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cracow

cracow

cracow Sentence Examples

  • His efforts were impeded by the obstruction of the clergy of Cracow, who regarded him as an adventurer; but he succeeded in reforming the university after his own mind, and was its rector for three years (1782-1785).

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  • The churchmen headed by Stanislaus Szczepanowski, bishop of Cracow, took the side of the nobles, whose grievances seem to have been real.

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  • At Rome too he obtained a canonry attached to Cracow cathedral, and on his return to Poland in 1755 threw himself heart and soul into the question of educational reform.

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  • Only his superb strategy and the heroic devotion of his lieutenants - notably the converted Jew, Jan Samuel Chrzanowski, who held the Ottoman army at bay for eleven days behind the walls of Trembowla - enabled the king to remove "the pagan yoke from our shoulders"; and he returned to be crowned at Cracow on the 14th of February 1676.

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  • Having studied at Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow and Paris, he returned to Ingolstadt in 1507, and in 1509 was appointed tutor to Louis and Ernest, the two younger sons of Albert the Wise, the late duke of BavariaMunich.

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  • HUGO KOLLONTAJ (1750-1812), Polish politician and writer, was born in 1750 at Niecislawice in Sandomir, and educated at Pinczow and Cracow.

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  • See Ignacz Badeni, Necrology of Hugo Kollontaj (Pol.) (Cracow, 1819); Henryk Schmitt, Review of the Life and Works of Kollontaj (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1860); Wojciek Grochowski, "Life of Kollontaj" (Pol.) in Tygod Illus.

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  • 1570), the kabbalist, whose chief work was the Pardes Rimmonim (Cracow, 1591).

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  • Also connected with Prag was Yom Tobh Lipmann Heller, a voluminous author, best known for the Tosaphoth Yom Tobh on the Mishna (Prag, 1614; Cracow, 1643).

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  • of Cracow.

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  • Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.

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  • This chapter has also appeared in Polish (Cracow, 1844) and Greek (Athens, 1840).

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  • GLEIWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Klodnitz, and the railway between Oppeln and Cracow, 40 m.

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  • Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.

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  • Prochaska, Cracow, 1882).

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  • A fortnight later Charles quitted Warsaw, to seek the elector; on the 2nd of July routed the combined Poles and Saxons at Klissow; and three weeks later, captured the fortress of Cracow by an act of almost fabulous audacity.

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  • It is now used only by the bishops of Eichstatt, Cracow, Paderborn and Toul, by the special concession of various popes.

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  • Thesby de Belcour, The Confederates of Bar (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Charles Francois Dumouriez, Memoires et correspondance (Paris, 1834).

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  • The summer isotherm of 68° F., which in Europe passes through Cracow and Kaluga, traverses Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, whence it turns north to Yakutsk, and then south again to Vladivostok.

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  • COPERNICUS (or [[Koppernigk), Nicolaus]] (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, was born on the 19th of February 1473, at Thorn in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had settled as a wholesale trader.

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  • Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.

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  • The only work published by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509).

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  • Two years later Jadwiga, reluctantly transferred to the Poles instead of her sister, was crowned queen of Poland at Cracow (Oct.

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  • Wladislaus accepted the proffered throne from the Magyar delegates at Cracow on the 8th of March 1440; but in the meantime (Feb.

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  • Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).

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  • Szekely wrote in prose, with verse introduction, a " Chronicle of the World " under the title of Cronica ez vildgnac yeles dolgairol (Cracow, 1559).

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  • work 1 at Cracow in 1531 to the end of the period just treated, more than 1800 publications in the native language are known.2 The period comprised between the peace of Szatmar (1711) and the year 1772 is far more barren in literary results than even that which preceded it.

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  • After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.

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  • Born in 1415, he graduated at the university of Cracow and in 1431 entered the service of Bishop Zbygniew Olesnicki (1389-1455), the statesman and diplomatist.

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  • In 1436 we find him one of the canons of Cracow and the administrator of Olesnicki's vast estates.

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  • See Aleksander Semkowicz, Critical Considerations of the Polish Works of Dlugosz (Pol.; Cracow, 1874); Michael Bobrzynski and Stanislaw Smolka, Life of Dlugosz and his Position in Literature (Pol.; Cracow, 1893).

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  • Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.

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  • Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.

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  • Gorzycki, The Annexation of Red Russia by Casimir the Great (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1889); Stanislaw Kryzanowski, The Embassy of Casimir the Great to Avignon (Pol.), (Cracow, 1900).

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  • at Cracow, spent four years at Konigsberg in Prussia, studying medicine and natural science.

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  • Meanwhile Charles pressed on towards Cracow, which was captured after a two months' siege.

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  • The fall of Cracow extinguished the last hope of the boldest Pole; but before the end of the year an extraordinary reaction began in Poland itself.

