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criterion

criterion

criterion Sentence Examples

  • Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion alike of knowledge and of conduct.

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  • The church lays down a rule of domestic policy, and neither gives nor pretends to give any absolute criterion for the validity of ordination.

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  • It is important to understand clearly the criterion which he applied; it is frequently misapprehended.

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  • been passed by all previous collectors, and what criterion was there to establish their genuineness?

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  • rationalis, pertaining to reason, ratio), a term employed both in philosophy and in theology for any system which sets up human reason as the final criterion and chief source of knowledge.

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  • It is therefore not a criterion which can do justice to the principles of Wagner's non-symphonic art, for its.

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  • This marks them off from such reflex acts as are unconsciously performed, and from the tropisms of plants and other lowly organisms. There remains, however, the difficulty of finding any satisfactory criterion of the presence of consciousness.

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  • While, then, the general idea of a theory of knowledge as based upon psychological analysis is the groundwork of the Treatise, it is a particular consequence of this idea that furnishes to Hume the characteristic criterion applied by him to all philosophical questions.

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  • In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.

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  • To profit by individual experience is thus the only criterion we possess of the existence of the conscious experience itself.

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  • To profit by individual experience is thus the only criterion we possess of the existence of the conscious experience itself.

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  • Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.

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  • His universal process of Evolution seems to give Spencer a criterion of" higher "and" lower " progression "and" degeneration,"independent of the accidents of actual history, and unattainable by strictly Darwinian methods.

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  • a to----- 1 z c This criterion may be stated in another way.

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  • We seem forced to accept a practical criterion for purposes of interpretation rather than one which can be theoretically defended against all adverse criticism.

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  • We seem forced to accept a practical criterion for purposes of interpretation rather than one which can be theoretically defended against all adverse criticism.

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  • If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.

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  • We must now however introduce a new criterion the " purity " and distinguish it from the resolving power: the purity is defined by n l /(n l n2), where n 1 and n, are the frequencies of two lines such that they would just be resolved with the width of slit used.

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  • But, as society exists only for the proper development of persons, we have a criterion by which to test these institutions, viz.

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  • The state of the pulse is the best criterion of the action of alcohol in any given case of fever.

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  • Y of finding and applying a criterion of the presence or absence of consciousness, it is none the less desirable, in the interests of psychology, to state that truly instinctive acts (as defined) are accompanied by consciousness.

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  • of ideas are accepted as facts of immediate observation, as being themselves perceptions or individual elements of conscious experience, and to all appearance they are regarded by Hume as being in a sense analytical, because the formal criterion of identity is applicable to them.

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  • There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.

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  • Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.

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  • 7)80vij, pleasure, from 7)81us, sweet, pleasant), in ethics, a general term for all theories of conduct in which the criterion is pleasure of one kind or another.

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  • Price's main point of difference with Cudworth is that while Cudworth regards the moral criterion as a v6nma or modification of the mind, existing in germ and developed by circumstances, Price regards it as acquired from the contemplation of actions, but acquired necessarily, immediatel",, intuitively.

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  • 7)80vij, pleasure, from 7)81us, sweet, pleasant), in ethics, a general term for all theories of conduct in which the criterion is pleasure of one kind or another.

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  • Hence the criterion for the position of the loads which makes the moment at C greatest is this: one load must be at C, and the other loads must be distributed, so that the average loads per ft.

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  • The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.

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  • Instead, therefore, of the criterion of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," Stephen has that of the "health of the organism."

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  • The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.

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  • Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality.

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  • Erskine had little interest in the "historical criticism" of Christianity, and regarded as the only proper criterion of its truth its conformity or nonconformity with man's spiritual nature, and its adaptability or non-adaptability to man's spiritual needs.

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  • Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.

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  • Erskine had little interest in the "historical criticism" of Christianity, and regarded as the only proper criterion of its truth its conformity or nonconformity with man's spiritual nature, and its adaptability or non-adaptability to man's spiritual needs.

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  • Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.

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  • This function is also called the " thermodynamic potential at constant volume " from the analogy with the condition of minimum potential energy as the criterion of stable equilibrium in statics.

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  • The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.

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  • The position of the loads which gives the greatest moment at C may be settled by the criterion given above.

