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cranmer

cranmer

cranmer Sentence Examples

  • About the same time Cranmer subscribed the first two of his " recantations."

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  • it may be noted that Cranmer favoured a proposal for the formation of a council of presbyters in each diocese, and for provincial synods.

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  • The fall of Somerset in the following month raised Bonner's hopes, and he appealed from Cranmer to the council.

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  • Dixon's Histories; Pollard's Cranmer and England under Somerset; other authorities cited in Dict.

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  • If the offer was made, it was declined, and Cranmer continued at Cambridge filling the offices of lecturer in divinity at his own college and of public examiner in divinity to the university.

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  • It was a somewhat curious concurrence of circumstances that transferred Cranmer, almost at one step, from the quiet seclusion of the university to the din and bustle of the court.

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  • Cranmer went with two of his pupils named Cressy, related to him through their mother, to their father's house at Waltham in Essex.

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  • Meeting with Cranmer, they were naturally led to discuss the king's meditated divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

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  • Cranmer suggested that if the canonists and the universities should decide that marriage with a deceased brother's widow was illegal, and if it were proved that Catherine had been married to Prince Arthur, her marriage to Henry could be declared null and void by the ordinary ecclesiastical courts.

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  • At their first interview Cranmer was commanded by the king to lay aside all other pursuits and to devote himself to the question of the divorce.

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  • When the treatise was finished Cranmer was called upon to defend its argument before the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which he visited, accompanied by Fox and Gardiner.

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  • An embassy, with the earl of Wiltshire at its head, was despatched to Rome in 1530, that " the matter of the divorce should be disputed and ventilated," and Cranmer was an important member of it.

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  • The celerity and skill with which Cranmer did the work intrusted to him must have fully satisfied his master.

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  • With Anne's condemnation by the House of Lords Cranmer had nothing to do.

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  • Meanwhile Cranmer was actively carrying out the policy which has associated his name more closely, perhaps, than that of any other ecclesiastic with the Reformation in England.

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  • The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.

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  • Cranmer was present with Henry VIII.

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  • Cranmer was therefore enabled without let or hindrance to complete the preparation of the church formularies, on which he had been for some time engaged.

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  • It laid down the lawfulness and necessity of persecution to the death for heresy in the most absolute terms; and Cranmer himself condemned Joan Bocher to the flames.

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  • Cranmer had been tried by a papal commission, over which Bishop Brooks of Gloucester presided, in September 1555.

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  • All these authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.

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  • He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.

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  • and Foreign; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Strype's Memorials of Cranmer (1694); Anecdotes and Character of Archbishop Cranmer, by Ralph Morice, and two contemporary biographies (Camden Society's publications); Remains of Thomas Cranmer, by Jenkyns (1833); Lives of Cranmer, by Gilpin (1784), Todd (1831), Le Bas, in Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vols.

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  • Chester Waters's Chesters of Chicheley (1877) contains a vast amount of genealogical information about Cranmer which has only been used by one of his biographers.

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  • 3 According to Cranmer, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.

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  • p. 300, the only authority; and Cranmer himself only knew of it a fortnight of ter.

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  • The most important of Strype's works are the Memorials of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1694 (ed.

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  • at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, between 1812 (Cranmer) and 1824 (Annals).

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  • Parker, like Cranmer, declined the invitation.

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  • See John Strype, Life and Acts of Archbishop Parker (3 vols., Oxford, 1824), and Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (2 vols., Oxford, 1840); John D'Alton, Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin (Dublin, 1838).

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  • Vermigli and Ochino were both invited to England by Cranmer in 1547, and given a pension of forty marks by the government.

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  • This was similar to the view now held by Cranmer and Ridley, but it is difficult to prove that Vermigli had any great influence in the modifications of the Book of Common Prayer made in 1552.

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  • But as early as 1549 Cranmer had in hand " Articles of Religion " to which he required all preachers and lecturers to subscribe.

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  • broke with the church of Rome Alesius was induced to go to England, where he was very cordially received (August 1535) by the king and his advisers Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell.

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  • He was in England again for a short time during Edward VI.'s reign, and was commissioned by Cranmer to make a Latin version of the First Prayer-Book (1549) for the information of Bucer, whose opinion was desired.

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  • Among his publications, besides many sermons, were A Brief Review of the Episcopal Church in Virginia (1845); Wilberforce, Cranmer, Jewett and the Prayer Book on the Incarnation (1850); Reasons for Loving the Episcopal Church (1852); and Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia (1857); a storehouse of material on the ecclesiastical history of the state.

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  • A few months later Thomas Cranmer, who had been one of those to discuss sympathetically Luther's works in the little circle at Cambridge, and who believed the royal supremacy would tend to the remedying of grave abuses and that the pope had acted ultra vires in issuing a dispensation for the king's marriage with Catherine, was induced by Henry to succeed Warham as archbishop of Canterbury.

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  • Acting on this, Cranmer tried the divorce case before his court, which declared the marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne Boleyn, which had been solemnized privately in January, valid.

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  • The payment of annates and of Peter's pence 1 Cranmer himself had taken the oath of canonical obedience to.

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  • Then, the ancient heresy laws having been revived, came the burnings of Rogers, Hooker, Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer and many a less noteworthy champion of the new religion.

