Crete thus forms the natural limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago.
The population of Crete under the Venetians was estimated at about 250,000.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
- Lying midway between three continents, Crete was from the earliest period a natural stepping-stone for the passage of early culture from Egypt and the East to mainland Greece.
In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.
Pashley (Travels in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1837) and Captain Spratt (Travels and Researches in Crete, 2 vols., London, 1865).
Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early in 1897 a Greek expedition sailed to unite the island to Greece.
There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at Berlin.
War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over "en depot" by the Four Powers - Germany and Austria not participating, - and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.
The principal features of his reign were a struggle against his brother general, Thomas, who aimed at the throne (822-824); the conquest of Crete by the Saracens in 823; and the beginning of their attacks upon Sicily (827).
Crete (1896-1898), assumed the direction of foreign affairs in the first period of the Pelloux administration.
Harrison, however, regards him as a religious reformer from Crete, who introduced the doctrine of ecstasis without intoxication amongst the Thracians and was slain by the votaries of the frenzied ritual.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The incident has been assigned to various other localities - Crete, Eleusis, and Enna in Sicily, the last being most generally adopted.
Iasion (or Iasius), a beautiful youth, inspired her with love for him in a thrice-ploughed field in Crete, the fruit of their union being Plutus (wealth).
But Baldwin of Flanders was elected emperor over his head; and his irritation was not wholly allayed by the grant of Macedonia, the north of Thessaly, and Crete (which he afterwards sold to Venice).
extremity, Suda, at the entrance to Suda harbour, and Spinalonga, in Mirabello Bay - remained for some time in the possession of Venice after the conquest of Crete by the Turks.
The metamorphic rocks of western Crete form a series some 9000 to 10,000 ft.
Cayeux, " Les Lignes directrices des plissements de l'ile de Crete," C.R.
Crete, like several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents - a privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of the island, and became in consequence its patron saint.
Owing to the volcanic nature of its soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals.
During the past half-century the affairs of Crete have repeatedly occupied the attention of Europe.
The great days of Crete lie thus beyond the historic period.
Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.
Of the wild animals of Crete, the wild goat or agrimi (Capra aegagrus) alone need be mentioned; it is still found in considerable numbers on the higher summits of Psiloriti and the White Mountains.
Candia, the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900, 22,501), is officially styled Herakleion; it is surrounded by remarkable Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and elsewhere.
In 1893, however, Arthur Evans observed some signs on scripMinot,an seal-stones from Crete which led him to believe that a hieroglyphic system of writing had existed in Minoan times.
It thus appears that a highly developed system of writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters.
There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.
Here, as in Crete, Daedalus executed great works like the temple of Eryx, and it was on Sicilian soil that Minos, engaged in a western campaign, was said to have met with a violent death at the hands of the native king Kokalos (Cocalus) and his daughters.
171), ascribes the eventual settlement of the Greeks in Crete to a widespread desolation that had Minoan fallen on the central regions.
How far Crete itself continued to preserve the hegemony which may reasonably be ascribed to it at an earlier age must remain doubtful.
- Near this village, lying on the easternmost coast of Crete, the British School at Athens has excavated a section of a considerable Minoan town.
The "hundred cities" ascribed to Crete by Homer are in a fair way Y period.
It is nevertheless certain that some of the old traditions were preserved by the remnants of the old population now reduced to a subject condition, and that these finally leavened the whole lump, so that once more - this time under a Hellenic guise - Crete was enabled to anticipate mainland Greece in nascent civilization.
The Dorian dynasts in Crete seem in some sort to have claimed descent from Minos, and the Dorian legislators sought their sanction in the laws which Minos was said to have received from the hands of the Cretan Zeus.
Svoronos, Numismatique de la Crete ancienne; W.
Previous to the extensive excavations referred to above, Crete had been carefully examined and explored by Tournefort, Pococke, Olivier and other travellers, e.g.
According to the received tradition, Minos was a king of Cnossus in Crete; he was a son of Zeus, and enjoyed through life the privilege of habitual intercourse with his divine father.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
In the Homeric age the population of Crete was of a very mixed character, and we are told in the Odyssey (xix.
Having been expelled from Crete by the latter, he and his comrades sailed for Asia, where he finally became king of Lycia.
A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.
by the Eteocretes of the city of Praesos in Crete down to the 4th century B.C. was perhaps akin.
Near this hamlet on the coast of the Gulf of Mirabello in east Crete,t he American archaeologist MissHarriet Boyd hasexcavated a great part of another Minoan town.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
The Turkish fleet which had come up from Cyprus and Crete anchored in the Gulf of Patras.
CORNELIUS SISENNA (119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost his life in an expedition against Crete.
DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.
in Lacaedemon and in Crete.
A further point of difference is the more liberal payment of public functionaries in Crete.
In the Odyssey we already find the Crete.
Achaeans together with Dorians settled in central Crete.
Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.
The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'
This arrangement lasted till the time of Constantine, by whom Crete was incorporated in the prefecture of Illyria.
In the partition of the Greek empire after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Crete fell to the lot of Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, but was sold by him to the Venetians, and thus passed under the dominion of that great republic, to which it continued subject for more than four centuries.
From this time Crete continued subject to Ottoman rule without interruption till the outbreak of the Greek revolution.
Pashley (Travels in Crete, 1837) Crete was the worst governed province of the Turkish empire.
to the suspicions of the sultan, Crete again came under their control.
The allied powers (France, England and Russia) decided, however, that Crete should not be included amongst the islands annexed to the newly-formed kingdom of Greece; but recognizing that some change was necessary, they obtained from the sultan Mahmud II.
The period of his administration has been called the " golden age " of Crete.
In 1840 Crete was again taken from Mehemet Ali, and replaced under the dominion of the Turks, but fortunately Mustafa still retained his governorship until he left for Constantinople to become grand vizier in 1852.
The elections held under the new system proved a failure, the Christians refusing to go to the polls, and for the next five years Crete was governed absolutely by a succession of Mahommedan Valis.
Before that event an Epitrope, or Committee of Reform," had appeared in the mountains - the harbinger of the prolonged struggle which ended in the emancipation of Crete.
Emissaries of the society now appeared in Crete, large consignments of arms were landed, and at the beginning of 1897 the island was practically in a state of insurrection.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
On the 26th of that month the nomination of Prince George of Greece as high commissioner of the powers in Crete for a period of three years (renewed in 1901) was formally announced, and on the 21st of December the prince landed at Suda and made his public entry into Canea amid enthusiastic demonstrations.
He had done much for the welfare of Crete, but his participation in party struggles and his attitude towards the representatives of the powers had rendered his position untenable.
Alexander Zaimis, a former prime minister of Greece, arrived in Crete on the 1st of October.
At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.
