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crete Sentence Examples

  • A special form of this " baetylic " cult in Minoan Crete was the representation of the two principal divinities in their fetish form by double axes.

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  • Crete thus forms the natural limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago.

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  • It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.

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  • The population of Crete under the Venetians was estimated at about 250,000.

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  • In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.

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  • CRETE (Gr.

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  • CRETE (Gr.

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  • - Lying midway between three continents, Crete was from the earliest period a natural stepping-stone for the passage of early culture from Egypt and the East to mainland Greece.

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  • In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.

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  • Pashley (Travels in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1837) and Captain Spratt (Travels and Researches in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1865).

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  • Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early in 1897 a Greek expedition sailed to unite the island to Greece.

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  • Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early in 1897 a Greek expedition sailed to unite the island to Greece.

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  • There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.

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  • The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.

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  • Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at Berlin.

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  • War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over "en depot" by the Four Powers - Germany and Austria not participating, - and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.

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  • The principal features of his reign were a struggle against his brother general, Thomas, who aimed at the throne (822-824); the conquest of Crete by the Saracens in 823; and the beginning of their attacks upon Sicily (827).

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  • Crete (1896-1898), assumed the direction of foreign affairs in the first period of the Pelloux administration.

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  • Harrison, however, regards him as a religious reformer from Crete, who introduced the doctrine of ecstasis without intoxication amongst the Thracians and was slain by the votaries of the frenzied ritual.

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  • Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.

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  • The incident has been assigned to various other localities - Crete, Eleusis, and Enna in Sicily, the last being most generally adopted.

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  • Iasion (or Iasius), a beautiful youth, inspired her with love for him in a thrice-ploughed field in Crete, the fruit of their union being Plutus (wealth).

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  • But Baldwin of Flanders was elected emperor over his head; and his irritation was not wholly allayed by the grant of Macedonia, the north of Thessaly, and Crete (which he afterwards sold to Venice).

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  • extremity, Suda, at the entrance to Suda harbour, and Spinalonga, in Mirabello Bay - remained for some time in the possession of Venice after the conquest of Crete by the Turks.

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  • The metamorphic rocks of western Crete form a series some 9000 to 10,000 ft.

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  • Cayeux, " Les Lignes directrices des plissements de l'ile de Crete," C.R.

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  • Crete, like several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents - a privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of the island, and became in consequence its patron saint.

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  • Owing to the volcanic nature of its soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals.

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  • During the past half-century the affairs of Crete have repeatedly occupied the attention of Europe.

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  • The great days of Crete lie thus beyond the historic period.

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  • Iasion (or Iasius), a beautiful youth, inspired her with love for him in a thrice-ploughed field in Crete, the fruit of their union being Plutus (wealth).

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  • extremity, Suda, at the entrance to Suda harbour, and Spinalonga, in Mirabello Bay - remained for some time in the possession of Venice after the conquest of Crete by the Turks.

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  • Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.

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  • Of the wild animals of Crete, the wild goat or agrimi (Capra aegagrus) alone need be mentioned; it is still found in considerable numbers on the higher summits of Psiloriti and the White Mountains.

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  • Candia, the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900, 22,501), is officially styled Herakleion; it is surrounded by remarkable Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and elsewhere.

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  • In 1893, however, Arthur Evans observed some signs on scripMinot,an seal-stones from Crete which led him to believe that a hieroglyphic system of writing had existed in Minoan times.

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  • It thus appears that a highly developed system of writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters.

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  • There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.

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  • Here, as in Crete, Daedalus executed great works like the temple of Eryx, and it was on Sicilian soil that Minos, engaged in a western campaign, was said to have met with a violent death at the hands of the native king Kokalos (Cocalus) and his daughters.

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  • 171), ascribes the eventual settlement of the Greeks in Crete to a widespread desolation that had Minoan fallen on the central regions.

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  • How far Crete itself continued to preserve the hegemony which may reasonably be ascribed to it at an earlier age must remain doubtful.

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  • - Near this village, lying on the easternmost coast of Crete, the British School at Athens has excavated a section of a considerable Minoan town.

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  • The "hundred cities" ascribed to Crete by Homer are in a fair way Y period.

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  • It is nevertheless certain that some of the old traditions were preserved by the remnants of the old population now reduced to a subject condition, and that these finally leavened the whole lump, so that once more - this time under a Hellenic guise - Crete was enabled to anticipate mainland Greece in nascent civilization.

