Dean was directed to spend all available weekend time on a door to door smiling and handshaking crusade, the first of many Fred had mapped out for his full-court press for making David Dean the sheriff of Ouray County, Colorado.
He appears on the first crusade at Constantinople as one of Godfrey's men; and he helped Tancred to occupy Bethlehem in June 1099.
While the council was engaged in planning a crusade and in considering the reform of the clergy, a new crisis occurred between the pope and the king of France.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
The pope had already authorized the extensive grant of indulgences in order to secure funds for the crusade and more particularly for the rebuilding of St Peter's at Rome.
proclaimed the first crusade.
It is most picturesquely situated in the valley under the rocky ridge on which are still the very well preserved remains of the castle of Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the first crusade.
In order to undertake the crusade Godfrey sold the castle of Bouillon to the prince bishop of Liege, and the title of duke of Bouillon remained the appendage of the bishopric till 1678, or for 580 years.
prevented him from carrying out his planned crusade against Bohemia, his successor was a scarcely less bitter enemy of the country.
He took part in the agitation for the First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097).
Torquemada to be grand inquisitor of Spain; and he offered plenary indulgence to all who would engage in a crusade against the Waldenses.
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
Historically the battle is interesting because it was the last example of an encounter on a great scale between fleets of galleys and also because it was the last crusade.
After much negotiation the leader, Mr William Lane, a Brisbane journalist, decided on Paraguay, and he tramped across the continent, preaching a new crusade, and gathering in funds and recruits in his progress.
The foremost heroes of the first crusade were Netherlanders.
The third crusade numbered among its chiefs Floris III.
The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.
He proclaimed a crusade against Louis and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217).
ioo), historian of the first crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aix-laChapelle.
This history begins at the time of the council of Clermont, deals with the fortunes of the first crusade and the earlier history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and ends somewhat abruptly in 11 21.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
Nicaean emperor, Theodore Lascaris, whom his own father brought home with him from his crusade.
intervened so as to leave Matthias free to engage in a projected crusade against the Turks, which subsequent political complications, however, rendered impossible.
A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
In the latter case, however, he was allowed a respite until he returned from the projected crusade.
Far more comprehensive was the second charter, granted by Philip's widow Mathilda, after his death on crusade in 1191, as the price paid for the faithfulness of the city to her cause.
He took part in the subsequent campaign, but when the treaty of Passau was signed in August 1552 he separated himself from his allies and began a crusade of plunder in Franconia.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
were divided into French and Italian factions, which wrangled over the election for nearly three years in the midst of great popular excitement, until finally, stirred by the eloquence of St Bonaventura, the Franciscan monk, they entrusted the choice to six electors, who hit on Visconti, at that time accompanying Edward of England on the crusade.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
He thought of going on the crusade to Barbary; but instead, in July 1390, went to serve with the Teutonic knights in Lithuania.
During preparations for a crusade he died in Rome on the 13th or 14th of December 1124.
Valdemar cheerfully undertook a new crusade "for the honour of the Blessed Virgin and the remission of my own sins."
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
In 1248 he accompanied Louis in the crusade to Egypt, but on the defeat of the Crusaders he was taken prisoner with his brother.
confirmed the Sicilian agreement on conditions even more favourable to Charles, who sailed in 1265, and conferred on the expedition all the privileges of a crusade.
in a crusade to north Africa, where the French king died of fever, and Charles, after defeating the soldan of Tunis, returned to Sicily.
(1281), who recommenced persecuting the Ghibellines, excommunicated the Greek emperor, Michael Palaeologus, proclaimed a crusade against the Greeks, filled every appointment in the papal states with Charles's vassals, and reappointed the Angevin king senator of Rome.
During this time, it is the judgment of the most recent Protestant writer on St Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavoured to carry his spiritual activity on the same lines as before.
Though in his ten years of preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian.
The threat that seems to be conveyed in these words, of trying to promote a new crusade, was never carried out; the remaining years of Dominic's life were wholly given up to the founding of his order.
In 1147 a count of Montferrat took part in the Second Crusade; but the connexion with the Holy Land begins to be intimate in 1176.
He established himself firmly in Tyre (refusing admission to Guy, the king of Jerusalem); and from it he both sent appeals for aid to Europe - which largely contributed to cause the Third Crusade - and despatched reinforcements to the crusaders, who, from 1188 onwards, were engaged in the siege of Acre.
This was Bonif ace of Montferrat, the younger brother of Conrad, who was chosen leader of the Fourth Crusade in 1201, on the death of Theobald of Champagne.
Yet in the course of the crusade he showed himself not unsubmissive to Innocent III., who was entirely opposed to such a diversion.
During the second crusade (1145-1147) Bernard of Clairvaux heroically protested against similar inhumanities.
The third crusade, famous for the participation of Richard I., was the occasion for bloody riots in England, especially in York, where 150 Jews immolated themselves to escape baptism.
After the second crusade the German Jews fell into the class of servi camerae, which at first only implied that they enjoyed the immunity of imperial servants, but afterwards made of them slaves and pariahs.
In 1218 he went on crusade to the Holy Land and took part in the capture of Damietta; then returning to England he died at Wallingford in October 1232.
It was alleged that, while accompanying her husband on the Second Crusade (1146-1149) Eleanor had been unduly familiar with her uncle, Raymond of Antioch.
Chronology is against this hypothesis, since Louis and she lived on good terms together for two years after the Crusade.