- Pashley, Travels in Crete (2 vols., Cambridge and London, 1837); Spratt, Travels and Researches in Crete (2 vols., London, 1867); Raulin, Description physique del' ile de Crete (3 vols.
Stillman, The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-68 (New York, 1874); Edwardes, Letters from Crete (London, 1887); Stavrakis, ETaTLUTLai (Athens, 1890); J.
Dillon, " Crete and the Cretans," Fortnightly Review (May 1897).
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
Nor did the Aegean objects which were lying obscurely in museums in 1870, or thereabouts, provide a sufficient test of the real basis underlying the Hellenic myths of the Argolid, the Troad and Crete, to cause these to be taken seriously.
Crete, so much so that, for the present we must regard it as the fountain-head of Aegean civilization, and probably for long its political and social centre.
The revolution of 1897-98 opened the door to wider knowledge, and much exploration has ensued, for which see Crete.
Thus the "Aegean Area" has now come to mean the Archipelago with Crete and Cyprus, the Hellenic peninsula with the Ionian isles, and Western Anatolia.
- For details of monumental evidence the articles On Crete, Mycenae, Tiryns, Troad, Cyprus, &c., must be consulted.
in the Dictaean Cavern of Crete.
clay tablets and discs (so far in Crete only), but nothing of more perishable nature, such as skin, papyrus, &c.; engraved gems and gem impressions; legends written with pigment on pottery (rare); characters incised on stone or pottery.
(See Crete.) (3) Social Organization.
After 1600 B.C. the palaces in Crete had more than one story, fine stairways, bath-chambers, windows, folding and sliding doors, &c. In this later period, the distinction of blocks of apartments in some palaces has been held to indicate the seclusion of women in harems, at least among the ruling caste.
There was evidently oliveand vine-culture on a large scale in Crete at any rate.
Melian vases came in their turn to Crete.
A little later, in Crete, bone-pits seem to have come into use, containing the remains of many burials.
- Ceramic art reached a specially high standard in fabric, form and decoration by the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. in Crete.
It should be compared with stone work in Crete, especially the steatite vases with reliefs found at Hagia Triada.
The fresco-paintings, ceramic motives, reliefs, free sculpture and toreutic handiwork of Crete have supplied the clearest proof of it, confirming the impression already created by the goldsmiths' and painters' work of the Greek mainland (Mycenae, Vaphio, Tiryns).
For possible geographical reasons for this duality of type see Crete.
We are now in the beginning of the Bronze Age, and the first of Evans's "Minoan" periods (see Crete).
i, 2, 3"; see Crete), there is evidence of a perfectly orderly and continuous evolution in, at any rate, ceramic art.
Now the second type, the "megaron" arrangement, characterizes peculiarly the palaces discovered in the north of the Aegean area, at Mycenae, Tiryns and Hissarlik, where up to the present no signs of the first type, so characteristic of Crete, have been observed.
in Crete, had given way entirely to a linear system by Period III.
The most that can be said to he capable of proof is the infiltration of some northern influence into Crete at the end of Minoan Period II.; but it probably brought about no change of dynasty and certainly no change in the prevailing race.
A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.
It only remains to be added that there is some ground for supposing that the language spoken in Crete before the later Doric was non-Hellenic, but Indo-European.
(See Crete.) (I) Chronology.
He goes so far as to pronounce the latter to be Cretan importations, their fabric and forms being unlike anything Nilotic. If that be so, the period at which stone implements were beginning to be superseded by bronze in Crete must be dated before 4000 B.C. But it will be remembered that below all Evans's "Minoan" strata lies the immensely thick Neolithic deposit.
1-2 in Crete, the shaft-graves in the Mycenae circle, the Vaphio tomb, &c., to the 16th and 15th centuries B.C., and Period III.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
The absence of fortifications both at Cnossus and Phaestus suggest that at this time Crete was internally peaceful and externally secure.
Tiryns and Hissarlik, other communities of the early race began to arrive at civilization, but were naturally influenced by the more advanced culture of Crete, in proportion to their nearness of vicinity.
Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.
They point to the fact that, even in the new period, the palm for wealth and variety of civilized production still remained with Crete.
It is not impossible to combine these views, and place the seat of power still in Crete, but ascribe the Renascence there to an influx of new blood from the north, large enough to instil fresh vigour, but too small to change the civilization in its essential character.
3.-[[Gold Signet From Acropolis Tween Lions, On A Lentoid Treasure, Mycenae, Showing The God Gem From Kydonia, Crete.
Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.
Being pursued by Minos, king of Crete, who was enamoured of her, she sprang from a rock into the sea, but was saved from drowning by falling into some fishermen's nets.
Leopardo was also the creator (1505) of the three handsome bronze sockets in front of St Mark's which held the flagstaffs of the banners of Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic was mistress of those territories.
To her fell the Cyclades, the Sporades, the islands and the eastern shores of the Adriatic, the shores of the Propontis and the Euxine, and the littoral of Thessaly, and she bought Crete from the marquis of Monferrat.
The fifth Turkish war (1645-1668) entailed the loss of Crete; and though Morosini reconquered the Morea for a brief space in 1685, that province was finally lost to Venice in 1716.
According to others, Pandareus stole a golden dog which guarded the temple of Zeus in Crete, and gave it to Tantalus to take care of.
ARIADNE (in Greek mythology), was the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and Pasiphae, the daughter of Helios the Sun-god.
Theseus himself was said to have founded a festival at Athens in honour of Ariadne and Dionysus after his return from Crete.
When Theseus set out for Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute to the Minotaur he promised Aegeus that, if he were successful, he would change the black sail carried by his ship for a white one.
Their place of abode is variously placed in the Strophades, the entrance to the under-world, or a cave in Crete.
There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
He was governor-general of Crete; and in 1895 was appointed Ottoman ambassador in London, a post which he continued to hold until his death at Constantinople in 1902.
To these must be added the Turkish islands in the Aegean usually reckoned to Europe, that is, Thasos, Samothrace, Imbros and, in the extreme south, Crete or Candia.
In the Mediterranean, Crete and Malta yet survived as outposts of Christendom; but the northern coasts of Africa from Egypt to Morocco acknowledged the supremacy of the sultan, whose sea power in the Mediterranean had become a factor to be reckoned with in European politics, threatening not only the islands, but the very heart of Christendom, Italy itself, and capable - as the alliance with France against Charles V.
In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.
War was therefore declared against Venice, to whom Crete belonged (1644), and continued in the island for.
The fleet also took Tinos and Cerigo, as well as the three forts still remaining to the Venetians in Crete.
Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.
In 1844 he took advantage of his visit to England to propose to British ministers a plan of partition, under which Great Britain was to receive Egypt and Crete, Constantinople was to be erected into a free city, and the Balkan states were to become autonomous under Russian protection.
