How to use Crop in a sentence
The summer had been very dry and the corn crop had failed.
You never can tell what might crop up.
The tomato plants were drooping, their crop reduced to small discolored fruit.
Wheat is the most important crop and is widely distributed.
The large and heavy crop has caused a unique modification of the sternal apparatus.Advertisement
The wheat crop was 4,810,000 bushels, and the acreage 370,000.
In 1909 the acreage of hay alone was 675,000 acres, and the crop was 844,000 tons, valued at $11,225,000.
The staple crop is rice, which is grown on 77 per cent.
Many of the hollow agates of Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst-crystals in the interior.
The crop is modified into a large and very rugose triturating apparatus, while the gizzard, thereby relieved of its function, is reduced to the utmost.Advertisement
Wheat is the principal crop, with barley second.
In case the crop failed the Code fixed a statutory return.
In 1909 in the amount of barley per acre (38 bushels) Nevada ranked third, and in the average farm price per bushel ($0.75) ranked first among the barley-producing states of the country, but in the total amount produced (304,000 bushels) held only the twenty-second place; and in the same year the average yield of potatoes per acre in Nevada was 180 bushels, exceeded in two states - the average for the entire country was 106.8 bushels per acre - but the total crop in Nevada (540,000 bushels) was smaller than in any state or Territory of the Union, except New Mexico.
The second crop of cabbage was starting to develop, and the okra looked good.
The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average crop and leave the field in good tilth.Advertisement
In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
According to the Year Book of the Department of Agriculture in 1909 a crop of 165,000 bushels of oats was grown in Nevada on 7000 acres; there was no crop reported of Indian corn or of rye.
In the case of the Crassane the crop should be gathered at three different times, the first a fortnight or more before it is ripe, the second a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe.
The greater part of the nitrogen of the cereals is, however, sold off the farm; but perhaps not more than to or 15% of that of either the root-crop or the clover (or other forage leguminous crop) is sold off in animal increase or in milk.
Wheat was long California's greatest crop. Its production steadily increased till about 1884, the production in 1880, the banner year, being more than 54 million bushels (32,537,360 centals).Advertisement
So let's say the large corn farms all have a great year and a bountiful crop comes forth.
The blond deity with multi-hued eyes and a quick smile was dressed for a dressage event, complete with helmet and crop.
Should the young die or be removed during this period, the parents are liable to die, suffering severely from the turgid congestion of the hypertrophied walls of the crop.
The young crop was hoed, reaping was performed with a sickle, and a high stubble left on the ground as manure.
Repetition of one crop in the field exhausts the ground; but rotation of the crops is good for the soil.Advertisement
It is well to feed down a luxuriant crop when the plants are level with the ridge tops.
Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
If you intend to preserve seed, then the second crop must be let stand till it come to a full and dead ripeness, and you shall have at the least five bushels per acre.
Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.
In the first edition of the Improver Improved no mention is made of clover, nor in the second of turnips, but in the third, clover is treated of at some length, and turnips are recommended as an excellent cattle crop, the culture of which should be extended from the kitchen garden to the field.
In this he lays it down as a rule that it is bad husbandry to take two crops of grain successively, which marks a considerable progress in the knowledge of modern husbandry; though he adds that in Scotland the best husbandmen after a fallow take a crop of wheat; after the wheat, peas; then barley, and then oats; and after that they fallow again.
Dawson of Frogden in Roxburghshire is believed to have been the first who grew turnips as a field crop to any extent.
Wheat in particular was a poor crop in 1892, and the low yield was associated with falling prices due to large imports.
The hay crop was very inferior, and in some cases it was practically ruined.
The drought of 1898 was interrupted by copious rains in June, and these falling on a warm soil led to a rapid growth of grass and, as measured by yield per acre, an exceedingly heavy crop of hay.
From Table I., showing the acreages at intervals of five years, it will be learnt that the loss fell chiefly upon the wheat crop, which at the close of the period Table - Areas of Cereal Crops in the United Kingdom - Acres.
The result was that in the following year the wheat crop of the United Kingdom was harvested upon the smallest area on record - less than 12 million acres.
The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.
Rye is perhaps more largely grown as a green crop to be fed off by sheep, or cut green for soiling, in the spring months.
It is noteworthy, however, that Ireland year by year places less reliance upon the potato crop. In 1888 the area of potatoes in Ireland was 804,566 acres, but it continuously contracted each year, until in 1905 it was only 616,755 acres, or 187,811 acres less than 17 years previously.
The mangel crop also is mainly English, the summer in most parts of Scotland being neither long enough nor warm enough to bring it to maturity.
The total produce of any crop in a given year must depend mainly upon the acreage grown, whilst the average yield per acre will be determined chiefly by the character of the season.
The extent to which the annual production of the leading fodder crop may vary is shown in the table by the two consecutive years 1893 and 1894; from only nine million tons in the former year the production rose to upwards of fifteen million tons in the latter, an increase of over 70%.
The figure denoting the general average yield per acre of any class of crop needs readjustment after every successive harvest.
A large expansion in the acreage of the wheat crop would probably be attended by a decline in the average yield per acre, for when a United Kingdom, 1895-1904.
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.
In many years quite half the apple crop is lost in England owing to the larvae destroying the fruit.
This bilobed sac becomes entirely the liver in the adult; the intestine and stomach are formed from the pedicle of invagination, whilst the pharynx, oesophagus and crop form from the stomodaeal invagination ph.
The food passing into the crop is there acted on by the saliva and also by an acid gastric juice which passes forwards from the stomach through the proventriculus.
