At least he didn't look so critical now.
Her critical gaze swept over him with a frown.
I didn't expect the critical infrastructure to disintegrate so fast.
But he's not in critical condition?
He raised a critical eyebrow at the end of his inspection.
You were in critical condition.
But the critical question is, will they resort to war to resolve them?
The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
I had read many books before, but never from a critical point of view.
She stepped back, giving her work a critical survey.
After I found out you weren't critical, I tried to call Quinn and Howie but I didn't get through.
The caller was the husband of Howie's mother, his step-father, informing him that his mother had suffered a serious heart attack and was in critical condition.
I was less critical than my wife on the slow workings of the law.
And that leads us to a critical question: Who decides what we will make the Internet do?
Even Felipa was sober under his critical eye.
It needs no critical exertion to reduce utterly to dust any deductions drawn from history.
In this letter the countess also mentioned that Prince Andrew was among the wounded traveling with them; his state was very critical, but the doctor said there was now more hope.
Assess what damage you can and rebuild the critical infrastructure systems.
Every man is tasked to make his life, even in its details, worthy of the contemplation of his most elevated and critical hour.
There was no room for traitors in his ranks, not with his critical mission on the human world and his own mate within striking distance.
But was it Alex who had come between them, or did he simply show up at a critical time?
Heart pounding hard, she turned to face her destination: the command hub, where all emergency operations and critical infrastructure back-up networks and systems for the East Coast were routed in a time of crisis.
Most critical is the fact that you can walk around most rapids if your flee-instinct or skill-package advises against running it.
At the very moment when Matthias was about to profit by the disappearance of his most capable rival, another dangerous rebellion, headed by the primate and the chief dignitaries of the state, with the object of placing Casimir, son of Casimir IV., on the throne, paralysed Matthias's foreign policy during the critical years 1470-1471.
Unfortunately, on this, as on other critical occasions, deputies proved themselves incapable of common effort to promote general welfare.
This is the minimum of critical procedure required to do justice to the facts.
He concluded by saying that the next 36 hours would be the most critical.
A provisional government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzzi, and was strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity.
He also published critical editions of Curtius and Florus.
Two departments have been subjected to critical study: the Ceylon chronicles by Professor W.
Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (2nd ed., 1908, with a critical appendix by Gilbert Murray on the Orphic tablets); E.
Schoutes Die Steldr-Theorie (Groningen, 1902), gives an important critical account of this subject.
The phenomena have been the subject of very careful and critical examination for many years, and may be regarded as satisfactorily established.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
To appreciate this, it is sufficient to enumerate the birds without the critical muscle: Passeriformes and Coraciiformes, without exception; Ardeae and Podiceps; lastly various genera of storks, pigeons, parrots, petrels and auks.
During these critical years he adopted the "states' rights" attitude.
The pursuing Egyptians were drowned, and the miraculous preservation of the chosen people at the critical moment marks the first stage in the national history?
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
He became prefect of police in November 1887, at the critical moment of President Grevy's resignation.
He therefore transferred Gorchakov to Vienna, where the latter remained through the critical period of the Crimean War.
The first contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a critical apparatus, and notes.
The " Lives " of Christ, Roman Catholic and Protestant, " critical" (D.
Farrar's Critical History of Free (i.e.
Russia was thus in a very critical condition.
Having annihilated at Poltava the army of Charles XII., Peter was not at all indisposed to renew the struggle with Turkey, and began the campaign in the confident hope of making extensive conquests; but he had only got as far as the Pruth when he found himself surrounded by a great Turkish army, and, in order to extricate himself from his critical position, he had to sign a humiliating treaty by which Azov and other conquests were restored to the sultan.
No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.
The winter found him arranging for the publication in England of the selection from his articles and reviews which appeared in 1845, under the title of Critical and Historical Essays, and was issued almost contemporaneously at New York under the title of Biographical and Critical Miscellanies.
This theory Gibbon completely exploded in his Critical Observations (1770) - no very difficult task, indeed, but achieved in a style, and with a profusion of learning, which called forth the warmest commendations both at home and abroad.
Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.
The Protestant controversy on the Eucharist (1524) revealed his disagreement with Luther on that critical point.
The Syro-Hexaplar version, on the other hand, is extremely valuable for critical purposes.
565-574), and is very critical in its character.
Among his numerous critical works are Ecrivains modernes d'Angleterre (3rd series, 1885-1892) and Heures de lecture d'un critique (1891), studies of John Aubrey, Pope, Wilkie Collins and Sir John Mandeville.
(5) The Meditations were published by Xylander in 1558; the best critical edition is that of J.
The relative weights of the sources have been more nicely determined by critical investigation.
118, &c. There is no complete critical edition of Origen's works..
those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
He made no attempt at a critical examination of historical traditions, and wrote in a flowery and often bombastic style, but in spite of this drawback, Mirkhond's Rauzat remains one of the most marvellous achievements in literature.
The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.
(" International Theological Library," Edinburgh, 1903) is in many respects the most serviceable and complete study; a modern and more critical " Ewald " is a desideratum.
All modern 1 It is useful to compare the critical study of the Koran, where, however, the investigation of its various " revelations " is simpler than that of the biblical " prophecies " on account of the greater wealth of independent historical tradition.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
4 For the sections which follow the present writer may be permitted to refer to his introductory contributions in the Expositor (June, 1906; " The Criticism of the 0.T."); the Jewish Quarterly Review (July 1905-January 1907 = Critical Notes on 0.T.
Meanwhile the Israelite army was again besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon, and the recurrence of these conflicts points to a critical situation in a Danite locality in which Judah itself (although ignored by the writers), must have been vitally concerned.
A more critical situation could scarcely be imagined.
4 There are three inquiries: (a) the critical value of i Esdras, (b) the character of the different representations of post-exilic internal and external history, and (c) the recovery of the historical facts.
An interest in the past is not necessarily confined to any one age, and the critical view that the biblical history has been compiled from relatively late standpoints finds support in the still later treatment of the events - in Chronicles as contrasted with Samuel-Kings or in Jubilees as contrasted with Genesis.'
The Irish numbering 25,000, and strongly posted behind marshy ground, at first maintained a vigorous resistance; but Ginkel having penetrated their line of defence, and their general being struck down by a cannon ball at this critical moment, they were at length overcome and routed with terrible slaughter.
In the preceding account the biblical narratives have been followed as closely as possible in the light of the critical results generally accepted.