The revolt was suppressed, the Turko-Greek conflict was settled by a conference of the powers in Paris, and Crete received a charter of local self-government which for a time pacified the island.'
The organic law for Crete was to be carried out, and special laws enacted for other parts of Turkey.
p. 197.) From 1890 Crete was frequently the scene of disturbance., the Christian communities in other parts of Turkey began to.
island; Y 97 from the Piraeus with an armed force, intending to proclaim the annexation of Crete to Greece, and Greek troops were massed on the Thessalian frontier.
Crete being thus removed from the scope of her action, Turkey found ample occupation in the almost constant turbulence of the Yemen, of Albania and of Macedonia.
The evacuation of Crete by the four protecting powers was followed in 1909 by renewed agitation.
Greece and Crete were thus confronted with what was in effect a defensive alliance between Turkey and Rumania.
125 B.C.), surnamed Nicator, son of Demetrius I., fled to Crete after the death of his father, but about 147 B.C. he returned to Syria, and with the help of Ptolemy VII.
At Crete the brazen Talos, who would not permit them to land, was killed by the Dioscuri.
The position of Melos, between Greece and Crete, and its possession of obsidian, made it an important centre of early Aegean civilization.
In Crete she was said to have issued from a cloud burst asunder by Zeus.
He afterwards retired to Crete, where he lived the life of a hunter with Artemis; but having threatened to exterminate all living creatures on the island, he was killed by the bite of a scorpion sent by the earth-goddess (Ovid, Fasti, v.
Phoenician traders, too, visited the shores of the Laconian Gulf, and there are indications of trade at a very early period between Laconia and Crete, e.g.
James, the Lord's brother, who, partly because of his relationship to Christ, stood supreme in the church at Jerusalem, as also Timothy and Titus, who acted as temporary delegates of St Paul at Ephesus and in Crete, are justly considered to have been forerunners of the monarchical episcopate.
The modern oriental open waistcoat finds its fellow in the jacket or bolero from ancient Crete, and seems to have been distinctively Aegean.
- Hittite cultus images from Asia Minor, Crete and Weather-god.
The essential feature both of male and female dress during the "Minoan " and " Mycenaean " periods was the loin-cloth, which is best represented by the votive terra-cotta statuettes from Petsofa in Crete discovered by Professor J.
The district is now largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans.
Jerome says that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division at Corinth, that he retired into Crete with Zenas, a doctor of the law; and that the schism having been healed by Paul's letter to the Corinthians, Apollos returned to the city, and became its bishop. Less probable traditions assign to him the bishopric of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea.
AENESIDEMUS, Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century B.C. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third sceptical school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
According to Homer, his resting-place was the island of Pharos, near the mouth of the Nile; in Virgil his home is the .island of Carpathus, between Crete and Rhodes.
In the time of Vitruvius "cedars" were growing in Crete, Africa and Syria.
They are inscribed in an alphabet which has many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and some with the Punic alphabet; but which seems to retain a few characters from an older script akin to those of Minoan Crete and Roman Libya.
DAEDALUS, a mythical Greek architect and sculptor, who figures largely in the early legends of Crete and of Athens.
These legends seem primarily to belong to Crete; and the Athenian element in them which connected Daedalus with the royal house of Erechtheus is a later fabrication.
The earliest Semitic records give its form as y or more frequently k or The form is found in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Attica, Naxos and some other of the Ionic islands.
Practically all Peloponnese, except Achaea and Elis, was " Dorian," together with Megara, Aegina, Crete, Melos, Thera, the Sporades Islands and the S.W.
The northern Doris, for example, spoke Aeolic, while Elis, Phocis, and many non-Dorian districts of north-west Greece spoke dialects akin to Doric. Many Dorian states had additional " nonDorian tribes "; Sparta, which claimed to be of pure and typical Dorian origin, maintained institutions and a mode of life which were without parallel in Peloponnese, in the Parnassian and in the Asiatic Doris, and were partially reflected in Crete only.
The Homeric Dorians of Crete were also interpreted by Andron and others (3rd century) as an advance-guard of this sea-borne migration, and as having separated from the other Dorians while still in Histiaeotis.
The Homeric poems (12th - 10th centuries) know of Dorians only in Crete, with the obscure epithet TpexaiKes, and no hint of their origin.
It is clear from the traditions about Lycurgus, for example, that even the Spartans had been a long while in Laconia before their state was rescued from disorder by his reforms; and if there be truth in the legend that the new institutions were borrowed from Crete, we perhaps have here too a late echo of the legislative fame of the land of Minos.
The Homeric Hymn to Apollo evidently combines two different versions, one of the approach of Apollo from the north by land, and the other of the introduction of his votaries from Crete.
When Minos, king of Crete, was on his way to attack Athens to avenge the murder of his son Androgeus, for which Aegeus was directly or indirectly responsible, he laid siege to Megara.
A special envoy, sent by Louis XIV., to make inquiries and demand reparation, was treated with studied insult; and the result was that Mazarin abandoned the Turkish alliance and threw the power of France on to the side of Venice, openly assisting the Venetians in the defence of Crete.
But Kuprili's influence with the sultan remained unshaken, and five years later Crete fell to his arms (1669).
CANEA, or KHANIA, the principal seaport and since 1841 the capital of Crete, finely situated on the northern coast of the island, about 25 m.
(See also CRETE.)
Some most archaic inscriptions have been indeed found by the explorers in Crete, but these for the present serve scarcely any other purpose than to prove the antiquity of the art of writing among a people who were closely in touch with the inhabitants of Hellas proper.
Not only have antiquities been found in Crete that point to Egyptian inspiration, but quite recently Professor Petrie has found at Tel el-Amarna Mycenaean pottery.
Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.
As regards Crete,.
The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
Almost every householder in both islands is the owner, joint owner or skipper of a sailing ship. The southern Sporades are as follows: Ica'ria, Patmos, Leros, Calymnus, Astropalia (Astypalaea or Stampalia), Cos (Stanko), Nisyros, Tilos or Episcopi, Syme, Khalki, Rhodes, Crete and many smaller isles.
DICTYS CRETENSIS, of Cnossus in Crete, the supposed companion of Idomeneus during the Trojan War, and author of a diary of its events.
Collilieux, Etude sur Dictys de Crete et Dares de Phrygie (1887), with bibliography; W.
The festival is first mentioned by St Andrew of Crete (c. 650), and, according to the Byzantine historian Nicephorus Callistus (Hist.
Mycenaeans of Crete, although a wider application of this term is not to be excluded.
disputes the identification of Keft with Crete.
For the traditions associating Gaza with Crete, see the latter, Index, s.v.
This is suggested by the recent discovery at Phaestos in Crete of a disk with evidence for a native script; see A.
