo, a history of the Crusades written by a Venetian noble between 1306 and 1321, is also of value, particularly for the Crusade of Frederick II.
The minor authorities for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Rohricht, in the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the Historia Damiettina, based on these letters, have also been edited by Rohricht in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift per Geschichte and Kunst (1891).
The Sixth Crusade, that of Frederick II., is described in the chronicle of Richard of San Germano, a notary of the emperor, and in other Western authorities, e.g.
For the Crusades of St Louis the chief authorities are Joinville's life of his master (whom he accompanied to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade), and de Nangis' Gesta Ludovici regis.
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
For the First Crusade von Sybel's work and Chalandon's Alexis Ier Comnene may also be mentioned; for the Fourth A.
On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).
Armed with it he passed safely into heathen Germany and began a systematic crusade, baptizing, overturning idols, founding churches and monasteries, and calling from England a band of missionary helpers, monks and nuns, some of whom have become famous: St Lull, his successor in the see at Mainz; St Burchard, bishop of Wurzburg; St Gregory, abbot at Utrecht; Willibald, his biographer; St Lioba, St Walburge, St Thecla.
Opposition to Masonry was taken up by the churches as a sort of religious crusade, and it also became a local political issue in western New York, where early in 1827 the citizens in many mass meetings resolved to support no Mason for public office.
Son and nobles alike supported the Moors, when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with the rulers of Morocco they denounced him as an enemy of the faith.
Eustace died in 1093, and was succeeded by his son, EUSTACE III., who went on crusade in 1096, and died about 1125.
Fourthly, the enforcement of the fugitive slave law aroused a feeling of bitterness in the North which helped eventually to bring on the war, and helped to make it, when it came, quite as much an anti-slavery crusade as a struggle for the preservation of the Union.
Charles of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander drew him to his side and authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Turks, without mentioning Naples.
But while a crusade was talked of, the real object was central Italy, and in the autumn Cesare, favoured by France and Venice, set forth with io,000 men to complete his interrupted enterprise.
It illustrates Marino Sanuto's Secreta fidelium crucis, in which its author vainly appeals to Christendom to undertake another crusade.
Charts of this description are first mentioned in connexion with the Crusade of Louis XI.
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.
Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his crusade against the slave trade.
He preached his last sermon in Mr Belson's house at Leatherhead on Wednesday, the 23rd of February 1791; wrote next day his last letter to Wilberforce, urging him to carry on his crusade against the slave trade; and died in his house at City Road on the 2nd of March 1791, in his eighty-eighth year.
with a crusade, Ninoslav was baptized, only to abjure Christianity in 1233.
A renewal of the crusade proving equally vain, in 1247 Pope Innocent III.
He joined the crusade of his elder brother, the Lord Edward (1271-1272); and Edward, on his accession, found in Edmund a loyal supporter.
When Robert's departure for the First Crusade left Normandy in the hands of Rufus (1096) Henry took service under the latter, and he was in the royal hunting train on the day of Rufus's death (August 2nd,.
In return for a contribution to the costs of a crusade, he obtained from the emperor Frederick I.
issued a bull on the 17th of March 1 4 20 which proclaimed a crusade "for the destruction of the Wycliffites, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia."
Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken.
Papal influence had meanwhile succeeded in calling forth a new crusade against Bohemia, but it resulted in complete failure.
He was entrusted with various diplomatic negotiations, and took part in the crusade of Hungary against the Sultan Bayezid, during which he was taken prisoner, and died shortly after the battle of Nicopolis (1397).
1098), one of the principal personages of the first crusade, was bishop of Puy en Velay from before 1087.
At the council of Clermont in 1095 he showed great zeal for the crusade, and having been named apostolic legate by the pope, he accompanied Raymond IV., count of Toulouse, to the east.
Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.