4 Kuenen, " The Critical Method," Modern Review, 1880, p. 701 (Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Germ.
Cook, Critical Notes on O.T.
Mention may be made of Stahelin's Leben Davids (Basel, 1866), still valuable for the numerous parallels adduced from oriental history; Cheyne's Aids to Devout Study of Criticism (1892), a criticism of David's history in its bearing upon religion; Marcel Dieulafoy, David the King (1902), full, but not critical; H.
The Government, however, soon realized that his help was essential in the critical state of the country, and he became Minister of Public Works in Todorov's Cabinet.
The trend of modern critical opinion is towards accepting Map as the author of a Lancelot romance, which formed the basis for later developments, and there is a growing tendency to identify this hypothetical original Lancelot with the source of the German Lanzelet.
There is no critical edition, and the only version available for the general reader is the modernized and abridged text published by Paulin Paris in vols.
For critical studies on the subject cf.
When he entered office the relations between the United States and Great Britain were critical.
of the Pennsylvania German Society, Proceedings and Addresses (Lancaster, Penn., 1900); Julius Friedrich Sachse, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1742-1800: A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers (Philadelphia, 1900); and John Lewis Gillin, The Dunkers: A Sociological Interpretation (New York, 1906), a doctor's dissertation,, with full bibliography.
The first collision with the English occurred in 1775, arising from a disputed succession to the peshwaship. The English government at Bombay supported one of the claimants, and the affair became critical for the English as well as for the Mahrattas.
Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.
In most cases the interpretation of the facts is far from obvious, and we have to try several hypotheses before we reach one which will bear the strain of a critical examination in the light of further evidence.
After wasting the critical moment of the war in the diversions of court life, the new English king, Edward II., made an inglorious march to Cumnock and back without striking a blow; and then returned south, leaving the war to a succession of generals.
His camp-followers on the Gillies' Hill appeared over its crest at the critical moment which comes in all battles.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.
Even in the christology, where he is treating of the historical Christ, he entertains critical considerations; hence it is not altogether without reason that in after times he was suspected of "Ebionitic" views of the Person of Christ.
And this is true not only of the dogmatic parties; solitary monks and ambitious priests, hard-headed critical exegetes,' allegorists, mystics, all found something congenial in his writings.
Camille on being asked his age, replied, "I am thirty-three, the age of the sans-culotte Jesus, a critical age for every patriot."
On the critical side this teaching is now admittedly valid against the older empiricism, and the cogency of the reasoning by which his constructive theory is supported is generally recognized.
A critical edition still remains a desideratum.
For the diplomatic events of these critical years see Sweden: History.
Between these two were Questions in Political Economy, Politics, Morals, &c. (1823), and a Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure, and Causes of Value (1825), directed against the opinions of Ricardo and his school.
The four and twenty years of Sigismund II.'s reign was a critical period of Polish history.
Some good critical work has been done in the leading reviews by Swietochowski and others.
Thus Cyrenaicism goes beyond the critical scepticism of the Sophists and deduces a single, universal aim for all men, namely pleasure.
We now approach the critical period of Dollinger's life.
This was the critical moment in the history of the resistance to the decrees.
Paul was shrewd, calculating, tenacious; but on the other hand over-cautious, and inclined rather to temporize than to strike at the critical moment.
Abdur Rahman's attitude at this critical juncture is a good example of his political sagacity.
For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische &eschichte, bk.
The greatest philologist of antiquity was, however, his successor, Aristophanes of Byzantium (195), who reduced accentuation and punctuation to a definite system, and used a variety of critical symbols in his recension of the Iliad and Odyssey.
Two critical editions of the Iliad and Odyssey were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian until 1 4 6 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries.
88), with critical symbols resembling those invented by the Alexandrian scholars.
It also presents us with a critical survey of the Greek and Latin classics arranged under the heads of poets, historians, orators and philosophers (book x.
The same volume included a critical examination of the " Theory of Classical Education " by Henry Sidgwick, and an attack on compulsory Greek and Latin verse composition by F.
It is one of the most difficultly liquefiable gases, its critical temperature being - 139'5° C., and its critical pressure 35'5 atmos.
Its critical temperature is 31.35° C., and its critical pressure is 72.9 atmos.
Throughout the critical period of the war, that is, from the beginning of 1862 up to the day of Chattanooga, three distinct campaigns were always in progress.
McDowell, instead of marching to join McClellan, was ordered to the Valley to assist in "trapping Jackson," an operation which, at one critical moment very near success, ended in the defeat of Fremont at Cross Keys and of McDowell's advanced troops at Port Republic (June 8-9) and the escape of the daring Confederates with trifling loss.
Thomas's defence won him the popular title of the "Rock of Chickamauga" and enabled Rosecrans to draw off his men, but the critical position of the Army of the Cumberland in Chattanooga aroused great alarm.
Of critical works, J.
i.-x., 1881 onwards) also comprise critical accounts of nearly all the important campaigns.
A critical account of the Virginian operations and the Chickamauga campaign is Gen.
The Mathesis universalis, a more elementary work, contains copious dissertations on fundamental points of algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and critical remarks.
The origin of each of these records forms a, distinct critical problem, and for the discussion of these questions.
They do not point to any critical editing of the text; for the aim of the Massoretes was essentially conservative.
That the standard edition was not the result of the critical investigation of existing materials may be assumed with some certainty.
Its value for critical purposes is considerably discounted by the late date of the MSS., upon which the printed text is based.
It has further preserved the critical signs employed by Origen as well as many readings from the other Greek versions; hence it forms our chief authority for reconstructing the Hexapla.
It then becomes the task of critical exegesis to interpret the text thus recovered so as to bring out the meaning intended by the original authors.
This has been due in part to the removal of conditions unfavourable to the critical study of the evidence that existed, in part to the discovery in recent times of fresh evidence.
The unfavourable conditions and the critical efforts which were made in spite of them can only be briefly indicated.
For a long time Biblical study lacked the first essential of sound critical method, viz.
a critical text of the literature.
Unfortunately this great work proved too voluminous to be preserved entire; and in the form in which it was fragmentarily preserved, it even largely enhanced the critical task of later centuries.
This has done much to render possible a more critical interpretation of the Old Testament.
It became subject to the same critical methods which since the Renaissance have been applied to other ancient literatures.