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  • Of the twelve homilies contained in the first book, four (the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) are probably to be attributed to Cranmer, and one (the 12th) possibly to Latimer; one (the 6th) is by Bonner; another (the 5th) is by John Harpsfield, archdeacon of London, and another (the 11th) by Thomas Becon, one of Cranmer's chaplains.

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  • The fall of Somerset in the following month raised Bonner's hopes, and he appealed from Cranmer to the council.

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  • When the treatise was finished Cranmer was called upon to defend its argument before the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which he visited, accompanied by Fox and Gardiner.

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  • The celerity and skill with which Cranmer did the work intrusted to him must have fully satisfied his master.

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  • broke with the church of Rome Alesius was induced to go to England, where he was very cordially received (August 1535) by the king and his advisers Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell.

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  • Among his publications, besides many sermons, were A Brief Review of the Episcopal Church in Virginia (1845); Wilberforce, Cranmer, Jewett and the Prayer Book on the Incarnation (1850); Reasons for Loving the Episcopal Church (1852); and Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia (1857); a storehouse of material on the ecclesiastical history of the state.

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  • This proved impracticable, but the frequent conferences Cranmer had with the theologians composing the embassy had doubtless a great influence in modifying his views.

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  • Cranmer held that the consecration of a bishop was an unnecessary rite, and not required by Scripture; that election and appointment to office were sufficient.

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  • THOMAS CRANMER (1489-1556), archbishop of Canterbury, born at Aslacton or Aslockton in Nottinghamshire on the 2nd of July 1489, was the second son of Thomas Cranmer and of his wife Anne Hatfield.

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  • The necessity of an appeal to Rome was thus dispensed with, and this point was at once seen by the king, who, when Cranmer's opinion was reported to him, is said to have ordered him to be summoned in these terms: " I will speak to him.

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  • Cranmer returned in September 1530, but in January 1531 he received a second commission from the king appointing him " Conciliarius Regius et ad Caesarem Orator."

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  • They had frequent interviews, which had doubtless an important influence on Cranmer's opinions.

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  • His niece Margaret won the heart of Cranmer, and in 1532 they were married.

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  • In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his nomination to the vacant see.

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  • Cranmer's conduct was certainly consistent with his profession that he did not desire, as he had not expected, the dangerous promotion.

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  • Cranmer, however, was not satisfied with this.

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  • The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other constitutional changes of Henry's reign.

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  • Only second in importance to this was the re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life.

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  • His translation of the German Catechism of Justus Jonas, known as Cranmer's Catechism, appeared in the following year.

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  • published in 1553 owe their form and style almost entirely to the hand of Cranmer.

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  • Cranmer stood by the dying bed of Edward as he had stood by that of his father, and he there suffered himself to be persuaded to take a step against his own convictions.

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  • In November, with Lady Jane Grey, her husband, and two other Dudleys, Cranmer was condemned for treason.

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  • Renard thought he would be executed, but so true a Romanist as Mary could scarcely have an ecclesiastic put to death in consequence of a sentence by a secular court, and Cranmer was reserved for treatment as a heretic by the highest of clerical tribunals, which could not act until parliament had restored the papal jurisdiction.

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  • Brooks had no power to give sentence, but reported to Rome, where Cranmer was summoned, but not permitted, to attend.

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  • Northumberland's recantation had done much to discredit the Reformation, Cranmer's, it was hoped, would complete the work.

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  • Hence the enormous effect of Cranmer's recovery at the final scene.

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  • This weakness was the worst blot on Cranmer's character, but it was due in some measure to his painful capacity for seeing both sides of a question at the same time, a temperament fatal to martyrdom.

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  • Gairdner's History of the Church, 1485-1558; Bishop Cranmer's Recantacyons, ed.

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  • The tradition that he was descended from Dr Rowland Taylor, Cranmer's chaplain, who suffered martyrdom under Mary, is grounded on the untrustworthy evidence of a certain Lady Wray, said to have been a granddaughter of Jeremy Taylor.

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  • His mother's maiden name was Alice Monins, and a John Monins married Cranmer's sister Jane, but no definite relationship between the two archbishops has been traced.

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  • At Dunstable Cranmer held the court which, in 1 533, declared Catherine of Aragon's marriage invalid.

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  • This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.

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  • z Cranmer's works are to be found in Burnet, " Collection of Records " appended to his History of the Reformation (ed.

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  • Cranmer also maintained that " bishops and priests are but both one office in the beginning of Christ's religion," ib.

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  • Thirteen articles were drawn up, which, though never published (they were found among Cranmer's papers at the beginning of the 19th century), had some influence on the forty-two articles.

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  • It was his cool treatment of such sanctified names as Charles, Cranmer and Laud that provoked the indignation of Southey and the Quarterly, who forgot that the same impartial measure was extended to statesmen on the other side.

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  • He certainly married, and is said to have been made Cranmer's chaplain, and bishop of Sodor and Man; but he was never consecrated to that see.

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  • It was perhaps the most wanton of all Mary's acts of persecution; Ferrar had been no such protagonist of the Reformation as Cranmer, Ridley, Hooper and Latimer; he had had nothing to do with Northumberland's or Wyatt's conspiracy.

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  • In the last year of his life Thomas Cromwell sent him 20 angels, and Archbishop Cranmer 18.

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  • With such a mother and with Cranmer as her godfather she represented from her birth the principle of revolt from Rome, but the opponents of that movement attached little importance to her advent into the world.

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  • and Cranmer; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie, 3rd ed.