He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago - Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina.
During his minority the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, who in spite of several defeats inflicted upon her generals maintained the frontiers against the Saracens of Bagdad and Crete.
The Treaty provided for the cession by Turkey to the allied Balkan sovereigns of all European Turkey west of the line Enos - Midia, but excluding Albania; for the delimitation of Albania's frontiers by the Great Powers; for the cession of Crete to Greece; and for the destination of other;Turkish islands being left to the same Powers.
To hold sovereignty not to be divisible is for juridical purposes not a working theory; states part, permanently or temporarily, with few or many of the rights and powers comprehended in sovereignty; to speak of it as undivided in the case of Crete, Egypt or Tibet is to do violence to facts.
Already, tion of in June 1823, the pasha's son-in-law Hussein Bey Mehemet had landed in Crete, and by April of the following All.
Crete now became the base of operations against the Greeks.
According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).
A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.
For the theory that Atlantis is to be identified with Crete in the Minoan period, see "The Lost Continent" in The Times (London) for the 19th of February 1909.
That after these two years he was released and visited Spain in the west, and in the east Ephesus, Macedonia, Crete, Troas, Miletus, and perhaps Achaea and Epirus, is probable, in the one case, from the evidence of Romans xv.
GORTYNA, or Gortyn, an important ancient city on the southern side of the island of Crete.
Gortyna was, next to Cnossus, the largest and most powerful city of Crete.
See also Crete, and for a full account of the laws see [[Greek Law.
MINOS, a semi-legendary king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
He reigned over Crete and the islands of the Aegean three generations before the Trojan War.
Since Phoenician intercourse was in later times supposed to have played an important part in the development of Crete, Minos is sometimes called a Phoenician.
There is no doubt that there is a considerable historical element in the legend; recent discoveries in Crete (q.v.) prove the existence of a civilization such as the legends imply, and render it probable that not only Athens, but Mycenae itself, was once subject to the kings of Cnossus, of whom Minos was greatest.
The wild goat, or pasang, is represented in Europe in the Cyclades and Crete by rather small races, xi'.
The Politics (B 10) mentions as having happened lately (vecouri) the expedition of Phalaecus to Crete, which occurred towards the end of the Sacred War in 346.
The divine smith naturally became a "culture-god"; in Crete the invention of forging in iron was attributed to him, and he was honoured by all metal-workers.
Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.
Both subjects and style show close analogy to the paintings in the palace at Cnossus in Crete.
Towards the end of the 4th century, when southern Illyricum (Macedonia, Greece, Crete) was passing under the authority of the Eastern emperor, she tried to keep him within her ecclesiastical obedience by creating the vicariate of Thessalonica.
But even then the Adriatic in the narrower sense only extended as far as the Mons Garganus, the outer portion being called the Ionian Sea: the name was sometimes, however, inaccurately used to include the Gulf of Tarentum, the Sea of Sicily, the Gulf of Corinth and even the sea between Crete and Malta (Acts xxvii.
Recent discoveries in Crete have brought to light the existence of a Cretan or " Minoan " sea-power of remote antiquity, and it is clear that a great deal of what used to be described as Phoenician must receive quite a different designation.
1 Burrows, Discoveries in Crete (1907), 140 sqq.
But a great deal of what was formerly assigned to Phoenician influence in the Aegean at an early period - pottery, ornaments and local myths - must be accounted for by the vigorous civilization of ancient Crete.
1-4), who is in charge of the local churches at Crete (i.
The origin of Christian missions in Crete is obscure.
12-13 is indubitably a Pauline fragment, and the problem for the critic is to determine whether in the epistle as a whole we have a redacted and interpolated edition of what was originally a note from the hand of Paul, or whether the epistle drew upon some Pauline tradition '(connecting Titus with Crete) and material, and was afterwards interpolated at i.
The next eleven years he spent as a condottiere in Crete.
After another long sojourn in Crete he again received the command against Nabis.
Capuchins: Aden and Arabia, India (dioceses of Agra, Allahabad, Lahore), Seychelles, Eritrea (Red Sea), Gallas, Cephalonia, Trebizond, Mardin, Crete, Caroline Islands, Araucania, Brazil, Bulgaria.
12, 474 Col de Crete Seche (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow 12,471 Col de Breuil (Bourg St Maurice to La Thuille), snow .
CNOSSUS, KNOSSOS, or Gnossus, an ancient city of Crete, on the left bank of the Caeratus, a small stream which falls into the sea on the north side of the island.
from the coast, and, according to the old traditions, was founded by Minos, king of Crete.
Along with Gortyna and Cydonia, it held for many years the supremacy over the whole of Crete; and it always took a prominent part in the civil wars which from time to time desolated the island.
When the rest of Crete fell under the Roman dominion, Cnossus shared the same fate, and became a Roman colony.
As the excavations at Cnossus are discussed at length in the article Crete, it must suffice here briefly to enumerate the more important.
Large halls, which had subsequently been broken up into smaller apartments, were found, and among a great number of other artistic remains one seal-impression of special interest showing a one-masted ship carrying a thoroughbred horse - perhaps representing the first importation of horses into Crete.
Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1907); A.
Mosso, The Palaces of Crete (1907); Lagrange, La Crete ancienne (1908); Dr. Evans's reports in The Times, Oct.
I), Corinth (Epistle of Clement) and Crete (Titus).
IDOMENEUS, in Greek legend, son of Deucalion, grandson of Minos and Pasiphae, and king of Crete.
GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond.
It is found also in Persia, Palestine, Crete and Greece, the Italian Alps, Sicily, Sardinia and Mauritania.
The extraordinary importance of Khyan was further shown by the discovery of his name on a jar-lid at Cnossus in Crete.
The Venetians were given Crete and several other islands and ports in the Levant, which formed an uninterrupted chain from Venice to the Black Sea, a large part of Constantinople (whence the doge assumed the title of "lord of a quarter and a half of Romania"), and many valuable privileges.
About this time Crete was seized by Spanish adventurers.
Strange to say, as Syracuse fell in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, the Saracen occupation was completed in the reign of Nikephoros Phokas (Nicephorus Phocas), the deliverer of Crete.
Help sent from Athens was diverted to Crete, and after much manoeuvring Phormio .was compelled to fight off Naupactus.
They were of short stature, with dark hair and eyes, and generally dolichocephalic. Their chief centres were at Cnossus (Crete), in Argolis, Laconia and Attica, in each being ruled by ancient lines of kings.
He sent 10,000 men to help to suppress a rebellion in Crete, and conquered the greater part of the (Nile) Sudan; but an expedition of 11,000 men, sent to Abyssinia under Prince Hasan and Rateb Pasha, well equipped with guns and all essentials, was, in two successive disasters (1875 and 1876), practically destroyed.