Biblical criticism is part of a wider critical movement, but it is noticeable how, from stage to stage, Biblical scholars adopted the various critical methods which as applied to other literatures have been proved valid, rather than themselves initiated them.
In view of all this, the first requisite for a critical treatment of the text of the Old Testament is to consider the consonants by themselves, to treat every vowel-consonant as possibly not original, and the existing divisions of the text into words as original only in those cases where they yield a sense better than any other possible division (or, at least, as good).
In order that the principles already perceived by Capellus might be satisfactorily applied in establishing a critical text, many things were needed; for example, a complete collation of existing MSS.
of the Jewish text and of the Samaritan text of the Pentateuch, the establishing of a critical text of the Septuagint, a careful study of the several versions directed to determining when real variants are implied and what they are.
For collection of material the edition of Holmes and Parsons (Oxford, 1798-1827), with its magnificent critical apparatus, is pre-eminent; the preparation of a similar edition, on a rather smaller scale but embodying the results of fresh and more careful collation, was subsequently undertaken by Cambridge scholars.'
These editions furnish the material, but neither attempts the actual construction of a critical text of the version.
Some important contributions towards a right critical method of using the material collected have been made - in particular by Lagarde, who has also opened up a valuable line of critical work, along which much remains to be done, by his restoration of the Lucianic recension, one of the three great recensions of the Greek text of the Old Testament which obtained currency at the close of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th centuries A.D.
It has only been possible here to indicate in the briefest way what is involved in the collection and critical sifting of the extant evidence for the text of the Old Testament, Results of how much of the work has been done and how much Criticism.
Cornill's Das Buck des Propheten Ezechiel (1886): outstanding examples of important systematic critical notes are J.
Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, edited by various scholars, was designed to present, when complete, a critical text of the entire Old Testament with critical notes.
The valuable editions of the Old Testament by Baer and Delitzsch, and by Ginsburg, contain critical texts of the Jewish interpretation of Scripture, and therefore necessarily uncritical texts of the Hebrew Old Testament itself: it lies entirely outside their scope to give or even to consider the evidence which exists for correcting the obvious errors in the text of the Old Testament as received and perpetuated by the Jewish interpreters.
Nevertheless we find some sporadic and tentative critical efforts or questions.
The later scholastic Protestant doctrine of verbal infallibility necessarily encouraged critical reaction and proved a widely extended retarding force far down into the 10th century.
Lowth's contribution to a more critical appreciation of the Old Testament lies in his perception of the nature and significance of parallelism in Hebrew poetry, in his discernment of the extent to which the prophetical books are poetical in form, and in his treatment of the Old Testament as the expression of the thought and emotions of a people - in a word, as literature.
The next stage brings us to the critical theories or conclusions which at first gradually and then rapidly, in spite of the keenest criticisms directed against them both by those who clung more or less completely to tradition and by the representatives of the earlier critical school, gained increasing acceptance, until to-day they dominate Old Testament study.
Inherent in this view of religious development and the new critical position were far-reaching changes in the literary, historical and religious criticism of the Old Testament: these have been gradually rendered clear as the fundamental positions on which they rest have been secured by the manifold work of two generations of scholars.
For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
judische Geschichte, followed twenty years later, after much further critical work had been done in the meantime.
This sketch of the critical movement has now been brought down to the point at which the comprehensive conclusions which still dominate Old Testament study gained clear expression and were shown to be drawn from the observation of a large body of facts.
- is to be substituted the new critical question - From these post-exilic collections how are the pre-exilic elements to be extracted ?
dicta of the Reformers challenging traditional opinions on the origin and character of the Old Testament; in the 17th century, among certain isolated scholars, elementary critical surveys of the whole field, which exercised, however, no C r extensive influence.
Very different was the case in England; after Geddes and Lowth, at the close of the 18th, till far down into the 19th century, the attitude even of scholars (with rare exceptions) was hostile to critical developments, and no independent critical work was done.
Pusey indeed studied under Eichhorn, and in his Historical Enquiry into the probable causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in German Theology (1828-1830) speaks sympathetically of the attitude of the Reformers on the question of Scripture and in condemnation of the later Protestant scholastic doctrine; but even in this book he shows no receptivity for any of the actual critical conclusions of Eichhorn and his successors, and subsequently threw the weight of his learning against critical conclusions - notably in his Commentary on Daniel (1864).
Many, particularly of late, have contributed to the wide distribution, if not of the critical spirit itself, yet at least of a knowledge of its conclusions.
No less rapid has been the change in America during the same period, nor less numerous the scholars well equipped to pursue the detailed investigation involved in critical study or those who have shown ability in popular presentations of the critical standpoint.'
Briggs, whose influence has been due in part to a large and varied body of work (Biblical Study, 1883, and many articles and volumes since) and in part to his organization of united critical, international and interconfessional labour, the chief fruits of which have been the Hebrew Lexicon (based on Gesenius, and edited by F.
Driver and himself), and the International Critical Commentary.
Space forbids any attempt to sketch here the special growth of criticism in other countries, such as France, where the brilliant genius of Renan was in part devoted to the Old Testament, or within the Roman Catholic Church, which possesses in Pere Lagrange, for example, a deservedly influential critical scholar, and in the Revue Biblique an organ which devotes much attention to the critical study of the Old Testament.
Rapid and extensive as has been the spread of critical methods, there have not been lacking anticritica.
For example, among the generally or largely accepted critical conclusions are these: (1) Moses is not the author of the whole Pentateuch; (2) Isaiah is not the author of Is.
In view of the number of critical conclusions and the mutual independence of many of them, " higher criticism " 1 For details see an article in the Zeitschr.
Moore, who has himself since done much distinguished and influential critical work.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
Ferrers Howell, 1908), of which the only critical edition is that of Friar Ed.
3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.
Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.
In addition to an enormous body of new information chiefly on the shoulder girdle, the alar muscles and the nerve plexuses of birds, this work contained a critical and descriptive summary of practically the whole pre-existing literature on the structure of birds, and it is hardly necessary for the student of ornithology to refer to earlier literature at first hand.
On the critical questions raised by the spurious writings consult W.
The situation was extremely critical for Venice, but she rose to the occasion.
Demaus, William Tyndale (London, 1871); also the Introduction to Mombert's critical reprint of Tyndale's Pentateuch (New York, 1884), where a bibliography is given.
Critical discussions of the history will be found in Schiller, Gesch.