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  • Square cap of Archbishop Cranmer (d.

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  • Prayer, drawn up probably by Cranmer 1 and Ridley in the time of Edward VI., and variously modified between then (1549) and 1661; (ii.) the meaning of the two sacraments, written on the suggestion of James I.

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  • In 1898 the National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches in England and Wales published 1 Cranmer had published a separate and larger catechism on the basis of the work of Justus Jonas in 1548; note also Allen's Catechisme, A Christen Instruction of the Principall Pointes of Christes Religion (1551).

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  • It is significant that this Bible, like Coverdale's second edition, was " set forth with the kinges most gracyous lycence," probably with the concurrence of Cranmer, since he, in a letter to Cromwell, begged him to " exhibit the book unto the king's highness, and to obtain of his grace.

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  • 2 And thus it came to pass, as Dr Westcott strikingly puts it, that " by Cranmer's petition, by Crumwell's influence, and by Henry's authority, without any formal ecclesiastical decision, the book was given to the English people, which is the foundation of the text of our present Bible.

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  • forth by the king's licence, but the object of this is shown by the above-quoted letter of Archbishop Cranmer to Cromwell, touching Matthew's Bible.

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  • This letter was written on the 4th of August 1537, and the impatient words at the end refer to an authorized version which had been projected several years before, and which was, in fact, at that very time in preparation, though not proceeding quickly enough to satisfy Cranmer.

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  • 2 Cranmer's Works, letter 194 (Parker Soc.).

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  • giving the " Word of God " to Cromwell and Cranmer, who, in their order, distribute it to laymen and clerics, and describes the volume as " truly translated after the veryte of the Hebreue and Greke texts by pe dylygent studye of dyverse excellent learned men, expert in the forsayde tongues.

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  • This was the first of seven editions of this noble Bible which issued from the press during the years 1539-1541, - the second of them, that of 1540, called Cranmer's Bible from the fact that it contained a long Preface by Archbishop Cranmer, having the important addition " This is the Byble apoynted to the vse of the churches " on the titlepage.

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  • Cranmer suffered martyrdom at the stake, as John Rogers had done before him.

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  • Cranmer's preface " Concerning the Service of the Church " expressly mentions the abolition of this variety as one of the things to be achieved by a Book of Common Prayer.

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  • These were certainly known to Cranmer, but it is remarkable how little he borrowed from them.

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  • They include most of the collects on Saints' Days, for which, though no direct evidence of authorship is as yet forthcoming, Cranmer is probably responsible, and certain other collects, such as that for the Royal Family (Archbishop Whitgift); that for the high court of parliament (Archbishop Laud); that for all conditions of men (Bishop Gunning), &c.

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  • Of changes preceding the first Prayer Book it will only be necessary to mention here: *(a) The compiling and publishing of the Litany in English by Cranmer in 1544.

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  • About 1549 Cranmer sent him to the Tower of London, and while there "he was borrowed out of prison" to take part in seven public disputations against Hooper, Jewel and others.

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  • He took part, with much charity and mildness, in the Oxford disputes against Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley; but he had no liking for the fierce bigotry and bloody measures then in force against Protestants.

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  • In April 1554 he acted as notary to Cranmer and Ridley at their disputation, but in the autumn he signed a series of Catholic articles.

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  • After the consecration of Cranmer to the archbishopric of Canterbury in 1533 Latimer's position was completely altered.

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  • A commission appointed to inquire into the disturbances caused by his preaching in Bristol severely censured the conduct of his opponents; and, when the bishop prohibited him from preaching in his diocese, he obtained from Cranmer a special licence to preach throughout the province of Canterbury.

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  • In 1534 Henry formally repudiated the authority of the pope, and from this time Latimer was the chief co-operator with Cranmer and Cromwell in advising the king regarding the series of legislative measures which rendered that repudiation complete and irrevocable.

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  • Queen Mary being now on the throne, Story was one of her most active agents in prosecuting heretics, and was one of her proctors at the trial of Cranmer at Oxford in 1555.

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  • The new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary party under Gardiner and Norfolk; but there was no idea of returning to the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.

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  • Gardiner had almost been sent to the Tower, and Norfolk and Surrey were condemned to death, while Cranmer asserted that it was Henry's intention to convert the mass into a communion service.

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  • His next important action was not so creditable; for he was, not exactly, as is often said, one of Cranmer's assessors, but, according to Cranmer's own expression, "assistant" to him as counsel for the king, when the archbishop, in the absence of Queen Catherine, pronounced her marriage with Henry null and void on the 23rd of May 1533.

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  • This appeal, and also one on behalf of Cranmer presented with it, were of Gardiner's drawing up. In 1535 he and other bishops were called upon to vindicate the king's new title of "Supreme Head of the Church of England."

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  • In the same year he had an unpleasant dispute with Cranmer about the visitation of his diocese.

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  • A few years later he attempted, in concert with others, to fasten a charge of heresy upon Archbishop Cranmer in connexion with the Act of the Six Articles; and but for the personal intervention of the king he would probably have succeeded.

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  • But in truth the king had need of him quite as much as he had of Cranmer; for it was Gardiner, who even under royal supremacy, was anxious to prove that England had not fallen away from the faith, while Cranmer's authority as primate was necessary to upholding that supremacy.

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  • The religious changes he objected to both on principle and on the ground of their being moved during the king's minority, and he resisted Cranmer's project of a general visitation.