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  • of Sweden invaded Poland in 1655, Czarniecki distinguished himself by his heroic defence of Cracow, which he only surrendered under the most honourable conditions.

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  • On the retirement of the Swedes from Cracow and Warsaw, and the conclusion of the treaty of Copenhagen with the Danes, he commanded the army corps sent to drive the troops of Charles X.

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  • See Ludwik Jenike, Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1891); Michal Dymitr Krajewski, History of Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.), (Cracow, 1859).

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  • BEUTHEN, or Oberbeuthen, a town of Germany, in the extreme south-east of Prussian Silesia, on the railway between Breslau and Cracow, 121 m.

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  • After having studied at Cracow and Padua, he entered the church, and was successively appointed bishop of Kaminietz and of Posen.

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  • It was chiefly through his influence, and through the letter he wrote to the pope against the Jesuits, that they were prevented from establishing their schools at Cracow.

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  • In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.

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  • Louis's diplomacy, moreover, was materially assisted by his lifelong alliance with his uncle, the childless Casimir the Great of Poland, who had appointed him his successor; and on Casimir's death Louis was solemnly crowned king of Poland at Cracow (Nov.

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  • The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.

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  • In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and in 1495 began a wandering life, studying and then teaching and preaching in Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg.

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  • MOSES BEN ISRAEL ISSERLES (c. 1520-1572), known as Rema, was born at Cracow and died there in 1572.

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  • On the 23rd of August he joined Girolano Ramorino's army-corps as a volunteer, and subsequently formed a confederation of the three southern provinces of Kalisch, Sandomir and Cracow.

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  • iv.; Lubomir Gadon, Prince Adam Czartoryski during the Insurrection of November (Pol.) (Cracow, 1900).

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  • Subsequently he elevated Gnesen into the metropolitan see of Poland, with jurisdiction over the bishoprics of Cracow, Breslau and Kolberg, all three of these new sees, it is important to notice, being in territory conquered by Boleslaus; for hitherto both Cracow and Breslau had been Bohemian cities,-while Kolberg was founded to curb the lately subjugated Pomeranians.

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  • c. 1115), that 3' who generally styled himself duke of Poland, or dux totius Poloniae, claimed a sort of supremacy among these little states, a claim materially strengthened by the wealth and growing importance of his capital, Cracow, especially after Little Poland had annexed the central principality of Sieradia (Sieradz).

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  • The Polish princes opposed a valiant but ineffectual resistance; the towns of Sandomir and Cracow were reduced to ashes, and all who were able fled to the mountains of Hungary or the forests of Moravia.

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  • By an agreement with the queen mother of Hungary at Kassa in 1383, the Poles finally accepted Jadwiga as their queen, and, on the 18th of February 1386, greatly against her will, the young princess, already betrothed to William of Austria, was wedded to Jagiello, grand duke of Lithuania, who had been crowned king of Poland at Cracow, three days previously, under the title of Wladislaus II.

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  • To say nothing of the labours of the Cistercians as colonists, pioneers and churchbuilders, or of the missions of the Dominicans and Franciscans (the former of whom were introduced into Poland by Ivo, bishop of Cracow,' the personal friend of Dominic), the Church was the one stable and unifying element in an age of centrifugal particularism.

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  • But in the ensuing anarchic period both cities were utterly ruined, and the centre of political gravity was transferred from Great Poland to Little Poland, where Cracow, singularly favoured by her position, soon became the capital of the monarchy, and one of the wealthiest cities in Europe.

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  • At the end of the 14th century we find all the great trade gilds established there, and the cloth manufactured at Cracow was eagerly sought after, from Prague to Great Novgorod.

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  • So wealthy did Cracow become at last that Casimir the Great felt it necessary to restrain the luxury of her citizens by sumptuary ordinances.

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  • The mere instinct of self-preservation had, at last, drawn the Poles and Lithuanians together against these ruthless and masterful intruders, and the coronation of Jagiello at Cracow on the 15th of February 1386, was both a warning and a challenge to the Knights.

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  • Jagiello's signal for the attack at the battle of Griinewald, "Cracow and Vilna" (the respective capitals of Poland and Lithuania) had 'eloquently demonstrated the solidarity of the two states.

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  • "Pint-pot" Latuski, bishop of Posen, had purchased his office for 12,000 ducats from Queen Bona; while another of her creatures, Peter, popularly known as the "wencher," was appointed bishop of Przemysl with the promise of the reversion of the still richer see of Cracow.

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  • The university of Cracow, the sole source of knowledge in the vast Polish realm, still moved in the vicious circle of scholastic formularies.

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  • The Polish towns, notably Cracow, had obtained their privileges, including freedom from tolls and municipal government, from the Crown in return for important services, such as warding off the Tatars, while the cities of German origin were protected by the Magdeburg law.