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
He wrote nothing but a critical examination of the story of Don Carlos, but he returned to Germany a master of his craft.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one of the most prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars, and trained up in his "Seminar" a whole generation of teachers, who carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole of Germany and even beyond its borders.
Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities, being unwavering in his adherence in critical times.
88), who describes him as "of sleepless vigilance in critical emergencies, far-seeing and knowing how to act, but in his relaxation from business more luxurious and effeminate than a woman."
Windthorst took no part in the critical events of 1866; contrary to the opinion of many of his friends, after the annexation of Hanover by Prussia he accepted the fait accompli, took the oath of allegiance, and was elected a member both of the Prussian parliament and of the North German diet.
This is a strong instance of how the wish may be father to the thought even in a fairly critical mind.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
Its critical temperature is 2 77.7° C., and its critical pressure is 78.1 atmos.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
The best modern critical account in Spanish is Salvador Brau, Puerto Rico y su historia (Valencia, 1894).
With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.
This equation, which is mathematically deducible from the kinetic theory of gases, expresses the behaviour of gases, the phenomena of the critical state, and the behaviour of liquids; solids are not accounted for.
If we denote the critical volume, pressure and temperature by Vk, Pk and Tk, then it may be shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=o, d 2 p/dv 2 =o at the critical point, that Vk = 3b, Pk= a/27b2, T ic = 8a/27b.
Eliminating a and b between these relations, we derive P k V k /Tk= 8R, a relation which should hold between the critical constants of any substance.
Experiment, however, showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its value was not gR but 7 R; this means that the critical density is, as a general rule, 3.7 times the theoretical density.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive relations.
Theoretically the critical volume is three times the volume at absolute zero, i.e.
It is found that isomers have nearly the same critical volume, and that equal differences in molecular content occasion equal differences in critical volume.
For example, the difference due to an increment of CH 2 is about 56.6, as is shown in the following table: - Since the critical volume of normal pentane C5H12 is 307.2, we have H 2 = C 5 H 12 -5CH 2 =307.2 - 5 X56.6 =24.2, and C=CH2 - H2= 32.4.
The critical volume of oxygen can be deduced from the data of the above table, and is found to be 29, whereas the experimental value is 25.
88 These differences do not disappear at the critical point, and hence the critical volumes are not strictly additive.
If we express the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, volume and temperature, and denoting them by 7r, 0 and 0 respectively, the characteristic equation becomes (7+3/0 2)(30-i) =80; which has the same form for all substances.
Obviously, therefore, liquids are comparable when the pressures, volumes and temperatures are equal fractions of the critical constants.
Guldberg pointed out that for the most diverse substances the absolute boiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature.
Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes at the boiling-point.
From the relation between the critical constants Pk Vk/Tk = 37 R or T k /P k = 3 .
This ratio, termed by Guye the critical coefficient, has the following approximate values: C. H.
6 1.86 3.01 o 88 1.03 Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points.
At the critical point liquid and vapour become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical temperature.
Ramsay and Shields found from investigations of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy that Tin the equation y(Mv) 3 = KT must be counted downwards from the critical temperature T less about 6°.
Among critical works are: Anatole Feugere, Bourdaloue, sa predication et son temps (Paris, 1874); Adrien Lezat, Bourdaloue, theologien et orateur (Paris, 1874); P. M.
A new factor introduced by Alexander was the foundation of Greek cities at all critical points of intercourse in the conquered lands.
For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bks.
Latin letters are used throughout; the miniatures of older maps are superseded by symbols, and in the better-known countries the maps are fairly correct, but they fail lamentably when we follow their author into regions - the successful delineation of which depends upon critical combination of imperfect information.
The advent of the Reformation brought in critical methods, and the book was unjustly disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries.
In his Urgeschichte der germanischen and romanischen Volker (Berlin, 1881-1890), Dahn went a step farther back still, but here as in his Geschichte der deutschen Urzeit (Gotha, 1883-1888), a wealth of picturesque detail has been worked over and resolved into history with such imagiRative insight and critical skill as to make real and present the indistinct beginnings of German society.
And though it would be wrong to call Bede a critical historian in the modern sense of the words, he shows a very unusual conscientiousness in collecting his information from the best available sources, and in distinguishing between what he believed to be fact, and what he regarded only as rumour or tradition.
Lorenzo Valla and Angelo Poliziano, almost alone among the scholars of that age, showed a true critical perception.
See also Winsor's Narrative and Critical History, vol.
He found the situation more critical than when he had left, ten weeks previously.
It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.
Nitrogen has been liquefied, the critical temperature being -149° C. and the critical pressure 27.54 atmospheres.
Guye has given a critical discussion of the relative accuracy of the gravimetric and physico-chemical methods, and favours the latter, giving for the atomic weight a value less than 14.01.
A critical defence of them would require a volume.1 Cardinal Numbers.
In the next and last period the progress of pure mathematics has been dominated by the critical spirit introduced by the German mathematicians under the guidance of Weierstrass, though foreshadowed by earlier analysts, such as Abel.
SpalaIkovitch (Spalajkovic), in La Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1897), give a critical account of the AustroHungarian administration.
The help afforded by Ertoghrul to the Seljukian monarch on a critical occasion led to the addition of Sugut to his fief, with which he was now formally invested.
But at the critical moment the duke of Brunswick fell mortally wounded, and Scharnhorst, his chief of the staff, was at the time absent on another part of the field.
Even then the day might have been saved had Blucher been able to find even twenty squadrons accustomed to gallop together, but the Prussian cavalry had been dispersed amongst the infantry commands, and at the critical moment it proved impossible for them to deliver a united and decisive attack.
It seemed as if nothing could save the Austrians from complete disaster, but at the critical moment the emperor, yielding to the protestations of his corps commanders, who represented the excessive fatigue of their troops, stopped the pursuit, and the archduke made the most of his opportunity to restore order amongst his demoralized men, and crossed to the north bank of the Danube during the night.
ii., London, 1871) anticipates much of the critical position.
A critical yet conservative view of the whole question is given by R.
Sometimes Clement discusses chronology, sometimes philosophy, sometimes poetry, entering into the most minute critical and chronological details; but one object runs through all, and this is to show what the true Christian Gnostic is, and what is his relation to philosophy.
He is not always very critical, and he is passionately fond of allegorical interpretations, but these were the faults of his age.
He was not depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time closely engaged in the preparation of the Historical and Critical Dictionary (Dictionnaire historique et critique) .