The Indian corn crop was 67,501,144 bushels in 1870; 152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among the states of the Union in the production of this cereal.
The wheat crop was 27,882,159 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 1,480,000 acres) in 1909.
The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 42,050,910 bushels (grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909.
The barley crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to 1,053,240 bushels in 1899 and 829,000 bushels in 1909.
The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 lb in 1850 to 34,735,235 lb in 1880, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 lb, grown on 90,000 acres.
Agricultural leases usually contain special provisions as to the order of cropping, the proper stocking of the farm, and the rights of the incoming and outgoing tenant with regard to the waygoing crop. Where the rent is in money, it is generally payable at Whitsunday and Martinmas - the two " legal terms."
Sometimes the term of payment is before the crop is reaped, sometimes after.
The general rule with regard to " waygoing crops " on arable farms is that the tenant is entitled to reap the crop sown before the term of removal (whether or not that be the natural termination of the lease), the right of exclusive possession being his during seed time.
Thus, for example, in the United States the worst season rarely diminishes the crop by more than about a quarter or one-third; such a thing as a " half-crop " is unknown.
It is evident, therefore, that if this number could work through the whole season of ioo days, they could pick three or four times as much cotton as the largest crop ever made.
The crop having been picked, it has to be prepared for purpose of manufacture.
When this has been accomplished the weight of the crop is reduced to about one-third, each 100 lb of seed cotton as picked yielding after ginning some 33 lb of lint and 66 lb of cotton seed.
Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.
Channels formed at right angles to the cultivation ridges provide for the access of water to the crop. The seeds, previously soaked, are sown, usually in March, on the sides of the ridges, and the land watered.
The crop is picked, ginned and baled in the usual way, the Macarthy style action roller gins being almost exclusively employed.
On the basis, therefore, of a cotton crop of io,000,000 bales of 500 lb each, there are produced 5,000,000 tons of cotton seed.
The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.
The boll worm is most destructive in the south-western states, where the damage done is said to vary from 2 to 60% of the crop. Taking a low average of 4%, the annual loss due to the pest is estimated at about 1 - 2,500,000, and it occupies second place amongst the serious cotton pests of the U.S.A. The boll worm is widely spread through the tropical and temperate zones.
It is a voracious creature, and unchecked will often totally destroy a crop. In former years the annual damage done by it in the United States was assessed at £4,000,000 to £6,000,000.
In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop. Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.
These pickers go carefully over the field, usually just before the second picking, and gather ripe cotton from the best plants only; this selected seed cotton is ginned separately, and the seed used for sowing the next year's crop.
One plant is selected again from these 500, and the general crop of seed is used to sow about five acres for the 3rd year, from which seed is obtained for the general crop in the 4th year.
One special plant is selected each year from the Soo raised from the previous season's test plant, and in four years' time the progeny of this plant constitutes the " general crop."
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
United States of America.-The cultivation of cotton as a staple crop in the United States dates from about 1770, 1 although efforts appear to have been made in Virginia as far back as 1621.
With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.
Cotton is now the second crop of the United States, being surpassed in value only by Indian corn (maize).
The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.
In 1899 the acreage had increased to 24,275,101 and the crop to 9,507,786 bales.
In 1906 the total area was 28,686,000 acres and the crop 13,305,265 bales.
The preceding table gives the quantity, value and character of the crop for each of the cotton-growing states in 1906, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.
From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.
Peru.-Cotton is an important crop in Peru, where it has long been cultivated.
British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.
The table indicates the chief cottonproducing islands, the acreage in each, yield, average value per pound and total value of the crop in 1905-1906.
The whole of this crop was Sea Island cotton, with the exception of the " Marie galante " grown in Carriacou.
Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.
The exports, however, are small, almost all the crop being used locally.
The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.
An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.
Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store-keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.
Before the railway was opened some spinners had been in the habit of making their purchases of raw material in Liverpool, but the great inconveniences of the journey, combined 1 Commercial crop.
Estimates are published of the area under cotton cultivation, and conditions of the American crop are issued by the American agricultural bureau at the beginning of the months of June, July, August, September and October of each year.
To these publications were at various times added the annual report, issued in December, the American crop report, issued in September, and the daily advices by cable from America, issued every morning."
Some examples of the diverse relations to be found, even when all the " futures" fall in the same crop year, may be quoted here-quotations running into the new crop year are obviously affected by anticipations of the new crop.
The influence of expectations of the new crop on "futures" running into the new crop is plain on inspection; but owing to the gap between the two crop years it would be astonishing if "futures" against which cotton from a new crop could be delivered were not appreciably independent of "spot" at the time of their quotation.
However, it is noticeable that they are still so closely bound up with "futures" culminating in the old crop year that the daily movements of the former are closely correlated with those of the latter.
Concluding cautiously, we may admit the probability of the relations between near and distant "futures" and "spot" (even in respect of "futures" running out in the same crop year) indicating sometimes at least the intentional or unintentional "bulling" or "bearing" or "spot" by "futures."
Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
Recent statistics bearing upon cotton are collected annually in the two publications, Shepperson's Cotton Facts and Jones's Handbook for Daily Cable Records of Cotton Crop Statistics.
The poppy is cultivated wherever it will grow, the crop being far more profitable than that of any other product.
The mission which he undertook with his chancellor for this purpose (1362-1365) only produced a crop of promises or excuses from sovereigns like Edward III.