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  • Casimir the Great even tried to make municipal government as democratic as possible by enacting that one half of the town council of Cracow should be elected from the civic patriciate, but the other half from the commonalty.

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  • Louis the Great placed the burgesses on a level with the gentry by granting to the town council of Cracow jurisdiction over all the serfs in the extra-rural estates of the citizens.

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  • Deputies from the towns took part in the election of John Albert (1492), and the burgesses of Cracow, the most enlightened economists in the kingdom, supplied Sigismund I.

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  • Again and again the nobility attempted to exclude the deputies of Cracow from the diet, in spite of a severe edict issued by Sigismund I.

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  • In an instant the whole Republic was seething like a caldron, and a rival assembly was simultaneously summoned to Cracow by Jan Ferlej, the head of the Protestant party.

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  • As palatine of Cracow he held one of the highest and most lucrative dignities in the state, and was equally famous for his valour, piety and liberality.

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  • Only the clergy, naturally conservative, still clung to the king, and Sigismund III., who was no coward, at once proceeded to Cracow to overawe the rokoszanie, or insurrectionists, by his proximity, and take the necessary measures for his own protection.

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  • bishops, Woclaw Hieronim Sierakowski (1699-1784) of Lemberg, Feliks Pawel Turski of Chelm (1729-1800), Kajetan Ignaty Soltyk of Cracow (1715-1788), and Jozef Jendrzej Zaluski of Kiev (1702-1774), offered a determined resistance to Repnin's.

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  • The next blunder of the Polish refugees was to allow themselves to be drawn into a premature rising by certain Polish officers in Poland who, to prevent the incorporation of their regiments in the Russian army, openly revolted and led their troops from Warsaw to Cracow.

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  • Kosciuszko himself condemned their hastiness; but, when the Russian troops began to concentrate, his feelings grew too strong for him, and early in April he himself appeared at Cracow.

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  • m., to which Western Galicia and Cracow, about 900 sq.

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  • By the final act of the Congress of gress of Vienna, signed on the 9th of June 1815, Poland was divided between Prussia, Austria and Russia, with one trifling exception: Cracow with its population of 61,000 was erected into a republic embedded in Galicia.

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  • No remnant of Poland's separate political existence Poland a remained save the minute republic of Cracow.

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  • and even unable to enforce its, neutrality, Cracow was a centre of disturbance, and, after Russia, Prussia, and Austria had in 1846 agreed to its suppression, was finally occupied by Austria on the 6th of November 1848, as a consequence of the troubles, more agrarian than political, which convulsed Galicia.

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  • Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.

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  • His Historical Sketches of the Eleventh Century (Pol., Cracow, 1904) is a very notable work.

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  • Of the numerous works relating to the reign of the heroic Stephen Bathory, 1 5751586, Ignaty Janicki's Acta historica res gestas Stephani Bathorei illustrantia (Cracow, 1881), and Paul Pierling's Un arbitrage pontifical entre la Pologne et la Russie 1581-1582 (Brussels, 1890) can be recommended.

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  • The best Polish work on the subject is Wincenty Zakrzewski's The Reign of Stephen Bathory (Pol., Cracow, 1887).

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  • Korwin (Cracow, 1890).

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  • (3) Die letzte polnische Konigswahl, by Szymon Askenazy (Cracow, 1882-1886).

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  • Maryan Dubiecki's Karol Prozor (Pol., Cracow, 1897) shows with what self-sacrificing devotion the gentry and people supported Kosciuszko's rising.

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  • For more complete bibliography see Jozef Korzeniowski's Catalogus actorum et documentarum res gestas Poloniae illusirantium (Cracow, 1889), and Ludwik Finkel's Bibliography of Polish History (Pol., Lemberg, 1891).

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  • The oldest manuscript of this production is dated 1408, and is preserved at Cracow.

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  • Gallus was followed by Matthew Cholewa and Vincent Kadlubek, two bishops of Cracow, and Bogufal or Boguchwal (Gottlob), bishop of Posen, who all used Latin.

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  • Jadwiga, the wife of Jagiello, was mainly instrumental in creating the university of Cracow, which received a charter in 1364, but did not come into effective existence till its reconstitution in 1400.

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  • Having obtained the consent:of Pope Urban V., he established at Cracow a studiumgenerale on the model of the university of Bologna.

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  • permission to create a new chair, that of theology; and the university of Cracow was remodelled, having been reorganized on the same basis as that of Paris.

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  • There were also good schools in various places, such as the Collegium Lubranskiego of Posen and the school of St Mary at Cracow.

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  • A few fragments printed in Polish had appeared before this, as the Lord's Prayer in the statutes of the bishops of Breslau in 1475, the story of Pope Urban in Latin, German and Polish in 1505, &c.; but the first complete work in the Polish language appeared from the press of this printer at Cracow in 1521, under the title, Speeches of the Wise King Solomon.