- Historical and Critical Dictionary (1695-1697; 1702, enlarged; best that of P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740); Les Ouvres de Bayle (3 vols., The Hague); see des Maizeaux, Vie de Bayle; L.
See the Letters of Stevenson to his Family (1899), with the critical and biographical preface by Mr Sidney Colvin; Vailima Letters, to Sidney Colvin (1895), and the Life of Robert Louis Stevenson by Graham Balfour (1901).
Given, then, that the variations in tide-generating force are big enough, the periods when the maxima occur will be critical with regard to oceanographical and meteorological phenomena.
But his experience after Talavera had been akin to that of Moore; his expectations from the Spaniards had not been realized; he had been almost intercepted by the French, and he had narrowly escaped from a critical position.
A critical examination of the history of the Israelite ark renders it far from certain that the object was originally the peculiar possession of all Israel.
See, on this, S.A.Cook, Critical Notes on O.
By his casting vote at a critical period during the debate in the Senate on the tariff bill of 1846, he irretrievably lost his influence with the protectionist element of his native state, to whom he had given assurances of his support of the Tyler tariff of 1842.
White, "The Writings of St Patrick" (critical edition) in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1904).
The critical text of R.
It not only made the efforts of the Turks to suppress the Greek revolt hopeless, but it made a breach difficult to heal in the traditional friendship between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its effect during the critical period of the struggle between Mehemet Ali and the Porte (1831-1841).
Orthodox in practice and feeling, his critical treatment of the rabbinic literature prepared the way for the scientific investigations of the 19th century.
Thus, at the age of three-and-thirty, this naturally indolent and self-indulgent woman, with little knowledge and no experience of affairs, suddenly found herself at the head of a great empire at one of the most critical periods of its existence.
H: Whinfield, and the first critical edition of the text, with translation, by the same (1883).
Our estimate of the theological teaching of this book will naturally be influenced by the particular critical theory which is adopted.
published his encyclical Providentissimus Deus, which indeed directly condemned not Abbe Loisy's but Mgr d'Hulst's position, yet rendered the continued publication of consistently critical work so difficult that Loisy himself suppressed his Enseignement at the end of 1893.
Yet in October 1902 he established a "Commission for the Progress of Biblical Studies," preponderantly composed of seriously critical scholars; and even one month before his death he still refused to sign a condemnation of Loisy's Etudes evangeliques.
The Biblical Commission, soon enlarged so as to swamp the original critical members, and which had become the simple mouthpiece of its presiding cardinals, issued two decrees.
There was some revival of the art of the sermon at Versailles a century later, where the Abbe Maury, whose critical work has been mentioned above, preached with vivid eloquence between 1770 and 1785; the Pere Elisee (1726-1783), whom Diderot and Mme Roland greatly admired, held a similar place, at the same time, in Paris.
Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.
The truth appears to be that a hardened steel rod generally behaves like one of iron or soft steel in first undergoing extension under increasing magnetizing force, and recovering its original length when the force has reached a certain critical value, beyond which there is contraction.
But this " critical value " of the force is found to depend in an unexpected manner upon the hardness of the steel; the critical value diminishes as the hardness becomes greater up to a certain point, corresponding to a yellow temper, after which it increases and with the hardest steel becomes very high.
For steel which has been made redhot, suddenly cooled, and then let down to a yellow temper, the critical value of the magnetizing force is smaller than for steel which is either softer or harder; it is indeed so small that the metal contracts like nickel even under weak magnetizing forces, without undergoing any preliminary extension that can be detected.
in diameter the maximum elongation was nearly doubled when a current of two amperes was passing through the iron, while the " critical value " of the field was increased from 130 to 200.
Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.
The experiments were not sufficiently numerous to indicate whether, as is possible, there is a critical degree of hardness for which the height of the elongation curve is a maximum.
Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.
The Villari critical point for aegiven sample of iron is reached with a smaller magnetizing force when the stretching load is great than when it is small; the reversal also occurs with smaller loads and with weaker fields when the iron is soft than when it is hard.
The following table shows the values of I and H corresponding to the Villari critical point in some of Ewing's experiments: The effects of pulling stress may be observed either when the wire is stretched by a constant load while the magnetizing force is varied, or when the magnetizing force is kept constant while the load is varied.
The anticipated reversal was duly found by Chree, the critical point corresponding, under the moderate stress employed, to a field of about 120 units.
Tomlinson found a critical point in the " temporary magnetization " of nickel (Proc. Phys.
- It has long been known that iron, when raised to a certain " critical temperature " corresponding to dull red heat, loses its susceptibility and becomes magnetically indifferent, or, more accurately, is transformed from a ferromagnetic into a paramagnetic body.
Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature.
The following are the chief results of Hopkinson's experiments: For small magnetizing forces the magnetization of iron steadily increases with rise of temperature till the critical temperature is approached, when the rate of increase becomes very high, the permeability in some cases attaining a value of about i i,000; the magnetization then with remarkable suddenness almost entirely disappears, the permeability falling to about 1.14.
For strong magnetizing forces (which in these experiments did not exceed II= 48.9) the permeability remains almost constant at its initial value (about 400), until the temperature is within nearly i oo of the critical point; then the permeability diminishes more and more rapidly until the critical point is reached and the magnetization vanishes.
Steel behaves in a similar manner, but the maximum permeability is not so high as in iron, and the fall, when the critical point is approached, is less abrupt.
The critical temperature for various samples of iron and steel ranges from 690° C. to 870° C.; it is the temperature at which Barrett's " recalescence " occurs.
The critical temperature for the specimen of nickel examined (which contained nearly 5 of impurities) was 310° C. F.
Pocklington found that the critical temperature of nearly pure iron was 874° C. (Proc. Roy.
The critical temperatures for three different specimens of iron were 795°, 780°, and 770° respectively.
The results of a typical experiment are given in the annexed table, which shows how greatly the hysteresis loss is diminished as the critical temperature is approached.
unit; above the critical temperature be obtained.
For ordinary steel the critical temperature, at which magnetization practically disappeared, was found to be about 830°, and the curious fact was revealed that, on cooling, magnetization did not begin to reappear until the temperature had fallen 40° below the critical value.
In the case of all the metals tested a small but measurable trace of magnetization remained after the so-called critical temperature had been exceeded; this decreased very slightly up to the highest temperature reached (1200°) without undergoing any such variation as had been suspected by Morris.