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  • 21, 22 seeks the legal criterion of true prophecy in the fulfilment of prediction, the writer is no doubt guided by the remembrance of the remarkable confirmation which the doctrines of spiritual prophecy had received in history then recent, but his criterion would have appeared inadequate to the prophets themselves, and indeed this passage is one of the most striking proofs that to formulate the principles of prophetic religion in a legal code was an impossible task.

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  • 21, 22 seeks the legal criterion of true prophecy in the fulfilment of prediction, the writer is no doubt guided by the remembrance of the remarkable confirmation which the doctrines of spiritual prophecy had received in history then recent, but his criterion would have appeared inadequate to the prophets themselves, and indeed this passage is one of the most striking proofs that to formulate the principles of prophetic religion in a legal code was an impossible task.

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  • In the first place hedonism may confine itself to the view that, as a matter of observed fact, all men do in practice make pleasure the criterion of action, or it may go further and assert that men ought to seek pleasure as the sole human good.

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  • is often hard to determine, and hence the criterion of unmistakable resemblance is one of special importance.

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  • Porter wrote a Life of Commodore David Porter (1875), gossipy Incidents and Anecdotes of the Civil War (1885), a none too accurate History of the Navy during the War of the Rebellion (1887), two novels, Allan Dare and Robert le Diable (1885; dramatized, 1887) and Harry Marline (1886), and a short "Romance of Gettysburg," published in The Criterion in 1903.

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  • The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.

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  • In the light of this knowledge we shall be able to formulate the moral code, which, in turn, will serve as a criterion of actual civic and social institutions.

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  • Waldenses merely set forward a new criterion of the orderly arrangement of the church, according to which each member was to sit in judgment on the works of the ministers, and consequently on the validity of their ministerial acts.

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  • The only real happiness is the happiness of the community, or at least of the majority: the criterion is society, not the individual.

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  • A criterion already given shows the position of any set of loads which will produce the greatest bending moment at the centre of the bridge, or at one-quarter span.

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  • In tracing the phylogeny, or ancestral history of organs, palaeontology affords the only absolute criterion on the successive evolution of organs in time as well as of (progressive) evolution in form.

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  • 2 Basing the investigation on the same criterion of resolution as in the case of narrow slits, we postulate for both narrow and wide slits that two lines are resolved when the intensity of the combined image falls to a value of o 8ro in the centre between the lines, the intensity at the maxima being unity.

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  • The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834-1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-1853), the Criterion (1855-1856), the Round Table (1863-1864), the Citizen (1864-1873), and Appleton' s Journal (1869).

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  • This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.

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  • Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.

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  • This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.

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  • At present we can only be certain that the criterion according to which Brahms, being a symphonic writer, has no mastery of orchestration whatever, is not a criterion compatible with any sense of symphonic style.

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  • But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.

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  • Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.

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  • On the whole, his moral attitude is cynical, and he is inclined to regard self-interest as the best criterion.

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  • probare, to test, approve), a term used both in theology and in philosophy with the general implication that in the absence of certainty probability is the best criterion.

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  • Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion.

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  • Reason is the ultimate criterion.

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  • A good criterion of the progress of education is obtained from the diminishI ing number of illiterate army recruits, as shown by the following Unable to Read or Write.

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  • This line is so characteristic that its presence or absence is the usual criterion for deciding whether an atmospheric light is aurora.

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  • A criterion is thus given us for the reconstruction of the Apology, where the Greek which we have has been abbreviated, and we are enabled to claim with certainty some passages of the Syriac which might otherwise be suspected as interpolations.

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  • An important criterion for judging the period during which individual 1 For the schemes of Noldeke and Grimm see Mahommedan Religion.

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  • tenth commandment) is in itself no sound criterion, whilst the external form of the laws, though characteristic of later codes, need not be taken as evidence of importance.

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  • Granted that rationality taken in the sense of inner coherence and self-consistency is the ultimate standard of truth and reality, does self-consciousness itself answer to the demands of this criterion?

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  • Hence the name Rosmini gives it of ideal being; and this he laid down as the fundamental principle of all philosophy and the supreme criterion of truth and certainty.

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  • Oriental law is primitive or advanced according to the social conditions, with the result that antiquity of ideas is no criterion of date, and modern desert custom is more archaic than the great code of the Babylonian king Khammurabi Babylonian g y g Law.