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  • The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.

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  • Svoronos, Numismatique de la Crete ancienne; W.

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  • Previous to the extensive excavations referred to above, Crete had been carefully examined and explored by Tournefort, Pococke, Olivier and other travellers, e.g.

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  • According to the received tradition, Minos was a king of Cnossus in Crete; he was a son of Zeus, and enjoyed through life the privilege of habitual intercourse with his divine father.

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  • The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.

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  • Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.

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  • In the Homeric age the population of Crete was of a very mixed character, and we are told in the Odyssey (xix.

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  • Having been expelled from Crete by the latter, he and his comrades sailed for Asia, where he finally became king of Lycia.

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  • A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.

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  • by the Eteocretes of the city of Praesos in Crete down to the 4th century B.C. was perhaps akin.

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  • Near this hamlet on the coast of the Gulf of Mirabello in east Crete,t he American archaeologist MissHarriet Boyd hasexcavated a great part of another Minoan town.

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  • Crete, R.

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  • The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.

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  • The Turkish fleet which had come up from Cyprus and Crete anchored in the Gulf of Patras.

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  • CORNELIUS SISENNA (119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost his life in an expedition against Crete.

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  • DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.

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  • in Lacaedemon and in Crete.

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  • A further point of difference is the more liberal payment of public functionaries in Crete.

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  • In the Odyssey we already find the Crete.

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  • Achaeans together with Dorians settled in central Crete.

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  • Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.

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  • The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'

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  • This arrangement lasted till the time of Constantine, by whom Crete was incorporated in the prefecture of Illyria.

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  • In the partition of the Greek empire after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Crete fell to the lot of Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, but was sold by him to the Venetians, and thus passed under the dominion of that great republic, to which it continued subject for more than four centuries.

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  • From this time Crete continued subject to Ottoman rule without interruption till the outbreak of the Greek revolution.

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  • Pashley (Travels in Crete, 1837) Crete was the worst governed province of the Turkish empire.

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  • to the suspicions of the sultan, Crete again came under their control.

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  • The allied powers (France, England and Russia) decided, however, that Crete should not be included amongst the islands annexed to the newly-formed kingdom of Greece; but recognizing that some change was necessary, they obtained from the sultan Mahmud II.

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  • The period of his administration has been called the " golden age " of Crete.

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  • In 1840 Crete was again taken from Mehemet Ali, and replaced under the dominion of the Turks, but fortunately Mustafa still retained his governorship until he left for Constantinople to become grand vizier in 1852.

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  • The elections held under the new system proved a failure, the Christians refusing to go to the polls, and for the next five years Crete was governed absolutely by a succession of Mahommedan Valis.

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  • Before that event an Epitrope, or Committee of Reform," had appeared in the mountains - the harbinger of the prolonged struggle which ended in the emancipation of Crete.

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  • Emissaries of the society now appeared in Crete, large consignments of arms were landed, and at the beginning of 1897 the island was practically in a state of insurrection.

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  • These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.

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  • On the 26th of that month the nomination of Prince George of Greece as high commissioner of the powers in Crete for a period of three years (renewed in 1901) was formally announced, and on the 21st of December the prince landed at Suda and made his public entry into Canea amid enthusiastic demonstrations.

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  • He had done much for the welfare of Crete, but his participation in party struggles and his attitude towards the representatives of the powers had rendered his position untenable.

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  • Alexander Zaimis, a former prime minister of Greece, arrived in Crete on the 1st of October.

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  • At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.

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  • - Pashley, Travels in Crete (2 vols., Cambridge and London, 1837); Spratt, Travels and Researches in Crete (2 vols., London, 1867); Raulin, Description physique del' ile de Crete (3 vols.

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  • Stillman, The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-68 (New York, 1874); Edwardes, Letters from Crete (London, 1887); Stavrakis, ETaTLUTLai (Athens, 1890); J.

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  • Dillon, " Crete and the Cretans," Fortnightly Review (May 1897).

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  • Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.

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  • During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.

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  • Nor did the Aegean objects which were lying obscurely in museums in 1870, or thereabouts, provide a sufficient test of the real basis underlying the Hellenic myths of the Argolid, the Troad and Crete, to cause these to be taken seriously.

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  • Crete, so much so that, for the present we must regard it as the fountain-head of Aegean civilization, and probably for long its political and social centre.