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  • Printers of repute at Cracow, during the 16th and beginning of the 17th century, were Sybeneicher and Piotrkowczyk.

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  • Another writer of pastorals, but not of equal merit, was Jan Gawinski, a native of Cracow.

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  • The author was born in 1495 on his father's estate, Biala, and was educated, like so many other of his illustrious contemporaries, at the university of Cracow.

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  • A hundred years afterwards a certain Katharina Malcher, on account of her Utraquist opinions, was condemned by Gamrat, the bishop of Cracow, to be burnt, which sentence was accordingly carried out in the ragmarket at Cracow.

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  • Four years afterwards appeared a complete Polish Bible published by Scharffenberg at Cracow.

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  • It would be impossible to recapitulate here the great quantity of material in the shape of memoirs which has come down, but mention must be made of those of John Chrysostom Pasek, a nobleman of Masovia, who has left us very graphic accounts of life and society in Poland; after a variety of adventures and many a well-fought battle, he returned to the neighbourhood of Cracow, where he died between 1699 and 1701.

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  • He served under Napoleon in the Polish legion, and has left a small collection of poems, the most important being the idyl Wieslaw, in which the manners of the peasants of the district of Cracow are faithfully portrayed.

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  • For about three years from 1849 he was professor of geography in the university of Cracow.

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  • The "Sketch of the History of Poland" (Dzieje Polskie w zarysie) by Michael Bobrzynski, born in 1849 in Cracow (professor of Polish and German law), is a very spirited work, and has given rise to a great deal of controversy on account of the opposition of many of its views to those of the school of Lelewel.

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  • Vincent Zakrzewski, professor of history at Cracow, has written some works which have attracted considerable attention, such as On the Origin and Growth of the Reformation in Poland, and After the Flight of King Henry, in which he describes the condition of the country during the period between that king's departure from Poland and the election of Stephen Batory.

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  • Wladyslaw Wislocki has prepared a catalogue of manuscripts in the Jagiellon library at Cracow.

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  • The Polish bibliography of Karl Estreicher, director of the Jagiellon library at Cracow, is a work of the highest importance.

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  • And Professor Joseph + epkowski, of Cracow, has greatly enriched the archaeological museum of his native city.

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  • Moritz Straszewski, professor of philosophy at the university of Cracow, has also published some remarkable works.

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  • Mention must also be made of Balucki (1837-1901), author of novels and comedies, and Narzymski (1839-1872), who was educated in France, but spent part of his short life in Cracow, author of some very popular tales.

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  • The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw.

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  • A cheap edition of the leading Polish classics, well adapted for dissemination among the people, has been published, under the title of Biblioteka Polska, at Cracow.

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  • Not only are the professors of Cracow University some of the most eminent living Poles, but it has been chosen as a place of residence by many Polish literary men.

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  • Bruckner (Leipzig, 1901; also written in Polish); Chmielowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish, 3 vols.); Stanislaus Tarnowski, History of Polish Literature (in Polish); Grabowski, Poezya Polska po roku 1863 (Cracow, 1903); Heinrich Nitschmann, Geschichte der polnischen Literatur (Leipzig; sine anno).

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  • Chodkiewicz (Pol.; 4th ed., Cracow, 1857-1858); Lukasz Golebiowski, The Moral Side of J.

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  • Buber, Cracow, 1903; see Jew.

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  • This post he retained until 1894, when he migrated to the university of Cracow as extraordinary professor, becoming in 1897 ordinary professor of astronomy and geodesy.

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  • CRACOW (Pol.

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  • Although in regard to its population it is only the second place in Galicia, Cracow is the most interesting town in the whole of Poland.

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  • No other Polish town possesses so many old and historic buildings, none of them contains so many national relics, or has been so closely associated with the development and destinies of Poland as Cracow.

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  • Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula (which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great strategical importance.

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  • Cracow has 39 churches - about half the number it formerly had - and 25 convents for monks and nuns.

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  • Here also are conserved the remains of St Stanislaus, the patron saint of the Poles, who, as bishop of Cracow, was slain before the altar by King Boleslaus in 1079.

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  • It contains a huge high altar, the masterpiece of Veit Stoss, who was a native of Cracow, executed in 1 477 - 1489; a colossal stone crucifix, dating from the end of the 15th century, and several sumptuous tombs of noble families from the 16th and 17th centuries.

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  • The Dominican church, a Gothic building of the 13th century, but practically rebuilt after a fire in 1850; the Franciscan church, also of the 13th century, also much modernized; the church of St Florian of the 12th century, rebuilt in 1768, which contains the late-Gothic altar by Veit Stoss, executed in 1518, during his last sojourn in Cracow; the church of St Peter, with a colossal dome, built in 1597, after the model of that of St Peter at Rome, and the beautiful Augustinian church in the suburb of Kazimierz, are all worth mentioning.