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  • But when men set themselves to cultivate skill in disputation, regarding the matter discussed not as a serious issue, but as a thesis upon which to practise their powers of controversy, they learn to pursue, not truth, but victory; and, their criterion of excellence having been thus perverted, they presently prefer ingenious fallacy to solid reasoning and the applause of bystanders to the consciousness of honest effort.

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  • The criterion which guided the studies of the academicians was far from being worthy of unqualified praise, and consequently their work did not always meet the approval of the best scholars who had the opportunity of seeing the monuments.

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  • Neither criterion is a guarantee that the star shall have a measurable parallax.

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  • To say, however, that Clarke simply confused mathematics and morals by justifying the moral criterion on a mathematical basis is a mistake.

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  • that of the criterion of truth, exercised its influence on the individualists of the Renaissance.

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  • Less familiar to modern ears is the contention that proof needs a standard or criterion, while this standard or criterion in turn needs proof.

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  • Guided by this objective criterion, and safeguarded by growing insight into the author's plastic aim, we need not despair of reaching large agreement as to the nature of the sources lying behind the first half of Acts.

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  • The Evidences of Christianity is mainly a condensation of Bishop Douglas's Criterion and Lardner's Credibility of the Gospel History.

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  • A general criterion for the case of a rigid body movable in two dimensions, with one degree of freedom, can be obtained as follows.

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  • The same criterion may be -.

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  • We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.

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  • the other hand, as Jansen pointed out, free-will tends to make the average man's estimate of his own powers into the supreme criterion of all that is good and right.

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  • He took up the greatest happiness principle not as an attractive philosopheme, but as a criterion to distinguish good laws from bad.

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  • Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.

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  • His table of springs of actions shows the same mean-spirited omissions that we notice in his predecessors; he measures the quantity of pleasures by the coarsest and most mechanical tests; and he sets up general pleasure as the criterion of moral goodness.

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  • It is commonly said that in making this distinction Mill has practically given up utilitarianism, because he has applied to pleasure (alleged to be the supreme criterion) a further criterion which is not pleasure.

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  • When boiled in water the root affords a dark extractive matter, the quantity of extract yielded by the root being used as a criterion of its quality.

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  • In all these particulars Zeno followed them, and the last is the more important, because, Chrysippus having adopted a new criterion of truth - a clear and distinct perception of sense - it is only from casual.

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  • It is necessary, therefore, that assent should not be given indiscriminately; we must determine a criterion of truth, a special formal test whereby reason may recognize the merely plausible and hold fast the true.

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  • To Plato and Aristotle the nature and operation of thought and reason constitute a sufficient criterion.

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  • The law which regulates our action is thus the ultimate criterion of what we know - practical knowledge being understood to be of paramount importance.

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  • But this criterion was open to the persistent attacks of Epicureans and Academics, who made clear (t) that reason is dependent upon, if not derived from, sense, and (2) that the utterances of reason lack consistency.

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  • The same criterion was available for knowledge derived more directly from the intellect.

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  • All the assaults of the sceptical Academy had failed, and within fifty years of the death of Carneades his degenerate successors, unable to hold their ground on the question of the criterion, had capitulated to the enemy.

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  • But this new criterion of apostleship was capable of wider application, one dispensing altogether with vision of the risen Lord-which could not even in Paul's case be proved so fully as in the case of the original apostles-but appealing to the "signs of an apostle" (1 Cor.

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  • The cultural as well as the microscopical characters of a pathogenic organism may be closely similar to other non-pathogenic members of the same group, and it thus comes to be a matter of extreme difficulty in certain cases to state what criterion should be used in differentiating varieties.

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  • The old criterion by which they and other Metazoa were once distinguished from Protozoa, namely, the differentiation of large and small sexual cells from each other and from the remaining cells of the body, has been broken down by the discovery of numerous cases of such differentiation among Protozoa.

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  • The differential diagnosis is of the highest importance, but very frequently time alone will furnish a sufficient criterion.

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  • The only certain criterion of a medusa-individual is the presence of definite sense-organs, but in cases where the organism is much reduced, this criterion may fail us, as it does in the genus Lucernaria.

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  • It is a purely formal direction, and as such merely an adjunct to a substantive ethical criterion.