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  • His bishopric was taken from him and given to Dr Poynet, a chaplain of Cranmer's who had not long before been made bishop of Rochester.

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  • The part that he was allowed to take in the drawing up of doctrinal formularies in Henry VIII.'s time is not clear; but at a later date he was the author of various tracts in defence of the Real Presence against Cranmer, some of which, being written in prison, were published abroad under a feigned name.

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  • Of another church on this site Cranmer was rector after the Reformation.

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  • Adopting reformed views he was made chaplain by Cranmer in 1J40 and presented to the living of Hadleigh, Suffolk, in 1544.

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  • Dr Lea is probably right in suggesting that it was a confused recollection of these decrees which prompted one of Cranmer's judges to assure him that "his children were bondmen to the see of Canterbury."

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  • Strype, Memorials of Cranmer, bk.

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  • Acting according to the instructions he had received from Rome, where the matter had been fully gone into, he made an investigation, and divided the clergy ordained after that period into two classes; one consisting of those ordained in schism, indeed, but according to the old Catholic rite, and the other of those who had been ordained by the new rite drawn up by Cranmer and enforced by act of parliament 1st of April 1550.

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  • On Cranmer's deprivation, Pole became archbishop of Canterbury; and, having been ordained priest two days before, he was consecrated on the 22nd of March 1556, the day after Cranmer suffered at Oxford.

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  • Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer and others urged him to submit in vain; confinement to his house by order of the Council proved equally ineffectual; and it was not until he had spent some weeks in the Fleet prison that the "father of nonconformity" consented to conform, and Hooper submitted to consecration with the legal ceremonies (March 8, 1551).

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  • Hooper was the first of the bishops to suffer because his Zwinglian views placed him further beyond the pale than Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer.

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  • While he expressed dissatisfaction with some of Calvin's earlier writings, he approved of the Consensus Tigurinus negotiated in 1549 between the Zwinglians and Calvinists of Switzerland; and it was this form of religion that he laboured to spread in England against the wishes of Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer, Peter Martyr and other more conservative theologians.

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  • Remains of Edward VI.; Burnet, Collier, Dixon, Froude and Gairdner's histories; Pollard's Cranmer; Dict.

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  • Cardinal Pole, however, came back to his own country with great honour in the reign of Queen Mary, and was made archbishop of Canterbury on the deprivation of Cranmer.

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  • During 1530 Henrys agents were busy abroad making that appeal on the divorce to the universities which Cranmer had suggested.

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  • Henry suspended his consent in order to induce the pope to grant Cranmer his bulls as archbishop of Canterbury where he succeeded Warham late in 1532.

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  • The act of annates was confirmed; another prohibiting appeals to Rome and providing for the appointment of bishops without recourse to the papacy was passed; and Cranmer declared Henrys marriage with Catherine null and void and that with Anne Boleyn, which had v~i~ taken place about January 25, 1533, valid.

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  • Cranmer remained archbishop and compiled an English Litany,while Catherine Howard soon ceased to be queen; charges of loose conduct, which in her case at any rate were not instigated by the king, were made against her and she was brought to the block; she was succeeded by Catherine Parr, a mild patron of the new learning.

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  • The Six Articles were only fitfully put in execution, especially in 1543 and 1546: all the plots against Cranmer failed; and before he died Henry was even considering the advisability of further steps in the religious reformation, apart from mere spoliation like the confiscation of the chantry lands.

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  • Ridley and Latimer were not burnt until October 1555, and Cranmer not till March 1556.

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  • The opinions of Staples, like those of Cranmer, advanced gradually until at last he went to Dublin and preached boldly against the mass.

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  • Dowdall fled; his see was treated as vacant, and Cranmer cast about him for a Protestant to fill St Patrick's chair.

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  • His first nominee, Dr Richard Turner, resolutely declined the honour, declaring that he would be unintelligible to the people; and Cranmer could only answer that English was spoken in Ireland, though he did indeed doubt whether it was spoken in the diocese of Armagh.

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  • The volume is dedicated to the king of England, where Convocation at Cranmer's instance had, in December 1534, petitioned for an authorized English version of the Scriptures.

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  • Coverdale was already on his way back to England, and in October 1548 he was staying at Windsor Castle, where Cranmer and some other divines, inaccurately called the Windsor Commission, were preparing the First Book of Common Prayer.

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  • MacCulloch claims that Cranmer makes only a single reference to either wife in all surviving correspondence (481 ).

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  • At the time of the Marian restoration, Cranmer was once again involved in an academic disputation.

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  • For example Cranmer had assumed that man could choose to do good without the aid of sanctifying grace.

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  • For us in Fulcrum, why are the ' gender balanced ' colleges Westcott, Queens and Cranmer when evangelical ordinands outnumber the rest?

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  • Check St. George's catalog Hunter Wing, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ore.

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  • pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer.

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  • Every single rood in England was destroyed by Cranmer's cronies in the 1540s; not a single one survives.

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  • stipendiary ministry at Cranmer Hall, Durham.

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  • Even the archbishop of Canterbury favoured a modification of episcopacy, and an approach to Presbyterian polity and dicipline; but attention was mainly directed to the settlement of doctrine and worship. Cranmer wrote that bishops and priests were not different but the same in the beginning of Christ's religion.

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  • Cranmer held that the consecration of a bishop was an unnecessary rite, and not required by Scripture; that election and appointment to office were sufficient.