Fruits normally form the principal crop; the total value for 1907-8 of the fruit crops of the state (including oranges, lemons, limes, grape-fruit, bananas, guavas, pears, peaches, grapes, figs, pecans, &c.) was $6,160,299, according to the report of the State Department of Agriculture.
In 1907 the acreage (265,000 acres) was less than in any cotton-growing state except Missouri and Virginia; the crop for 1907-1908 was 49,794 bales.
Pecan nuts are a promising crop, and many groves were planted after 1905.
Numerous less distinguished adepts also practised the art, and sometimes were so successful in their deceptions that they gained the ear of kings, whose desire to profit by the achievements of science was in several instances rewarded by an abundant crop of counterfeit coins.
The principal crop is Bermuda onions; in 1909 it was estimated that 150o acres in the vicinity were devoted to this crop, the average yield per acre being about 20,000 lb.
The acreage, however, decreased from 178,155 acres in 1906 to 155,778 acres in 1909, and in the latter year the crop fell to 28,489,263 lb.
The white and black varieties of this species were cultivated in England and Scotland from remote times, and are still grown as a crop in Orkney and Shetland.
The eastern part of the Nagpur country and the Chhattisgarh plain, comprising the Mahanadi basin, form the great rice tract of the province, its heavy rainfall and hard yellowish soil rendering it excellently adapted for the growth of this crop.
Rice is an important crop in Damoh, Jubbulpore, Mandla, Seoni and Chanda, and is the chief staple of Bhandara, Balaghat, and the two eastern districts of Raipur and Bilaspur.
It is customary to pluck the wool by hand rather than shear it, as this is believed to ensure a finer second crop. Black-faced and Cheviots are also found in some places.
And further, since the Exalted One was born in it, he reduced taxation in the village of Lumbini, and established the dues at one-eighth part (of the crop)."
These are the adjective vigadabhi applied to the stone, and rendered in our translation "flawless"; and secondly, the last word, rendered in our translation "one-eighth part (of the crop)."
Cotton is the principal crop. In 1907 Louisiana ranked eighth in acreage of cotton (1,622,000 acres) among the states of the United States, and in1907-1908the cotton crop (675,428 bales) was eighth among the crops of the states.
The total value of the tobacco crop of 35,000 ib in 1907 was only $to,000, an amount exceeded by each of the other 24 tobacco-growing states, and the crop was about one-twentieth of% of the product of the whole United States.
In 1904 and 1906 the Louisiana crop, about one-half of the total yield of the country, was larger than that of any other state; but in 1905 and in 1907 (6, 1 9 2, 955 ib and 7,378,000 lb respectively) the Louisiana crop was second in size to that of Texas.
Orchard fruits are fairly varied, but, compared with other states, unimportant; and the production of small fruits is comparatively small, the largest crop being strawberries.
The state maintains a crop pest commission, the duties of which include the inspection of all nursery stock sold in the state.
The actual sugar crop of 1899-1900, for example, was not a quarter of that of 1894.
Sugar has been the dominant crop since the end of the 18th century.
The dependence of the island on one crop has been an artificial economic condition often of grave momentary danger to prosperity; but generally speaking, the progress of the industry has been steady.
Three-fourths of all are in the jurisdictions of Cienfuegos, Cardenas, Havana, Matanzas and Sagua la Grande, which are the great sugar centres of the island (three-fourths of the crop coming from Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces).
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
More than four-fifths of the total area sown to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds of the area and three-fourths of the crop. The majority of the sugar estates are of an area less than 3000 acres, and the most common area is between 1500 and 2000 acres; but the extremes range from a very small size to 60,000 acres.
Following the resuscitation of the industry after the last war, the island's crop rose steadily from one-sixth to a full quarter of the total cane sugar output of the world, its share in the world's product of sugar of all kinds ranging from a tenth to an eighth.
If sugar is the island's greatest crop, tobacco is her most renowned in the markets of the world.
Even in the time of slavery tobacco was generally a white-man's crop; for it requires intelligent labour and intensive care.
The crop of 1907 was 201,512 bales (109,562,400 lb Sp.).
Thus the total value of the silk tithe in Turkey increased in the period named from about £T20,000 to £T276,500, and the total annual value of the crop from about £T200,000 to £T2,765,000, or by nearly 22 millions pounds sterling.
The point of this leading shoot is subsequently pinched off, that it may not draw away too much of the sap. If the fruit sets too abundantly, it must be thinned, first when as large as peas, reducing the clusters, and then when as large as nuts to distribute the crop equally; the extent of the thinning must depend on the vigour of the tree, but one or two fruits ultimately left to each square foot of wall is a full average crop. The final thinning should take place after stoning.
It may also be stated here that when occasion arises peachtrees well furnished with buds may be transplanted and forced immediately without risking the crop of fruit, a matter of some importance when, as sometimes happens, a tree may accidentally fail.
When the, fruit begins to ripen, syringing must be discontinued till the crop is gathered, after which the syringe must be again occasionally used.
It is improbable, except in the early stages of the rubber tree, that this procedure will succeed; the rubber will ultimately dominate the position to the detriment and ultimate extinction of the other crop, whilst the growth of the rubber tree will be retarded.
The southern parts of Tobolsk, nearly all the government of Tomsk (exclusive of the Narym region), southern Yeniseisk and southern Irkutsk, have in an average year a surplus of grain varying from 35 to 40% of the total crop, but in bad years the crop falls short of the actual needs of the population.
The staple crop is rice, but orchards and gardens are also common.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
In the basin of the Lower Amazon the Carboniferous beds lie within the Devonian synclinal and crop out on both sides of the river next to the Devonian bands.