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  • A practical theory of ethics seeks to establish a particular moral ideal; if it is an absolute criterion, then the altruist would place first the attainment of that ideal by others, while the egoist would seek it for himself.

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  • Stature is by no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for instance, be difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and North American Indians, whose mean height should hardly differ.

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  • 29 a no notion of arrangement, no measure of proportion, and no criterion of discrimination between the important and the trivial; they are equally destitute of critical and of historical insight, unable to sift the authorities on which they rely, and unsuspicious of the stupendous social revolution comprised within the period which they undertake to describe.

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  • All eclecticism that is not self-condemned and inoperative implies a system of doctrine as its basis, - in fact, a criterion of truth.

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  • The answer is in substance that Kant went wrong in putting necessity first as the criterion of those laws.

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  • As Spiegel remarks (Die arische Periode, p. 105), though it is easy enough to connect the word with a root ar-, there are several roots of that form which have different meanings, and there is no certain criterion whereby to decide to which of them it is related.

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  • This predisposed him to regard physical miracles as the solid criterion for distinguishing reasonable religious conviction from " inclinations, fancies and strong assurances."

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  • But when such criticism passes into the attempt to find a universal criterion of morality - such an attempt being in effect an effort to make morality scientific - and especially when the attempt is seen, as it must in the end be seen, to fail (the moral consciousness being superior to all standards of morality and realizing itself wholly in particular judgments), then ethics as a process of reflection upon the nature of the moral consciousness may be said to begin.

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  • If this be true it follows that one of the chief function of ethics must be criticism of mistaken attempts to find a criterion of morality superior to the pronouncements of the moral consciousness itself.

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  • There is, however, in the Cynic notion of wisdom, no positive criterion beyond the mere negation of irrational desires and prejudices.

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  • It ought to be said that Aristotle does not present the formula just discussed as supplying a criterion of good conduct in any particular case; he expressly leaves this to be determined by " correct reasoning, and the judgment of the practically-wise man (6 cppovcµos)."

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  • Goodness, in short, consists in due combination, in just proportion, of both sorts of " affections," tendency to promote general good being taken as the criterion of the right degrees and proportions.

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  • The former, while accepting utility as the criterion of " material goodness," had adhered to Shaftesbury's view that dispositions, not results of action, were the proper object of moral approval; at the same time, while giving to benevolence the first place in his account of personal merit, he had shrunk from the paradox of treating it as the sole virtue, and had added a rather undefined and unexplained train of qualities, - veracity, fortitude, activity, industry, sagacity, - immediately approved in various degrees by the " moral sense " or the " sense of dignity."

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  • The will of God [so far as it directs behaviour to others] is the immediate rule or criterion of virtue.

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  • but it is evident from the nature of God that he could have no other design in creating mankind than their happiness; and therefore he wills their happiness; therefore that my behaviour so far as it may be a means to the happiness of mankind should be such; so this happiness of mankind may be said to be the criterion of virtue once removed."

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  • He considers that this fundamental rule or imperative " act on a maxim which thou canst will to be law universal " supplies a sufficient criterion for determining particular duties in all cases.

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  • A certain common agreement has been reached concerning the impossibility of regarding pleasure as the sole motive criterion and end of moral action, though different opinions still prevail as to the place occupied by pleasure in the summum bonum, and the possibility of a hedonistic calculus.

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  • Finally, side by side with a theory of the nature of moral obligation thus fundamentally empirical and a posteriori in its outlook, he maintains in his account of justice the existence of the idea of justice as distinct from a mere sentiment, carrying with it an a priori belief in its existence and identical in its a priori and intuitive character with the ultimate criterion of Utilitarianism itself.

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  • He apparently passes from one criterion to the other as best suits the purpose of the moment.

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  • Nor is his attempt to construct a scientific criterion out of data derived from the biological sciences productive of satisfactory results.

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  • In fact, no acceptable scientific criterion emerges, and the outcome of Spencer's attempt to ascertain the laws of life and the conditions of existence is either a restatement of the dictates of the moral consciousness in vague and cumbrous quasi-scientific phraseology, or the substitution of the meaningless test of " survivability " as a standard of perfection for the usual and intelligible standards of " good " and " right."