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  • it may be noted that Cranmer favoured a proposal for the formation of a council of presbyters in each diocese, and for provincial synods.

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  • He failed to comply, and after a seven days' trial he was deprived of his bishopric by an ecclesiastical court over which Cranmer presided, and was sent to the Marshalsea.

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  • But he had no mercy for a fallen foe; and he is seen at his worst in his brutal jeers at Cranmer, when he was entrusted with the duty of degrading his former chief.

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  • Dixon's Histories; Pollard's Cranmer and England under Somerset; other authorities cited in Dict.

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  • THOMAS CRANMER (1489-1556), archbishop of Canterbury, born at Aslacton or Aslockton in Nottinghamshire on the 2nd of July 1489, was the second son of Thomas Cranmer and of his wife Anne Hatfield.

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  • If the offer was made, it was declined, and Cranmer continued at Cambridge filling the offices of lecturer in divinity at his own college and of public examiner in divinity to the university.

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  • It was a somewhat curious concurrence of circumstances that transferred Cranmer, almost at one step, from the quiet seclusion of the university to the din and bustle of the court.

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  • Cranmer went with two of his pupils named Cressy, related to him through their mother, to their father's house at Waltham in Essex.

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  • Meeting with Cranmer, they were naturally led to discuss the king's meditated divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

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  • Cranmer suggested that if the canonists and the universities should decide that marriage with a deceased brother's widow was illegal, and if it were proved that Catherine had been married to Prince Arthur, her marriage to Henry could be declared null and void by the ordinary ecclesiastical courts.

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  • The necessity of an appeal to Rome was thus dispensed with, and this point was at once seen by the king, who, when Cranmer's opinion was reported to him, is said to have ordered him to be summoned in these terms: " I will speak to him.

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  • At their first interview Cranmer was commanded by the king to lay aside all other pursuits and to devote himself to the question of the divorce.

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  • An embassy, with the earl of Wiltshire at its head, was despatched to Rome in 1530, that " the matter of the divorce should be disputed and ventilated," and Cranmer was an important member of it.

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  • Cranmer returned in September 1530, but in January 1531 he received a second commission from the king appointing him " Conciliarius Regius et ad Caesarem Orator."

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  • They had frequent interviews, which had doubtless an important influence on Cranmer's opinions.

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  • His niece Margaret won the heart of Cranmer, and in 1532 they were married.

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  • Hook finds in the fact of the marriage corroboration of Cranmer's statement that he never expected or desired the primacy; and it seems probable enough that, if he had foreseen how soon the primacy was to be forced upon him, he would have avoided a disqualification which it was difficult to conceal and dangerous to disclose.

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  • In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his nomination to the vacant see.

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  • Cranmer's conduct was certainly consistent with his profession that he did not desire, as he had not expected, the dangerous promotion.

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  • Cranmer, however, was not satisfied with this.

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  • In the last as in the first step of Cranmer's promotion Henry had been actuated by one and the same motive.

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  • The next step was taken by Cranmer, who wrote a letter to the king, praying to be allowed to remove the anxiety of loyal subjects as to a possible case of disputed succession, by finally determining the validity of the marriage in his archiepiscopal court.

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  • The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other constitutional changes of Henry's reign.

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  • With Anne's condemnation by the House of Lords Cranmer had nothing to do.

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  • Meanwhile Cranmer was actively carrying out the policy which has associated his name more closely, perhaps, than that of any other ecclesiastic with the Reformation in England.

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  • Only second in importance to this was the re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life.

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  • This proved impracticable, but the frequent conferences Cranmer had with the theologians composing the embassy had doubtless a great influence in modifying his views.

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  • The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or " men of the old learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various occasions - notably in 1543 and 1 545 - conspiracies were formed in the council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow.

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  • Cranmer was present with Henry VIII.

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  • Cranmer was therefore enabled without let or hindrance to complete the preparation of the church formularies, on which he had been for some time engaged.

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  • His translation of the German Catechism of Justus Jonas, known as Cranmer's Catechism, appeared in the following year.

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  • published in 1553 owe their form and style almost entirely to the hand of Cranmer.

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  • It laid down the lawfulness and necessity of persecution to the death for heresy in the most absolute terms; and Cranmer himself condemned Joan Bocher to the flames.

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  • Cranmer stood by the dying bed of Edward as he had stood by that of his father, and he there suffered himself to be persuaded to take a step against his own convictions.

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  • In November, with Lady Jane Grey, her husband, and two other Dudleys, Cranmer was condemned for treason.

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  • Renard thought he would be executed, but so true a Romanist as Mary could scarcely have an ecclesiastic put to death in consequence of a sentence by a secular court, and Cranmer was reserved for treatment as a heretic by the highest of clerical tribunals, which could not act until parliament had restored the papal jurisdiction.

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  • Cranmer had been tried by a papal commission, over which Bishop Brooks of Gloucester presided, in September 1555.

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  • Brooks had no power to give sentence, but reported to Rome, where Cranmer was summoned, but not permitted, to attend.

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  • About the same time Cranmer subscribed the first two of his " recantations."

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  • All these authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.

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  • Northumberland's recantation had done much to discredit the Reformation, Cranmer's, it was hoped, would complete the work.

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  • Hence the enormous effect of Cranmer's recovery at the final scene.

