I live by a certain creed, one that runs in our family.
This, then, was Ezekiel's political creed - destruction of Jerusalem and its inhabitants, restoration of the exiles, and meantime submission to Babylon.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
- At the last General Synod (1909) they repeated their old fundamental principle that "the Holy Scriptures are our only rule of faith and practice"; but at the same time they declared that their interpretation of Scripture agreed substantially with the Nicene Creed, the Westminster and Augsburg Confessions, and the Thirty-nine Articles.
Gregory is related to have added a clause to the creed which Aristaces brought back; he became a hermit on Mount Sebuh about the year 332, and died there.
In that year he became attorney-general and was returned by Edinburgh, for which he sat till 1841.2 His political creed declared upon the hustings there was that of a moderate Whig.
The Creed system is a development of the Morse-Wheatstone system, and provides a keyboard perforator which punches Morse letters or figures on a paper strip by depressing type writer keys.
The proposal to draw up a new creed was rejected.
In his relations with Moslems, Buddhists and even fetishists the Russian peasant looks rather to conduct than to creed, the latter being in his view simply a matter of nationality.
In its original sense the chief uses are such as "the quick and the dead," of the Apostles' Creed, a "quickset" hedge, i.e.
It is a proof of the dominating force of his father's character that it cost the younger Mill such an effort to shake off his stern creed about poetry and personal emotion.
They taught the Apostles' Creed, rejected Purgatory, the worship of saints and the authority of the Catholic Church, practised infant baptism and confirmation, held a view on the Sacrament similar to that of Zwingli, and, differing somewhat from Luther in their doctrine of justification by faith, declared that true faith was "to know God, to love Him, to do His commandments, and to submit to His will."
Invectivarum in Hieronymum Libri II; (4) Apologia pro Fide Sua ad Anastasium Pontificem; (5) Historia Eremitica - consisting of the lives of thirty-three monks of the Nitrian desert; 1 (6) Expositio Symboli, a commentary on the creed of Aquileia comparing it with that of Rome, which is valuable for its evidence as to church teaching in the 4th century.
great for anything like a universal spiritualistic creed to have been arrived at.
(399-420); that along with Isaac, patriarch of Seleucia (390-410), he obtained from the Persian monarch a concordat which secured a period of religious toleration; and that he arranged for and presided at the Council of Seleucia in 410, which adopted the full Nicene creed and organized the hierarchy of the Persian Church.
At Berlin, somewhat against his will, he was drawn into a controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in which the party antagonisms within the Prussian Church had found expression.
The newly discovered Hittite inscriptions have now thrown a welcome ray of light on the primitive Iranian creed (Ed.
Bishop Brooks taught me no special creed or dogma; but he impressed upon my mind two great ideas--the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and made me feel that these truths underlie all creeds and forms of worship.
It is not easy to state with certainty the doctrines of a body which (in England at least) has never demanded subscription to any creed, and whose views have undoubtedly undergone more or less definite changes.
Since Bishop Brooks died I have read the Bible through; also some philosophical works on religion, among them Swedenborg's "Heaven and Hell" and Drummond's "Ascent of Man," and I have found no creed or system more soul-satisfying than Bishop Brooks's creed of love.
But he favoured the introduction of Nestorianism, in opposition to the orthodox creed of Byzantium.
The Utraquist creed, frequently varying in its details, continued to be that of the established church of Bohemia till all non-Roman religious services were prohibited shortly after the battle of the White Mountain in 1620.
Before a similar mode of reasoning, all the other distinctive articles of the Romish creed "disappeared like a dream "; and " after a full conviction," on Christmas day, 1754, he received the sacrament in the church of Lausanne.
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
Yet he was a great king, the type and to some extent the victim of the confusions of his age - Christian in creed and ambition, but more than half oriental in his household.
This, according to the manner of speaking of that day, is the meaning of his words ante conversionem meam, though it is quite possible that he may at the same time have renounced the Arian creed of his forefathers, which it is clear that he no longer held when he wrote his Gothic history.
(h) It has been shown above how the animistic creed postulates the existence of all kinds of local spirits, which are sometimes tied to their habitats, sometimes free to wander.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.
" Catholic " and " Catholicism " thus again changed and narrowed their meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with " Romanist " and the creed and obedience of Rome.
It was considered a sufficient safeguard against the spiritualizing eschatology of Origen and his school to have rescued the main doctrines of the creed and the regula fidei (the visible advent of Christ; eternal misery and hell-fire for the wicked).
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
Only second in importance to this was the re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life.
Free for a time from foreign aggression, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favoured their creed; but, again paralysed by dissensions, soon returned to Bohemia.
The one is John of Tellä, author of 538 canons,' answers to questions by the priest Sergius, a creed and an exposition of the Trisagion.
The slips are passed through an ordinary Wheatstone transmitter and actuate Wheatstone receiving apparatus which in turn controls a " Creed receiving perforator."
To the student of ecclesiastical history it is remarkable as exhibiting a form of Christianity widely divergent from the prevalent types, being a religious fellowship which has no formulated creed demanding definite subscription, and no liturgy, priesthood or outward sacrament, and which gives to women an equal place with men in church organization.
The Brahma creed was definitively formulated as follows: - (1) The book of nature and intuition supplies the basis of religious faith.
The special character of Norman rule in Sicily was that all these various races flourished, each in its own fashion, each keeping its own creed, tongue and manners, under the protection of a common sovereign, who belonged to none of them, but who did impartial justice to all.
The creed is one; it is the interpretation that differs.
Royalists, from Syriac melcha, a king), the name given in the 5th century to those Christians who adhered to the creed supported by the authority of the Byzantine emperor.
Compared with other Mahommedan peoples, the Malays are not fanatical, though occasionally an outbreak against those of a different creed is glorified by them into a holy war.
The new creed, the new speech, the new social system, had taken such deep root that the descendants of the Scandinavian settlers were better fitted to be the armed missionaries of all these things than the neighbours from whom they had borrowed their new possessions.
This machine reproduces a copy of the original transmitting slip, which can be passed on to any other Wheatstone circuit or can be run through a " Creed printer," which is a pneumatic machine actuating a typewriter by means of valves.
The activity of his life left him little time for writing, but he was the author of " an anaphora, sundry letters, a creed or confession of faith, preserved in Arabic and a secondary Ethiopic translation, and a homily for the Feast of the Annunciation, also extant only in an Arabic translation" (Wright).
(4) Christ, when he was about to be baptized, did not recite the creed of the 318 fathers of Nice, therefore shall they not make profession of it.
Probably it would be impossible to unite spiritualists in any creed, which,, besides the generally accepted belief in God and immortality, should postulate more than the progress of the spirit after death, and the power of some of the dead to communicate with the living by means of mediums.
He invented a religious system founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of belief.
Leovigild himself was an Arian, being the last of the Visigothic kings to hold that creed; but he was not a bitter foe of the orthodox Christians, although he was obliged to punish them when they conspired against him with his external enemies.
There were enough inconsistencies in his creed to enable both sides in the recent controversies to claim him as one who if he were still alive would have supported their case in the altered circumstances; but, from the biographical point of view, these issues are hardly relevant.
But Clement always regards the articles of the Christian creed as the axioms of a new philosophy.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
A small community (about 130) in Bombay, known as the Prarthna (Prayer) Samaj, was founded in 1867 through Keshub Chunder's influence; they have a similar creed to that of the Brahma Samaj, but have broken less decisively with orthodox and ceremonial Hinduism.
In the east of Iran the novel creed first acquired a solid footing, and subsequently reacted with success upon the West.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
Orthodoxy is con- Modern formity to the recognized creed or standard of public doctrine; heresy is a wilful departure from it.
Both inculcated a peculiar kind of ascetic life; both had a mystical speculative theory of religion, with purificatory rites, abstinence from beans, &c.; but Orphism was more especially religious, while Pythagoreanism, at least originally, inclined more to be a political and philosophical creed.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
It is very odd that modern authors have considered this proclamation as inconsistent with the Zoroastrian creed.