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  • For the belief that moral obligation is absolute in character, that it is alike impossible to explain its origin and transcend its laws, would make the search for a scientific criterion of conduct to be deduced from the laws of life and conditions of existence meaningless, if not absurd.

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  • Only, therefore, to those philosophers who believe in the existence of a criterion of morality, i.e.

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  • Even language does not afford a sure criterion, so nearly akin are many spoken dialects of Servian and Bulgarian.

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  • Where, then, is the absolute criterion?

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  • He gave up the psychological hedonism of Mill, and adopted instead a position which may be described as ethical hedonism, according to which the criterion of goodness in any given action is that it produces the greatest possible amount of pleasure.

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  • Thus it shows that the "primitive" features of Genesis afford a criterion which is sociological rather than chronological.

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  • This exposition by Irenaeus of the divine economy and the incarnation was taken as a criterion by later theologians, especially in the Greek Church (cf.

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  • But the art and literature expressed by the genius of the masters, reflected in the tastes of society, and to be taken by Europe as a model throughout a whole century, are no criterion of the social and political order of the day.

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  • Ghazali then interrogated all the sects in succession to learn their criterion of truth.

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  • Fine action is the best criterion of everything fitting properly, and all a horse's points ought to harmonize or be in proportion to one another, no one point being more prominent than another, such as good shoulders, fine loins or excellent quarters.

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  • Alexander in his book on demonic possession maintains that "the confession of Jesus as the Messiah or Son of God is the classical criterion of genuine demonic possession" (p. 150), and argues that as "the Incarnation indicated the establishment of the kingdom of heaven upon earth," there took place "a counter movement among the powers of darkness," of which "genuine demonic possession was one of the manifestations" (p. 249).

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  • Of the Ophioglossaceae there are no satisfactory examples; one of the few fossils compared with a recent species, Ophioglossum palmatum, was described several years ago from Triassic rocks under the name Cheiropteris, but the resemblance is one of external form only, and practically valueless as a taxonomic criterion.

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  • Applications for this award are very competitive, and are judged on one criterion; the candidate's outstanding academic ability and research potential.

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  • The force of this criterion is best expressed in Bishop Butler's famous aphorism, " Probability is the very guide of life.

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  • Once prediction is the only criterion for program design, software architecture tends to become rather baroque.

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  • Clave A s yet the most robust criterion for defining a piece of music as salsa music is that it should obey the clave A s yet the most robust criterion for defining a piece of music as salsa music is that it should obey the clave.

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  • Terriers are described by the commentator as « working dogs with character », but today the only criterion of judgment is beauty.

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  • concurrent validity is a particular form of criterion validity.

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  • corporatist approach in the early 1970s became the criterion by which WFTU unions were admitted to the ETUC.

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  • criterion will be awarded in each class for the bear which fulfills the winning criteria.

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  • A quadratic average stress failure criterion is suggested to predict delamination and the interlayer at which it occurs.

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  • described by the commentator as « working dogs with character », but today the only criterion of judgment is beauty.

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  • described by the commentator as « working dogs with character », but today the only criterion of judgment is beauty.

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  • discrimination legislation on the use of length of service criterion.

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  • distributed according to some desirable equity criterion or criteria.

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  • This study provides support for using diversifying selection as a criterion for identifying candidate effector genes from sequence databases.

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  • On the one hand, it has to intervene in order to achieve intergenerational equity, compatibly with a time consistent social welfare criterion.

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  • On the other, Popper's criterion was that a science should be potentially falsifiable by a prediction of the theory.

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  • The Greens believe the only criterion for taking products off the market should be one of safety, not gratuitous standardization.

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  • It is the third criterion that is often called into question by Shaffer's classification of stochasticity primarily because of formalization indeterminacy.

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  • melanoma vaccine as yet has FDA approval, the first criterion would not be met.

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  • We found that CCSB, having more than 25 per cent of the market, met the statutory criterion for being a scale monopolist.

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  • He counted the amount of time he took to relearn the lists, using the same criterion of two perfect recitations.

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  • Artaud's criterion of spectacle is sensory violence, not sensory enchantment; beauty is a notion he never entertains.

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  • In the case of the ramped sinusoid, shifting to the local max criterion has a dramatic effect.