All this time the pressure of the Turks upon the southern provinces of Hungary had been continuous, but fortunately all their efforts had so far been frustrated by the valour and generalship of the ban of Szoreny, John Hunyadi, the fame of whose victories, notably in 1442 and 1443, encouraged the Holy See to place Hungary for the third time at the head of a general crusade against the infidel.
The loss of Ptolemais in 1291 stirred the pope to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade.
His body was buried in the church 1 This letter, even if spurious as now suspected, is found in the 11th-century Leiden MS., and is therefore anterior to the first crusade.
Both he and his wife took part in the first crusade (1099), and died on the road to Palestine.
Finally, a great crusade was resolved upon, to defray the expenses of which it was determined that the clergy should lay aside one-twentieththe pope and the cardinals one-tenth - of their revenues for the next three years; while the crusaders were to be held free of all burdens during the period of their absence.
In 1147 he went on crusade, and after his return renounced Bavaria at the instance of the new king Frederick I.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
In 1237 Artois, which was raised to a countship the following year, was conferred as an appanage by Saint Louis on his brother Robert, who died on crusade in 1250.
The new king of England, Richard Coeur de Lion, claimed the guardianship of the young Arthur, but in 1190 Richard left for the Crusade.
He held a largely attended council at Clermont in November 1095, where the preaching of the First Crusade marked the most prominent feature of Urban's pontificate.
With a view to facilitating the crusade, a council was held at Bari in October 1098, at which religious differences were debated and the exiled Anselm of Canterbury combated the Eastern view of the Procession of the Holy Ghost.
In France not even the saintly King Louis IX., who made several vain attempts to mediate, approved the pope's attitude; and the failure of the crusade which, in 1248, he led against the Mussulmans in Egypt, was, with reason, ascribed to the deflection of money and arms from this purpose to the war against the emperor.
The best known of these is his Historiae Hierosolymitanae, a history of the first crusade from 1095 to 1099.
In 1099 the Pisans joined in the second crusade, proved their valour at the capture of Jerusalem, and derived many commercial advantages from it; for within a short time they had banks, consuls, warehouses and privileges of all kinds in every Eastern port.
with a short narrative of the crusade of St Louis in 1250.
The character of Constantine in many respects resembles that of Alexius Comnenus; the slaying of a tame lion by one of the gigantic followers of Rother is founded on an incident which actually took place at the court of Alexius during the crusade of i ioi under duke Well of Bavaria, when King Rother was composed about 1160 by a Rhenish minstrel.
A detailed narrative of Richard's crusade is given in L'Estoire de la guerre sainte, a rhyming French chronicle by the minstrel Ambroise (ed.
to carry into execution, in the north of England, a letter with reference to the crusade.
As a natural consequence he was the steady opponent of Pitt's foreign policy, which he condemned as a species of crusade against freedom in the interest of despotism.
In 1203 Geoffroi V., sire de Joinville, died while on a crusade, leaving no children.
The king, so long as Wollner was content to condone his immorality (which Bischoffswerder, to do him justice, condemned), was eager to help the orthodox crusade.
He was hampered, however, by want of funds, and his counsels were distracted by the affairs of Poland, which promised a richer booty than was likely to be gained by the anti-revolutionary crusade into France.
Pan-Hellenic enthusiasts already saw Philip as the destined captain-general of a national crusade against Persia (Isocrates, Philippus, about 345).
Athens had even sent emissaries to the Persian court to give warning of the proposed national crusade.
Not merely his literary and historical importance, but almost all that is known about him, comes from his chronicle of the fourth crusade, or Conquete de Constantinople.
He introduces himself to us with a certain abruptness, merely specifying his own name as one of a list of knights of Champagne who with their count, Thibault, took the cross at a tournament held at Escry-sur-Aisne in Advent 1199, the crusade in contemplation having been started by the preaching of Fulk de Neuilly, who was commissioned thereto by Pope Innocent III.