The crop is a variable one, the export in 1905 having been 198,226 hectolitres, while that of 1906 was 96,770 hectolitres.
A group of highly inclined quartzites, altered conglomerates and jasperoid rocks which crop out on the Umhlatuzi river, between Melmoth and Nkandhla and on the White Umfolosi river above Ulundi Ph ins, is considered by Anderson to represent some portion of the Lover Witwatersrand series.
The area of land under tillage is less than a twentieth of the whole surface, the crop most extensively grown being maize or " mealies."
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
In Croatia-Slavonia no crop statistics were compiled before 1885.
The filtrate, on being boiled down, yields a second crop of uranate.
The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.
In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable.
In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.
The cultivation of vines in pots is very commonly practised with good results, and pot-vines are very useful to force for the earliest crop. The plants should be raised from eyes, and grown as strong as possible in the way already noted, in rich turfy loam mixed with about one-third of horse dung and a little bone dust.
In practice, the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being limited by its power of evaporation.
The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
The roots were grown under exactly the same cultivation and conditions as a crop of mangel-wurzel - that is to say, they had the ordinary cultivation and manuring of the usual root crops.
Analyses of this character would appear to indicate the permanent productive capacity of the soil rather than its immediate power of growing a crop.
Without a sufficient supply plants remain stunted and the crop yield is seriously reduced, as we see in dry seasons when the rainfall is much below the average.
While this capillary movement of water is of great importance in supplying the needs of plants it has its disadvantages, since water may be transferred to the surface of the soil, where it evapo rates into the air and is lost to the land or the crop growing upon it..
In certain districts where the rainfall is low a crop can only be obtained once every alternate year, the intervening season being devoted to tillage with a view of getting the rain into the soil and retaining it there for the crop in the following year.
That the fertility of land used for the growth of wheat is improved by growing upon it a crop of beans or clover has been long recognized by farmers.
When wheat, barley, turnips and similar plants are grown, the soil upon which they are cultivated becomes depleted of its nitrogen; yet after a crop of clover or other leguminous plants the soil is found to be richer in nitrogen than it was before the crop was grown.
After the decay of the roots some of the unchanged bacteria are left in the soil, where they remain ready to infect a new leguminous crop.
In this manner organisms obtained from red clover can be grown and applied to the seed of red clover; and similar inoculation can be arranged for other species, so that an application of the bacteria most suited to the particular crop to be cultivated can be assured.
In many cases it has been found that inoculation, whether of the soil or of the seed, has not made any appreciable difference to the growth of the crop, a result no doubt due to the fact that the soil had already contained within it an abundant supply of suitable organisms. But in other instances greatly increased yields have been obtained where inoculation has been practised.
The more or less dormant nitrogen and other constituents of the humus are made immediately available to the succeeding crop, but the capital of the soil is rapidly reduced, and unless the loss is replaced by the addition of more manures the land may become sterile.
The land is then usually sown with some rapidly growing green crop, such as rape, or with turnips.
Moreover the beneficial effects are seen in the first crop and last for many years.
The crop during its growth obtains a considerable amount of Green .
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
When the crop is luxuriant it is necessary to put a roller over it first, to facilitate proper burial by the plough.
The caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate by extracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature, and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals of purified nitrate.
After transplanting the crop takes about another sixty days to mature, i.e.
The next step is to remove the harvested crop to the drying-shed; primed leaves are placed at once in shallow baskets or boxes, and when under cover are strung on string or on wire and hung up on laths in the barn.
The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.
No crop, it is pointed out, responds so readily to breeding as tobacco, or deteriorates more rapidly, as regards both yield and quality, if neglected.
No attempt should ever be made to raise large crops of tobacco from imported seed, but only a small crop, and the seed of the selected plants should be used for future propagation.
Tobacco is the second industry of the country, the value of the crop being surpassed only by that of sugar.
The crop is mostly grown in the open, air-cured and carefully fermented.
Cuban tobacco is grown as a " winter " crop, the summer months being those of high rainfall.
In 1905, 53,750 planters cultivated 39,439 acres, and the total crop amounted to 61,614,900 lb, of the approximate value of £2,000,000.
Tobacco is an important crop in Turkey, where its cultivation and manufacture are monopolies.
Tobacco cultivation is a government monopoly, and in 1905 the crop amounted to about 106,572,000 ib, yielding a profit to the government of some £3,500,000.
The estates are usually very large, and are divided up into fields which are cultivated in rotation, each field being given several years' rest after producing one crop. The tobacco is air-cured, fires being only employed during continuous wet weather, and the process of curing occupies four or five weeks.
New Zealand has attempted to produce tobacco as a commercial crop, but the effort was abandoned several years ago.
In 1900 there were 69 acres under this crop, the yield being 44 80 lb of the value of £113.
In some, for instance, France, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the cultivation is a state monopoly, and in other countries the crop is subject to heavy excise duties.
In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England.
The estimated value of the world's annual crop is approximately £40,000,000.
The fruit is produced at the extremities of the shoots of the preceding year; and therefore, in gathering the crop, care should be taken not to injure the young wood.
Of the carbon dioxide and ammonia no exhaustion can take place, but of the mineral constitutents the supply is limited because the soil cannot afford an indefinite amount of them; hence the chief care of the farmer, and the function of manures, is to restore to the soil those minerals which each crop is found, by the analysis of its ashes, to take up in its growth.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
Of cereals the common millets, dhura and dukhn, are grown in all parts of the country as the summer crop, and in the hot irrigated Tehama districts three crops are reaped in the year; in the highlands maize, wheat and barley are grown to a limited extent as the winter crop, ripening at the end of March or in April.