When the curve after its steep descent has almost reached the axis, it bends aside sharply and becomes a nearly horizontal straight line; the authors suggest that the critical temperature should be defined as that corresponding to the point of maximum curvature.
As thus defined the critical temperatures for iron, nickel and cobalt were 1 Journ.
Alloys containing different proportions of nickel were found to exhibit the phenomenon, but the two critical temperatures were less widely separated.
] Honda and Shimizu (loc. cit.) have determined the two critical temperatures for eleven nickel-steel ovoids, containing from 24.04 to 70.32% of nickel, under a magnetizing force of 400, and illustrated by an interesting series of curves, the gradual transformation of the magnetic properties as the percentage of nickel was decreased.
Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.
The critical temperature (if there is one) was not reached in Faraday's experiment; possibly even the temperature of -250 C., which by the use of liquid hydrogen has now become accessible, might still be too high.
4 But it has been shown that the critical temperatures of iron and nickel may be changed by the addition of certain other substances.
Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
The critical temperature of iron, for instance, is raised more than ioo° by the addition of, a little carbon and tungsten.
The best critical edition of the Greek text will be found in Lipsius, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 1891, pp. 279-283.
Critical editions have been published by Gebhardt and Harnack, Patr.
to show that both expressions agreed for every value of the variable; now it is sufficient to prove their agreement to a far less extent" [merely in certain critical points and at certain boundaries].
The position seemed critical; but, fortunately for the king, the south and west gave no effective support to the rebellion.
During those critical times the government of the state was strengthened by a new executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began to act independently of the priors or consistory.
The first critical edition was prepared by Dr Jamieson and published in 1820.
Joao III (1844), prepared Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of his History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end of the Reign of Affonso III., a book written on critical lines and based on documents.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.
And when relations with America were becoming critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from British ports, he brought the question before the House of Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force.
At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
The rebels now handled their bows in a menacing fashion, but at the critical moment the young king with great presence of mind and courage spurred his horse into the open, crying, "Sirs, will you shoot your king?
1522), was essentially a compilation, more or less critical, of all such records, pictures and relations concerning beasts, birds, reptiles, fishes and monsters as could be gathered together by one reading in the great libraries of Europe, travelling from city to city, and frequenting the company of those who either had themselves passed into distant lands or possessed the letters written and sometimes the specimens brought home by adventurous persons.
Calling the refractive index µ, we have as the critical value of e=2Xo/ µ sin a, (1).
Quixote have been reprinted in a critical edition with a life of Silva by Dr Mendes dos Remedios (Coimbra, 1905).
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
metrice, &c., Innsbruck, 1882), whose critical services are not to be judged merely by the measure of assent which his metrical theories may command.
The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
As regards the dates and historical interpretation of the Psalms, all older discussions, even those of Ewald, are in great measure antiquated by recent progress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of the canon, and an entirely fresh treatment of the Psalter by a sober critical commentator is urgently needed.
(1907), in International Critical Commentary.
This, however, is, on critical grounds, most questionable.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
An excellent bibliography and account of the critical apparatus is given in Dr R.
It was in this spirit that he worked; and his intellectual character was peculiarly fitted for his work, for he was largely endowed with the faculty of judgment and with a genius for minute and critical investigation.
His place as a master in critical scholarship and historical exposition is decided beyond debate by the nineteen volumes which he edited for the Rolls series of Chronicles and Memorials.
His illness became critical on the 10th of April, and he died on the 2 2nd.
Pinches, and with critical description and plates by A.
Though without claims to creative originality, Terence must have had not only critical genius, to enable him fully to appreciate and identify himself with his originals, but artistic genius of a high and pure type.
Living in the interval between Ennius and Lucilius, whose original force and genius survive only in rude and inartistic fragments, he produced six plays, which have not only reached our time in the form in which they were given to the world, but have been read in the most critical and exacting literary epochs, and still may be read without any feeling of the need of making allowance for the rudeness of a new and undeveloped art.
Among critical estimates of Terence may be mentioned Sainte-Beuve's in Nouveaux lundis (3rd and 10th of August 1863), and Mommsen's in the History of Rome, book iv., chapter xiii.
Displaying no original critical power, their chief merit lies in the fact that they bring in a popular (but not always accurate) form the results of the criticism of others within the reach of general readers.
army had become critical.
Still the situation remained critical next day, for the I.
For critical accounts see Irving's History of Scottish Poetry, Henderson's Vernacular Poetry of Scotland, Gregory Smith's Transition Period, J.
Hippocrates, influenced as is thought by the Pythagorean doctrines of number, taught that they were to be expected on days fixed by certain numerical rules, in some cases on odd, in others on even numbers - the celebrated doctrine of "critical days."
Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.
critical edition of the Carolingian diplomas.
In course of an investigation in 1822-1823 on the effects of heat and pressure on certain liquids he found that for each there was a certain temperature above which it refused to remain liquid but passedintothegaseous state, no matter what the amount of pressure to which it was subjected, and in the case of water he determined this critical temperature, with a remarkable approach to accuracy, to be 362° C. He also studied the nature of yeast and the influence of extreme cold upon its life.
In the general scheme of attack the landing at this last point was of primary importance; the largest force had been detailed for it, and the troops were for the most part conveyed to the beach in a steamer (the " River Clyde ") which was run ashore; but only some scattered detachments cowering close to the water's edge had established themselves on land by nightfall, and the Allies' position here seemed to be highly critical.
was able to gather in force during the critical hours of ' The German commander of the 5th Div.
Numerically, the contending armies would at this very critical juncture of the campaign be almost equal, the invaders rather the stronger; but the Turks were much dispersed, so that the result almost hinged upon the speed with which the attacking side should gain ground before the defenders had time to concentrate.
The final night was provisionally fixed as that of the 18th - 19th, and thanks to favourable weather and to the efficiency of the arrangements, the very critical operation was carried out with triumphant success, just as had been laid down by programme ten days before.
The critical day passed without incident.
See C. Cuissard, Theodulphe eveque d'Orleans, sa vie et ses oeuvres, (Orleans, 1892); and a critical study of the writings by M.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
Lorenzo's position was critical, but by his boldness in going to Naples he succeeded in concluding a peace with the king, which led to a reconciliation with the pope (1479-1480).
The pope having been satisfied, the situation in Florence was less critical for the moment.
which established liberty of worship. In the critical days of Germinal and of Prairial of the year III.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
From these we judge that he had great narrative power, with much clear and exact learning, and must be placed high as a critical historian.