In the Phoenician coast towns are many Greeks (to be distinguished from Orthodox Syrians, called also Greeks on account of creed).
The sages may be regarded as the beginners of a universal religion: they felt the need of permanent principles of life, and were able to set aside to some extent the local features of the current creed.
This difference was still further accentuated by strong divergence in religious creed.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
In 1823 he married the princess Elizabeth of Bavaria, who adopted the Lutheran creed.
The institutions adopted were to be as far as possible in accordance with the wishes of the people, but it was a fundamental condition " that there should not be in the eye of the law any distinction or disqualification whatever, founded on mere difference of colour, origin, language or creed."
consciousness of the differences involved and the issues at stake; and, thanks to the heretical conclusion disclosed by Roscellinus, Realism became established for several centuries as the orthodox philosophical creed.
He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted.
Perhaps the York rubric implies that this was done when it orders (which the others do not) the thurible to be carried round the choir with the Gospel while the Creed was being sung.
1045-1052) Nasir visited Mecca four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimite sultan Mostansir billah, the great champion of the Shia, and the spiritual as well as political head of the house of `Ali, which was just then waging a deadly war against the 'Abbaside caliph of Bagdad, and the great defender of the Sunnite creed, Toghrul Beg the Seljuk.
Creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, presented to the Nicene Council.
It was easy for agitators to persuade the sepoys that the new cartridges were greased with the fat of animals sacred to one creed or forbidden to another, and that the British government was thus engaged in a deep-laid plot for forcing them to become Christians by first making them outcasts from their own religions.
In 357 Constantius, at the urgent request of an influential deputation of Roman ladies, agreed to the release of Liberius on condition that he signed the semi-Arian creed.
On the 30th of March Lord John Russell moved a resolution in favour of an inquiry into the temporalities of the Irish Church, with the intention of applying the surplus to general education without distinction of religious creed.
Unfortunately, even he had not all the courage of his creed, and while he would paint a bird or a fish with perfect realism, he no more dared to trust his eyes in larger motives than did the most devout follower of ShUbun or Motonobu.
The "doctrines" of the New Church as given in the Liturgy (which also contains the "Creed" and "Articles of Faith") are as follows: I.
The Church in the Creed of Chalcedon in A.D.
the Roman Catholic Church," heresy was defined as "error which is voluntarily held in contradiction to a doctrine which has been clearly stated in the creed, and has become part of the defined faith of the church," and which is "persisted in by a member of the church."
Pilate's place in the Christian tragedy, and perhaps also in the Creed, stimulated legend about him in two directions, equally unhistorical.
(d) Sunnite Moslems are a weak element, strongest in Shuf and Kurah, and composed largely of Druse renegades and "Druse" families, which, like the Shehab, were of Arab extraction and never conformed to the creed of Hamza.
They are said to be descendants of Persian tribes; but the fact is very doubtful, and they may be at least as aboriginal as the Maronites, and a remnant of an old Incarnationist population which did not accept Christianity, and kept its heretical Islam free from those influences which modified Druse creed.
A subsidy treaty with the sea powers (April 1 9, 1 794) filled his coffers; but the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic (April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle and the new political creed of the Revolution.
Though they themselves trace their origin to seven Mahommedan tribes, Hindus appear to have been associated with them at an early period; at any rate, their religious creed and practices as stanch worshippers of Kali (Devi, Durga), the Hindu goddess of destruction, had certainly no flavour of Islam in them.
The influence of Epicureanism was wholly destructive to religion, but not perhaps very widespread: Stoicism became the creed of the educated classes and produced several attempts, notably those of Scaevola and Varro, at a reconciliation of philosophy and popular religion, in which it was maintained that the latter was in itself untrue, but a presentation of a higher truth suited to the capacity of the popular mind.
16 must be acknowledged to be of the nature of a creed: " He who was manifested in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of angels, preached among the nations, believed on in the world, received up in glory."
It justifies the expansion of the second article of the developed Christian creed from the standpoint of the earliest Christian tradition.
The creed of the Jew, to this day, is summed up in the well-remembered words, which have been ever on his lips, living or dying: " Hear, 0 Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord " (Deut.
The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans.
The Stoics, for example, were more successful in criticizing the current creed than in explaining the underlying truth which they recognized in polytheism.
The Apostles' Creed is the ancient baptismal creed, held in common both by East and West, in its final western form.
The Nicene Creed is the baptismal creed of an eastern church enlarged in order to combine theological interpretation with the facts of the historic faith.
The Athanasian Creed is an instruction designed to confute heresies which were current in the 5th century.
The majority of critics agree that the only trace of a formal creed in the New Testament is the simple confession of Jesus as the Lord, or the Son of God (Rom.
The creed in all its forms lies behind worship, which it preserves from idolatry, and behind ethics, to which it supplies a motive power which the pre-Christian system so manifestly lacked.
Whether the first creed of the primitive Church was of the simple Christological character which confession of Jesus as the Lord expresses, or of an enlarged type based on the baptismal formula (Matt.
r, 2, reconstructs a primitive Apostles' Creed of Antioch, the city from which St Paul started on his missionary journeys.
57, " I believe that Jesus is the Son of God," since the reading was known to Irenaeus, probably represents the form of baptismal confession used in some church of Asia Minor, and supplies us with the type of a primitive creed.
The following form which Seeberg gives as the creed of St Paul is an artificial combination of fragments of oral teaching, which naturally reappear in the teaching of St Peter, but finds no attestation in the later creeds of particular churches which would prove its claim to be their parent form: " The living God who created all things sent His Son Jesus Christ, born of the seed of David, who died for our sins according to the scriptures, and was buried, who was raised on the third day according to the scriptures, and appeared to Cephas and the XI I., who sat at the Der Katechismus der Urchristenheit, p. 85.
Zahn's reasoned argument stands in contrast to the blind reliance on tradition shown by Macdonald, The Symbol of the Apostles, and the fanciful reconstruction of the primitive creed by Baeumer, Harnack or Seeberg.
But Ignatius might seem to offer in the following passage some confirmation of Zahn's theory of a primitive creed of Antioch (Troll.
The differences, however, which divide this from the later creed forms are scarcely less noticeable than their agreement, and the evidence of the Ignatian epistles generally (Eph.
i.), while it confirms the conclusion that instruction was given in Antioch on all points characteristic of the developed creed, e.g.
While we may hope for eventual agreement on the history of the different types of creed forms, there can be no hope of agreement on the interpretation of the words Holy Spirit between Unitarian and Trinitarian critics.
Kattenbusch, with whom Harnack is in general agreement, regards the Old Roman Creed, which comes to light in the 4th century, as the parent of all developed forms, whether Eastern or Western.
Ussher's recognition of the fact that this profession of faith by Marcellus was the creed of Rome, not of Ancyra, is the starting-point of modern discussions of the history of the creeds.
Some sixty years later Rufinus, a priest of Aquileia, wrote a commentary on the creed of his native city and compared it with the Roman Creed.
It was as follows: Apostles' Creed.
This Old Roman Creed may be traced back in the writings of Bishops Felix and Dionysus (3rd century), and in the writings of Tertullian in the 2nd century.
Tertullian calls the creed the " token " which the African Church shares with the Roman (de Praescr.
Their creed became the passport by which Christians in strange cities could obtain admission to assemblies for worship and to common meals.
The passage quoted is obviously a condensed quotation of the Roman Creed, which reappears also in the following (de Virg.
He seems to have still held to the Roman creed interpreted in his own way.
It follows that the words " holy Church " were contained in the Roman Creed.'
1 While all critics agree in tracing back this form to the earliest years of the 2nd century, and regard it as the archetype of all similar Western creeds, there is great diversity of opinion on its relation to Eastern forms. Kattenbusch maintains that the Roman Creed reached Gaul and Africa in the course of the 2nd century, and perhaps all districts of the West that possessed Christian congregations, also the western end of Asia Minor possibly in connexion with Polycarp's visit to Rome A.D.