The town's inhabitants are farmers, and rice is the principal crop. Pangasinan and Ilocano are the languages spoken.
Rice is an important crop in the inundated lands of Lambayeque and Libertad.
The city is the chief outlet for the sugar product of the province, which, with the province of Santa Clara, produces two-thirds of the crop of the island.
These trees are usually found growing by rivers' banks or in other moist situations, and are generally pollarded for the purpose of securing a crop of straight poles.
Some cotton is raised as a rotation crop, but no care is taken to improve the quality.
The females are placed on the plants about August, and in four months the first crop of cochineal is gathered, two more being produced in the course of the year.
The gullet leads into a moderate-sized crop, and several pairs of salivary glands open into the mouth.
The crop is followed by a proventriculus which, in the higher Hymenoptera, forms the so-called " honey stomach," by the contraction of whose walls the solid and liquid food can be separated, passed on into the digestive stomach, or held in the crop ready for regurgitation into the mouth.
The digestive system has a slender gullet, a large crop and no gizzard; in some Hemiptera the hinder region of the mid-gut forms a twisted loop with the gullet.
The value of the fruit crop, for which Delaware has long been noted, also increased during the same decade, but disease and frost caused a marked decline in the production of peaches, a loss balanced by an increased production of apples, pears and other orchard fruits.
The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.
The crop of Indian corn is especially large in a belt of counties beginning near the north-eastern corner of the state and extending in a south-westerly direction.
In the vicinity of Fayetteville there are deposits of coal; and the city is in a fine fruit-growing region, apples being the principal crop. Much of the surrounding country is still covered with timber.
At the same time extremes during the four most critical crop months, from the 1st of May to the 1st of September, have ranged from 6.75 in.
Iowa about equals Illinois in the production of both Indian corn and oats, nearly 10,000,000 acres or about onethird of its improved area usually being planted with Indian corn, with a yield varying from 227,908,850 bushels in 1901 (according to state reports) to 373,275,000 (the largest in the United States, with a crop value second only to that of Illinois) in 1906.
According to the Department of Agriculture in 1907 the acreage was 9,160,000 and the yield 270,220,000 bushels (considerably less than the Illinois crop); the yield of oats was 168,364,170 bushels (Twelfth U.S. Census) in 18 99, 12 4,73 8, 337 bushels (U.S. Department of Agriculture) in 1902, and in 1907 the acreage and crop (greater than those of any other state) were 4,500,000 acres and 108,900,000 bushels, valued at $41,382,000 - a valuation second only to that of Illinois.
The wheat crop has varied from 12,531,304 bushels in 1903, 13,683,003 bushels in 1905, 7,653,000 bushels in 1907 (according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture), to 22,769,440 bushels (Twelfth Census) in 1899.
Oats is the principal crop, but rye, potatoes and flax are also grown in considerable quantities.
More than half the prune crop of California comes from Santa Clara county.
The leading crops and their percentages of the total crop value were hay and forage (39.1%), vegetables (23.9%), fruits and nuts (11.7%), forest products (8.4%), and flowers and plants (7.1%).
The first year the crop would be free from weeds, the second year only those grew whose seeds were wafted or carried by birds, the third year the crop required hoeing, which was done with sticks, and then the space was abandoned for new ground.
The census figures relate to the calendar year preceding 1st June 1900, and hurried and careless answers about the preceding year's crop are almost sure to have been given by many farmers in the midst of the summer's work.
In 1909 the amount of the hay crop (5,002,000 tons) was greater than that of any other state except Iowa, and its value ($71,028,000) was greater than in any other state.
The oat crop in 1909 was 37,365,000 bushels; the Indian corn crop, 1,910,000 bushels; the wheat crop, 24,120,000 bushels; the barley crop, 8,820,000 bushels; the rye crop, 2,720,000 bushels; buckwheat, 7,512,000 bushels.
During the years1850-1889New York produced about 70%, of the hop crop of the entire country, but since 1890 hop culture has been rapidly extended in the Pacific Coast states and suffered to decline in New York, and the crop from 1899 to 1907 averaged only .about one-half that of 1889 (20,063,029 ib).
Tobacco culture was introduced in 1845, and in 1860 the crop was 5,764,582 lb.
During1860-1880the increase was slight, but in 1899 the crop was 1 3,95 8, 37 0 lb; in 1909 the crop was only 7,050,000 lb.
The value of the fruit crop in 18 99 ($ 1 5, 8 44,34 6) was second only to that of California; and the most productive agricultural lands are those devoted to floriculture and nurseries.
It is essential that the grains on the maltster's floor should germinate simultaneously, hence at the time of reaping, the whole crop must be as nearly as possible in the same stage of maturity.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.
The crop is often allowed to lie loose for a day or two, owing to the belief that sunshine and dews or even showers mellow it and improve its colour.
The larvae of the ribbon-footed corn-fly (Chlorops taeniopus) caused great injury to the barley crop in Great Britain in 1893, when the plant was weakened by extreme drought.
A fair crop of barley yields about 36 bushels, (56 lb to the bushel) per acre, but under the best conditions 40 and 50 bushels may be obtained.
There were about 1,600,000 acres under crop in 1899.