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  • This weakness was the worst blot on Cranmer's character, but it was due in some measure to his painful capacity for seeing both sides of a question at the same time, a temperament fatal to martyrdom.

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  • He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.

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  • and Foreign; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Strype's Memorials of Cranmer (1694); Anecdotes and Character of Archbishop Cranmer, by Ralph Morice, and two contemporary biographies (Camden Society's publications); Remains of Thomas Cranmer, by Jenkyns (1833); Lives of Cranmer, by Gilpin (1784), Todd (1831), Le Bas, in Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vols.

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  • Gairdner's History of the Church, 1485-1558; Bishop Cranmer's Recantacyons, ed.

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  • Chester Waters's Chesters of Chicheley (1877) contains a vast amount of genealogical information about Cranmer which has only been used by one of his biographers.

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  • 3 According to Cranmer, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.

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  • p. 300, the only authority; and Cranmer himself only knew of it a fortnight of ter.

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  • On the 16th, hoping probably to save herself by these means, she informed Cranmer of a certain supposed impediment to her marriage with the king - according to some accounts a previous marriage with Northumberland, though the latter solemnly and positively denied it - which was never disclosed, but which, having been considered by the archbishop and a committee of ecclesiastical lawyers, was pronounced, on the 17th, sufficient to invalidate her marriage.

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  • 2 Cranmer admired her - "sitting in her hair" (i.e.

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  • In 1533 he christened the princess Elizabeth, and his later years were troubled by disputes with Archbishop Cranmer.

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  • The tradition that he was descended from Dr Rowland Taylor, Cranmer's chaplain, who suffered martyrdom under Mary, is grounded on the untrustworthy evidence of a certain Lady Wray, said to have been a granddaughter of Jeremy Taylor.

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  • The most important of Strype's works are the Memorials of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1694 (ed.

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  • at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, between 1812 (Cranmer) and 1824 (Annals).

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  • His mother's maiden name was Alice Monins, and a John Monins married Cranmer's sister Jane, but no definite relationship between the two archbishops has been traced.

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  • Parker, like Cranmer, declined the invitation.

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  • See John Strype, Life and Acts of Archbishop Parker (3 vols., Oxford, 1824), and Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (2 vols., Oxford, 1840); John D'Alton, Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin (Dublin, 1838).

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  • He left the property to the see of Canterbury, and about the time of the dissolution it was given up, by Cranmer to Henry VIII.

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  • At Dunstable Cranmer held the court which, in 1 533, declared Catherine of Aragon's marriage invalid.

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  • This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.

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  • z Cranmer's works are to be found in Burnet, " Collection of Records " appended to his History of the Reformation (ed.

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  • Cranmer also maintained that " bishops and priests are but both one office in the beginning of Christ's religion," ib.

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  • Vermigli and Ochino were both invited to England by Cranmer in 1547, and given a pension of forty marks by the government.

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  • This was similar to the view now held by Cranmer and Ridley, but it is difficult to prove that Vermigli had any great influence in the modifications of the Book of Common Prayer made in 1552.

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  • It was somewhat freely exercised by Cranmer and his successors immediately after the Reformation; but the main precedent now relied upon is that of Dr Watson, bishop of St Davids, who was deprived in 1695 by Archbishop Tennison for simony and 1 Unless the case of the claim of Mark, bishop of Carlisle, to be tried by his ordinary instead of by a temporal court, be a precedent (Phillimore, Eccles.

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  • Thirteen articles were drawn up, which, though never published (they were found among Cranmer's papers at the beginning of the 19th century), had some influence on the forty-two articles.

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  • But as early as 1549 Cranmer had in hand " Articles of Religion " to which he required all preachers and lecturers to subscribe.

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  • He was in England again for a short time during Edward VI.'s reign, and was commissioned by Cranmer to make a Latin version of the First Prayer-Book (1549) for the information of Bucer, whose opinion was desired.

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  • It was his cool treatment of such sanctified names as Charles, Cranmer and Laud that provoked the indignation of Southey and the Quarterly, who forgot that the same impartial measure was extended to statesmen on the other side.

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  • A few months later Thomas Cranmer, who had been one of those to discuss sympathetically Luther's works in the little circle at Cambridge, and who believed the royal supremacy would tend to the remedying of grave abuses and that the pope had acted ultra vires in issuing a dispensation for the king's marriage with Catherine, was induced by Henry to succeed Warham as archbishop of Canterbury.

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  • Acting on this, Cranmer tried the divorce case before his court, which declared the marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne Boleyn, which had been solemnized privately in January, valid.

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  • The payment of annates and of Peter's pence 1 Cranmer himself had taken the oath of canonical obedience to.

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  • Then, the ancient heresy laws having been revived, came the burnings of Rogers, Hooker, Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer and many a less noteworthy champion of the new religion.

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  • Of the twelve homilies contained in the first book, four (the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) are probably to be attributed to Cranmer, and one (the 12th) possibly to Latimer; one (the 6th) is by Bonner; another (the 5th) is by John Harpsfield, archdeacon of London, and another (the 11th) by Thomas Becon, one of Cranmer's chaplains.

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  • He certainly married, and is said to have been made Cranmer's chaplain, and bishop of Sodor and Man; but he was never consecrated to that see.

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  • It was perhaps the most wanton of all Mary's acts of persecution; Ferrar had been no such protagonist of the Reformation as Cranmer, Ridley, Hooper and Latimer; he had had nothing to do with Northumberland's or Wyatt's conspiracy.