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  • stochastic resonance and propose a novel resonance criterion which is based on the evaluation of the probability current.

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  • It is well known that Luther evaluated biblical books by the degree to which they bore witness to Christ - a strictly theological criterion.

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  • They occur with frequency also in northern Africa, and in many parts of North and South America the aboriginal populations have practised similar customs. Sepulchral tumuli, however, vary so much in shape and size that the external appearance is no criterion of age or origin.

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  • Speaking generally, the exclusion of days of rain and of negative potential comes pretty much to the same thing, and the presence or absence of negative potential is riot infrequently the criterion by reference to which days are rejected or are accepted as normal.

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  • Thus the retributive theory of punishment with its criterion of justice as an end in itself gives place to a theory which regards punishment solely as a means to an end, utilitarian or moral, according as the common advantage or the good of the criminal is sought.

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  • In other words, the criterion of truth is a clear and distinct conception, excluding all possibility of doubt.

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  • Lauder's charge of plagiarism (1750), attacking David Hume's rationalism in his Criterion of Miracles (1752), and the Hutchinsonians in his Apology for the Clergy (1755).

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  • At present we can only be certain that the criterion according to which Brahms, being a symphonic writer, has no mastery of orchestration whatever, is not a criterion compatible with any sense of symphonic style.

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  • It is therefore not a criterion which can do justice to the principles of Wagner's non-symphonic art, for its.

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  • Diplo- ~e1~s the matic records fail to substantiate the accusations of g lack of initiative and instability of political criterion currently brought against him by contemporaries.

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  • The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.

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  • Secondly they fell into the natural error of emphasizing the purely animal side of the "nature," which was their ethical criterion.

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  • It is important to understand clearly the criterion which he applied; it is frequently misapprehended.

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  • The criterion by which Gibbon judged civilization and progress was the measure in which the happiness of men is secured, and of that happiness he considered political freedom an essential condition.

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  • Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.

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  • In the light of this knowledge we shall be able to formulate the moral code, which, in turn, will serve as a criterion of actual civic and social institutions.

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  • But, as society exists only for the proper development of persons, we have a criterion by which to test these institutions, viz.

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  • The criterion whether a pseudo-symmetric form is a true polymorph or not consists in the determination of the scalar properties (e.g.

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  • On the whole, his moral attitude is cynical, and he is inclined to regard self-interest as the best criterion.

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  • Y of finding and applying a criterion of the presence or absence of consciousness, it is none the less desirable, in the interests of psychology, to state that truly instinctive acts (as defined) are accompanied by consciousness.

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  • This marks them off from such reflex acts as are unconsciously performed, and from the tropisms of plants and other lowly organisms. There remains, however, the difficulty of finding any satisfactory criterion of the presence of consciousness.

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  • If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.

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  • Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.

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  • There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.

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  • The church lays down a rule of domestic policy, and neither gives nor pretends to give any absolute criterion for the validity of ordination.

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  • Since A' is in some sense the area of the diffraction pattern, it may be considered to be a rough criterion of the definition, and we infer that the definition of a point depends principally upon the area of the aperture, and only in a very secondary degree upon the shape when the area is maintained constant.

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  • This result was employed by Stokes as a criterion of the direction of vibration; and his experiments, conducted with gratings, led him to the conclusion that the vibrations 2 = 2?rv d4)/ d o- = ra (32); (33) .

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  • been passed by all previous collectors, and what criterion was there to establish their genuineness?

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  • Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.

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  • His universal process of Evolution seems to give Spencer a criterion of" higher "and" lower " progression "and" degeneration,"independent of the accidents of actual history, and unattainable by strictly Darwinian methods.

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  • The transition from the evolutionist criterion of survival - which in itself it is difficult to regard as anything but non-moral - to the criterion of happiness is effected by means of the psychological argument that pleasure promotes function and that living beings must, upon pain of extinction, sooner or later take pleasure in actions which are conducive to their survival.

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  • The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834-1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literary World (1847-1853), the Criterion (1855-1856), the Round Table (1863-1864), the Citizen (1864-1873), and Appleton' s Journal (1869).

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  • The state of the pulse is the best criterion of the action of alcohol in any given case of fever.

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  • In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.

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  • This affords a useful criterion (see Energetics) between transformations which are impossible and those which are possible but irreversible.