He concludes that the Roman Creed was accepted at Antioch after the fall of Paul of Samosata in A.D.
Thus Kunze reconstructs a creed of Antioch for the 3rd century, and argues that it is independent of the Roman Creed.
Creed of Antioch.
1 McGiffert, on the other hand, argues that the Roman Creed was composed to meet the errors of Marcion, p. 58 ff.
Revised Creed of Cyril of Jerusalem.
C. Creed of Antioch quoted by Cassian.
Creed of Antioch quoted in the Apostolic Constitutions.
Creed of Lucian the Martyr (Antioch).
Creed of Arius (Alexandria) .
Rose the third day, A, B, D, E (F omits " the third day " being a theological creed; the translation of C is uncertain).
He criticizes Harnack's theory that there existed in the East, that is, in Asia Minor, or in Asia Minor and Syria as far back as the beginning of the 2nd century, a Christological instruction (uiOmua) organically related to the second article of the Roman Creed, and formulas which taught that the " One God " was " Creator of heaven and earth," and referred to the holy prophetic spirit, and lasted on till they influenced the course of creed-development in the 4th century.
Barns, engaged specially in work upon the history of the creed of Cappadocia, points out the importance of the extraordinary influence of Firmilian of Caesarea in the affairs of the church of Antioch in the early part of the 3rd century.
He is led to argue that the creed of Antioch came rather from Cappadocia than Rome.
Whether his conclusion is justified or not, it helps to show how strongly the trend of contemporary research is setting against the theory of Kattenbusch that the Roman Creed when adopted at Antioch became the parent of all Eastern forms. It does not, however, militate against the possibility that the Roman Creed was carried from Rome to Asia Minor and to Palestine in the 2nd century.
Connolly's study of the early Syrian creed (Zeitschrift _fib, die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 1906, p. 202) deserves careful consideration.
His reconstruction of the creed of Aphraates is interesting in relation to the other traces of a Syriac creed form existing prior to the 4th century.
But there is always the possibility to be faced that Irenaeus drew his creed from Rome rather than Asia Minor.
Kattenbusch does not shrink from suggesting that he shows acquaintance with the Roman Creed, and that Justin Martyr also knew it, in which case all the so-called Eastern characteristics have been imprinted on the original Roman form, and are not derived from an Eastern archetype.
The plain fact is that the same facts were taught in Palestine, Asia Minor and Gaul, whether gathered up in a parallel creed form or not.
The contrast which Rufinus draws between the Roman Creed and others, both of the East and the West, is justified.
In comparison with them it was guarded more carefully from change) We have yet to inquire how it received the additions which distinguish the derived form now in use as the baptismal creed of all Western Christendom.
We find " suffered " in the creed of Milan, " descended into hell " in the creed of Aquileia, the Danubian lands and Syria; the words " God " and " almighty " were shortly added to clause 7 in the Spanish creed; " life everlasting " had stood from an early date in the African creed.
The creed of Niceta of Remesiana in Dacia proves that c. A.D.
This creed may be the form which Jerome mentions in one of his letters 17, n.
In the 6th century we find creed forms in use in Gaul which include them, but include also other variations distinguishing them from the form which we seek.
sent him instructions to use what seems to have been an official Roman order of Baptism, which would doubtless include a Roman form of creed.
Pirminius, who was far from being an original writer, made great use of a treatise by Martin of Braga, but substituted a Roman form of Renunciation, and refers to the Roman rite of Unction in a way which leads us to suppose that the form of creed which he substituted for Martin's form was also Roman.
Creed of Jerusalem, A.D.
The revised Jerusalem Creed was quoted by Epiphanius in his treatise The Anchored One, c. A.D.
We gather that it had already been introduced into Cyprus asabaptismal creed.
362 Cyril would find " a natural occasion for the revision of the public creed by the skilful insertion of some of the conciliar language, including the term which proclaimed the restoration of full communion with the champions of Nicaea, and other phrases and clauses adapted for impressing on the people positive truth."
The weak point in Hort's theory was the suggestion that the creed was brought before the council by Cyril in self justification.
451, and the revised Jerusalem Creed was quoted as " the faith of the 150 Fathers," that is, as confirmed in some way by the council of Constantinople, while at the time it was distinguished from " the faith of the 318 Fathers " of Nicaea.
One of the signatories of the Definition of Faith made at Chalcedon, in which both creeds were quoted in full, Kalemikus, bishop of Apamea in Bithynia, refers to the council of Constantinople as having been held at the ordination of the most pious Nektarius the bishop. Obviously there was some connexion in his mind between the creed and the ordination.
The reasons which brought the revised creed into prominence at Chalcedon are still obscure.
It is possible that Leo's letter to Flavian gave the impulse to put it forward because it contained a parallel to words which Leo quoted from the Old Roman Creed, " born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary," " crucified and buried," which do not occur in the first Nicene Creed.
If, as is probable, it was from the election of Nektarius the baptismal creed of Constantinople, we may even ask whether the pope did not refer to it when he wrote emphatically of the " common and indistinguishable confession " of all the faithful.
Kattenbusch supposes that Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, or his archdeacon Aetius, who read the creed at the 2nd session of the council, took up the idea that through its likeness to the Roman Creed it would be a useful weapon against Eutyches and others who were held to interpret the Nicene Creed in an Apollinarian sense.
Certainly it won its way to general acceptance in the East as the creed of the church of the imperial city; regarded as an improved recension of the Nicene Faith.
The history of the introduction of the creed into liturgies is still obscure.
King Reccared's council is usually credited with the introduction of the words " And the Son " into clause 9 of the creed.
Probably they were interpolated in the creed by mistake of copyists.
The Athanasian Creed, so called because in many MSS.
Until 1870 the standard work on the subject was Waterland's Critical History of the Athanasian Creed, first published in 1723.
and commentaries, and after a searching investigation concluded that the creed was written in Gaul between 420 and 430, probably by Hilary of Arles.
In 1870 the controversy on the use of the creed in the Book of Common Prayer led to fresh investigation of the MSS., and a theory known as the " Two-portion theory " was started by C. A.
3836, saec. viii., which quoted clauses 27-34, 36-40), seemed to him to represent the component parts of the creed as they existed separately.
This theory, however, depended upon unverified assumptions, such as the supposed silence of theologians about the creed at the beginning of the 9th century; the suggestion that the completed creed would have been useful to them if they had known it as a weapon against the heresy of Adoptianism; the assertion that no MS. containing the complete text was of earlier date than c. 813.
of the 8th century do exist which contain the complete creed.
Ommanney, who was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them, and thus supplied independent testimony to the fact that the creed was becoming fairly widely known at the end of the 8th century.
But the phrases of the creed seem to have needed sharpening 1 The first person who doubted the authorship seems to have been Joachim Camerarius, 1551, who was so fiercely attacked in consequence that he omitted the passage from his Latin edition.
It is more probable that Leidrad was interested in the growing use of the creed as a canticle, and was consulted in the preparation of the famous Golden Psalter, now at Vienna, which contains the same collection of documents as an introduction.
The council also quoted phrases from the so-called Creed of Damasus, a document of the 4th century, which in some cases they preferred to the phrases of the Quicumque.
Their quotations form a connecting link in the chain of evidence by which the use of the creed may be traced back to the writings of Caesarius, bishop of Arles (503-543).
1901) that Caesarius used the creed continually as a sort of elementary catechism.
Further, Caesarius was in the habit of putting some words of a distinguished writer at the head of his compositions, which would account for the fact that the name of Athanasius was subsequently attached to the creed.
Moreover, the creed is quoted by his rival Avitus, bishop of Vienne 490-523, who quotes clause 22, as from the Rule of Catholic Faith, but was not likely to value a composition of Caesarius so highly.
Morin does not deal fully with the arguments from internal evidence which point back to the beginning of the 5th century as the date of the creed.