Later in birth than the Templars and Hospitallers, the Teutonic Order traces its first beginnings from the third Crusade.
places under the control of the Hospitallers, with the stipulation that the prior and servants alone shall necessarily be of German birth.(fn1) But it is amidst the privations and plague which attended the siege of Acre, during the third Crusade, that the first certain beginnings of the Order appear.
Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness of Edward, the pope exhorted him to make peace with Scotland, and three years later Randolph, now earl of Moray, procured the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by promising aid for a crusade.
The fall of Tyre marks a great advance in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards that complete command of the Levant which she established after the Fourth Crusade.
When the Fourth Crusade was proclaimed at Soissons, it was to Venice that the leaders applied for transport, and she agreed to furnish transport for 4500 horses, 9000 knights, 20,000 foot, and provisions for one year: the price was 85,000 silver marks of Cologne and half of all conquests.
Zara was recovered, and while still at Zara the leaders of the Crusade, supported by Dandolo, resolved for their own private purposes to attack Constantinople, instead of making for the Holy Land.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
To turn now to the external events which followed on the Fourth Crusade.
Having become a haunt of pirates, and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III.
By analogy the term "crusade" is also given to any campaign undertaken in the same spirit.
When the First Crusade finally came, what was it but a penitentiary pilgrimage under arms - with the one additional object of conquering the goal of pilgrimage ?
- Within fifteen years of the Hegira Jerusalem fell before the arms of Omar (637), and it continued to remain in the hands of Mahommedan rulers till the end of the First Crusade.
On the one hand, the reconquest of lost territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event, the immediate occasion of the holy war.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
The Norman conquest of Sicily may with justice be called a crusade before the Crusades; and it cannot but have given some impulse to that later attempt to wrest Syria from the Mahommedans, in which the virtual leader was Bohemund, a scion of the same house which had conquered Sicily.
Gregory listened to the appeal; he projected - not, indeed, as has often been said, a crusade,' but a great expedition, which should recover ' Tradition credits a pope still earlier than Gregory VII.
with the idea of a crusade.
The same appeal was made, more than once, to Urban II.; and the answer was the First Crusade.
The First Crusade was not, indeed, what Alexius had asked or expected to receive.
It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.
It would be almost truer, though only half the truth, to say that the clergy gave the name of Crusade to sanctify interests and ambitions which, while set on other ends than those of the Church, happened to coincide in their choice of means.
The former was the driving force which made the First Crusade successful, where later Crusades, without its stimulus, for the most part failed; the latter was the one staunch ally which alone enabled Baldwin I.
In this way we may return to the view that the First Crusade, at any rate, was fait ecclesiastique.
of France, and there on the 26th of November delivered the great speech which was followed by the First Crusade.
Thousands at once took the cross; the first was Bishop Adhemar of Puy, whom Urban named his legate and made leader of the First Crusade (for the holy war, according to Urban's original conception, must needs be led by a clerk).
The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
The idea of the crusade had thus already ripened in French poetry, before Urban preached his sermon.
Course of the First Crusade.
- The First Crusade falls naturally into two parts.
One of these may be called the Crusade of the people: the other may be termed the Crusade of the princes.
Of these the people's Crusade - prior in order of time, if only secondary in point of importance - may naturally be studied first.
By the end of October they had perished utterly at the hands of the Seljuks; a heap of whitening bones also remained to testify to the later crusaders, when they passed in the spring of 1097, of the fate of the people's Crusade.
Bohemund of Otranto, the destined leader of the Crusade, with his nephew Tancred, led a fine force of Normans by sea to Durazzo, and thence by land to Constantinople, which he reached about the same time as Raymund.
To the same great rendezvous other leaders also gathered, some of higher rank than Godfrey or Raymund or Bohemund, but none destined to exercise an equal influence on the fate of the Crusade.
2 Later legend ascribed the origin of the First Crusade to the preaching of Peter the Hermit.
We have already seen that among the princes who joined the First Crusade there were some who were rather politiques than devots, and who aimed at the acquisition of temporal profit as well as of spiritual merit.
The political motives of these three princes, and the interaction of their different policies, was thus a great factor in determining the course and the results of the First Crusade.
The influence of the Italian towns did not make itself greatly felt till after the end of the First Crusade, when it made possible the foundation of a kingdom in Jerusalem, in addition to the three principalities established by Bohemund, Baldwin and Raymond; but during the course of the Crusade itself the Italian ships which hugged the shores of Syria were able to supply the crusaders with provisions and munition of war, and to render help in the sieges of Antioch and Jerusalem.4 Sea-power had thus some influence in determining the victory of the crusaders.
In any case, it hampered the Mahommedans as much as the jealousy between Alexius and the Latins hampered the progress of the Crusade.
1 But the caliph preferred to act for 1 Thus already on the First Crusade the path of negotiation is attempted simultaneously with the Holy War.
But though the leaders of the First Crusade did not succeed in utilizing the dissensions of the Mahommedans as fully as they desired, it still remains true that these dissensions very largely explain their success.
We are now in a position to follow the history of the First Crusade.
The excitement communicated itself to the whole army; and the nervous strength which it gave enabled the crusaders to meet and defeat Crusade, and above all on the - Sixth, this path was still more seriously attempted.
It is interesting, too, to notice the part which the laity already plays in directing the course of the Crusade.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
So, on that day of July, the First Crusade came to an end.
In 1100, indeed, it might appear that a new Crusade from the West, which the capture of Antioch in 1098 had begun, and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 had finally set in motion, was destined to achieve great things for the nascent kingdom.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
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