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  • The revolution of 1897-98 opened the door to wider knowledge, and much exploration has ensued, for which see Crete.

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  • Thus the "Aegean Area" has now come to mean the Archipelago with Crete and Cyprus, the Hellenic peninsula with the Ionian isles, and Western Anatolia.

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  • - For details of monumental evidence the articles On Crete, Mycenae, Tiryns, Troad, Cyprus, &c., must be consulted.

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  • in the Dictaean Cavern of Crete.

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  • clay tablets and discs (so far in Crete only), but nothing of more perishable nature, such as skin, papyrus, &c.; engraved gems and gem impressions; legends written with pigment on pottery (rare); characters incised on stone or pottery.

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  • (See Crete.) (3) Social Organization.

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  • After 1600 B.C. the palaces in Crete had more than one story, fine stairways, bath-chambers, windows, folding and sliding doors, &c. In this later period, the distinction of blocks of apartments in some palaces has been held to indicate the seclusion of women in harems, at least among the ruling caste.

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  • There was evidently oliveand vine-culture on a large scale in Crete at any rate.

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  • Melian vases came in their turn to Crete.

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  • A little later, in Crete, bone-pits seem to have come into use, containing the remains of many burials.

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  • - Ceramic art reached a specially high standard in fabric, form and decoration by the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. in Crete.

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  • It should be compared with stone work in Crete, especially the steatite vases with reliefs found at Hagia Triada.

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  • The fresco-paintings, ceramic motives, reliefs, free sculpture and toreutic handiwork of Crete have supplied the clearest proof of it, confirming the impression already created by the goldsmiths' and painters' work of the Greek mainland (Mycenae, Vaphio, Tiryns).

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  • For possible geographical reasons for this duality of type see Crete.

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  • We are now in the beginning of the Bronze Age, and the first of Evans's "Minoan" periods (see Crete).

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  • i, 2, 3"; see Crete), there is evidence of a perfectly orderly and continuous evolution in, at any rate, ceramic art.

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  • Now the second type, the "megaron" arrangement, characterizes peculiarly the palaces discovered in the north of the Aegean area, at Mycenae, Tiryns and Hissarlik, where up to the present no signs of the first type, so characteristic of Crete, have been observed.

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  • in Crete, had given way entirely to a linear system by Period III.

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  • The most that can be said to he capable of proof is the infiltration of some northern influence into Crete at the end of Minoan Period II.; but it probably brought about no change of dynasty and certainly no change in the prevailing race.

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  • A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.

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  • It only remains to be added that there is some ground for supposing that the language spoken in Crete before the later Doric was non-Hellenic, but Indo-European.

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  • Crete.

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  • (See Crete.) (I) Chronology.

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  • He goes so far as to pronounce the latter to be Cretan importations, their fabric and forms being unlike anything Nilotic. If that be so, the period at which stone implements were beginning to be superseded by bronze in Crete must be dated before 4000 B.C. But it will be remembered that below all Evans's "Minoan" strata lies the immensely thick Neolithic deposit.

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  • 1-2 in Crete, the shaft-graves in the Mycenae circle, the Vaphio tomb, &c., to the 16th and 15th centuries B.C., and Period III.

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  • Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.

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  • The absence of fortifications both at Cnossus and Phaestus suggest that at this time Crete was internally peaceful and externally secure.

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  • Tiryns and Hissarlik, other communities of the early race began to arrive at civilization, but were naturally influenced by the more advanced culture of Crete, in proportion to their nearness of vicinity.

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  • Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.

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  • They point to the fact that, even in the new period, the palm for wealth and variety of civilized production still remained with Crete.

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  • It is not impossible to combine these views, and place the seat of power still in Crete, but ascribe the Renascence there to an influx of new blood from the north, large enough to instil fresh vigour, but too small to change the civilization in its essential character.

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  • 3.-[[Gold Signet From Acropolis Tween Lions, On A Lentoid Treasure, Mycenae, Showing The God Gem From Kydonia, Crete.

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  • Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.

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  • Being pursued by Minos, king of Crete, who was enamoured of her, she sprang from a rock into the sea, but was saved from drowning by falling into some fishermen's nets.

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  • Leopardo was also the creator (1505) of the three handsome bronze sockets in front of St Mark's which held the flagstaffs of the banners of Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic was mistress of those territories.