There is a great gap in style, though none in subject, between the really poetical prose of the first historian of the fifth crusade and the Latin empire and the awkward mannerism (so awkward that it has been taken to represent a "disrhymed" verse chronicle) of his follower.
the rise of the scholastic theology, the reforms of Pope Hildebrand, and the preaching of the First Crusade by Pope Urban II.
He was originally a clerk in orders, and held several prebends; but in 1096 he joined the first crusade, and accompanied his brother Godfrey as far as Heraclea in Asia Minor.
Baldwin was one of the "adventurer princes" of the first crusade, and as such he stands alongside of Bohemund, Tancred and Raymund.
Peterwardein, the "Gibraltar of Hungary," is believed to represent the Roman Acumincum, and received its present name from Peter the Hermit, who here in 1096 marshalled the levies of the first crusade.
fanatic, whose sole ambition was to lead a crusade against the Mahommedans in north-west Africa.
In 1248 she again became regent, during Louis IX.'s absence on the crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed.
preached the first crusade, proclaimed a weekly truce for all Christendom, adding a guarantee of safety to all who might take refuge at a wayside cross or at the plough.
He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the third Crusade.
Some were readmitted into the Catholic Church, and one, Durandus de Osca (1210), attempted to found an order of Pauperes Catholici, which was the forerunner of the order of St Dominic. Many were swept away in the crusade against the Albigenses.
The crusade against the Albigensians could destroy prosperous cities and hand over lands from a heedless lord to one who was obedient to the church; but it could not get rid of heresy.
issued a bull for their extermination, and Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, put himself at the head of a crusade against them.
Among his companions he had made enemies and he was destined to take no share in the crusade he had joined.
He was soon regarded once more as a menace to the peace of Germany, and of the three alternatives presented to him by the emperor in 1188 he rejected the idea of making a formal renunciation of his claim, or of participating in the crusade, and chose exile, going again to England in 1189.
He had long been on friendly terms with the emperor Frederick II., but now excommunicated him (29th of September 1227) for continued neglect of his vows and refusal to undertake the crusade.
in 1157, joined in the war against Henry the Lion in 1180, and distinguished himself at the siege of Acre in the Third Crusade, on the return from which he died at Cyprus in 1190.
Not till 1085, however, was Roger able to undertake a systematic crusade.
successful preaching crusade in Halle; he became superintendent of its churches in 1542.
The remainder of his life he spent partly in preaching throughout Bavaria and the adjoining districts, partly in retirement in the various houses of his order; in 1270 he preached the eighth Crusade in Austria; almost the last of his labours was the defence of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas.
He did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to the crusade which set out in.
for the First Crusade (1095).
They became a separate Moorish kingdom in 1009, which, becoming extremely obnoxious for piracy, was the object of a crusade directed against it by Pope Paschal II., in which the Catalans took the lead.
In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.
of France (December 1145), announcing the Second Crusade and granting plenary indulgence under the usual conditions to those who would take the cross; and in January 1147 he journeyed to France to further preparations for the holy war and to seek aid in the constant feuds at Rome.
This early hostility to Alexius had a great influence in determining the course of his future career, and thereby helped to determine the history of the First Crusade, of which Bohemund may be regarded as the leader.
The zeal of the crusader came upon Bohemund: it is possible, too, that he saw in the First Crusade a chance of realizing his father's policy (which was also an old Norse instinct) of the Drang nach Osten, and hoped from the first to carve for himself an eastern principality.
From Constantinople to Antioch Bohemund was the real leader of the First Crusade; and it says much for his leading that the First Crusade succeeded in crossing Asia Minor, which the Crusades of 1101, 1147 and 1189 failed to accomplish.
Peter accompanied his cousin, King Philip Augustus, on the crusade of 1190, fought against the Albigenses, and was present at the battle of Bouvines in 1214.
During the first crusade the reigning prince was Kumushtegin (Ahmed Ghazi), who defeated the Franks and took prisoner the prince of Antioch, Bohemund, afterwards ransomed.