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  • This function is also called the " thermodynamic potential at constant volume " from the analogy with the condition of minimum potential energy as the criterion of stable equilibrium in statics.

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  • Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.

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  • Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality.

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  • probare, to test, approve), a term used both in theology and in philosophy with the general implication that in the absence of certainty probability is the best criterion.

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  • The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.

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  • But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.

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  • There is no notion that may not deceive us; it is impossible to distinguish between false and true impressions; therefore the Stoic 4avravia KaTaMprrud7 (see Stoics) must be given up. There is no criterion of truth.

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  • Waldenses merely set forward a new criterion of the orderly arrangement of the church, according to which each member was to sit in judgment on the works of the ministers, and consequently on the validity of their ministerial acts.

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  • Hence the criterion for the position of the loads which makes the moment at C greatest is this: one load must be at C, and the other loads must be distributed, so that the average loads per ft.

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  • a to----- 1 z c This criterion may be stated in another way.

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  • A criterion already given shows the position of any set of loads which will produce the greatest bending moment at the centre of the bridge, or at one-quarter span.

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  • The position of the loads which gives the greatest moment at C may be settled by the criterion given above.

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  • Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion alike of knowledge and of conduct.

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  • In tracing the phylogeny, or ancestral history of organs, palaeontology affords the only absolute criterion on the successive evolution of organs in time as well as of (progressive) evolution in form.

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  • In the first place hedonism may confine itself to the view that, as a matter of observed fact, all men do in practice make pleasure the criterion of action, or it may go further and assert that men ought to seek pleasure as the sole human good.

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  • The only real happiness is the happiness of the community, or at least of the majority: the criterion is society, not the individual.

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  • Instead, therefore, of the criterion of "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," Stephen has that of the "health of the organism."

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  • is often hard to determine, and hence the criterion of unmistakable resemblance is one of special importance.

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  • Porter wrote a Life of Commodore David Porter (1875), gossipy Incidents and Anecdotes of the Civil War (1885), a none too accurate History of the Navy during the War of the Rebellion (1887), two novels, Allan Dare and Robert le Diable (1885; dramatized, 1887) and Harry Marline (1886), and a short "Romance of Gettysburg," published in The Criterion in 1903.

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  • There is however no precedent of neutralization of any such area of the high sea, and international rivers, ocean canals and neutralized states are obviously no criterion in discussing a proposal to neutralize a strip of the ocean, which may be defined accurately enough on the map and which skilful navigators could approximately determine, but which might be violated without any practical means of detection by a belligerent commander whenever he misread, or it suited him to misread, his bearings.

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  • 2 Basing the investigation on the same criterion of resolution as in the case of narrow slits, we postulate for both narrow and wide slits that two lines are resolved when the intensity of the combined image falls to a value of o 8ro in the centre between the lines, the intensity at the maxima being unity.

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  • We must now however introduce a new criterion the " purity " and distinguish it from the resolving power: the purity is defined by n l /(n l n2), where n 1 and n, are the frequencies of two lines such that they would just be resolved with the width of slit used.

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  • Price's main point of difference with Cudworth is that while Cudworth regards the moral criterion as a v6nma or modification of the mind, existing in germ and developed by circumstances, Price regards it as acquired from the contemplation of actions, but acquired necessarily, immediatel",, intuitively.

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  • rationalis, pertaining to reason, ratio), a term employed both in philosophy and in theology for any system which sets up human reason as the final criterion and chief source of knowledge.

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  • 233), represent an attack on the Stoic Oat/Tao-La KaTaXmrruci i (Criterion) and are based on the sceptical element (see Scepticism) which was latent in the later writings of Plato.

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  • Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion.

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  • While, then, the general idea of a theory of knowledge as based upon psychological analysis is the groundwork of the Treatise, it is a particular consequence of this idea that furnishes to Hume the characteristic criterion applied by him to all philosophical questions.

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  • of ideas are accepted as facts of immediate observation, as being themselves perceptions or individual elements of conscious experience, and to all appearance they are regarded by Hume as being in a sense analytical, because the formal criterion of identity is applicable to them.

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  • The ambiguity in his criterion, however, seems entirely to have escaped Hume's attention.