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  • In the last year of his life Thomas Cromwell sent him 20 angels, and Archbishop Cranmer 18.

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  • With such a mother and with Cranmer as her godfather she represented from her birth the principle of revolt from Rome, but the opponents of that movement attached little importance to her advent into the world.

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  • and Cranmer; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie, 3rd ed.

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  • Square cap of Archbishop Cranmer (d.

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  • Prayer, drawn up probably by Cranmer 1 and Ridley in the time of Edward VI., and variously modified between then (1549) and 1661; (ii.) the meaning of the two sacraments, written on the suggestion of James I.

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  • In 1898 the National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches in England and Wales published 1 Cranmer had published a separate and larger catechism on the basis of the work of Justus Jonas in 1548; note also Allen's Catechisme, A Christen Instruction of the Principall Pointes of Christes Religion (1551).

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  • It is significant that this Bible, like Coverdale's second edition, was " set forth with the kinges most gracyous lycence," probably with the concurrence of Cranmer, since he, in a letter to Cromwell, begged him to " exhibit the book unto the king's highness, and to obtain of his grace.

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  • 2 And thus it came to pass, as Dr Westcott strikingly puts it, that " by Cranmer's petition, by Crumwell's influence, and by Henry's authority, without any formal ecclesiastical decision, the book was given to the English people, which is the foundation of the text of our present Bible.

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  • forth by the king's licence, but the object of this is shown by the above-quoted letter of Archbishop Cranmer to Cromwell, touching Matthew's Bible.

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  • This letter was written on the 4th of August 1537, and the impatient words at the end refer to an authorized version which had been projected several years before, and which was, in fact, at that very time in preparation, though not proceeding quickly enough to satisfy Cranmer.

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  • 2 Cranmer's Works, letter 194 (Parker Soc.).

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  • giving the " Word of God " to Cromwell and Cranmer, who, in their order, distribute it to laymen and clerics, and describes the volume as " truly translated after the veryte of the Hebreue and Greke texts by pe dylygent studye of dyverse excellent learned men, expert in the forsayde tongues.

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  • This was the first of seven editions of this noble Bible which issued from the press during the years 1539-1541, - the second of them, that of 1540, called Cranmer's Bible from the fact that it contained a long Preface by Archbishop Cranmer, having the important addition " This is the Byble apoynted to the vse of the churches " on the titlepage.

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  • Cranmer suffered martyrdom at the stake, as John Rogers had done before him.

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  • Cranmer's preface " Concerning the Service of the Church " expressly mentions the abolition of this variety as one of the things to be achieved by a Book of Common Prayer.

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  • These were certainly known to Cranmer, but it is remarkable how little he borrowed from them.

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  • They include most of the collects on Saints' Days, for which, though no direct evidence of authorship is as yet forthcoming, Cranmer is probably responsible, and certain other collects, such as that for the Royal Family (Archbishop Whitgift); that for the high court of parliament (Archbishop Laud); that for all conditions of men (Bishop Gunning), &c.

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  • Of changes preceding the first Prayer Book it will only be necessary to mention here: *(a) The compiling and publishing of the Litany in English by Cranmer in 1544.

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  • About 1549 Cranmer sent him to the Tower of London, and while there "he was borrowed out of prison" to take part in seven public disputations against Hooper, Jewel and others.

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  • He took part, with much charity and mildness, in the Oxford disputes against Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley; but he had no liking for the fierce bigotry and bloody measures then in force against Protestants.

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  • In April 1554 he acted as notary to Cranmer and Ridley at their disputation, but in the autumn he signed a series of Catholic articles.

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  • After the consecration of Cranmer to the archbishopric of Canterbury in 1533 Latimer's position was completely altered.

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  • A commission appointed to inquire into the disturbances caused by his preaching in Bristol severely censured the conduct of his opponents; and, when the bishop prohibited him from preaching in his diocese, he obtained from Cranmer a special licence to preach throughout the province of Canterbury.

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  • In 1534 Henry formally repudiated the authority of the pope, and from this time Latimer was the chief co-operator with Cranmer and Cromwell in advising the king regarding the series of legislative measures which rendered that repudiation complete and irrevocable.

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  • The earliest documentary evidence of its existence in England is a " constitution " set forth by Cranmer in 1541, which Hearne first p rinted (Leland's Collectanea, 2nd ed., vol.

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  • Queen Mary being now on the throne, Story was one of her most active agents in prosecuting heretics, and was one of her proctors at the trial of Cranmer at Oxford in 1555.

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  • The new queen Catherine Howard represented the triumph of the reactionary party under Gardiner and Norfolk; but there was no idea of returning to the papal obedience, and even Catholic orthodoxy as represented by the Six Articles was only enforced by spasmodic outbursts of persecution and vain attempts to get rid of Cranmer.

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  • Gardiner had almost been sent to the Tower, and Norfolk and Surrey were condemned to death, while Cranmer asserted that it was Henry's intention to convert the mass into a communion service.

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  • His next important action was not so creditable; for he was, not exactly, as is often said, one of Cranmer's assessors, but, according to Cranmer's own expression, "assistant" to him as counsel for the king, when the archbishop, in the absence of Queen Catherine, pronounced her marriage with Henry null and void on the 23rd of May 1533.