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  • Among the manufactures of the town are machinery, agricultural implements, chemicals, soap, tobacco, &c. But Cracow is more important as a trading than as an industrial centre.

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  • In the neighbourhood of Cracow there are mines of coal and zinc, and not far away lies the village of Krzeszowice with sulphur baths.

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  • On the opposite bank of the Vistula, united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142); near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krakus, the founder of Cracow.

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  • of Cracow is situated Wieliczka, with its famous salt mines.

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  • Tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about A.D.

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  • On the third partition of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow; but in 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony.

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  • At the general settlement of the affairs of Europe by the great powers in 1815, it was agreed that Cracow and the adjoining territory should be formed into a free state; and, by the Final Act of the congress signed at Vienna in 1815, "the town of Cracow, with its territory, is declared to be for ever a free, independent and strictly neutral city, under the protection of Russia, Austria and Prussia."

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  • In February 1846, however, an insurrection broke out in Cracow, apparently a ramification of a widely spread conspiracy throughout Poland.

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  • The senate and the other authorities of Cracow were unable to subdue the rebels or to maintain order, and, at their request, the city was occupied by a corps of Austrian troops for the protection of the inhabitants.

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  • 20) he displayed all his old bravery, but was so seriously wounded at the battle of Olszyna that he had to be conveyed to Cracow, near which city he lived in complete retirement till his death in 1854.

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  • See Jozef Maczynski, Life and Death of Joseph Chlopicki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1858); Ignacy Pradzynski, The Four Last Polish Commanders (Pol.) (Posen, 1865).

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  • STANISLAUS KONIECPOLSKI (1591-1646), Polish soldier, was the most illustrious member of an ancient Polish family which rendered great services to the Republic. Educated at the academy of Cracow, he learned the science of war under the great Jan Chodkiewicz, whom he accompanied on his Muscovite campaigns, and under the equally great Stanislaus Zolkiewski, whose daughter Catherine he married.

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  • (Cracow, 1849); F.

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  • A Fabularum Aesopicarum sylloge (233 in number) from a Paris MS., with critical notes by Sternbach, appeared in a Cracow University publication, Rozprawy akademii umiejetnosci (1894).

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  • The Poles proved even more difficult to satisfy than was anticipated; but finally a compromise was come to whereby the territorial settlement was postponed till after the death of John III.; and Sigismund was duly crowned at Cracow on the 27th of December 1587.

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  • She introduced Italian elegance and luxury into the austere court of Cracow and exercised no inconsiderable influence on affairs.

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  • to the Polish king in the market-place of Cracow.

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  • Its inundations, dangerous even at Cracow, become still more so in the plain, when the accumulations of ice in its lower course obstruct the outflow, or the heavy rains in the Carpathians raise its level.

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  • Cracow, II.

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  • Fortifications.-The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Petervarad, 6-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary; Serajewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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  • This was in its origin a Polish nationalist movement, hatched in the little independent republic of Cracow.

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  • Count Stadion began it in Galicia, where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission (April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside Polish.

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  • Such beds of salt are found in strata of very varied geological age; the Salt Range of the Punjab, for instance, is probably of Cambrian age, while the famous saltdeposits of Wieliczka, near Cracow, have been referred to the Pliocene period.

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  • See Stanislaw Gabryel Kozlowski, Life of Stanislaus Zolkiewski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1904).

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  • Casimir the Great and other Polish princes endowed it with privileges similar to those of Cracow, and it attained a high degree of prosperity.

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  • Pazmfiny went through his probation at Cracow, took his degree at Vienna, and studied theology at Rome, and finally completed his academic course at the Jesuit college at Graz.

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  • In 1846 he assisted Fieldmarshal Paskievich to suppress the Cracow rising.

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  • Educated at Grojec and Cracow, he began life as a tutor to the family of Andrew Tenczynski, castellan of Cracow, and, some years later, after a visit to Vienna, took orders, and from 1563 was attached to the cathedral church of Lemberg.

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  • In 1584 he was transferred to the new Jesuit College at Cracow.

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  • Wearied out at last, he begged to be relieved of his office of preacher, quitted the court, and resided for the last few months of his life at Cracow, where he died on the 27th of September 1612.

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  • The most important of his works are: Lives of the Saints (Wilna, 1579, 27th edition, 1884); Sermons on Sundays and Saints' Days (1st ed., Cracow, 1595, Latin ed., Cracow, 1691); Sermons preached before the Diet (last and best edition, Cracow, 1904) and numerous other volumes of sermons, some of which have already run through thirty editions.

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  • (Pol.) (Cracow, 1850-185).

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  • Winkler de Ketrszynski, Vita sancti Stephani (Cracow, 1897).

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  • (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); V.

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  • (Pol.) (Cracow, 1845).