His plan was to record the various traditions about an event, choosing them with critical skill; sometimes, however, he fused the several traditions into a continuous narrative.
The entire construction of the history is based, as has already been said, on a critical examination and chronological arrangement of the available documents.
The critical outlook of Philippians does not correspond with the position of the apostle at Caesarea, nor can the latter town be said to have been a centre of vigorous Christian propaganda (i.
But he displays a superstitious regard for miracles and prophecies; he has nothing to say against the arbitrary acts of the emperors, which he seems to take as a matter of course; and his work, although far more than a mere compilation, is not remarkable for impartiality, vigour of judgment or critical historical faculty.
Its critical temperature is 155° C. and critical pressure 72 atmos.
759).2 A critical edition of them by E.
But the most valuable and important historical work by a modern Peruvian is General Mendiburu's (1805-1885) Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru, a monument of patient and conscientious research, combined with critical discernment of a high order.
It was won by a gallant charge of the Peruvians under Captain Suarez at the critical moment.
is The critical difficulties of these verses need not be discussed here.
4 seq.; 4 See a collection and critical estimate of this evidence by Zimmern, Die Keilinschriften and das Alte Testament, 465 sqq.
At a critical moment he actually left the Virginian armies to their own commanders, and started to take personal command in a threatened quarter, and throughout he was in close touch with Sherman and Thomas,.
Nevertheless, with the aid of Capponi, he guided the bewildered city safely through these critical days.
Aspern had been lost, and graver news reached Napoleon at the critical moment.
For a critical examination of the story, see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
to suffer prejudice from critical conditions as to their date and authorship.
C. Benson, who gives a more critical estimate of the poet than was possible in the Memoir by his son.
There he came under the influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's revolutionary ideas in philosophy.
From this time he continued to pour forth a number of critical writings on literature, art, &c. His bold ideas on these subjects, which were a great advance even on Lessing's doctrines, naturally excited hostile criticism, and in consequence of this opposition, which took the form of aspersions on his religious orthodoxy, he resolved to leave Riga.
It is generally admitted that he had no accurate knowledge either of Spinoza, whose monism he advocated, or of Kant, whose critical philosophy he so fiercely attacked.
With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the Metakritik (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind, ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.
But these have all been superseded by the monumental critical edition by B.
This accurate and finely-illustrated work, one of the publications of the Service des monuments historiques de l'Alge'rie, cites the principal works dealing with Tlemcen, and gives a critical estimate of their value.
In the critical division which ensued Gladstone voted with the government, who were left in a minority.
Parzival exists in numerous editions; critical texts have been edited by Lachmann (1891), Martin (1903) and Leitzmann (1902-1903).
In the critical situation after the battle of Pavia (1525) she proved herself equal to the emergency, maintained order in the kingdom, and manoeuvred very skilfully to detach Henry VIII.
Masdeu wrote in a critical spirit and with a regard for accuracy rare in his time; but he is more concerned with small details than with the philosophy of history.
Newman, whose mind Martineau said was " critical, not prophetic, since without immediateness of religious vision," and whose faith is " an escape from an alternative scepticism, which receives the veto not of his reason but of his will," 6 as men for whose teachings and methods he had a potent and stimulating antipathy.
All these plans failed at the critical moment, and the most effective work done by the order was in encouraging desertion from the Federal armies, preventing enlistments, and resisting the draft.
See Aleksander Semkowicz, Critical Considerations of the Polish Works of Dlugosz (Pol.; Cracow, 1874); Michael Bobrzynski and Stanislaw Smolka, Life of Dlugosz and his Position in Literature (Pol.; Cracow, 1893).
He is chiefly known for his edition of Horace (1721) with notes, mostly critical, which included a volume of Animadversiones upon Richard Bentley's notes and emendations.
The present article chiefly deals with publications devoted to general literature, literary and critical reviews and magazines for the supply of miscellaneous reading.
The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756-1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson.
To Edinburgh is also due the first high-class critical journal, the Edinburgh Review, established in October 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Horner, Brougham and Sydney Smith.
Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689-1690 to 1695-1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement.
The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834-1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-1853), the Criterion (1855-1856), the Round Table (1863-1864), the Citizen (1864-1873), and Appleton' s Journal (1869).
- Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Annee philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Annee psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904); Bulletin de l'institut general de psychologie (1903); Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique (1900); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897).
Influenced by a close study of English writers, the two Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method new to Germany.
The earliest critical serial, the Diario de los literatos (1737-1742), kept up at the expense of Philip V., did not long survive court favour.
In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptcheld, or " Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays.
Nor ought any critical admirer of Fox to deny that George III.
See Wilson, Critical Sketches of some Commanders (Boston, 1895).
During the same period the critical estimates of the poet have fluctuated in a truly extraordinary manner.
The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.
With the completion of the three books of Odes he cast aside for a time the office of the vates, and resumed that of the critical spectator of human life, but in the spirit of a moralist rather than a satirist.
The value of the work consists not in any power of critical investigation or weighing of historical evidence but in the intense sympathy of the writer with the national ideal, and the vivid imagination with which under the influence of this sympathy he gives life to the events and personages, the wars and political struggles, of times remote from his own.
The decline of literature proper was attended by an increased output of grammatical and critical studies.
60) was the first critical editor of Latin texts.
Although the treatises IIEpi Kpwviuwv cannot be accepted as authentic, we find in the Ilpoyvwvr,KOV evidence of the acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of critical days in disease is enunciated.
Mag., 1880) to represent the behaviour of CO 2 up to the critical point.
His personal influence, at a critical period, did much to secure strictness of doctrine and compactness of organization in the Lutheran Church.
MONTANISM, a somewhat misleading name for the movement in the 2nd century which, along with Gnosticism, occupied the most critical period in the history of the Early Church.
The desire for a sharper exercise of discipline, and a more decided renunciation of the world, combined with a craving for some plain indication of the Divine will in these last critical times, had prepared many minds for an eager acceptance of the tidings from Phrygia.
- The materials for the history of Montanism, although plentiful, are fragmentary, and require a good deal of critical sifting.
Challoner (1784); Flanagan, History of the Catholic Church in England (1857); there is also a critical history of Challoner by Rev. E.
die jildisch-alexandrinische Theosophie, Stuttgart, 1831) was rapidly followed by an elaborate biography, in two volumes, of Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav Adolf, Konig von Schweden, and seine Zeit, Stuttgart, 1835-1837), and by a critical history of primitve Christianity (Kritische Geschichte des Urchristenthums, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1838).