Richard on his accession confirmed John's existing possessions; married him to Isabella of Gloucester; and gave him, besides other grants, the entire revenues of six English shires; but excluded him from any share in the regency which was appointed to govern England during the third crusade; and only allowed him to live in the kingdom because urged to this concession by their mother.
This elder Alan, whose name occurs in Breton documents before r080, went on crusade in 1097, and was apparently succeeded by his brother Flaald, whose son, the younger Alan, enjoyed the favour of Henry I., who bestowed on him Mileham and its barony in Norfolk, where he founded Sporle Priory.
In 121 5 he married Iolanthe of France, but in 1217 was compelled by the pope to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, which he undertook in hopes of being elected Latin emperor of Constantinople.
The crusade excited no enthusiasm in Hungary, but Andrew contrived to collect 15,000 men together, whom he led to Venice; whence, not without much haggling and the surrender of all the Hungarian claims upon Zara, about two-thirds of them were conveyed to Acre.
No special monograph for the whole reign exists, but there is a good description of Andrew's crusade in Reinhold Roehricht, Geschichte des Konigreiches Jerusalem (Innsbruck, 1898).
Leo X., needing a subsidy from the English clergy, sent Campeggio to England on the ostensible business of arranging a crusade against the Turks.
Above all he had to meet the difficulties caused by the arrival of the warriors of the First Crusade, which had been in a great degree initiated owing to the representations of his own ambassadors, though the help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived to his consternation and embarrassment.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
The popes in Rome whilst leading the Crusade against the Albigenses did not forget their counterpart in the Balkans and recommended the annihilation of the heretics.
As the originator of the first crusade, Urban is entitled to the honour of the idea and its execution.
from the pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre, but it is Crusade no less certain that he was disturbed by the fears aroused throughout the Latin world by the recrudescence of Mussulman invasions, and particularly by the victory won by the Almoravides over the Christian army at Zalaca (1086).
The essential reason of Urban II.'s action, and consequently the true cause of the crusade, was the ambition of the pope to unite with Rome and the Roman Church the Churches of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria and even Constantinople, which the Greek schism had rendered independent.
Of these two objects, he was only to realize the former; but the crusade may well be said to have been his own work.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
Not only was the result of the crusade extremely favourable to the extension of the Roman power, but throughout the middle ages the papacy never ceased to derive almost incalculable political and financial advantages from the agitation produced by the preachers and the crusading expeditions.
- After the reformation and the crusade the papal monarchy existed, and the next step was to consolidate and extend it.
in 1150 to Roger II.'s projected crusade, which was directed towards the conquest of the Greek state.
When he was compelled to decree the Albigensian crusade he endeavoured more than once to discontinue the work, which had become perverted, and to curb the crusading ardour of Simon de Montfort.
Failing in his attempt to maintain the religious character of the crusade, he wished to prevent it from ending secularly in its extreme consequence and logical outcome.
had been able to encroach on France at one point only, when the Albigensian crusade had enabled him to exercise over the southern fiefs conquered by Simon de Montfort a political and secular supremacy in the form of collections of moneys.
was more fortunate than his predecessors, and, if he did not succeed in carrying out his projected crusade and recovering the Holy Places, he at least benefited by the FrancoVenetian expedition of 1202.
Europe refused to take any direct action against the Mussulman, but Latin feudalism, assembled at Venice, diverted the crusade by an act quest of conof formal disobedience, marched on Constantinople, seized the Greek Empire and founded a Latin Empire in its place; and Innocent had to accept the fait accompli.
But they still continued to desire the restoration of the Angevin dynasty in Sicily and to assist the designs of France on Aragon by preaching a crusade against the masters of Barcelona and Palermo.
especially, never ceased theoretically to urge the Christian world to the crusade, they were actuated by the desire of remaining faithful to tradition, and more particularly by the political and financial advantages accruing to the Holy See from the preaching and the crusading expeditions.