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  • Jagiello, was appointed while still a lad grandduke of Lithuania by his father, and crowned king of Poland at Cracow in June 1447, three years after the death of his elder brother, Wladislaus III., at the battle of Varna.

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  • He, one of the greatest monarchs in Europe, habitually wore plain Cracow cloth, drank nothing but water, and kept the most austere of tables.

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  • Finkal (Cracow, 1899); Maksymilian Gumplowicz, Zur Geschichte Polens im Mittelalter (Innsbruck, 1898).

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  • HELENA MODJESKA (1844-1909), Polish actress, was born at Cracow on the 12th of October 1844.

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  • At the age of 80, Catherine, wife of Melchior Vogel or Weygel, was burned at Cracow (1539) for apostasy; whether her views embraced more than deism is not clear.

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  • STANISLAUS HOSIUS (1 5 0 41 579), Polish cardinal, was born in Cracow on the 5th of May 1504.

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  • In 996 he gained a seaboard by seizing Pomerania, and subsequently took advantage of the troubles in Bohemia to occupy Cracow, previously a Czech city.

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  • He became a Cistercian at the monastery of Paradiz in Poland, and was sent by the abbot to the university of Cracow, where he became master in philosophy and doctor of theology.

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  • West of Cracow the Cretaceous beds are underlaid by Jurassic and Triassic deposits, the general dip being eastward.

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  • The principal towns of Austria are Vienna (1,662,269), Prague (460,849), Trieste (132,879), Lemberg (159,618), Graz (138,370), Bruenn (108,944), Cracow (91,310), Czernowitz (67,622), Pilsen (68,292) and Linz (58,778).

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  • It comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand duchy of Cracow.

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  • The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug.

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  • Coals are found in the Cracow district at Jaworzno, at Siersza near Trzebinia and at Dabrowa.

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  • Other mineral products are zinc, extracted at Trzebionka and Wodna in the Cracow region, amounting to 40% of the total zinc production in Austria, iron ore, marble and various stones for construction.

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  • The sulphur mines of Swoszowice near Cracow, which had been worked since 1598, were abandoned in 1884.

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  • The Roman Catholic Church has an archbishop, at Lemberg, and,three bishops, at Cracow, at Przemysl and at Tarnow, and the Greek Catholic Church is represented by an archbishop, at Lemberg, and two bishops, at Przemysl and at Stanislau.

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  • At the head of the educational institutions stand the two universities of Lemberg and Cracow, and the Polish academy of science at Cracow.

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  • For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 78 districts and 2 autonomous municipalities - Lemberg (pop. 159,618), the capital, and Cracow (91,310).

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  • On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.

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  • This latter portion was recovered by Austria at the peace of Paris (1814), and the former came back on the suppression of the independent republic of Cracow in 1846.

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  • See Stanislaw Orzechowski, Life and Death of Jan Tarnowski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1855).

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  • His lectures gained him a European reputation, and in 1578 he received a tempting offer from the king of Poland to become teacher of jurisprudence in his new college at Cracow.

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  • Casimir, duke of Poland, dedicated a church at Cracow to him.

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  • See Teodor Narbutt, History of the Lithuanian nation (Pol.) (Vilna, 1835); Antoni Prochaska, On the Genuineness of the Letters of Gedymin (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Vladimir Bonifatovich Antonovich, Monograph concerning the History of Western and Southwestern Russia (Rus.) (Kiev, 1885).

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  • The opposite party immediately elected the Austrian Archduke Maximilian, who thereupon made an attempt upon Cracow.

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  • rocks of Cracow, Marchantites erectus from the Inferior Oolite rocks of Yorkshire, and M.

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  • The cordial understanding with Austria, cemented at Miinchengratz and Berlin, was renewed, after the accession of the emperor Ferdinand, at Prague and Tdplitz (1835); on the latter occasion it was decided " without difficulty " to suppress the republic of Cracow, as a centre of revolutionary agitation.

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  • (SoBIEsKI) (1624-1696), king of Poland, was the eldest son of James Sobieski, castellan of Cracow, and Theofila Danillowiczowna, grand-daughter of the great Hetman Zolkiewski.

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  • Only his superb strategy and the heroic devotion of his lieutenants - notably the converted Jew, Jan Samuel Chrzanowski, who held the Ottoman army at bay for eleven days behind the walls of Trembowla - enabled the king to remove "the pagan yoke from our shoulders"; and he returned to be crowned at Cracow on the 14th of February 1676.

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  • See Tadeusz Korzon, Fortunes and Misfortunes of John Sobieski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1898); E.

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  • (Cracow, 1881); Ludwik Piotr Leliwa, John Sobieski and His Times (Pol.) (Cracow, 1882-1885); Kazimierz Waliszewski, Marysienka Queen of Poland (London, 1898); Georg Rieder, Johann Sobieski in Wien (Vienna, 1882).