Egyptian objects of the age of the XVIIIth Dynasty are found in the Greek islands and on the mainland among remains of the Mycenaean epoch, and on the other hand the products of the workshops of Crete and other centres of that culture are found in Egypt and are figured as tribute of the Keftiu in the tomb-paintings, though we have no information of any war with or conquest of that people.
Thus tdm.t-f may mean she whom he hears, she who~se praises] he hears, she reigned in different countries forming a compact and not very large areaperhaps from South Arabia to Asia Minor, and from Persia to Crete and Egypt.
The monuments and scarabs of the Hyksos kings are found throughout Upper and Lower Egypt; those of Khian somehow spread as far as Crete and Bagdad.
Mehemet All had already, in 1821, been appointed 1ItEngels,!m governor of Crete, which he had occupied with a small ~o,ea Egyptian force.
There are many local irregularities, but the general direction is maintained as far as the southern extremity of Greece, where the folds show a tendency to curve towards Crete.
The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.
In 1897 Crete was withdrawn from Turkish administration, and the Greco-Turkish War of that year was followed by the cession to Turkey of a few strategical points on the Thessalian frontier.
According to Herodotus they called themselves Termilae, written Trmmile in the native inscriptions, and he further states that the original inhabitants of the country were the Milyans and Solymi, the Lycians being invaders from Crete.
Prehellenic Period The greatest advance during the decade 1910-20 was made in the knowledge of prehistoric Greece, to which increasing interest had been directed 'since the first discoveries of Sir Arthur Evans in Crete in 1900.
Greek Mainland.-Exploration of 'the Mycenaean sites of the Greek mainland have shown that beneath the characteristic painted pottery which is so plainly derived from the late Minoan wares, there is no unbroken sequence of development such as is found at Cnossos and elsewhere in Crete: that is to say, the Mycenaean civilization was not native to Greece proper, but was imposed there in a mature form upon a more backward culture.
South-eastern Greece and the Peloponnesus show (in their sequence of pottery fabrics): (i.) An Early Bronze Age culture (black-varnish ware, Urfirnis) similar to that of the Cyclades and Crete but of meaner development, which was dominated in turn by (ii.) its more progressive neighbours of the Cyclades (dull-paint ware, Mattmalerei) and perhaps of Asia (Minyan ware), and ultimately (iii.) of Crete (Mycenaean).
Mycenaean pottery is found to contain elements which do not belong to Crete, but which must be attributed to the influence of the fabrics established in Greece before it.
Tiryns was dug again by the German Institute (until 1914), Phylakopi in Melos (1912) and the Kamares Cave in Crete (1913) by the British School at Athens, who also began in 1920 a further excavation on the acropolis of Mycenae.
In Crete there were many excavations in progress at the beginning of the war; at Tylisos (by the Greeks), Hagia Triada, Phaistos and Gortyna (Italians), Pachyammos and other sites in eastern Crete (R.
Sir Arthur Evans conducted supplementary excavations at Cnossos in 1912, and the British School reexamined the Kamares Cave, where the typical Middle Minoan polychrome pottery were first found in Crete, in 1913.
Another new bronze from Crete had been lately acquired (1921) by an English collector.
The Museum of Fine Arts at Boston also obtained in 1914 a masterpiece surreptitiously excavated and smuggled out of Crete, an exquisite gold and ivory statuette of the snake goddess or her votary.
Minoan finds were made on several lesser sites: at Plati in the Lasithi Plain in 1914, houses and burials; in eastern Crete at Sphoungaras in 1912, and at Pachyammos in 1914, E.M.
Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1913); E.
Hall, Aegean Archaeology (1915); Excavations in Eastern Crete: Sphoungaras (1912); Vrokastro (1914); R.
Seager, The Cemetery of Pachyammos, Crete (1916); A.
5) as having been left by Paul in Crete to "set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city."
Tradition, obviously resting on the Epistle to Titus, has it that he died in Crete as bishop at an advanced age; another line connects him with Venice.
While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.
This was the origin of the monastery of St John, which now owns the greater part of the southern half of Patmos, as well as farms in Crete, Samos and other neighbouring islands.
The modern town was recruited by refugees from Constantinople in 1453, and from Crete in 1669, when these places fell into the hands of the Turks.
When pederasty became common in Greece, an attempt was made to justify it and invest it with dignity by referring to the rape of the beautiful boy by Zeus; in Crete, where the love of boys was reduced to a system, Minos, the primitive ruler and law-giver, was said to have been the ravisher of Ganymede.
He also defended Crete against the Turks; and subsequently was killed in a reconnaissance at Friuli.
At all events during the last centuries of the third millennium B.C., remarkable for the high state of civilization in Babylonia, Egypt and Crete, Palestine shares in the active life and intercourse of the age; and while its fertile fields are visited by Egypt, Babylonia (under Gimil-Sin, Gudea and Sargon) claims some supremacy over the west as far as the Mediterranean.
CYRILLOS LUCARIS (1572-1637), Greek prelate and theologian, was a native of Crete.
EPIMENIDES, poet and prophet of Crete, lived in the 6th century B.C. Many fabulous stories are told of him, and even his existence is doubted.
He died in Crete at an advanced age; according to his countrymen, who afterwards honoured him as a god, he lived nearly three hundred years.
Demoulin,, Epimenide de Crete (1901); H.
As to its chronological relation to the Cretan sites - Cnossus, Phaestus, &c., and the "Minoan" civilization as determined by Dr A.Evans, see the discussion under Crete.
Ibn Khasib was banished to Crete, Otamish murdered.
2 There we find, not indeed living serpents, but deities with serpent-symbolism, indicating a composition of various strata of religious belief, analogous to the evidence for serpent-symbolism from Babylonia, Crete, Greece or Peru; for the higher religions have almost invariably retained in their ritual and belief, sometimes with only slight modification, cruder conceptions which can still be studied in less elevated form among the lower races of India, Africa or America.
The immediate price was the pashalik of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, that of the Morea to his son Ibrahim.
The proportion, however, was not long maintained: new provinces were added to the empire - Bithynia in 74, Cyrene about the same time, Crete in 67, Syria in 64 - and one or more new law courts were instituted.
Evans, who argues ingeniously that the alphabet was taken over from Crete by the " Cherethites and Pelethites " or Philistines, who established for themselves settlements on the coast of Palestine.
If in Crete a system of writing of an entirely different nature had been developed seven or eight centuries before, there must have been some very important reason for the entire abandonment of the old method and the adoption of a new.
In Crete, at least, the excavations show that the old civilization must have ended in a social and political cataclysm.
But as Dr Evans has found a form like the digamma among his most recent types of symbols, and as we have no intermediate forms which will prove the development of from Y, though the form found at Oaxos in Crete, viz.