Several of them thought of restoring the lost empire by force, and thus giving a pendant to the fourth crusade; but the Curia finally realized the enormous difficulties of such a project, and convinced themselves that the only practical solution of the difficulty was to come to an understanding with the Palaeologi and realize pacifically the long-dreamed Church.
His attempt to reunite Bohemia with the Church was destined to failure; but the one great aim of the pope during his whole reign was the organization of a gigantic crusade - a project which showed a correct appreciation of the danger with which the Church and the West in general were menaced by the Crescent.
It is profoundly affecting to contemplate this man, a mere wreck from gout, shrinking from no fatigue, no labour, and no personal sacrifices; disregarding the obstacles and difficulties thrown in his way by cardinals and temporal princes, whose fatal infatuation refused to see the peril which hung above them all; recurring time after time, with all his intellect and energy, to the realization of his scheme; and finally adopting the high-hearted resolve of placing himself at the head of the crusade.
Again, the close of his reign was marked by the wars against Ferrara and Naples, and subsequently against Venice and the Colonnas; and these drove the question of a crusade completely into the background.
The efforts of Leo to promote a crusade, which fall mainly in the years 1517 and 1518, deserve all recognition, but very various opinions have been held as to the attitude of the pope towards the Imperial election consequent on the death of Maximilian I.
proclaimed a crusade against him.
She scolded and preached a crusade, without, however, departing from the steady pursuit of her own interests in Poland, while endeavouring with transparent cunning to push Austria and Prussia into an invasion of France with all their forces.
In 1202 the Western princes assembled at Venice, bent on a new crusade.
phorus Gregoras; and the sources for the Fourth Crusade (see CRUSADES).
Moved by Peter of Lusignan, king of Cyprus, and by the celebrated Carmelite Peter Thomas, who ha .d come to Avignon in February 1363, the pope proclaimed another crusade, which found some echo in France and resulted in the temporary occupation of Alexandria (1365).
Released on the conclusion of peace he joined the Damietta crusade of 1219, but returned at an early date to make his peace with the regency.
He entered the Teutonic Order in early life, became very intimate with Frederick II., took part in the expedition to Damietta in 1221, and accompanied the emperor on the crusade of 1228, which was joined by many princes owing to his influence.
The effect of his preaching was immense, and large numbers of women, many of them left desolate by the loss of their husbands on crusade, came under the influence of a movement which was attended with all the manifestations of what is now called a "revival."
He first joined, and then deserted, the emperor Frederick II., during the crusade of 1228-29; and he was excluded from the operation of the treaty of 1229.
At a banquet shortly afterwards Philip vowed that he would lead a crusade against the Turks, who had seized Constantinople, and the knights of his court swore to follow his example.'
appointed him bishop of Salisbury, and by Richard's command he went with the third crusade to the Holy Land.
During this reign the first crusade took place, and the German king suffered severely from the pious zeal which it expressed and intensified.
Notwithstanding the many sources of confusion Conrad was persuaded by the passionate eloquence of Bernard of Clairvaux to take part in the second crusade; be left for the East in 1147 and returned to Germany in 1149, to find Welf again in arms and Henry the Lion claiming Bavaria.
solving that the sunset of his life should be even more splendid than its dawn he decided to go on crusade, and in 1189 he started with a great army for the Holy Land.
After Bouvines he purchased the assistance of Valdemar II., king of Denmark, by ceding to him a large stretch of land along the Baltic coast; and, promising to go on crusade, he secured his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1215.
In the West a new crusade to the Holy Land was in preparation, and the crusaders sent ambassadors, one of whom was Villehardouin, the historian of the expedition, to ask the Venetians to give them passage and means of transport (1201).
Both Austria and Prussia were much occupied with the Polish question, and to have plunged into a crusade against France would have been to have left Poland, where the new constitution had been proclaimed on the 3rd of May, to the mercy of Russia.