The wheat crop in 1909 was 35,780,000 bushels, valued at $33,275,000; oats, 9,898,000 bushels, valued at $4,751,000; barley, 7,189,000 bushels, valued at $4,601,000; rye, 84,000 bushels, valued at $79,000; Indian corn, 417,000 bushels, valued at $359,000.
The chief crop is mealies, the staple food of the natives; wheat, oathay, Kaffir corn and oats coming next.
In 1909 the oat crop was 1 5,39 0, 000 bushels from 300,000 acres; the acreage of wheat in 1909 was 350,000 and the production 10,764,000 bushels; the acreage of barley in 1909 was 50,000 acres, and 1,900,000 bushels were raised; the acreage of Indian corn in 1909 was 5000 acres, and 175,000 bushels were grown.
In 1906 sugar refineries were projected at Hamilton, Kalispell, Chinook, Laurel, Missoula, Dillon and Great Falls; and in 1907 the crop was so large that 12,000 freight cars were needed to carry it and the railways had a car and coal " famine."
The chief crop is rye, but oats are hardly second to it.
No better picture can be obtained of its overwhelming economic impoverishment than by studying the figures which show the decline in the crop returns for Austria, and taking into account the fact that imports from Hungary and the territories under military occupation naturally fell far below the proportion of foodstuffs formerly imported.
The total acreage of spring wheat, the state's leading crop, in 1909 was 3,375,000 with a yield of 47,5 88, 000 bush.
Wheat grows chiefly in the east and north-east parts of the state, especially in Brown, Spink, Roberts, Day and Grant counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Brown county, 3,3 20, 57 0 bush., or about one-twelfth of the state's product.
Corn grows throughout the western half of the state, and especially in the south-western parts, in Lincoln, Clay, Union, Yankton and Bonhommie counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Lincoln county, 3,914,840 bush., nearly one-eleventh of the state crop. Oats has a distribution similar to that of corn, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 1,666,110 bush., about one-nineteenth of the state crop. Barley grows principally in the eastern and southern parts of the state - Minnehaha, Moody, Lake and Brookings counties - the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 932,860 bush., more than one-seventh of the state.
Below the chalk is a thin crop of Upper Greensand between Otford and Westerham.
The methods of culture and the kinds of crop produced are perhaps more widely diversified than those of any other county in England.
In the acreage of this cereal in 1909 (according to the Year-book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture), North Dakota ranked first, and in the crop second among the states of the Union, its total yield being 90,762,000 bushels, valued at $83,501,000.
In the production of this commodity the state ranked first, and produced about 55% of the entire crop of the United States.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
Where the hard rock does crop out on the surface, it is so excessively weathered as to be with difficulty recognized as rock at all.
Flax is a less important crop than formerly.
The staple crop is rice.
In 1907, according to the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Indian corn crop was 22,196,000 bushels, valued at $11,986,000; the wheat crop was 14,763,000 bushels, valued at $14,172,000; the oat crop was 825,000 bushels, valued at $404,000; and the crop of rye was 315,000 bushels, valued at $236,000.
The hay and forage crop of 1899 (exclusive of corn-stalks) grew on 374,848 acres.
Until after the middle of the 18th century tobacco was the staple crop of Maryland, and the total yield did not reach its maximum until 1860 when the crop amounted to 51,000 hhds.; from this it decreased to 14,000 hhds., or 12,356,838 lb in 1889; in 1899 it rose again to 24,589,480 lb, in 1907 the crop was only 56,962,000 lb, less than that of nine other states.
In market-garden products, including small fruits, Maryland ranked in 1899 sixth among the states of the Union, the crop being valued at $4,766,760, an increase of 350.9% over that of 1889.
In its crop of greenpeas Maryland was exceeded (1899) by New York only; in sweet Indian corn it ranked fifth; in kale, second; in spinach, third; in cabbages, ninth.
So important is this crop that the rate of wages to labourers in the banana districts is nearly 3s.
Indian corn is the largest and most valuable crop. As late as 1849, when it produced 58,672,591 bu., Kentucky was the second largest Indiancorn producing state in the Union.
In 1899 the crop had increased to 73,974,220 bu.
Among the cereals wheat is the next largest crop; it increased from 2,142,822 bu.
The crop of each of the other cereals is small and in each case was less in 1899 than in 1849.
The culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres, which was 34'9% of the total acreage in the continental United States, yielding 314,288,050 lb.
As compared with the state's Indian corn crop of that year, the acreage was only a little more than one-ninth, but the value ($18,541,982) was about 63%.
In 1909 the tobacco acreage in Kentucky was 420,000, the crop was 350,700,000 lb, valued at $37, 1 74, 200; the average price per pound had increased from 5'9 cents in 1899 to 10'6 cents in 1909.
The high price received by the hill growers of the Burley induced farmers in the Blue Grass to plant Burley tobacco there, where the crop proved a great success, more than twice as much (sometimes 2000 lb) being grown to the acre in the Blue Grass as in the hills and twice as large patches being easily managed.
In the hill country the share tenant could usually plant and cultivate only four acres of tobacco, had to spend 120 days working the crop, and could use the same land for tobacco only once in six years.
The tobacco planters secured legislation favourable to the formation of crop pools.
The Burley Tobacco Society attempted to pool the entire crop and thus force the buyers of the American Tobacco Company of New Jersey (which usually bought more than three-fourths of the crop of Burley) to pay a much higher price for it.
In 1906 and in 1907 the crop was very large; the pool sold its lower grades of the 1906 crop at 16 cents a pound to the American Tobacco Company and forced the independent buyers out of business; and the Burley Society decided in 1907 to grow no more tobacco until the 1906 and 1907 crops were sold, making the price high enough to pay for this period of idleness.