He suggests further that the Creed of Damasus was the reply of that pope to Priscillian's appeal.
There are phrases in the writings of Vincentius of Lerins and of Faustus, bishop of Riez, which are parallel to the teaching of the creed, though they cannot with any confidence be called quotations.
The earliest use of the Quicumque was in sermons, in which the clauses were quoted, as by the council of Toledo without reference to the creed as a whole.
In 1662 the rubric was altered and it was substituted for the Apostles' Creed.
On the other hand the creed is a valuable statement of Catholic faith on the Trinity and the Incarnation, and its use for students and teachers at least is by no means obsolete.
As has been well said by a learned Baptist theologian, Dr Green: " It was by a true divine instinct that the early theologians made Christ Himself, in His divine-human personality, their centre of the creeds."' The fundamental questions of Christianity, exhibited in theApostles' Creed, should be marked In response to an invitation issued by the archbishop of Canterbury, acting on a resolution of the Lambeth Conference of 1908, a committee of eminent scholars met in April and May 1909 for the purpose of preparing a new translation.
The general effect of the new version is to make the creed more comprehensible, e.g.
The Christian Creed and the Greeds of Christendom, p. 181.
The Eastern Church has no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to time synods have approved exposi (without the words And the Son "), and the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.
In 1629 he tions of the faith such as the Athanasian Creed published a confession in which he attempted to incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of Eastern traditional theology.
- For our present purpose the distinctive features of Roman Catholicism may be said to be summed up in the decrees of the council of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius IV.
articles, usually called the Creed of Pius IV., which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, and dealt with the preservation of the apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures " according to the sense which our Holy Mother Church has held," the seven sacraments, the offering of the mass, transubstantiation, purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics, images, the efficacy of indulgences, the supremacy of the Roman Church and of the bishop of Rome as vicar of Christ.
The very intensity of that phase of modern thought which declaims fervently against all creeds, and would maintain what George Eliot called " the right of the individual to general haziness," is likely to draw all Christian thinkers nearer to one another in sympathy through acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the common basis of Christian thought.
So the Nicene Creed is the analysis of the river of the water of life of which the Sermon on the Mount is a description, flowing on from age to age, freely offered to the thirsty souls of men.
Pearson, Exposition of the Creed (new ed., 1849); A.
Swete, The Apostles' Creed (1899); F.
Swainson, The Nicene and Apostles' Creed (1875); G.
Ommanney, The Athanasian Creed (1897); B.
Jayne, The Athanasian Creed (1905); J.
Robinson, The Athanasian Creed (1905); E.
Green, The Christian Creed (1898); P. Hall, Harmony of Protestant Confessions (London, 1842); F.
Goodwin, The Foundations of the Creed (London, 1889); T.
C. McGiffert, The Apostles' Creed (Edinburgh, 1902); and F.
The predisposing cause in each case was the desire to be free from the "bondage of creed."
In 1907 he published The Creed of a Layman, Apologia pro fide mea, in explanation of his religious position.
The articles of Shaftesbury's religious creed were few and simple, but these he entertained with a conviction amounting to enthusiasm.
Ritter,' Vieta was brought up as a Catholic, and died in the same creed; but there can be no doubt that he belonged to the Huguenots for several years.
His creed, and the whole gist of his argument, is expressed in a single sentence, "I am fully assured that God does not, and therefore that men ought not to, require any more of any man than this, to believe the Scripture to be God's word, and to endeavour to find the true sense of it, and to live according to it."
He had considerable knowledge of theology, took a prominent part in the theological controversies of the time, and was responsible for the addition of the clause filioque to the Nicene Creed.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
fixed in the earliest creed and protected by the determination of the canon of the New Testament.
5th centuries in their, discourses often make a point of not citing the creed or describing the Eucharist; they stop short and ejaculate such remarks as 'oa6cv of irco-roi, norunt fideles (" the faithful know it ").
But in that case how can the creed and ritual of baptism, the Lord's Prayer and the Eucharistic formulae, have been kept secret?
1457) showed the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence to the Apostles' Creed.
Four years later the Thirty-nine Articles imposed an official creed upon the English nation.
" The Socinian creed sprang from intellectual rather than religious motives.
Jones, Idealism as a Practical Creed (1909).
When the Lambeth articles put forward as a basis of union were discussed, it was evident that all the free churches were agreed in accepting the three articles dealing with the Bible, the Creed and the Sacraments as a basis of discussion, and were also agreed in rejecting the fourth article, which put the historic episcopate on the same level as the other three.
The Lesser Doxology, or Gloria Patri, combines the character of a creed with that of a hymn.
Certainly the stage of development is an early one, as is shown, e.g., by the prominence of prophets, and the need that was felt for the vindication of the position of the bishops and deacons (there is no mention at all of presbyters); moreover, there is no reference to a canon of Scripture (though the written Gospel is expressly mentioned) or to a creed.
of importance is the division of the creed into twelve articles corresponding to the number of the apostles, who, according to a.
410) On the Apostles' Creed, composed that formula by contributing each a single sentence.
On the other hand The division is found applied also to the " Nicene-Constantinopolitan " creed, both in East and West.
Sometimes fourteen articles are detected (in either creed), 7+7; the sacred number twice over.'
the 17th-century creed of Bishop Mogilas adopted by the whole Greek Church.
This creed formulates its relation to Scripture over and over, as the one regula by which all dogmata are to be tried.
7 Early Protestantism lived too much in the thought of justification to mark out the boundaries of creed with this scholastic precision.
Later (1883) a large committee, previously appointed, framed a more full confession of faith (the " Commission Creed,"), with the same end in view.
Personal rivalry and creed became subordinate to political principles.
event of a change of creed.
Thus Ultramontanism is not to be conceived as a theological movement, but as the programme of a party whose principles are in fundamental opposition to modern culture, modern education, modern tolerance and the modern state - a party which seeks to carry out its campaign against the society of to-day, not by bridging the gulf betwixt creed and creed, but by widening it, by awakening religious fanaticism, and by closing the way to a peaceful co-operation of Catholics and non-Catholics in the highest tasks of culture and human civilization.
In religion Rousseau was undoubtedly what he has been called above - a sentimental deist; but no one who reads him with the smallest attention can fail to see that sentimentalism was the essence, deism the accident of his creed.
Thus the Apostles' Creed, " I believe in the forgiveness of sins "; the Nicene Creed, " I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ.
I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins "; the Athanasian Creed, " Who (Christ) suffered for our salvation."
At this period a civilization, largely of Hindu origin, had flourished and decayed in Java, where, as in all the more important islands, Mahommedanism had afterwards become the dominant creed.
The commotion which had been thus raised did not so easily subside in the more eastern section of the church; the Antiochenes continued to maintain for a considerable time an attitude of antagonism towards Cyril and his creed, and were not pacified until an understanding was reached in 433 on the basis of a new formula involving some material conce9sions by him.
It must be remembered that Nestorius was as orthodox at all events as Athanasius on the subject of the incarnation, and sincerely, even fanatically, held every article of the Nicene creed.
Out of this grew up in the 3rd or 4th century what is known as the arcani disciplina, or secret discipline of the Church, involving the concealment from the uninitiated and unholy of the more sacred parts of the Christian cult, such as baptism and the eucharist, with their various accompaniments, including the Creed and the Lord's Prayer.
At the council of Nicaea in 325 the deity of Christ received official sanction and was given formulation in the original Nicene Creed.
This found expression in the formulation of an apostolic scripture canon, our New Testament, and of an apostolic rule of faith, of which the old Roman symbol, the original of our present Apostles' Creed, is one of the earliest examples.
After the termination of the monothelite controversy (638-680), creed and doctrines were complete; it was only necessary to preserve them intact.
Creed and dogma, above all, remained unchanged.