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  • To her fell the Cyclades, the Sporades, the islands and the eastern shores of the Adriatic, the shores of the Propontis and the Euxine, and the littoral of Thessaly, and she bought Crete from the marquis of Monferrat.

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  • The fifth Turkish war (1645-1668) entailed the loss of Crete; and though Morosini reconquered the Morea for a brief space in 1685, that province was finally lost to Venice in 1716.

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  • According to others, Pandareus stole a golden dog which guarded the temple of Zeus in Crete, and gave it to Tantalus to take care of.

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  • ARIADNE (in Greek mythology), was the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and Pasiphae, the daughter of Helios the Sun-god.

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  • Theseus himself was said to have founded a festival at Athens in honour of Ariadne and Dionysus after his return from Crete.

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  • When Theseus set out for Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute to the Minotaur he promised Aegeus that, if he were successful, he would change the black sail carried by his ship for a white one.

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  • Their place of abode is variously placed in the Strophades, the entrance to the under-world, or a cave in Crete.

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  • There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.

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  • He was governor-general of Crete; and in 1895 was appointed Ottoman ambassador in London, a post which he continued to hold until his death at Constantinople in 1902.

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  • To these must be added the Turkish islands in the Aegean usually reckoned to Europe, that is, Thasos, Samothrace, Imbros and, in the extreme south, Crete or Candia.

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  • In the Mediterranean, Crete and Malta yet survived as outposts of Christendom; but the northern coasts of Africa from Egypt to Morocco acknowledged the supremacy of the sultan, whose sea power in the Mediterranean had become a factor to be reckoned with in European politics, threatening not only the islands, but the very heart of Christendom, Italy itself, and capable - as the alliance with France against Charles V.

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  • In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.

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  • War was therefore declared against Venice, to whom Crete belonged (1644), and continued in the island for.

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  • The fleet also took Tinos and Cerigo, as well as the three forts still remaining to the Venetians in Crete.

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  • Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.

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  • In 1844 he took advantage of his visit to England to propose to British ministers a plan of partition, under which Great Britain was to receive Egypt and Crete, Constantinople was to be erected into a free city, and the Balkan states were to become autonomous under Russian protection.

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  • The revolt was suppressed, the Turko-Greek conflict was settled by a conference of the powers in Paris, and Crete received a charter of local self-government which for a time pacified the island.'

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  • The organic law for Crete was to be carried out, and special laws enacted for other parts of Turkey.

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  • p. 197.) From 1890 Crete was frequently the scene of disturbance., the Christian communities in other parts of Turkey began to.

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  • island; Y 97 from the Piraeus with an armed force, intending to proclaim the annexation of Crete to Greece, and Greek troops were massed on the Thessalian frontier.

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  • Crete being thus removed from the scope of her action, Turkey found ample occupation in the almost constant turbulence of the Yemen, of Albania and of Macedonia.

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  • The evacuation of Crete by the four protecting powers was followed in 1909 by renewed agitation.

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  • Greece and Crete were thus confronted with what was in effect a defensive alliance between Turkey and Rumania.

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  • 125 B.C.), surnamed Nicator, son of Demetrius I., fled to Crete after the death of his father, but about 147 B.C. he returned to Syria, and with the help of Ptolemy VII.

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  • At Crete the brazen Talos, who would not permit them to land, was killed by the Dioscuri.

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  • The position of Melos, between Greece and Crete, and its possession of obsidian, made it an important centre of early Aegean civilization.

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  • In Crete she was said to have issued from a cloud burst asunder by Zeus.

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  • He afterwards retired to Crete, where he lived the life of a hunter with Artemis; but having threatened to exterminate all living creatures on the island, he was killed by the bite of a scorpion sent by the earth-goddess (Ovid, Fasti, v.

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  • Phoenician traders, too, visited the shores of the Laconian Gulf, and there are indications of trade at a very early period between Laconia and Crete, e.g.

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  • James, the Lord's brother, who, partly because of his relationship to Christ, stood supreme in the church at Jerusalem, as also Timothy and Titus, who acted as temporary delegates of St Paul at Ephesus and in Crete, are justly considered to have been forerunners of the monarchical episcopate.

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  • The modern oriental open waistcoat finds its fellow in the jacket or bolero from ancient Crete, and seems to have been distinctively Aegean.

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  • - Hittite cultus images from Asia Minor, Crete and Weather-god.