In November 1908 the lawlessness subsided in the Burley after the agreement of the American Tobacco Company to purchase the remainder of the 1906 crop at a " round " price of 202 cents and a part of the 1907 crop at an average price of 17 cents, thus making it profitable to raise a full crop in 1909.
Kentucky is the principal hemp-growing state of the Union; the crop of 1899, which was grown on 14,107 acres and amounted to 10,303,560 lb, valued at $468,454, was 87'7% of the hemp crop of the whole country.
Hay and forage, the fourth in value of the state's crops in 1899, were grown on 683,139 acres and amounted to 776,534 tons, valued at $6,100,647; in 1909 the acreage of hay was 480,000 and the crop of 653,000 tons was valued at $7,771,000.
This uncertainty in the wheat crop extends to the southern limits of the higher plateau, and is a serious obstacle to the increased production of this cereal.
The sugar crop of1907-1908was reported as 123,285 metric tons, in addition to which the molasses output was estimated at 70,947.5 metric tons, and " panela " at 50,000 tons.
The mouth opens through a narrow pharynx (p) into a chamber which is (as in Crustacea) at once crop and gizzard, the mastax (ma), whose thickenings are imbedded in the posteroventral wall.
The relative size of the crop to the trophi varies greatly; it is small where the trophi are well developed and complex, as well as in Bdelloidea; but in Flosculariaceae it is large, and so it is in Asplanchnaceae.
Hay is the principal crop; in 1909 the acreage was 640,000 acres and the yield was 621,000 tons.
The potato crop of the same year was grown on 19,422 acres and amounted to 2,420,668 bushels valued at $1,090,495; in 1909 the acreage was 21,000, and the crop was 2,730,000 bushels, valued at $1,747,000.
Although the crop of orchard fruits was no greater in 1899 than in 1889 the Number of apple trees increased during the decade from 1,744,779 to 2,034,398, the number of peach trees from 19,057 to 48,819 and the number of plum trees from 10,151 to 18,137; in the number of pear trees and of cherry trees there was a slight decrease.
No crop responds more readily to careful husbandry and skilful cultivation.
Cutting and binding take place in early winter after the fall of the leaf, the crop being known as green whole stuff.
After 12 to 15 years the heads become "tired," and should be grubbed up. The first year's crop, known as the "maiden" crop, is of small value but should be cut and the ensuing years of maturity will yield crops of about 130 bolts, green, per acre, worth £9, 15s.
The cost of planting and the outlay for manuring and weeding during the years of maturity of the crop, are higher in the Midlands and the yield was estimated by Ellmore at 6 to 10 tons per acre, green, worth from £3, ios.
The maiden crop he valued at £8, 12S.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
In Europe the corn spirit sometimes immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an old man or woman; in the East Indies and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily trace back to the rustic corn spirit.
The chief plantations are owned and managed by Germans; more than half of the crop is sent to Germany, while three-fifths of the remainder go to the United States and one-fifth to Great Britain.
The foliage may be eaten down by sheep early in autumn, without injuring it for the production of a crop of seed.
It is peculiarly adapted for peaty soils, and is accordingly a favourite crop in the fen lands of England, and on recently reclaimed mosses and moors elsewhere.
Farther seaward, where the relief is less and the soils are richer, the surface is cleared and cotton is an important crop.
This is especially important in a country where the large wheat crop renders an additional quantity of money necessary on very short notice during the autumn and winter.
The annual average oat crop in all Canada is estimated at about 248 million bushels.
After the raising of the duty on barley under the McKinley and Dingley tariffs that trade was practically destroyed and Canadian farmers were obliged to find other uses for this crop. Owing to the development of the trade with the mother-country in dairying and meat products, barley as a home feeding material has become more indispensable than ever.
Tobacco is a new crop which has been grown in Canada since 1904.
At all these farms experiments are conducted to gain information as to the best methods of preparing the land for crop and of maintaining its fertility, the most useful and profitable crops to grow, and how the various crops grown can be disposed of to the greatest advantage.
In the raising of the standard of farming to an English level the volume of the world's crop would be trebled, another fact which Sir William Crookes seems to have overlooked.
Inferior land bearing less than 42 quarters per acre would not be protected to the same extent, and moreover, seeing that a portion of the British wheat crop has to stand a charge as heavy for land carriage across a county as that borne by foreign wheat across a continent or an ocean, the protection is not nearly so substantial as Caird would make out.
On the one hand, it is apt to take refuge in an uncritical acceptance of the traditional readings, and, on the other hand, to produce a crop of hesitant and mutually destructive conjectures which a reader naturally resents as a needless waste of his time.
The success of the economic system was such that in 1860 the cotton crop of Alabama was nearly 1,000,000 bales (9 8 9,955 bales), being 18.4% of the entire cotton product of the United States.
The disorganization of labour resulting from the Civil War and the emancipation of slaves, was the cause of a temporary decline in the cotton crop. In 1889 the crop again approximated to 1,000,000 bales (915,210 bales, being 12.2% of the entire crop of the United States), and in 1899 it exceeded that amount, Alabama being fourth among the states of the entire country.
In 1899-1904 the crop exceeded that of the other cotton-producing states except Texas, and in 1899, 1900 and 1903 Mississippi, averaging 1,467,121 commercial bales per annum; the crop in 1904 was 1,991,719 bales, and in 1907-1908 the crop was 1,815,834 bales, second only to the crop of Texas.