The tendencies which they represented had been present when the middle ages were yet at their height; but the papacy, while at the zenith of its power, had succeeded in crushing the attacks made upon the creed of the Church by its most dangerous foes, the dualistic Cathari.
They were taught the creed and the Lord's Prayer, examined therein, and exorcized prior to baptism.
Three belong to the Early Christian church - the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed (in its Western form, i.e.
with the filioque), and the so-called Athanasian Creed; six come from the 16th century - the Augsburg Confession, the Apology for the Augsburg Confession, the Schmalkald Articles, Luther's two Catechisms, and the Form of Concord.
The General Synod of the Evangelical Church of the United States, organized in 1820, has no other creed than the Augsburg Confession, so liberally interpreted as not to exclude Calvinists.
A liberal and a corrservative theology (rationalist and orthodox) exist side by side within the churches, and while the latter clings to the theology of the 16th century, the former ventures to raise doubts about the truth of such a common and simple standard as the Apostles' Creed.
His invasion gave a decided check to the progress of the Mahommedan creed, but on his death, and during the rule of the Jagatai Khans, who became converts to that faith, it began to reassert its ascendancy.
Much of Holbach's fame is due to his intimate connexion with the brilliant coterie of bold thinkers and polished wits whose creed, the new philosophy, is concentrated in the famous Encyclopedie.
Their continued existence as a pariah class after the Exile would be a perpetual reminder of the dangers and degradation of the most popular Syrian creed.
The socialism of this body was not, however, advanced enough for his views, and after studying the programme of the, more violent Jura Federation at Neuchatel and spending some time in the company of the leading members, he definitely adopted the creed of anarchism and, on returning to Russia, took an active part in spreading the nihilist propaganda.
It is probably true to say that no other primitive Christian writing has had so marked an effect on all later attempts to systematize the Christian creed.
At an early date in the 2nd century this demand was met by the composition of the oldest form of what we call the Apostles' Creed.
But the Creed was but the condensed essence of the New Testament scriptures, and behind it there lay an appeal to these scriptures, which was especially necessary where (as in the case of the Valentinian Gnostics) the dissident bodies professed to accept the common belief of Christians.
Its aim is to instruct, and it differs from a creed or confession in not being in the first instance an act of worship or a public profession of belief.
the Creed, (b) Hope, i.e.
In 1520 he had brought out a primer of religion dealing briefly with the Decalogue, the Creed and the Lord's Prayer; and Justus Jonas, Johannes Agricola and other leaders had done something of the same kind.
Dufour was published in 1878), and explained the Decalogue, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Sacraments.
It has two parts: (i.) the baptismal covenant, the Creed, the Decalogue and the Lord's.
In the main they are expositions of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Decalogue, and thus follow a tradition that has come down from the days when Cyril of Jerusalem delivered his catechetical Lectures.
Even when (as in the Shorter Westminster Catechism and the School Catechism) the Creed is simply printed as an appendix, or where (as in the Free Church Catechism) it is not mentioned at all, its substance is dealt with.
Under these heads it discusses respectively the sin and misery of men, the redemption wrought by Christ (here are included the Creed and the Sacraments), and the grateful service of the new life (the Decalogue).
followed by the usual eleven canticles and the Athanasian Creed.
In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who, to punish the inhabitants for their creed (Sunnite Mahommedanism), built a new town under the same name about 16 m.
On Sundays the Athanasian Creed is said at prime.
Among hospitals those of special general interest are the Steevens, the oldest in the city, founded under the will of Dr Richard Steevens in 1720; the Mater Misericordiae (1861),which includes a laboratory and museum, and is managed by the Sisters of Mercy, but relieves sufferers independently of their creed; the Rotunda lying-in hospital (1756); the Royal hospital for incurables, Donnybrook, which was founded in 1744 by the Dublin Musical Society; and the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear hospital, Adelaide Road, which amalgamated (1904) two similar institutions.
The decree for the Armenians was published on the 2 2nd of November 1 439; they accepted the filioque and the Athanasian creed, rejected Monophysitism and Monothelitism, agreed to the developed scholastic doctrine concerning the seven sacraments, and conformed their calendar to the Western in certain points.
The prevailing form of religion is the Roman Catholic, but the state recognizes no distinction of creed.
A population largely Roman Catholic in creed, and partly French in origin and language, feared that an influx of new settlers would overthrow cherished traditions.
The De spectaculis and De idololatria show that Tertullian was already in a certain sense a Montanist before he formally went over to that creed; on the other hand, his De poenitentia proves that his earlier views on church discipline were much more tolerant than his later.
His little edition of the Paragraph Psalter (1879), arranged for the use of choirs, and his admirable lectures on the Apostles' Creed, entitled Historic Faith (1883), are reminiscences of his vacations spent at Peterborough.
Some of the chief points of difference between this and subsequent Prayer Books were the following: Matins and Evensong began with the Lord's Prayer, and ended with the third collect; there were no alternative Psalm-canticles for Benedictus, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis; the Athanasian Creed was introduced after the Benedictus on six festivals only, and in addition to the Apostles' Creed; the Litany was placed after the Communion service, for which an alternative title was given, viz.: " commonly called the Mass."
The struggle against Gnosticism, which had been going on during the middle part of the century, had compelled the Church both to define her creed and to draw a sharper line of demarcation than heretofore between those writings whose authority she regarded as absolute and all others.
In the Utopia, which, though written earlier, More had allowed to be printed as late as 1516, he had spoken against the vices of power, and declared for indifference of religious creed with a breadth of philosophical view of which there is no other example in any Englishman of that age.
Later, the Variata of 1540 became the creed of the lVlelanchthonians and even of the Crypto-calvinists; so the framers of the Formula of Concord, promulgated in 1580, returned to the text handed in at the Diet.
It may have been he who, as a "presbyter christiani ritus," conducted negotiations with Valens before the battle of Adrianople; but that he headed a previous embassy asking for leave for the Visigoths to settle on Roman soil, and that he then, for political motives, professed himself a convert to the Arian creed, favoured by the emperor, and drew with him the whole body of his countrymen - these and other similar stories of the orthodox church historians appear to be without foundation.
He appears to have joined the Homoean party, which took shape and acquired influence before the council of Constantinople in 360, where he adhered with the rest of the council to the creed of Ariminum, with the addendum that in future the terms inroTTao-cs and oucla should be excluded from Christological definitions.
Arius and the two bishops of Marmarica Ptolemais, who refused to subscribe the creed, were excommunicated and banished to Illyria, and even Eusebius of Nicomedia, who accepted the creed, but not its anathemas, was exiled to Gaul.
They sent a copy of their old creed to Babken, and it closely resembles the Adoptianist creed of Archelaus, the gist of which was that Jesus, until his thirtieth year, was a man mortal like other men; then, because he was righteous above all others, he was promoted to the honour and name of Son of God.
In twentieth year of catholicate of Gregory and thirtyseventh of Trdat, the king, on return of Aristaces from council of Nice, bringing the Nicene creed and canons.
The true (Nicene) faith was sent to the Armenians of the farther East (shortly afterwards a slightly different creed was adopted, identical with a pseudo-Athanasian symbol used by Evagrius of Pontus and given in Greek in Patr.
Rationalism within the Christian Church differs, however, from that which is commonly understood by the term, inasmuch as it accepts as revealed the fundamental facts of its creed.
From 1880 to 1882 he was secretary for war, a post he accepted somewhat unwillingly; and in that position he had to bear the responsibility for the reforms which were introduced into the war office under the parsimonious conditions which were then part of the Liberal creed.
Principal works: A Short Explanation of the Nicene Creed (1852); An Explanation of the Thirty-nine Articles (2 vols., 1867 and 1868); Commentary on the Seven Penitential Psalms (1847); Commentary on the Canticles (1853).
His object was to reconcile his religious with his philosophical creed, and to remain a Christian without ceasing to be an academician.
After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than control.
She assented, not only to the undisturbed maintenance of the new creed, but even to a scheme for the endowment of the Protestant ministry out of the confiscated lands of the Church.