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  • The essential feature both of male and female dress during the "Minoan " and " Mycenaean " periods was the loin-cloth, which is best represented by the votive terra-cotta statuettes from Petsofa in Crete discovered by Professor J.

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  • The district is now largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans.

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  • Jerome says that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division at Corinth, that he retired into Crete with Zenas, a doctor of the law; and that the schism having been healed by Paul's letter to the Corinthians, Apollos returned to the city, and became its bishop. Less probable traditions assign to him the bishopric of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea.

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  • AENESIDEMUS, Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century B.C. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third sceptical school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon.

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  • The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.

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  • According to Homer, his resting-place was the island of Pharos, near the mouth of the Nile; in Virgil his home is the .island of Carpathus, between Crete and Rhodes.

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  • In the time of Vitruvius "cedars" were growing in Crete, Africa and Syria.

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  • They are inscribed in an alphabet which has many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and some with the Punic alphabet; but which seems to retain a few characters from an older script akin to those of Minoan Crete and Roman Libya.

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  • DAEDALUS, a mythical Greek architect and sculptor, who figures largely in the early legends of Crete and of Athens.

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  • These legends seem primarily to belong to Crete; and the Athenian element in them which connected Daedalus with the royal house of Erechtheus is a later fabrication.

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  • The earliest Semitic records give its form as y or more frequently k or The form is found in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Attica, Naxos and some other of the Ionic islands.

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  • Practically all Peloponnese, except Achaea and Elis, was " Dorian," together with Megara, Aegina, Crete, Melos, Thera, the Sporades Islands and the S.W.

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  • The northern Doris, for example, spoke Aeolic, while Elis, Phocis, and many non-Dorian districts of north-west Greece spoke dialects akin to Doric. Many Dorian states had additional " nonDorian tribes "; Sparta, which claimed to be of pure and typical Dorian origin, maintained institutions and a mode of life which were without parallel in Peloponnese, in the Parnassian and in the Asiatic Doris, and were partially reflected in Crete only.

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  • The Homeric Dorians of Crete were also interpreted by Andron and others (3rd century) as an advance-guard of this sea-borne migration, and as having separated from the other Dorians while still in Histiaeotis.

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  • The Homeric poems (12th - 10th centuries) know of Dorians only in Crete, with the obscure epithet TpexaiKes, and no hint of their origin.

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  • It is clear from the traditions about Lycurgus, for example, that even the Spartans had been a long while in Laconia before their state was rescued from disorder by his reforms; and if there be truth in the legend that the new institutions were borrowed from Crete, we perhaps have here too a late echo of the legislative fame of the land of Minos.

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  • The Homeric Hymn to Apollo evidently combines two different versions, one of the approach of Apollo from the north by land, and the other of the introduction of his votaries from Crete.

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  • When Minos, king of Crete, was on his way to attack Athens to avenge the murder of his son Androgeus, for which Aegeus was directly or indirectly responsible, he laid siege to Megara.

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  • A special envoy, sent by Louis XIV., to make inquiries and demand reparation, was treated with studied insult; and the result was that Mazarin abandoned the Turkish alliance and threw the power of France on to the side of Venice, openly assisting the Venetians in the defence of Crete.

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  • But Kuprili's influence with the sultan remained unshaken, and five years later Crete fell to his arms (1669).

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  • CANEA, or KHANIA, the principal seaport and since 1841 the capital of Crete, finely situated on the northern coast of the island, about 25 m.

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  • (See also CRETE.)

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  • Some most archaic inscriptions have been indeed found by the explorers in Crete, but these for the present serve scarcely any other purpose than to prove the antiquity of the art of writing among a people who were closely in touch with the inhabitants of Hellas proper.

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  • Not only have antiquities been found in Crete that point to Egyptian inspiration, but quite recently Professor Petrie has found at Tel el-Amarna Mycenaean pottery.

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  • Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.

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  • As regards Crete,.

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  • The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.

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  • Almost every householder in both islands is the owner, joint owner or skipper of a sailing ship. The southern Sporades are as follows: Ica'ria, Patmos, Leros, Calymnus, Astropalia (Astypalaea or Stampalia), Cos (Stanko), Nisyros, Tilos or Episcopi, Syme, Khalki, Rhodes, Crete and many smaller isles.

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  • DICTYS CRETENSIS, of Cnossus in Crete, the supposed companion of Idomeneus during the Trojan War, and author of a diary of its events.