In the great Gortyn inscription from Crete and occasionally in Thera, Fl (in Crete in:the form c) and K are used alone for 4 and x, just as conversely even in the 5th century the name of Themistocles has been found upon an ostrakon spelt 6e t eca00100)3.
chap. ii.) was borrowed from the Locrian alphabet; (2) the Sabellic alphabet, derived from that of Corinth and Corcyra, and found in a few inscriptions of eastern-central Italy; (3) the alphabet of the Veneti of north-east Italy derived from the Elean; (4) the alphabet of Sondrio (between Lakes Como and Garda), which Pauli, on the insufficient ground that it possesses no symbols corresponding to 4 and x, derives from a source at the same stage of development as the oldest alphabets of Thera, Melos and Crete.
Next to Boeotia and the neighbouring countries, it appears that the Peloponnesus, Crete and Thessaly were the most important seats of Greek population.
177) places in Crete.
The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia), are almost a blank in Homer's map. The line of settlements can be traced in the Catalogue from Crete to Rhodes, and embraces the neighbouring islands of Cos and Calymnos.
Many of the islands of the Mediterranean, from which the ancients drew their supplies of wine, such as Chios, Cos, Tenedos, Crete and Cyprus, still produce considerable quantities of wine, but the bulk of this is scarcely to the modern European taste.
Human sacrifices to Baal were common, and, though in Phoenicia proper there is no proof that the victims were burned alive, the Carthaginians had a brazen image of Baal, from whose downturned hands the children slid into a pit of fire; and the story that Minos had a brazen man who pressed people to his glowing breast points to similar rites in Crete, where the child-devouring Minotaur must certainly be connected with Baal and the favourite sacrifice to him of children.
She is sometimes represented as the goat which suckled the infant-god in a cave in Crete, sometimes as a nymph of uncertain parentage (daughter of Oceanus, Haemonius, Olen, Melisseus), who brought him up on the milk of a goat.
He died soon afterwards (72-71) in Crete.
It lies between 34 33' and 35° 41' N., and between 32° 20' and 34 35' E., so that it is situated in almost exactly the same latitude as Crete.
evidence of continuity comes from the peculiar Cypriote script, a syllabary related to the linear scripts of Crete and the south Aegean, and traceable in Cyprus to the Mycenaean age.'
The old name was reintroduced by Diocletian, by whom Cyrenaica (detached from Crete) was divided into Marmarica (Libya inferior) in the east, and Cyrenaica (Libya superior) in the west.
Hind, 1889), and (1855, 1865) some inscriptions found in Crete by T.
A native of Crete, he settled at Amphipolis in Macedonia.
Many of these found their way to Crete, and becoming porters, &c. in Canea and Candia, were notorious for turbulence and fanaticism.
The rocks of Crete are full of winding caves, which gave the first idea of the legendary labyrinth.
Rhadamanthys), in Greek mythology, son of Zeus and Europa and brother of Minos, king of Crete.
Driven out of Crete by his brother, who was jealous of his popularity, he fled to Boeotia, where he wedded Alcmene.
The great event of his reign was the conquest of Crete by Nicephorus Phocas.
After a perilous voyage to Thrace, Delos, Crete and Sicily (where his father dies), he is cast up by a storm, sent by Juno, on the African coast.
The Cretan legend of his birth and origin, which gave rise to the Cretan cult of Zeus Kpnra-y€V)s,' " Zeus born in Crete," may appear evidence against the theory just set forth.
The Aryan Hellenes found in many of the conquered lands the predominant cult of a mother-goddess, to whom they gradually had to affiliate their own High God: and in Crete they found her cult associated with the figure of.
a male divinity who was believed to be born and to die at certain periods; probably he was an early form of Dionysus, but owing to his prominence in the island the Hellenic settlers may have called him Zeus; and this would explain the markedly Dionysiac character of the later Zeus-religion in Crete.
The scientific historian of antiquity works on the hills of Crete, rather than in the quiet of a library with the classics spread out before him.
The worship of Aphrodite at an early date was introduced into Cyprus, Cythera and Crete by Phoenician colonists, whence it spread over the whole of Greece, and as far west as Italy and Sicily.
In Crete she has been, identified with Ariadne, who, according to one version of her story, was put ashore in Cyprus, where she died and was buried in a grove called after the name of Ariadne-Aphrodite (L.
As such in Crete she is called Antheia (" the flower-goddess "), at Athens Ev Kdirocs (" in the gardens "), and Ev KaKuocs (" in the reed-beds ") or Ev act (" in the marsh ") at Samos.
The filling between the girders and floor beams consists of segmental arches of brick, segmental or flat arches of porous (sawdust) terra-cotta, or hard-burned hollow terra- - cotta voussoirs, or various patented forms of con crete floors containing ties or supports of steel or iron.
The Mnoitae, Klarotae and Apha miotae of Crete were more or less in the same position.
The common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), as found wild in the mountains of Crete and Cyprus, is characterized by long and spreading branches, which give it a cedar-like habit.
Hellenic Studies, xxiii.), the swinging being supposed to act as a charm in awakening vegetation from its winter sleep. The conception of Zagreus, or the winter Dionysus, appears to have originated in Crete, but it was accepted also in Delphi, where his grave was shown, and sacrifice was secretly offered at it annually on the shortest day.
(Peter Philarges), pope 1409-1410, was born in Crete of unknown parents and entered the order of St Francis, for which, as for the other mendicant orders, he later manifested his affection in a striking manner.
When Apollo Delphinius with his worshippers from Crete took possession of the earth-oracle Python, he received in consequence the name Pythius.
This cult probably originated in Crete, whence the god in the form of a dolphin led his Cretan worshippers to the Delphian shore, where he bade them erect an altar in his honour.
The original seat of her worship was in Crete.
1 11), and it is probably true that a stock of Asiatic origin formed part of the primitive population of Crete and brought with them the worship of the Asiatic Great Mother, who became the Cretan Rhea.
He effected a temporary adjustment of the Jansenist controversy; was instrumental in concluding the peace of Aix-laChapelle (1668); healed a long-standing breach between the Holy See and Portugal; aided Venice against the Turks, and laboured unceasingly for the relief of Crete, the fall of which hastened his death on the 9th of October 1669.
175-177, notes Pelasgians in Crete, together with two apparently indigenous and two immigrant peoples (Achaeans and Dorians), but gives no indication to which class the Pelasgians belong.
Ephorus, relying on Hesiodic tradition of an aboriginal Pelasgian type in Arcadia, elaborated a theory of the Pelasgians as a warrior-people spreading (like "Aryans") from a "Pelasgian home," and annexing and colonizing all the parts of Greece where earlier writers had found allusions to them, from Dodona to Crete and the Troad, and even as far as Italy, where again their settlements had been recognized as early as the time of Hellanicus, in close connexion once more with "Tyrrhenians."