Hitherto, according to all evidence, she had shown herself on all occasions, as on all subsequent occasions she indisputably showed herself, the most fearless, the most keen-sighted, the most ready-witted, the most high-gifted and high-spirited of women; gallant and generous, skilful and practical, never to be cowed by fortune, never to be cajoled by craft; neither more unselfish in her ends nor more unscrupulous in her practice than might have been expected from her training and her creed.
Mary Stuart was in many respects the creature of her age, of her creed, and of her station; but the noblest and most noteworthy qualities of her nature were independent of rank, opinion or time.
Of repentance it would seem that she knew as little as of fear, having been trained from her infancy in a religion where the Decalogue was supplanted by the Creed.
For her own freedom of will and of way, of passion and of action, she cared much; for her creed she cared something; for her country she cared less than nothing.
The question whether Stevinus, like most of the rest of the prince's followers, belonged to the Protestant creed hardly admits of a categorical answer.
The doctrine on which its argument is based is that no dogmatic creed can be regarded as final, but that every historical religion had its share in the development of the spiritual life of mankind.
Macdonald's Muslim Theology (London, 1903), especially the creed of Ash`ari in Appendix iii.
The grant to other cults amounted to 118,000 francs, but small as this sum may appear it is in due proportion to the relative numbers of each creed.
Bancroft's historical creed is best set forth in the address he delivered on the semi-centennial of the New York Historical Society in 1854.
He was a broad churchman, who held what would be called a liberal theology, but the Church, its organization, its creed, its dogma, had ever an increasing hold upon him.
Although at one period he certainly shrank from reciting the Athanasian Creed in church, he was towards the close of his life found ready to join an association for the defence of this formulary.
385-408), he aimed at showing that, since the High Court of Commission had been put down, there remained no court of heresy at all to which he was amenable, and that even when it stood nothing was to be declared heresy but what was at variance with the Nicene Creed, as he maintained the doctrine of Leviathan was not.
It does not appear that up to this time the Pascal family had been contemners of religion, but they now eagerly embraced the creed, or at least the attitude of Jansenism, and Pascal himself showed his zeal by informing against the supposed unorthodoxy of a Capuchin, the Pere Saint-Ange.
The dogmas of Epicurus became to his followers a creed embodying the truths on which salvation depended; and they passed on from one generation to another with scarcely a change or addition.
In all the remaining territory the Roman Catholic creed is professed only in the Eichsfeld on the southern border of the province of Hanover and around Hildesheim.
The ecclesiastical 94 1,605 administration is similarly regulated in the 27 166 other countries of the Protestant creed.
The king of WUrttemberg, ever the champion of German particularism, gave expression to his feelings by issuing a new constitution to his kingdom, and appealed to his relative, the emperor Alexander, who had not yet been won over by Metternich to the policy of war ii outrance against reform, and took this occasion to issue a fresh manifesto of his Liberal creed.
Two positions on which he repeatedly insisted have taken a firm hold - first, that it is of the essence of a church to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies, and that a national church especially should seek to represent all the elements of the life of the nation; secondly, that subscription to a creed can bind no one to all its details, but only to the sum and substance, or the spirit, of the symbol.
The "Appeal of the Independent Democrats in Congress to the People of the United States," written by Chase and Giddings, and published in the New York Times of the 24th of January 1854, may be regarded as the earliest draft of the Republican party creed.
Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
His admiral George of Antioch, Greek by birth and creed, warred to settle alongside of them, all of whom were Latin as far as their official speech was concerned.
They had been converted to Mahommedanism in the early times of the Arab conquest, but their knowledge of Islam did not go much beyond the formula of the creed - "there is no god but God, and Mahomet is the apostle of God," - and they were ignorant of the law.
There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a rigid formalism and strict obedience to the letter of the Koran and the orthodox tradition or Sunna.
This passage contains striking correspondences with the second section of the Apostles' Creed.
The Mahommedans are Sunnites, professing the creed commonly termed orthodox, and are principally of the persuasion of the Shafiis, whose celebrated founder, the imam ash-Shafii, is buried in the great southern cemetery of Cairo.
Egyptians, however, are as a rule suspicious of all not of their own creed and country.
But precisely the example of Ammon proves the hopelessness of any attempt to change .the time-honored religious creed; his priests identified him with the sun-god Re, whose cult-centre was thus merely transferred a few hundred miles to the South.
Ultimately the new religion spread to the Egyptians; their own creed was worn out, and they found in Christianity a doctrine of the future life for which their old belief had made them not unready; while the social teaching of Christianity came with special fitness to a subject race.
One of Justinian's first public acts was to put an end to this schism by inducing Justin to make the then patriarch renounce this formula and declare his full adhesion to the creed of Chalcedon.
Even when English churchmen passed beyond the seas, they carried with them their creed, but not their ecclesiastical organization.
Studying the writings of Karl Marx he became a convert to an extreme revolutionary, socialistic and atheistic creed; but though he entered into correspondence with Marx, with the object of starting a revolutionary movement, he does not appear to have taken any overt part in the events of 1848-1849.
In the wild and mountainous interior, however, the Byzantine Church had few or no rivals and the Orthodox creed prevailed.
More than half the Albanian nation and 35% of the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the creed of the conquering race.
Atheism seemed",for a time to be the only alternative to his old creed.
He was, as he called himself, a " mystic "; and his creed was too vague to be put into any formula beyond a condemnation of atheism.
Meanwhile the many noble and dissatisfied pensioners of England adopted Protestantism, which also made its way among the barons, burgesses and clergy, so that, for political reasons, James at last could not but be hostile to the new creed; he bequeathed this anti-protestantism, with the French alliance, through his wife, Mary of Guise, and the influence of the house of Lorraine, to his unhappy daughter, Mary Stuart.
How the Catholics of the west highlands took the change of creed we do not know, but they were not fanatically devout and attempted no Pilgrimage of Grace.
Their king over the water had, in a manly and magnanimous letter to his adherents, refused to change his creed, and when Bolingbroke fled from England his evangelical efforts at proselytizing James were fruitless.
Still stronger was the feeling caused by his efforts to make the recital of the Athanasian Creed optional instead of imperative in the Anglican Church.
At the same time he was in favour of making the creed of the Church as wide as possible - " not narrower than that which is even now the test of its membership, the Apostles' Creed " - and of throwing down all barriers which could be wisely dispensed with to admission to its ministry.
This belief - the transmigration of the soul, after the death of the body, into other bodies, either of men, beasts or gods - is part of the animistic creed so widely found throughout the world that it was probably universal.
Among his other publications are: A Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew (1888); a translation (with introduction and notes) of Eusebius's Church History (1890); and The Apostles' Creed (1902), in which he attempted to prove that the old Roman creed was formulated as a protest against the dualism of Marcion and his denial of the reality of Jesus's life on earth.
His middle way attempts to show that the dogmatic creed is the rational development of what was implicit in religious feeling.
Martin Luther and thousands of children like him were trained at home to know the creed, the ten commandments, the Lord's prayer, and such simple hymns as Ein Kindelein so lobelich, Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist and Crist ist erstanden; and they were taught to believe that God for Christ's sake freely pardons sin.
Though a strict adherent of the creed of Rome, he was a Liberal, nay a Radical, as regards measures for the vindication of human liberty, and he sincerely advocated the rights of conscience, the emancipation of the slave and freedom of trade.
His administration ended the possibility, probability or certainty - measure it as one will - of the development of Federalism in the direction of class government; and the party he formed, inspired by the creed he gave it, fixed the democratic future of the nation.
When the Bourbons were restored, his hatred against Napoleon led him to become a Legitimist - a conclusion which says more for the simplicity of his character than for the strength or logic of his political creed.
Berber is the real language of Morocco, Arabic that of its creed and government.
Here the younger boys are collected and instructed in the rudiments of reading, writing and religious creed by the village mullah, or priest, who thereby acquires an early influence over the Afghan mind.