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  • Collilieux, Etude sur Dictys de Crete et Dares de Phrygie (1887), with bibliography; W.

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  • The festival is first mentioned by St Andrew of Crete (c. 650), and, according to the Byzantine historian Nicephorus Callistus (Hist.

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  • Mycenaeans of Crete, although a wider application of this term is not to be excluded.

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  • disputes the identification of Keft with Crete.

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  • For the traditions associating Gaza with Crete, see the latter, Index, s.v.

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  • This is suggested by the recent discovery at Phaestos in Crete of a disk with evidence for a native script; see A.

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  • He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago - Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina.

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  • During his minority the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, who in spite of several defeats inflicted upon her generals maintained the frontiers against the Saracens of Bagdad and Crete.

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  • The Treaty provided for the cession by Turkey to the allied Balkan sovereigns of all European Turkey west of the line Enos - Midia, but excluding Albania; for the delimitation of Albania's frontiers by the Great Powers; for the cession of Crete to Greece; and for the destination of other;Turkish islands being left to the same Powers.

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  • To hold sovereignty not to be divisible is for juridical purposes not a working theory; states part, permanently or temporarily, with few or many of the rights and powers comprehended in sovereignty; to speak of it as undivided in the case of Crete, Egypt or Tibet is to do violence to facts.

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  • Already, tion of in June 1823, the pasha's son-in-law Hussein Bey Mehemet had landed in Crete, and by April of the following All.

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  • Crete now became the base of operations against the Greeks.

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  • According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).

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  • A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.

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  • For the theory that Atlantis is to be identified with Crete in the Minoan period, see "The Lost Continent" in The Times (London) for the 19th of February 1909.

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  • That after these two years he was released and visited Spain in the west, and in the east Ephesus, Macedonia, Crete, Troas, Miletus, and perhaps Achaea and Epirus, is probable, in the one case, from the evidence of Romans xv.

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  • GORTYNA, or Gortyn, an important ancient city on the southern side of the island of Crete.

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  • Gortyna was, next to Cnossus, the largest and most powerful city of Crete.

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  • See also Crete, and for a full account of the laws see [[Greek Law.

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  • MINOS, a semi-legendary king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.

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  • He reigned over Crete and the islands of the Aegean three generations before the Trojan War.

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  • Since Phoenician intercourse was in later times supposed to have played an important part in the development of Crete, Minos is sometimes called a Phoenician.

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  • There is no doubt that there is a considerable historical element in the legend; recent discoveries in Crete (q.v.) prove the existence of a civilization such as the legends imply, and render it probable that not only Athens, but Mycenae itself, was once subject to the kings of Cnossus, of whom Minos was greatest.

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  • The wild goat, or pasang, is represented in Europe in the Cyclades and Crete by rather small races, xi'.

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  • The Politics (B 10) mentions as having happened lately (vecouri) the expedition of Phalaecus to Crete, which occurred towards the end of the Sacred War in 346.

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  • The divine smith naturally became a "culture-god"; in Crete the invention of forging in iron was attributed to him, and he was honoured by all metal-workers.

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  • Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.

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  • Both subjects and style show close analogy to the paintings in the palace at Cnossus in Crete.

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  • Towards the end of the 4th century, when southern Illyricum (Macedonia, Greece, Crete) was passing under the authority of the Eastern emperor, she tried to keep him within her ecclesiastical obedience by creating the vicariate of Thessalonica.

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  • But even then the Adriatic in the narrower sense only extended as far as the Mons Garganus, the outer portion being called the Ionian Sea: the name was sometimes, however, inaccurately used to include the Gulf of Tarentum, the Sea of Sicily, the Gulf of Corinth and even the sea between Crete and Malta (Acts xxvii.

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  • Recent discoveries in Crete have brought to light the existence of a Cretan or " Minoan " sea-power of remote antiquity, and it is clear that a great deal of what used to be described as Phoenician must receive quite a different designation.

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  • 1 Burrows, Discoveries in Crete (1907), 140 sqq.

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  • But a great deal of what was formerly assigned to Phoenician influence in the Aegean at an early period - pottery, ornaments and local myths - must be accounted for by the vigorous civilization of ancient Crete.

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  • 1-4), who is in charge of the local churches at Crete (i.

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  • The origin of Christian missions in Crete is obscure.