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  • Czerny, The Reigns of John Albert and Alexander Jagiello (Pol.) (Cracow, 1882).

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  • Having studied at Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow and Paris, he returned to Ingolstadt in 1507, and in 1509 was appointed tutor to Louis and Ernest, the two younger sons of Albert the Wise, the late duke of BavariaMunich.

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  • The churchmen headed by Stanislaus Szczepanowski, bishop of Cracow, took the side of the nobles, whose grievances seem to have been real.

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  • HUGO KOLLONTAJ (1750-1812), Polish politician and writer, was born in 1750 at Niecislawice in Sandomir, and educated at Pinczow and Cracow.

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  • At Rome too he obtained a canonry attached to Cracow cathedral, and on his return to Poland in 1755 threw himself heart and soul into the question of educational reform.

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  • His efforts were impeded by the obstruction of the clergy of Cracow, who regarded him as an adventurer; but he succeeded in reforming the university after his own mind, and was its rector for three years (1782-1785).

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  • Czacki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1854); Letters written during Emigration, 1792-1794 (Pol.) (Posen, 1872).

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  • See Ignacz Badeni, Necrology of Hugo Kollontaj (Pol.) (Cracow, 1819); Henryk Schmitt, Review of the Life and Works of Kollontaj (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1860); Wojciek Grochowski, "Life of Kollontaj" (Pol.) in Tygod Illus.

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  • 1570), the kabbalist, whose chief work was the Pardes Rimmonim (Cracow, 1591).

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  • Also connected with Prag was Yom Tobh Lipmann Heller, a voluminous author, best known for the Tosaphoth Yom Tobh on the Mishna (Prag, 1614; Cracow, 1643).

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  • of Cracow.

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  • Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.

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  • This chapter has also appeared in Polish (Cracow, 1844) and Greek (Athens, 1840).

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  • GLEIWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Klodnitz, and the railway between Oppeln and Cracow, 40 m.

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  • Aided by the Russians, his troops drove Stanislaus Leszczynski from Poland; Augustus was crowned at Cracow in January 1734, and was generally recognized as king at Warsaw in June 1736.

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  • Prochaska, Cracow, 1882).

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  • A fortnight later Charles quitted Warsaw, to seek the elector; on the 2nd of July routed the combined Poles and Saxons at Klissow; and three weeks later, captured the fortress of Cracow by an act of almost fabulous audacity.

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  • It is now used only by the bishops of Eichstatt, Cracow, Paderborn and Toul, by the special concession of various popes.

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  • Thesby de Belcour, The Confederates of Bar (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895); Charles Francois Dumouriez, Memoires et correspondance (Paris, 1834).

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  • The summer isotherm of 68° F., which in Europe passes through Cracow and Kaluga, traverses Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, whence it turns north to Yakutsk, and then south again to Vladivostok.

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  • COPERNICUS (or [[Koppernigk), Nicolaus]] (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, was born on the 19th of February 1473, at Thorn in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had settled as a wholesale trader.

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  • Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.

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  • The only work published by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509).

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  • Two years later Jadwiga, reluctantly transferred to the Poles instead of her sister, was crowned queen of Poland at Cracow (Oct.

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  • Wladislaus accepted the proffered throne from the Magyar delegates at Cracow on the 8th of March 1440; but in the meantime (Feb.

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  • Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).

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  • Szekely wrote in prose, with verse introduction, a " Chronicle of the World " under the title of Cronica ez vildgnac yeles dolgairol (Cracow, 1559).

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  • work 1 at Cracow in 1531 to the end of the period just treated, more than 1800 publications in the native language are known.2 The period comprised between the peace of Szatmar (1711) and the year 1772 is far more barren in literary results than even that which preceded it.

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  • After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.

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  • Born in 1415, he graduated at the university of Cracow and in 1431 entered the service of Bishop Zbygniew Olesnicki (1389-1455), the statesman and diplomatist.

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  • In 1436 we find him one of the canons of Cracow and the administrator of Olesnicki's vast estates.

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  • See Aleksander Semkowicz, Critical Considerations of the Polish Works of Dlugosz (Pol.; Cracow, 1874); Michael Bobrzynski and Stanislaw Smolka, Life of Dlugosz and his Position in Literature (Pol.; Cracow, 1893).

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  • Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.

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  • Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.

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  • Gorzycki, The Annexation of Red Russia by Casimir the Great (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1889); Stanislaw Kryzanowski, The Embassy of Casimir the Great to Avignon (Pol.), (Cracow, 1900).

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  • at Cracow, spent four years at Konigsberg in Prussia, studying medicine and natural science.

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  • Meanwhile Charles pressed on towards Cracow, which was captured after a two months' siege.

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  • The fall of Cracow extinguished the last hope of the boldest Pole; but before the end of the year an extraordinary reaction began in Poland itself.