On the coins of Arcadia, Aetolia, Crete and Sicily, are to be seen varied and beautiful representations of her head as conceived by the Greek artists in the best times.
While Tsountas, for the Greek Archaeological Society, picked up his work at Mycenae in 1886, and gradually cleared the Acropolis, with notable results, Schliemann tried for traces of the Caesareum at Alexandria, of the Palace of Minos at Knossos, in Crete, and of the Aphrodite temple at Cythera (1888); but he was not successful, meeting in the two former enterprises with a local opposition which his wealth was unable to bear down.
After this the chief matters worth notice in Dom Henry's life are, first, the progress of discovery and colonization in the Azores - where Terceira was discovered before 1450, perhaps in 1445, and apparently by a Fleming, called "Jacques de Bruges" in the prince's charter of the 2nd of March 1450 (by this charter Jacques receives the captaincy of this isle as its intending colonizer); secondly, the rapid progress of civilization in Madeira, evidenced by its timber trade to Portugal, by its sugar, corn and honey, and above all by its wine, produced from the Malvoisie or Malmsey grape, introduced from Crete; and thirdly, the explorations o Cadamosto and Diogo Gomez.
"ELEUTHERIOS VENIZELOS (1864-), Greek statesman, was born at Mournies, in the island of Crete, on Aug.
2 3 1864, of a family that emigrated from Mistra (near Sparta) to Crete in 1770.
It was not till 1897 that Venizelos came into prominence as one of the leaders of the Cretan uprising of that year, which culminated in the removal of Turkish rule from Crete (1898).
In 1898 Prince George of Greece landed in Crete as High Commissioner of the Great Powers, and a few months later, upon Sphakianakis' retirement, Venizelos became the head of the Cretan executive.
He soon found himself at variance with the Prince, who inaugurated in Crete very much the same autocratic policy that his elder brother, King Constantine, subsequently adopted in Greece in '9 ' 5-7.
25 1916 he took ship with his leading partizans for Crete, whence he sent out his proclamation to the Greek people, calling upon all true patriots to disavow Constantine and his fatal policy and to flock to the standard of the Entente.
The Milesians came primarily from Scythia and after sojourning for some time in Egypt, Crete and in Scythia again, they finally arrived in Spain.
The expedition sailed on the 10th of July 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete.
Still more difficult is it to make this distinction when we read of the mythical Dactyls of Ida in Crete or the Telchines or Cyclopes being acquainted with the smelting of It is not, however, likely that later Greek writers, who knew bronze in its true sense, and called it XaXK6, would have employed this word without qualification for objects which they had seen unless they had meant it to be taken as bronze.
But the Zeus whose grave was shown in Crete, or the Zeus who played Demeter an obscene trick by the aid of a ram, or the Zeus who, in the shape of a swan, became the father of Castor and Pollux, or the Zeus who was merely a rough stone, or the Zeus who deceived Hera by means of a feigned marriage with an inanimate object, or the Zeus who was afraid of Attes, is a being whose myth is felt to be unnatural and in great need of explanation.
She was not a colonizing state, though the inhabitants of Tarentum, in southern Italy, and of Lyttus, in Crete, claimed her as their mother-city.
Little is known of his career for the next fifteen years beyond the fact that he held a high position at court; but in the year 1669, when France sent a contingent to assist the Venetians in the defence of Crete against the Turks, Frontenac was placed in command of the troops on the recommendation of Turenne.
Part wandered eastward to found a Mahommedan state in Crete.
Among the private educational institutions of the state are: Nebraska Wesleyan University (1888, Methodist Episcopal), at University Place, a suburb of Lincoln; Union College (1891, Adventist), at College View, suburb of Lincoln; Creighton University (1879, Roman Catholic), at Omaha; York College (1890, United Baptist), at York; Cotner University (1889; legally " The Nebraska Christian University "), at Bethany, a suburb of Lincoln; Grand Island College (1892, Baptist), at Grand Island; Doane College (1872, Congregational), at Crete; Hastings College (1882, Presbyterian), at Hastings; and Bellevue College (1883, Presbyterian), at Bellevue.
In 960 he led an expedition to Crete, stormed Candia after a ten months' siege, and wrested the whole island from the Saracens.
Her exploration involves the personal story of Vassilis, a young male bartender in the tourist town of Hania, Crete.
chit chat Posted: Sun Jun 18, 2006 11:46 am Subject: Anyone in Crete?
The abbey is set on a solitary hilltop surrounded by cypresses with splendid views over the imposing outcrops of the Crete Senesi.
Please join us to celebrate the launch of Debbie Taylor's new novel, hungry ghosts, set on the Greek island of Crete.
humdrum lives, the Orthodox Church gives them something to dream about, usually their next holiday in Crete or wherever.
Living very humdrum lives, the Orthodox Church gives them something to dream about, usually their next holiday in Crete or wherever.
hungry ghosts, set on the Greek island of Crete.
low-key resorts with good beaches on this part of the Crete coast like Gerani and Maleme.
From Crete and one or two small areas of Turkey, it has attractive silvery-grey leaves and a generally spiky, architectural appearance.
(3) A part surrounded by the fragments of the Dinaro-Taurus arch, especially by Crete and Cyprus.
Pottier, who does not dispute the historical personality of Minos, in view of the story of Phalaris considers it probable that in Crete (where a bull-cult may have existed by the side of that of the double axe) victims were tortured by being shut up in the belly of a red-hot brazen bull.
2 The elders were appointed to teach and rule; 3 the deacons to minister to the poor.4 There were elders in the church at Jerusalem,' and in the church at Ephesus; 6 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the cities of Lycaonia and Pisidia; 7 Paul left Titus in Crete to appoint elders in every city; 8 the elders amongst the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia received a special exhortation by Peter.Ã‚° These elders were rulers, and the only rulers in the New Testament Church.
It commands a view of the elevated coast of Asia Minor towards the north, and of the Archipelago, studded with its numerous islands, on the north-west; while on the south-west is seen Mount Ida in Crete, often veiled in clouds, and on the south and south-east the vast expanse of waters which wash the African shore.
The chief incidents of Rhodian history during this period are a memorable siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 304, who sought in vain to force the city into active alliance with King Antigonus by means of his formidable fleet and artillery; a severe earthquake in 227, the damages of which all the other Hellenistic states contributed to repair, because they could not afford to see the island ruined; some vigorous campaigns against Byzantium, the Pergamene and the Pontic kings, who had threatened the Black Sea trade-route (220 sqq.), and against the pirates of Crete.
During the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 Visconti Venosta labored to maintain the Europe-an concert, joined Great Britain in preserving Greece from the worst consequences of her folly, and lent moral and material aid in establishing an autonomous government in Crete.