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  • This appeal, and also one on behalf of Cranmer presented with it, were of Gardiner's drawing up. In 1535 he and other bishops were called upon to vindicate the king's new title of "Supreme Head of the Church of England."

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  • In the same year he had an unpleasant dispute with Cranmer about the visitation of his diocese.

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  • A few years later he attempted, in concert with others, to fasten a charge of heresy upon Archbishop Cranmer in connexion with the Act of the Six Articles; and but for the personal intervention of the king he would probably have succeeded.

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  • But in truth the king had need of him quite as much as he had of Cranmer; for it was Gardiner, who even under royal supremacy, was anxious to prove that England had not fallen away from the faith, while Cranmer's authority as primate was necessary to upholding that supremacy.

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  • The religious changes he objected to both on principle and on the ground of their being moved during the king's minority, and he resisted Cranmer's project of a general visitation.

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  • His bishopric was taken from him and given to Dr Poynet, a chaplain of Cranmer's who had not long before been made bishop of Rochester.

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  • The part that he was allowed to take in the drawing up of doctrinal formularies in Henry VIII.'s time is not clear; but at a later date he was the author of various tracts in defence of the Real Presence against Cranmer, some of which, being written in prison, were published abroad under a feigned name.

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  • Of another church on this site Cranmer was rector after the Reformation.

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  • Adopting reformed views he was made chaplain by Cranmer in 1J40 and presented to the living of Hadleigh, Suffolk, in 1544.

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  • Dr Lea is probably right in suggesting that it was a confused recollection of these decrees which prompted one of Cranmer's judges to assure him that "his children were bondmen to the see of Canterbury."

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  • Strype, Memorials of Cranmer, bk.

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  • Acting according to the instructions he had received from Rome, where the matter had been fully gone into, he made an investigation, and divided the clergy ordained after that period into two classes; one consisting of those ordained in schism, indeed, but according to the old Catholic rite, and the other of those who had been ordained by the new rite drawn up by Cranmer and enforced by act of parliament 1st of April 1550.

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  • On Cranmer's deprivation, Pole became archbishop of Canterbury; and, having been ordained priest two days before, he was consecrated on the 22nd of March 1556, the day after Cranmer suffered at Oxford.

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  • Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer and others urged him to submit in vain; confinement to his house by order of the Council proved equally ineffectual; and it was not until he had spent some weeks in the Fleet prison that the "father of nonconformity" consented to conform, and Hooper submitted to consecration with the legal ceremonies (March 8, 1551).

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  • Hooper was the first of the bishops to suffer because his Zwinglian views placed him further beyond the pale than Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer.

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  • While he expressed dissatisfaction with some of Calvin's earlier writings, he approved of the Consensus Tigurinus negotiated in 1549 between the Zwinglians and Calvinists of Switzerland; and it was this form of religion that he laboured to spread in England against the wishes of Cranmer, Ridley, Bucer, Peter Martyr and other more conservative theologians.

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  • Remains of Edward VI.; Burnet, Collier, Dixon, Froude and Gairdner's histories; Pollard's Cranmer; Dict.

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  • Cardinal Pole, however, came back to his own country with great honour in the reign of Queen Mary, and was made archbishop of Canterbury on the deprivation of Cranmer.

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  • During 1530 Henrys agents were busy abroad making that appeal on the divorce to the universities which Cranmer had suggested.

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  • Henry suspended his consent in order to induce the pope to grant Cranmer his bulls as archbishop of Canterbury where he succeeded Warham late in 1532.

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  • The act of annates was confirmed; another prohibiting appeals to Rome and providing for the appointment of bishops without recourse to the papacy was passed; and Cranmer declared Henrys marriage with Catherine null and void and that with Anne Boleyn, which had v~i~ taken place about January 25, 1533, valid.

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  • Cranmer remained archbishop and compiled an English Litany,while Catherine Howard soon ceased to be queen; charges of loose conduct, which in her case at any rate were not instigated by the king, were made against her and she was brought to the block; she was succeeded by Catherine Parr, a mild patron of the new learning.

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  • The Six Articles were only fitfully put in execution, especially in 1543 and 1546: all the plots against Cranmer failed; and before he died Henry was even considering the advisability of further steps in the religious reformation, apart from mere spoliation like the confiscation of the chantry lands.

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  • Ridley and Latimer were not burnt until October 1555, and Cranmer not till March 1556.

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  • The opinions of Staples, like those of Cranmer, advanced gradually until at last he went to Dublin and preached boldly against the mass.

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  • Dowdall fled; his see was treated as vacant, and Cranmer cast about him for a Protestant to fill St Patrick's chair.

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  • His first nominee, Dr Richard Turner, resolutely declined the honour, declaring that he would be unintelligible to the people; and Cranmer could only answer that English was spoken in Ireland, though he did indeed doubt whether it was spoken in the diocese of Armagh.

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  • The volume is dedicated to the king of England, where Convocation at Cranmer's instance had, in December 1534, petitioned for an authorized English version of the Scriptures.

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  • Coverdale was already on his way back to England, and in October 1548 he was staying at Windsor Castle, where Cranmer and some other divines, inaccurately called the Windsor Commission, were preparing the First Book of Common Prayer.

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  • Every single rood in England was destroyed by Cranmer 's cronies in the 1540s; not a single one survives.

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  • She trained for the stipendiary ministry at Cranmer Hall, Durham.

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  • Read again Cranmer on the theology of the Eucharist.

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