The sugar-cane crop declined in value after 1890, and each year more of it was made into syrup. In 1908 the tobacco crop was 2,705,625 lb, and the average farm price was 35 cents, being nearly as high as that of the Florida crop; Sumatra leaf for wrappers is grown successfully..
Pecan nuts are an increasingly important crop.
Owing to its tropical situation and its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is more liable than any other country in the world to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine.
The experience gained in the great famines of 1898 and 1901 has been garnered by these commissions, and stored up in the "famine codes" of each separate province, where rules are provided for the treatment of famine directly a crop failure is seen to be probable.
The first step is to open test works; and directly they show the necessity, regular relief works are established, in which the people may earn enough to keep them from starvation, until the time comes to sow the next crop.
Rice was the second product in importance until competition with Japan, Louisiana and Texas made the crop a poor investment; improved culture and machinery may restore rice culture to its former importance.
In 1899 the product amounted to 33,442.400 lb; in 1907 about 12,000 acres were planted, and the crop was estimated to be worth $2,500,000.
In 1909 about 4500 acres were in coffee, the value of the crop was $350,000; and 1,763,119 lb of coffee, valued at $206,460, were exported from Hawaii to the mainland of the United States.
Honey is a crop of some importance; in 1908 the yield was about 950 tons of honey and 15 tons of wax.
Of old, a tenant thus obtaining half the produce to himself was held to be co-owner of the soil to the extent of one-fourth; and if he had three-fourths of the crop, his ownership came to one-half.
The portion of the olive crop due to the landlord, whether by colonia or ordinary lease, is paid, not according to the actual harvest, but in keeping with the estimates of valuators mutually appointed, who, just before the fruit is ripe, calculate how much each tree will probably yield.
In England the principal crop may be sown at any time from the middle of February to the middle of March, if the weather is fine and the ground sufficiently dry.
About the beginning of September the crop is ripe, which is known by the withering of the leaves; the bulbs are then to be pulled, and exposed on the ground till well dried, and they are then to be put away in a store-room, or loft, where they may be perfectly secured from frost and damp.
About the end of August a crop is sown to afford a supply of young onions in the spring months.
A crop of very large bulbs may also be secured by sowing about the beginning of September, and transplanting early in spring to very rich soil.
Another plan is to sow in May on dry poor soil, when a crop of small bulbs will be produced; these are to be stored in the usual way, and planted in rich soil about February, on ground made firm by treading, in rows about 1 ft.
To obtain a crop of bulbs for pickling, seed should be sown thickly in March, in rather poor soil, the seeds being very thinly covered, and the surface well rolled; these are not to be thinned, but should be pulled and harvested when ripe.
The best sorts for this crop are the Silver-skinned, Early Silver-skinned, Nocera and Queen.
Flax is still a frequent crop in the hilly districts, and sugar-beets are raised over large areas.
Of the total crop acreage in 1899 nearly two-fifths was devoted to hay and forage, and the value of the hay crop in 1909 1 (when the crop was 3,74 2, 000 tons, valued at $54,633,000) was greater than that of any other state in the Union except New York.
More than one-half of the crop acreage in 1899 was devoted to cereals, and of the total cereal acreage 32% was of wheat, 31.
The dairy business, for which much of the hay crop is needed, has grown with the growth of the urban population as is shown in part by a steady increase in the number of dairy cows from 530,224 in 1850 to 1,140,000 in 1910; the value of the dairy products in 1899 ($35,86 0, 110) was exceeded only in New York.
In 1909 the crop was 30,732,000 lb.
More than two-thirds of the state's crop of 1899 was produced in Lancaster county, which is one of the largest tobacco-producing counties in the United States, and most of the other third was produced in York, Tioga, Bradford and Clinton counties.
The grain crop suffices only for a few months' local consumption; but considerable quantities of olive oil of good quality are produced.
The vineyards (in the west especially) yield much red wine (bought "mainly by Rouen, Cette, Trieste and Venice); the currant, introduced about 1859, has gradually come to be the principal source of wealth (the crop averaging 2,500,000 lb); and small quantities of cotton, flax, tobacco, valonia, &c., are also grown.
Almost the only crop grown is rice, which is exported in large quantities to Rangoon.
Along the line of contact, which is often a fault, the oldest beds of the Molasse crop out, and they are invariably overturned and plunge beneath the Flysch.
The amount of light admitted being very great, these houses answer well for general purposes and for the main crop. The large amount of glass or cooling surface, however, makes it more difficult to keep up a high and regular temperature in them, and from this cause they are not so well adapted for very early or very late crops.
A span-roofed house, being lighter than a lean-to, would be so much the better for peach culture, especially for the crop grown just _.
Guano is a valuable manure now much employed, and may be applied to almost every kind of crop with decided advantage.
Pruning is a very important operation in the fruit garden, its object being twofold - (i) to give form to the tree, and (2) to induce the free production of flower buds as the precursors of a plentiful crop of fruit.
Shoots of peaches, nectarines and morello cherries are "laid in," that is, placed in between fruiting shoots where there is the space to be ripened for next year's crop.
To these is added a very important crop of melons, a special large-fruited variety known as the Prescott Canteloup being the most favoured.
So on throughout the year with other crops, this system of intercropping or overlapping of one crop with another is carried out in a most ingenious manner, not only under glass lights, but also in the open air.
Sow also in heat mustard and cress for salads, onions for salads; tomatoes, celery to be pricked out for an early crop; and Early Horn carrot and kidney-beans on slight hotbeds.