In 1893 he began his investigations in Crete, which have resulted in discoveries of the utmost importance concerning the early history of Greece and the eastern Mediterranean (see 1.246, 7.421).
Elijah Delmedigo, of Crete (d.
In April 1897, it is true, when the Greeks provoked a war with Turkey, they received no support from St Petersburg, but at the close of the war the tsar showed himself more friendly to them; and afterwards, when it proved extremely difficult to find a suitable person as governor-general of Crete (see Crete), he recommended the appointment of his cousin, Prince George of Greece - a selection which was pretty sure to accelerate the union of the island with the Hellenic kingdom.
The recent exploration and excavation of early sites in Crete have entirely revolutionized our knowledge of its Early, remote past, and afforded the most astonishing E Middle evidence of the existence of a highly advanced and Late civilization going far back behind the historic period.
Explorations carried out by him in Crete from 1894 onwards, for the purpose of investigating the prehistoric civilization of the island, fully corroborated this belief, and showed that a linear as well as a semi-pictorial form of writing was diffused in the island at a very early period (" Cretan Pictographs and PraePhoenician Script," Journ.
Elsewhere at Cnossus, in the smaller palace to the west, the royal villa and the town houses, we find the evidence of a similar catastrophe followed by an imperfect recovery, and the phenomenon meets us again at Palaikastro and other early settlements in the east of Crete.
The mainland invasions which produced these great ethnic changes in Crete are marked archaeologically by signs of widespread destruction and by a considerable break in The dark the continuity of the insular civilization.
Much new material, especially as to the western provinces of Crete, has been recently collected by members of the Italian Archaeological Mission (Monumenti Antichi, vol.
On all this the recent archaeological discoveries (see the section on Archaeology) have thrown great light, but the earliest written history of Crete, like that of most parts of continental Greece, is mixed up with mythology and fable to so great an extent as to render it difficult to arrive at any clear conclusions concerning it.
At the same time they were so far from enjoying tranquillity on this account that the few notices we find of them in history always represent them as engaged in local wars among one another; and Polybius tells us that the history of Crete was one continued series of civil wars, which were carried on with a bitter animosity exceeding all that was known in the rest of Greece.
The government of Crete by the Venetian aristocracy was, like that of their other dependencies, very arbitrary and oppressive, and numerous insurrections were the consequence.
On the 25th of July the powers announced a series of reforms, including the reorganization of the gendarmerie and militia under Greek officers, as a preliminary to the eventual withdrawal of the international troops, and the extension to Crete of the system of financial control established in Greece.
Freese, A Short Popular History of Crete (London, 1897); Bickford-Smith, Cretan Sketches (London, 1897); Laroche, La Crete ancienne et moderne (Paris, 1898); Victor Berard, Les Affaires de Crete (Paris, 1898); Monuments Veneti dell' isola de Creta (published by the Venetian Institute), vol.
1869), from November 1898 to October 1906 high commissioner of the powers in Crete; Prince Nicholas (b.
The most representative site explored up to now is Cnossus (see Crete, sect.
These show two main systems of script (see Crete).
(2) Literary traditions of subsequent civilizations, especially the Hellenic, such as, e.g., those embodied in the Homeric poems, the legends concerning Crete, Mycenae, &c.; statements as to the origin of gods, cults and so forth, transmitted to us by Hellenic antiquarians such as Strabo, Pausanias, Diodorus Siculus, &c.
The Aegean script may be, and probably is, prior in origin to the "Asianic"; and it may equally well be owed to a remote common ancestor, or (the small number of common characters being considered) be an entirely independent evolution from representations of natural objects (see Crete).
See also CRETE, MYCENAE, TROAD, CERAMICS, PLATE, &C. (D.
It has also participated in the exploration of Cnossus and other important sites in Crete.
After having served with the army in Thrace and been quaestor in Crete and Cyrene, Vespasian rose to be aedile and praetor, having meanwhile married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman knight, by whom he had two sons, Titus and Domitian, afterwards emperors.
In December 1898, however, Crete was granted practical independence, under the protection of Great Britain, France, Italy and Russia (see Crete), and the suzerainty of the sultan is purely nominal.
This company has the absolute monopoly of the manufacture and of the purchase and sale of tobacco throughout the Ottoman Empire, with the exception of the Lebanon and Crete, but exportation remains free.
Expeditions against the Yemen and Cyprus were successful, but the loss of Cyprus, accompanied as it was by the barbarous murder of the Venetian commander, Marco Antonio Bragadino, by the seraskier pasha Mustafa's orders, in violation of the terms of the capitulation of Famagusta (August 1571), roused the bitter resentment of the Venetians, previously incensed by Turkish raids on Crete.
Though the foreign relations of Turkey remained untroubled, disturbances in Servia, Montenegro and Crete continued throughout the " sixties."
But Europe was determined that the Cretan question should be definitely settled, at least for a period of some years, and, after an outbreak at Candia, in which the lives of British troops were sacrificed, the four powers (Germany and Austria having withdrawn from the concert) who had taken over the island en depot handed it over in October 1898 to Prince George of Greece as high commissioner (see Crete: History).
The Ottoman troops in Arabia were mutinous and unpaid; the Albanians, long the mainstay of Turkish military power in the west, had been irritated by unpopular taxes and by the repressive edicts which deprived them of schools and a printing-press; foreign interference in Crete and Macedonia was resented by patriotic Moslems throughout the empire.
Evans and others in Crete, have shown that Hellenic culture was preceded in the Aegean by a civilization differing from it in many respects (see Aegean Civilization), and not least in costume.
Daedalus is mentioned as the maker of a dancing-place for Ariadne in Crete; and such a dancing-place has been discovered by A.
In Laconia Aristodemus (or his twin sons) effected a rigid military occupation which eventually embraced the whole district, and permitted (a) the colonization of Melos, Thera and parts of Crete (before 800 B.C.), (b) the reconquest and annexation of Messenia (about 750 B.C.), (c) a settlement of half-breed Spartans at Tarentum in south Italy, 700 B.C. In Argos and other cities of Argolis the descendants of the Achaean chiefs were taken into political partnership, but a tradition of race-feud lasted till historic times.
Archaeological evidence points clearly now to the conclusion that the splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or " late Minoan " period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than i soo B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as the " Achaean " age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia, Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this regime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks somewhat earlier than boo B.C. These latter events correspond in character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and their associates.
Gold ornaments of great variety and elaborate workmanship have been discovered on sites belonging to the earliest known civilizations, Minoan, Egyptian, Assyrian, Etruscan (see Jewelry, Plate, Egypt, Crete, Aegean Civilization, Numismatics), and in ancient literature gold is the universal symbol of the highest purity and value (cf.