In India its influence has survived its separate existence: it supplied a basis upon which Brahmanism finally developed from the creed of a caste into the religion of the people.
We must, in short, resign ourselves to whatever fate and fortune bring to us, believing, as the first article of our creed, that there is a god, whose thought directs the universe, and that not merely in our acts, but even in our thoughts and plans, we cannot escape his eye.
But in 1890 a great stir was created by the publication, under his editorship, of Lux Mundi, a series of essays by different writers, being an attempt "to succour a distressed faith by endeavouring to bring the Christian Creed into its right relation to the modern growth of knowledge, scientific, historic, critical; and to modern problems of politics and ethics."
Dr Gore's works include The Incarnation (Bampton Lectures, 1891), The Creed of the Christian (1895), The Body of Christ (1901), The New Theology and the Old Religion (1908), and expositions of The Sermon on the Mount (1896), Ephesians (1898), and Romans (1899), while in 1910 he published Orders and Unity.
Throughout the sentence the prisoner has the advantage of religious and moral instruction; he attends divine service regularly, and whatever his creed is visited by a chaplain professing it, and receives educational assistance according to his needs.
They changed their creed merely to acquire the rights and privileges of Moslem citizens.
It was because the aftermath of Newtonian science was so rich that the scientific faith of naturalism was able to retain a place besides its epistemological creed that a logician of the school could arise whose spirit was in some sort Baconian, but who, unlike Bacon, had entered the modern world, and faced the problems stated for it by Hume and by Newton.
In addition to lives of his father (1862), Professor Robert Lee (1870) and William Carstares (1876), he published a devotional book Christ the Consoler; a volume of sermons, Creed and Conduct (1878); The Apostolic Ministry in the Scottish Church (Baird Lecture, 1897), and several pamphlets on church questions.
But it was decided by the High Court, after prolonged argument, that, though the creed of Zoroaster theoretically admitted proselytes, their admission was not consistent with the practice of the Parsees in India.
As in philosophy, so now in theology, the easiest solution of the problem was the denial of one of its factors: and successively these efforts were made, until a solution was found in the doctrine of the Trinity, which satisfied both terms of the equation and became the fundamental creed of the church.
The relation of cult to creed is still undetermined.
So unpurposed does cult grow up that it combines many elements of diverse origin, and is seldom precisely and wholly in accordance with the creed.
With characteristic oriental conservatism it claims the title of " Orthodox," and retains the creed and organization of the early Church.
Moreover, many failed to find the expression of their faith in the official creed or in the established organization, and Protestantism divided into many sects and denominations, founded upon special types of religious experience or upon particular points in doctrine or in cult.
Roman Catholicism is the prevailing creed, but all religions are tolerated, and none receives any endowment or other special privilege from the state.
But, though in 1680 he published his Unreasonableness of Separation, his willingness to serve on the ecclesiastical commission of 1689, and the interpretation he then proposed of the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian creed, are proof that to the end he leaned towards toleration.
Thus, so far from sectarianism being a mere modern development of Brahmanism, it actually goes back to beyond the formulation of the Brahmanical creed.
Under more favourable political conditions, the sacerdotal class might perhaps, in course of time, have succeeded in imposing something like an effective common creed on the heterogeneous medley of races and tribes scattered over the peninsula, just as they certainly did succeed in establishing the social prerogative of their own order over the length and breadth of India.
Though this doctrine is especially insisted upon in Buddhism, and its designation as a specific term (Pali, Kamma) may be due to that creed, the notion itself was doubtless already prevalent in pre-Buddhist times.
In their theory of a triple manifestation of an impersonal deity, the Brahmanical theologians, as we have seen, had indeed elaborated a doctrine which might have seemed to form a reasonable, authoritative creed for logy.
a community already strongly imbued with pantheistic notions; yet, at best, that creed could only appeal to the sympathies of a comparatively limited portion of the people.
In the midst of these conflicting tendencies, an attempt was made, about the latter part of the 8th century, by the distinguished Malabar theologian and philosopher Sankara Acharya to restore the Brahmanical creed to ?'
In northern India, the professed followers of Sankara are mainly limited to certain classes of mendicants and ascetics, although the tenets of this great Vedanta teacher may be said virtually to constitute the creed of intelligent Brahmans generally.
The first successful Vaishnava reaction against Sankara's reconstructed creed was led by Ramanuja, a southern Brahman of the 12th century.
Ramanuja's doctrine, which is especially directed against the Linga-worship, is essentially based on the tenets of an old Vaishnava sect, the Bhagavatas or Pancharatras, who worshipped the Supreme Being under the name of Vasudeva (subsequently identified with Krishna, as the son of Vasudeva, who indeed is credited by some scholars with the foundation of that monotheistic creed).
Followers of the Madh y a creed are but rarely met with in Upper India.
The distinctive features of their creed consist in their making Rama and Sita, either singly or conjointly, the chief objects of their adoration, instead of Vishnu and Lakshmi, and their attaching little or no importance to the observance of privacy in the cooking and eating of their food.
His followers, the Kabir Panthis (" those following Kabir's path "), though neither worshipping the gods of the pantheon, nor observing the rites and ceremonial of the Hindus, are nevertheless in close touch with the Vaishnava sects, especially the Ramavats, and generally worship Rama as the supreme deity, when they do not rather address their homage, in hymns and otherwise, to the founder of their creed himself.
The peculiar conciliatory tendencies of Kabir were carried on with even greater zeal from the latter part of the 15th century by one of his followers, Nanak Shah, the promulgator of the creed of the Nanak Shahis or Sikhs - i.e.
Of Ramananda's disciples and successors several others, besides Kabir, have established schismatic divisions of their own, which do not, however, offer any very marked differences of creed.
The followers of this creed wear no distinctive sectarial mark or badge, except a skull-cap; nor do they worship any visible image of any deity, the repetition (japa) of the name of Rama being the only kind of adoration practised by them.
Vishnu) continues to be the chief centre of worship for adherents of this creed; whilst seven other images, transferred from Mathura at the same time, are located at different places in Rajputana.
The followers of his creed, amongst whom there are many wealthy merchants and bankers, direct their worship chiefly to Gopal Lal, the boyish Krishna of Vrindavana, whose image is sedulously attended like a revered living person eight times a day - from its early rising from its couch up to its retiring to repose at night.
A modern offshoot of Vallabha's creed, formed with the avowed object of purging it of its objectionable features, was started, in the early years of the 19th century, by Sahajananda, a Brahman of the Oudh country, who subsequently assumed the name of Svami Narayana.
Whilst in Chaitanya's creed, Krishna, in his relations to Radha, remains at least theoretically the chief partner, an almost inevitable step was taken by some minor sects in attaching the greater importance to the female element, and making Krishna's love for his mistress the guiding sentiment of their faith.
To a certain extent this is indeed the case; but though Vaishnavism, and especially the Krishna creed, with its luxuriant growth of erotic legends, might have seemed peculiarly favourable to a development in this direction, it is practically only in connexion with the Saiva system that an independent cult of the female principle has been developed; whilst in other sects - and, indeed, in the ordinary Saiva cult as well - such worship, even where it is at all prominent, is combined with, and subordinated to, that of the male principle.
What has made this cult attach itself more especially to the Saiva creed is doubtless the character of Siva as the type of reproductive power, in addition to his function as destroyer which, as we shall see, is likewise reflected in some of the forms of his Sakti.
In these works, almost invariably composed in the form of a colloquy, Siva, as a rule, in answer to questions asked by his consort Parvati, unfolds the mysteries of this occult creed.
In religion he was at first a Mussulman, but the intolerant exclusiveness of that creed was quite foreign to his character.
As the result of these inquiries, he adopted the creed of pure deism and a ritual based upon the system of Zoroaster.
For several years Whiston continued to write and preach both on mathematical and theological subjects with considerable success; but his study of the Apostolical Constitutions had convinced him that Arianism was the creed of the primitive church; and with him to form an opinion and to publish it were things almost simultaneous.