Until 1870 the standard work on the subject was Waterland's Critical History of the Athanasian Creed, first published in 1723.
1642, " who led the way to a more strict and critical inquiry," Waterland passed in review all the known MSS.
It was prepared by Dr George Redford or Worcester, and was presented, not as a scholastic or critical confession of faith, but merely such a statement as any intelligent member of the body might offer as containing its leading principles.
For a critical edition of text, see H.
Schoene's critical edition (Berlin, 1866, 1875).
1 Compare the critical edition of these two works in Lagarde's Onomastica sacra (Gotting.
The use of apocryphal literature in Jude itself may account for much of the critical disposition toward it of many subsequent writers.
Corps in the centre the situation was still critical.
This was stopped almost entirely by the Prussian artillery fire; but the news of its coming spread through the stragglers in the ravine south of the great road, and a wave of panic again swept through the mass, many thousands bolting right upon the front of their own batteries, thus masking their fire at the most critical moment, and something like a crisis in the battle arose.
These traditions, finding their clearest delineation in the lines of Homer, had been subjected to the analysis of the critical historians of the early decades of the 19th century, and their authenticity had come to be more than doubted.
At a very critical moment, when the Kaiser had actually mesmerized Nicholas II into the conclusion of a secret and personal convention at Bjdrko, which purported to aim at a defensive agreement, but would have led by necessity to the disruption of the FrancoRussian Alliance and to the vassalage of Russia in a continental league against England, Count Benckendorff was invited to Copenhagen and had an opportunity of serving as a confidential intermediary between Russia and Great Britain.
He was probably the first to attempt a serious prose history and to employ critical method to distinguish myth from historical fact, though he accepts Homer and the other poets as trustworthy authority.
Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. 89 ff.).
Farrar, Critical History of Free Thought (Bampton Lectures, 1862); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie (ed.
Throughout his lectures, Adamson pursued the critical and historical method without formulating a constructive theory of his own.
For critical studies of these wars the reader may be referred to Naval Warfare, by Rear-admiral P. H.
The next three and a half years were a critical time for European diplomacy.
of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston, 1884) there is an excellent chapter by Gregory B.
The critical studies of recent years have shown that most of the Old Testament prophetical books are composite.
But this Caligula hypothesis cannot be carried out unless by a vigorous use of the critical knife, in the course of which more than a third of the chapter is excised.
Charles, Critical History of 1 This idea appears as early as the 2nd century B.C. Cf.
Notwithstanding, on various critical grounds, Baur, Hilgenfeld, Lightfoot, Westcott, Hort and Beyschlag assigned the book to the reign of Nero, or to the years immediately following his death, while Weiss, Dusterdieck and AfIommsen assign it to the time of Vespasian.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
At this critical period her brother, the emperor Joseph II., decided to visit France.
The critical point of the gas is 37° C., at which temperature a pressure of 68 atmospheres is required for liquefaction.
A critical investigation of the conditions under which religious belief was possible was still wanting.
As in the Critique of Revelation so here the rational nature of man and the conditions necessary for its manifestation or realization become the standard for critical judgment.
The number of critical works is very large.
Lindenbrog (1614); the most recent critical editions are by 0.
At the same time extremes during the four most critical crop months, from the 1st of May to the 1st of September, have ranged from 6.75 in.
" It seemed," wrote Richard Cumberland, " as if a whole century had been stepped over in the passage of a single scene; old things were done away, and a new order at once brought forward, 1 In the subsequent Apology addressed to the Critical Reviewers, Churchill revenged himself for the slight which he supposed Garrick to have put upon him, by some spiteful lines, which, however, Garrick requited by good-humoured kindness.
The text was followed by a critical apparatus, the first part of which consisted of an introduction to the criticism of the New Testament, in the thirty-fourth section of which he laid down and explained his celebrated canon, "Proclivi scriptioni praestat ardua" (" The difficult reading is to be preferred to that which is easy"), the soundness of which, as a general principle, has been recognized by succeeding critics.
The second part of the critical apparatus was devoted to a consideration of the various readings, and here Bengel adopted the plan of stating the evidence both against and in favour of a particular reading, thus placing before the reader the materials for forming a judgment.
Wetstein, on the other hand, accused him of excessive caution in not making freer use of his critical materials.
An enlarged edition of the critical apparatus was published by Philip David Burk in 1763.
The hostile French faction was much the stronger, since at this time the king (whom the whole of the pagan party followed) was of that faction; but after some critical episodes the treaty was signed on the 26th of December.
With the more critical and exciting events of the 19th of Brumaire at St Cloud Talleyrand had no direct connexion; but he had made all his preparations for flight in case the blow failed.
Others were Lycophron, Callimachus, Eratosthenes and many of a later age, for the critical school long survived the literary.
The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority.
An abridged story of his life will be found in Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, on the 21st of October, and a critical sketch with full references in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopcidie (ed.
But the pope maintained that, except in the most critical cases, his consent must be obtained for such grants.
(1316-1334)1334) to control the election of the emperor called forth the first fundamental and critical attack on the papal monarchy, by Marsiglio of Padua, who declared in his Defensor pacis (1324) that the assumed supremacy of the bishop of Rome was without basis, since it was very doubtful if Peter was ever in Rome, and in any case there was no evidence that he had transmitted any exceptional prerogatives to succeeding bishops.
The anti-Trinitarian path was one which opened invitingly before a considerable class of critical minds, seeming as it did to lead out into Reformed Church In America a sunny open, remote from the unfathomable depths of mystery and clouds of religious emotion which beset the way of the sincere Catholic and Protestant alike.
Only recent books are mentioned, since the older works have been largely superseded owing to modern critical investigations: Thomas A.
6 Critical account of the Phil.
Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America and in his Memorial History of Boston.
The adhesion of Utrecht to the party of revolt was the work of the aristocratic party, and the critical state of affairs made it for a while dominant in the town.
ISAIAH BERLIN (1725-1799), an eminent rabbi of Breslau; he was the author of acute notes on the Talmud which had their influence in advancing the critical study of that work.
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
min.) The fullest critical treatment in English is by Dr Vernon Bartlet in the extra volume of Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible; the most complete commentary on the text is by P. Drews in Hennecke's Handbuch zu den N.T.