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  • of Sweden invaded Poland in 1655, Czarniecki distinguished himself by his heroic defence of Cracow, which he only surrendered under the most honourable conditions.

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  • On the retirement of the Swedes from Cracow and Warsaw, and the conclusion of the treaty of Copenhagen with the Danes, he commanded the army corps sent to drive the troops of Charles X.

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  • See Ludwik Jenike, Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1891); Michal Dymitr Krajewski, History of Stephen Czarniecki (Pol.), (Cracow, 1859).

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  • BEUTHEN, or Oberbeuthen, a town of Germany, in the extreme south-east of Prussian Silesia, on the railway between Breslau and Cracow, 121 m.

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  • After having studied at Cracow and Padua, he entered the church, and was successively appointed bishop of Kaminietz and of Posen.

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  • It was chiefly through his influence, and through the letter he wrote to the pope against the Jesuits, that they were prevented from establishing their schools at Cracow.

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  • In 1807 his submission was rewarded with the duchy of Warsaw (to which Cracow and part of Galicia were added in 1809) and the district of Cottbus, though he had to surrender some of his former territory to the new kingdom of Westphalia.

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  • Louis's diplomacy, moreover, was materially assisted by his lifelong alliance with his uncle, the childless Casimir the Great of Poland, who had appointed him his successor; and on Casimir's death Louis was solemnly crowned king of Poland at Cracow (Nov.

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  • The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.

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  • In 1490 he entered the order of Franciscan monks, and in 1495 began a wandering life, studying and then teaching and preaching in Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Paris, Cracow and Strassburg.

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  • MOSES BEN ISRAEL ISSERLES (c. 1520-1572), known as Rema, was born at Cracow and died there in 1572.

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  • On the 23rd of August he joined Girolano Ramorino's army-corps as a volunteer, and subsequently formed a confederation of the three southern provinces of Kalisch, Sandomir and Cracow.

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  • See Bronislaw Zaleski, Life of Adam Czartoryski (Pol.) (Paris, 1881); Lubomir Gadon, Prince Adam Czartoryski (Pol.) (Cracow, 1892); Ludovik Debicki, Pulawy, vol.

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  • iv.; Lubomir Gadon, Prince Adam Czartoryski during the Insurrection of November (Pol.) (Cracow, 1900).

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  • Subsequently he elevated Gnesen into the metropolitan see of Poland, with jurisdiction over the bishoprics of Cracow, Breslau and Kolberg, all three of these new sees, it is important to notice, being in territory conquered by Boleslaus; for hitherto both Cracow and Breslau had been Bohemian cities,-while Kolberg was founded to curb the lately subjugated Pomeranians.

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  • c. 1115), that 3' who generally styled himself duke of Poland, or dux totius Poloniae, claimed a sort of supremacy among these little states, a claim materially strengthened by the wealth and growing importance of his capital, Cracow, especially after Little Poland had annexed the central principality of Sieradia (Sieradz).

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  • The Polish princes opposed a valiant but ineffectual resistance; the towns of Sandomir and Cracow were reduced to ashes, and all who were able fled to the mountains of Hungary or the forests of Moravia.

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  • By an agreement with the queen mother of Hungary at Kassa in 1383, the Poles finally accepted Jadwiga as their queen, and, on the 18th of February 1386, greatly against her will, the young princess, already betrothed to William of Austria, was wedded to Jagiello, grand duke of Lithuania, who had been crowned king of Poland at Cracow, three days previously, under the title of Wladislaus II.

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  • To say nothing of the labours of the Cistercians as colonists, pioneers and churchbuilders, or of the missions of the Dominicans and Franciscans (the former of whom were introduced into Poland by Ivo, bishop of Cracow,' the personal friend of Dominic), the Church was the one stable and unifying element in an age of centrifugal particularism.

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  • But in the ensuing anarchic period both cities were utterly ruined, and the centre of political gravity was transferred from Great Poland to Little Poland, where Cracow, singularly favoured by her position, soon became the capital of the monarchy, and one of the wealthiest cities in Europe.

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  • At the end of the 14th century we find all the great trade gilds established there, and the cloth manufactured at Cracow was eagerly sought after, from Prague to Great Novgorod.

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  • So wealthy did Cracow become at last that Casimir the Great felt it necessary to restrain the luxury of her citizens by sumptuary ordinances.

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  • The mere instinct of self-preservation had, at last, drawn the Poles and Lithuanians together against these ruthless and masterful intruders, and the coronation of Jagiello at Cracow on the 15th of February 1386, was both a warning and a challenge to the Knights.

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  • Jagiello's signal for the attack at the battle of Griinewald, "Cracow and Vilna" (the respective capitals of Poland and Lithuania) had 'eloquently demonstrated the solidarity of the two states.

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