About the same time (1747) he finally left the Anglican communion for the Baptist, leaving the church literally as well as figuratively by quitting it as the clergyman began to read the Athanasian creed.
Continuing his work on a bolder scale, the Viennese priest Gunther undertook to show that the articles of the Christian creed are only a roughand-ready popular statement of the conclusions of philosophy.
The core of their creed is a fervid belief in the infallibility of Catholic instinct,.
Further, a number of statutes were passed with the object of putting every possible obstacle in the way of Catholics educating their children in their own creed, or of inheriting or buying land.
It is inconceivable that, to a man with his type of mind and his extraordinary experience, the practical sagacity, farsightedness and aggressive courage of the Federalists should not have seemed to embody the best political wisdom, however little he may have been disposed to ally himself with any party group or subscribe to any comprehensive creed.
He stood firm, however, on the other two points which had long been contested between the Eastern and Western Churches, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Bulgaria and the introduction of the "filioque" clause into the creed.
owe the Nicene creed (325), but this is now abandoned by the best authorities on all sides.
This reputation he owes partly to the vast fertility of his pen - according to the historian Sozomen he was credited with having written altogether 3,000,000 lines - partly to the elegance of his style and a certain measure of poetic inspiration, more perhaps to the strength and consistency of his personal character, and his ardour in defence of the creed formulated at Nicaea.
It has been found unworkable, for instance, to classify the religions of really primitive peoples under a plurality of heads, as becomes necessary the moment that the presence of a distinctive basis of linked ideas testifies to the individuality of this or that type of higher creed.
It may perhaps be argued that Dauger (if Martin) simply did not make bad worse by proclaiming his creed; but against this, Louvois must have known that Martin was a Huguenot.
He had already published Lex orandi, insisting that the true interpretation of the creed is determined by its prayer value, and in 1906 he wrote Lex credendi.
escape is possible from the spectre of materialism, theoretical and practical; and so, says Schopenhauer, "the just and good must all have this creed: I believe in a metaphysic."
This creed of naturalism is.
the authorized Scottish creed, though in the first instance the faith of only a fragment of the people.
He was prepared indeed to fall back upon that, in the event of the Estates at any time refusing sanction to either church or creed, as their sovereign in Paris promptly refused it.
Arguing from the Old Testament, they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which required to be supplemented by legal exactitude, 2 including ritual observance (iv.
The contrast there existing between peasant and nomad is of vital consequence for the whole position of his creed.
That Cyrus too owned allegiance to the creed, cannot be doubted by an unprejudiced mind, although in the dearth of contemporary monuments we possess no proof at first hand.
In this creed of Zoroastrianism three important points are especially to be emphasized: for on them depend its peculiar characteristics and historical significance :
Thus, even though it arose from national views, in its esseiice it is not national (as, for instance, the Israelite creed), but individualistic, and at the same time universal.
Zoroastrianism, in fact, is the first creed to work by missions or to lay claim to universality of acceptance.
It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.
Thus the creed became a powerful factor in the development of an united Iranian nationality, That a.
The Persian kingsnone more so than Darius, whose religious convictions are enshrined in his inscriptions and, with the kings, their people, were ardent professors of the pure doctrine of Zoroaster; and the Persians settled in the provinces diffused his creed throughout the whole empire.
Both deities occupy the very first rank in the popular creed; while to the theologian they are the most potent of the good powersMithras being the herald and propagator of the service of Light and the mediator betwixt man and Ahuramazda, who ~now fades more into the backrround.
The union, moreover, recommended by that creed, between brother and sisterand even son and motheroccurs among them.
Here the opposition between the good spirit of light and the demons of evilbetween Ormuzd and Ahrimans till remained the principal dogma of the creed; while all other gods and angels, however estimable their aid, were but subordinate servants of Ormuzd, whose highest manifestation on earth was not the sun-god Mithras, but the holy fire guarded by his priests.
It is even related that, in his zeal for uniformity of creed, Ardashir wished to extinguish the holy fires in the great cities of the empire and the Parthian vassal states, with the exception of that which burned in the residence of the dynasty.
The time was come when, in the western and eastern worlds alike, the religious question was for large masses of people the most important question in life, and the diffusion of their own creed and the suppression of all others the highest and holiest of tasks.
None the less Mani found means to diffuse his creed far and wide over the whole empire.
The Moslems officially tolerated the Zoroastrian creed, though occasional persecutions were not lacking.
Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet DalIil~i (Daqiqi), IMkIkI who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khodinama, or Book of Kings, into Persian verse.
He adhered to the creed of his mother rather than to that of his father; and, in spite of a solemn oath sworn to his predecessor that he would not restore the Catholic churches to their owners, he at once proceeded to do so and to recall the bishops.
Christianity is becoming more and more a "form of sound words," a crystallized creed, whose teaching is the vital point.
These books do not display the apocalyptic style which, partly borrowed from Lamennais, characterizes Michelet's later works, but they contain in miniature almost the whole of his curious ethicopolitico-theological creed - a mixture of sentimentalism, communism, and anti-sacerdotalism, supported by the most eccentric arguments, but urged with a great deal of eloquence.
He came just at a time when the characteristic ideas of the 17th century - the ideas of Louis XIV., of Bossuet and Boileau - had lost their savour, and before another creed could arise to take their place.
As the first founder was of Phoenician descent, so he drew most of his adherents from the countries which were the seat of Hellenistic (as distinct from Hellenic) civilization; nor did Stoicism achieve its crowning triumph until it was brought to Rome, where the grave earnestness of the national character could appreciate its doctrine, and where for two centuries or more it was the creed, if not the philosophy, of all the best of the Romans.
The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa - Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator - desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed.
In May 1679 Mather was a petitioner to the General Court for the call of a Synod to consider the reformation in New England of "the Evils that have Provoked the Lord to bring his Judgments," 2 and when the "Reforming Synod" met in September it appointed him one of a committee to draft a creed; this committee reported in May, 680, at the Synod's second session, of which Mather was moderator, the Savoy Declaration (slightly modified, notably in ch.
He tried to show, both from Scripture and extra-canonical literature, that the primitive church, so far from being an incorporate body of believers with the same creed and customs, really consisted of two schools, each possessing its "own gospel" - a school of Ebionites or Judaizing Christians, and the more liberal school of Paul.
Brought up in the Anglican creed, she fell under the influence of Tractarian teaching at Torquay, and joined the Roman Catholic Church in 1850.
Though there is insufficient justification for dividing the Ebionites into two separate and distinct communities, labelled respectively Ebionites and Nazarenes, we have good evidence, not only that there were grades of Christological thought among them, but that a considerable section, at the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd, exchanged their simple Judaistic creed for a strange blend of Essenism and Christianity.
The founder of this system seems to have been Asanga, an influential monk of Peshawar, who wrote the first text-book of the creed, the Yogachchdra Bhumi Sastra, in the 6th century A.D.
They are as follows: (i.) The Calendar; (ii.) The names of the Faires of Scotland; (iii.) The Confession of Faith used at Geneva and received by the Church of Scotland; (iv.-vii.) Concerning the election and duties of Ministers, Elders and Deacons, and Superintendent; (viii.) An order of Ecclesiastical Discipline; (ix.) The Order of Excommunication and of Public Repentance; (x.) The Visitation of the Sick; (xi.) The Manner of Burial; (xii.) The Order of Public Worship - Forms of Confession and Prayer after Sermon; (xiii.) Other Public Prayers; (xiv.) The Administration of the Lord's Supper; (xv.) The Form of Marriage; (xvi.) The Order of Baptism; (xvii.) A Treatise on Fasting with the order thereof; (xviii.) The Psalms of David; (xix.) Conclusions or Doxologies; (xx.) Hymns - metrical versions of the Decalogue, Magnificat, Apostles' Creed, &c.; (xxi.) Calvin's Catechism; (xxii.