But the prospect of German rule was unpopular, and on William's death the crown passed to Tancred, an illegitimate grandson of King Roger, who figures in English histories in the story of Richard III.'s crusade.
He came back in 1233 from his crusade to suppress a revolt of the eastern cities, which seem to have been aiming at republican independence.
In the last years of his pontificate he was busied with preparations for a crusade and for the reunion of Christendom, and sent to Constantinople the celebrated Carmelite monk, Peter Thomas, to negotiate with the claimants to the Greek throne.
The wars, therefore, in which the Pergamene kings in the latter part of the 3rd century stemmed their aggressions, had the glory of a Hellenic crusade.
For some years the dominions of al-Adil remained divided between his sons: when the affairs of Egypt were settled, al-Kamil determined to reunite them as before, and to that end brought on the Sixth Crusade.
(the Seventh Crusade), and in spite of illness he hastened to Ushmum Tanna, in the neighborhood of Damietta, which he provisioned for a siege.
By the sale of offices, the establishment of new "Monti" and by levying new taxes, he accumulated a vast surplus, which he stored up against certain specified emergencies, such as a crusade or the defence of the Holy See.
Nicholas preached a crusade, and endeavoured to reconcile the mutual animosities of the Italian states, but without much success.
From this time until his death his mind was torn between his anxiety to realize his dream of a confederation of Europe and his traditional mission as leader of the Orthodox crusade against the Turks.
Anxious to secure his aid for the crusade against the Hussites, Pope Martin again offered him a cardinal's hat, which Beaufort accepted.
Returning to England to raise money for a fresh crusade, he was received with great state in London; but his acceptance of the cardinalate had weakened his position and Gloucester refused to recognize his legatine commission.
During the critical years of Mr Chamberlain's crusade (1903-1906) he made himself the chief spokesman of the Liberal party, delivering a series of speeches in answer to those of the tariff-reform leader; and his persistent following and answering of Mr Chamberlain had undoubted effect.
In 1204 Constantinople was captured by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned emperor; the Venetians acquired several maritime towns and islands, and Frankish feudal dynasties were established in Salonica, Athens, Achaea and elsewhere.
and by the subjects of the duchy itself, averse from any strong ducal power, and the pope at Capua (Dec. 1127) preached a crusade against the claimant, setting against him Robert II.
The second crusade (1147-48) gave Roger an opportunity to revive Robert Guiscard's designs on the Greek Empire.
The headship of Christendom was in his grasp, and schemes for a new crusade began to take shape.
By the statute of Six Articles (1539) he took his stand on Catholic doctrine; and when the Lutherans had rejected his alliance, and Cromwell's nominee, Anne of Cleves, had proved both distasteful on personal grounds and unnecessary because Charles and Francis were not really projecting a Catholic crusade against England, Anne was divorced and Cromwell beheaded.
David was now free to subdue John of the Isles, to repudiate all his own debts contracted before 1368, and to make preparations for a crusade.
William of Malmesbury, again, when relating the crusade of Count Robert of Normandy (1096), transfers into his Gesta regum anglorum (iv.
Thus Fridank, for instance, in spite of his emphatic declaration that most pilgrims returned worse than they went, himself participated in the crusade of Frederick II.
In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism.
He flattered in turn Saint Just and the Terrorists, the Thermidorians and the Directors, and played always for his own hand - a strange egoist who rose to fame as the leader of an idealist and sentimental crusade.
The abortive Second Crusade (1147), led by the kings of France and Germany, came to aid the rapidly weakening Latin kingdom after their failure to hold Edessa against Nureddin, the ruler of northern Syria.
The Third Crusade (1189) to recover Jerusalem was led by Frederick I.
It was in this crusade that Richard Coeur-de-lion was especially distinguished among the Frankish warriors.
And as though it were foreordained that no element of horror should be wanting from the history of the crusades, in 1212 there took place one of the most ghastly tragedies that has ever happened in the world - the Crusade of the Children.
The other four