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  • Egtfally great gaps, however, may exist between males and females, between climatic phases or summer and winter forms. The attempt to find a physiological criterion has similarly failed; many forms that have been universally accepted as true species produce fertile hybrids (see Hybridism).

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  • Reason is the ultimate criterion.

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  • A good criterion of the progress of education is obtained from the diminishI ing number of illiterate army recruits, as shown by the following Unable to Read or Write.

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  • This line is so characteristic that its presence or absence is the usual criterion for deciding whether an atmospheric light is aurora.

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  • A criterion is thus given us for the reconstruction of the Apology, where the Greek which we have has been abbreviated, and we are enabled to claim with certainty some passages of the Syriac which might otherwise be suspected as interpolations.

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  • An important criterion for judging the period during which individual 1 For the schemes of Noldeke and Grimm see Mahommedan Religion.

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  • tenth commandment) is in itself no sound criterion, whilst the external form of the laws, though characteristic of later codes, need not be taken as evidence of importance.

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  • Granted that rationality taken in the sense of inner coherence and self-consistency is the ultimate standard of truth and reality, does self-consciousness itself answer to the demands of this criterion?

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  • Hence the name Rosmini gives it of ideal being; and this he laid down as the fundamental principle of all philosophy and the supreme criterion of truth and certainty.

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  • Oriental law is primitive or advanced according to the social conditions, with the result that antiquity of ideas is no criterion of date, and modern desert custom is more archaic than the great code of the Babylonian king Khammurabi Babylonian g y g Law.

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  • But when men set themselves to cultivate skill in disputation, regarding the matter discussed not as a serious issue, but as a thesis upon which to practise their powers of controversy, they learn to pursue, not truth, but victory; and, their criterion of excellence having been thus perverted, they presently prefer ingenious fallacy to solid reasoning and the applause of bystanders to the consciousness of honest effort.

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  • The criterion which guided the studies of the academicians was far from being worthy of unqualified praise, and consequently their work did not always meet the approval of the best scholars who had the opportunity of seeing the monuments.

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  • Neither criterion is a guarantee that the star shall have a measurable parallax.

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  • To say, however, that Clarke simply confused mathematics and morals by justifying the moral criterion on a mathematical basis is a mistake.

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  • that of the criterion of truth, exercised its influence on the individualists of the Renaissance.

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  • Less familiar to modern ears is the contention that proof needs a standard or criterion, while this standard or criterion in turn needs proof.

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  • Guided by this objective criterion, and safeguarded by growing insight into the author's plastic aim, we need not despair of reaching large agreement as to the nature of the sources lying behind the first half of Acts.

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  • The Evidences of Christianity is mainly a condensation of Bishop Douglas's Criterion and Lardner's Credibility of the Gospel History.

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  • A general criterion for the case of a rigid body movable in two dimensions, with one degree of freedom, can be obtained as follows.

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  • The same criterion may be -.

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  • We have seen that the stresses produced by an equilibrating system of extraneous forces in a frame which is just rigid, according to the criterion of 6, are in general uniquely determinate; in particular, when there are no extraneous forces the bars are in general free from stress.

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  • the other hand, as Jansen pointed out, free-will tends to make the average man's estimate of his own powers into the supreme criterion of all that is good and right.

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  • He took up the greatest happiness principle not as an attractive philosopheme, but as a criterion to distinguish good laws from bad.

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  • Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.

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  • His table of springs of actions shows the same mean-spirited omissions that we notice in his predecessors; he measures the quantity of pleasures by the coarsest and most mechanical tests; and he sets up general pleasure as the criterion of moral goodness.

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  • It is commonly said that in making this distinction Mill has practically given up utilitarianism, because he has applied to pleasure (alleged to be the supreme criterion) a further criterion which is not pleasure.

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  • For the convergence of the continued fraction of the second class there is no complete criterion.

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  • When boiled in water the root affords a dark extractive matter, the quantity of extract yielded by the root being used as a criterion of its quality.

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  • In all these particulars Zeno followed them, and the last is the more important, because, Chrysippus having adopted a new criterion of truth - a clear and distinct perception of sense - it is only from casual.

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  • It is necessary, therefore, that assent should not be given indiscriminately; we must determine a criterion of truth, a special formal test whereby reason may recognize the merely plausible and hold fast the true.

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