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  • 12-13 is indubitably a Pauline fragment, and the problem for the critic is to determine whether in the epistle as a whole we have a redacted and interpolated edition of what was originally a note from the hand of Paul, or whether the epistle drew upon some Pauline tradition '(connecting Titus with Crete) and material, and was afterwards interpolated at i.

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  • The next eleven years he spent as a condottiere in Crete.

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  • After another long sojourn in Crete he again received the command against Nabis.

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  • Capuchins: Aden and Arabia, India (dioceses of Agra, Allahabad, Lahore), Seychelles, Eritrea (Red Sea), Gallas, Cephalonia, Trebizond, Mardin, Crete, Caroline Islands, Araucania, Brazil, Bulgaria.

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  • 12, 474 Col de Crete Seche (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow 12,471 Col de Breuil (Bourg St Maurice to La Thuille), snow .

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  • CNOSSUS, KNOSSOS, or Gnossus, an ancient city of Crete, on the left bank of the Caeratus, a small stream which falls into the sea on the north side of the island.

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  • from the coast, and, according to the old traditions, was founded by Minos, king of Crete.

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  • Along with Gortyna and Cydonia, it held for many years the supremacy over the whole of Crete; and it always took a prominent part in the civil wars which from time to time desolated the island.

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  • When the rest of Crete fell under the Roman dominion, Cnossus shared the same fate, and became a Roman colony.

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  • As the excavations at Cnossus are discussed at length in the article Crete, it must suffice here briefly to enumerate the more important.

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  • Large halls, which had subsequently been broken up into smaller apartments, were found, and among a great number of other artistic remains one seal-impression of special interest showing a one-masted ship carrying a thoroughbred horse - perhaps representing the first importation of horses into Crete.

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  • Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1907); A.

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  • Mosso, The Palaces of Crete (1907); Lagrange, La Crete ancienne (1908); Dr. Evans's reports in The Times, Oct.

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  • I), Corinth (Epistle of Clement) and Crete (Titus).

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  • IDOMENEUS, in Greek legend, son of Deucalion, grandson of Minos and Pasiphae, and king of Crete.

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  • GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond.

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  • It is found also in Persia, Palestine, Crete and Greece, the Italian Alps, Sicily, Sardinia and Mauritania.

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  • The extraordinary importance of Khyan was further shown by the discovery of his name on a jar-lid at Cnossus in Crete.

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  • The Venetians were given Crete and several other islands and ports in the Levant, which formed an uninterrupted chain from Venice to the Black Sea, a large part of Constantinople (whence the doge assumed the title of "lord of a quarter and a half of Romania"), and many valuable privileges.

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  • About this time Crete was seized by Spanish adventurers.

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  • Strange to say, as Syracuse fell in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, the Saracen occupation was completed in the reign of Nikephoros Phokas (Nicephorus Phocas), the deliverer of Crete.

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  • Help sent from Athens was diverted to Crete, and after much manoeuvring Phormio .was compelled to fight off Naupactus.

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  • They were of short stature, with dark hair and eyes, and generally dolichocephalic. Their chief centres were at Cnossus (Crete), in Argolis, Laconia and Attica, in each being ruled by ancient lines of kings.

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  • He sent 10,000 men to help to suppress a rebellion in Crete, and conquered the greater part of the (Nile) Sudan; but an expedition of 11,000 men, sent to Abyssinia under Prince Hasan and Rateb Pasha, well equipped with guns and all essentials, was, in two successive disasters (1875 and 1876), practically destroyed.

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  • Egyptian objects of the age of the XVIIIth Dynasty are found in the Greek islands and on the mainland among remains of the Mycenaean epoch, and on the other hand the products of the workshops of Crete and other centres of that culture are found in Egypt and are figured as tribute of the Keftiu in the tomb-paintings, though we have no information of any war with or conquest of that people.

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  • Thus tdm.t-f may mean she whom he hears, she who~se praises] he hears, she reigned in different countries forming a compact and not very large areaperhaps from South Arabia to Asia Minor, and from Persia to Crete and Egypt.

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  • The monuments and scarabs of the Hyksos kings are found throughout Upper and Lower Egypt; those of Khian somehow spread as far as Crete and Bagdad.

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  • Mehemet All had already, in 1821, been appointed 1ItEngels,!m governor of Crete, which he had occupied with a small ~o,ea Egyptian force.

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  • There are many local irregularities, but the general direction is maintained as far as the southern extremity of Greece, where the folds show a tendency to curve towards Crete.

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  • The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.

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