Counts sentence example

counts
  • It counts for something, doesn't it?
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  • He belonged to a noble family of Scotch descent, tracing its origin to Walter Stutt, who in 1420 accompanied the earls of Buchan and Douglas to the court of France, and whose family afterwards rose to be counts of Tracy.
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  • No on both counts but he's been a person of interest in the past, because of his associates.
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  • You fight me where it counts.
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  • I'll take that as a compliment on both counts.
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  • He half-hoped Fred would either be out socializing or asleep but lost on both counts.
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  • The hotel de ville, also by Abadie, is a handsome modern structure, but preserves two towers of the château of the counts of Angouleme, on the site of which it is built.
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  • The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242.
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  • It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.
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  • He took part in the nomination of the counts and dukes; in the king's absence he presided over the royal tribunal; and he often commanded the armies.
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  • Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
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  • The knights, who as farmers of the taxes had suffered heavy losses during the disturbances in Syria, were greatly embittered against Gabinius, and, when he appeared in the senate to give an account of his governorship, he was brought to trial on three counts, all involving a capital offence.
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  • Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern.
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  • The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
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  • Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
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  • Internally Charles left the affairs of the Italian kingdom much as he found them, except that he appears to have pursued the policy of breaking up the larger fiefs of the Lombards, substituting counts for their dukes, and adding to the privileges of the bishops.
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  • The hierarchy of dukes and marquises and counts consisted of foreign soldiers imposed on.
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  • Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
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  • The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
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  • We have seen how the cities enclosed themselves with walls, and how the bishops defined their authority against that of the counts.
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  • Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the counts.
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  • The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
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  • The part played by man also counts for much.
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  • The one claimed an existing kingdom, and obtained full possession of it in a comparatively short time; the other formed for himself a dominion bit by bit, which rose to the rank of a kingdom I Roger de Hauteville, the conqueror of Sicily, was a brother of the first four dukes or counts of Apulia, and was invested with the countship of Sicily by the pope before starting on his adventure.
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  • The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.
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  • The picturesque Old Palace (Alte Residenz) was built in 1591 on the site of an old residence of the counts of Babenberg.
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  • Under the Lombards the town was the seat of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools.
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  • The handsome château of the counts of Thun (built in 1667-73 and restored in 1788), which occupies a rocky height above the town, was at one time fortified, and was a place of some importance during the Seven Years' War.
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  • The lordship was bought from them in 1628 by the Freiherr von Thun, by whose descendants, the Counts Thun, it is still held.
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  • Apt was at one time the chief town of the Vulgientes, a Gallic tribe; it was destroyed by the Romans about 125 B.C. and restored by Julius Caesar, who conferred upon it the title Apta Julia; it was much injured by the Lombards and the Saracens, but its fortifications were rebuilt by the counts of Provence.
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  • He had long known Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin, the foreign secretary, and, as matters became more strained from the complications with the princes and counts of the empire, he entered into daily communication with the minister, advised him on every point, and, while dictating his policy, defended it in the Assembly.
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  • On the Schlossberg near the town are the ruins of the castle of the counts of Forbach, a branch of the counts of Saarbriicken.
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  • Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
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  • Zenobia seems to have ruled on hehalf of her young son Wahab-allath or Athenodorus as the name is Graecized, who counts the years of his reign from the date of his father's death.
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  • The lordship of Schwedt was in the possession of the counts of Hohenstein from 1481 to 1609, when it passed to Brandenburg.
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  • Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.
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  • The longer the staple above the minimum the higher the counts that can be spun.
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  • Of great importance also was the house of the counts of Anjou, which was founded in 1246, by Charles, son of the French king Louis VIII., and which, in 1630, was raised to the dignity of a dukedom.
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  • Members of this family sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442.
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  • A third branch formed the house of the counts of Artois, which was founded in 1238 by Robert, son of King Louis VIII.
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  • The counts of Dreux, for two centuries and a half (1132-1377), and the counts of Evreux, from 1307 to 1425, also belonged to the family of the Capets, - other members of which worthy of mention are the Dunois and the Longuevilles, illegitimate branches of the house of Valois, which produced many famous warriors and courtiers.
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  • At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse.
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  • Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.
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  • The most important building is the Groote Kerk, of St Walpurgis, which dates from the 12th century and contains monuments of the former counts of Zutphen, a 13th-century candelabrum, an elaborate copper font (1527), and a fine modern monument to the van Heeckeren family.
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  • In the middle ages Zutphen was the seat of a line of counts, which became extinct in the 12th century.
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  • Like other parts of Germany during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power, and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts, among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors.
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  • Louis, who is also called Le Ddbonnaire, counts as Louis I., king of France.
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  • He was continually employed on diplomatic errands until 1455, when, owing apparently to ill-health, he received apartments in the palace of the counts of Hainaut at Salle-le-Comte, Valenciennes, with a con siderable pension, on condition that the recipient should put in writing "choses nouvelles et morales," and a chronicle of notable events.
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  • During the middle ages it was the chief town of the district of Beauce, and gave its name to a countship which was held by the counts of Blois and Champagne and afterwards by the house of Chatillon, a member of which in 1286 sold it to the crown.
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  • The convent was suppressed by Duke Maurice in 1543, and was by him converted into a school (the Fiirsten Schule), one of the most renowned classical schools in Germany, which counts Lessing and Gellert among its former pupils.
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  • The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
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  • The town itself is a pleasant residence, and contains a 16th century cathedral church, an 18th century bishop's palace, a 14th-16th century castle (formerly the residence of the counts of the Genevois), and the reconstructed convent of the Visitation, wherein now reposes the body of St Francois de Sales (born at the castle of Sales, close by, in 1567; died at Lyons in 1622), who held the see from 1602 to 1622.
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  • Annecy itself was in the 10th century the capital of the counts of the Genevois, from whom it passed in 1401 to the counts of Savoy, and became French in 1860 on the annexation of Savoy.
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  • The counts, of course, as over-lords, had their Vogt (advocatus) in the town, but this official, as the city grew in power, became subordinate to the Rath, as at Lubeck.
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  • It was occupied by the Visigoths, and subsequently, after forming part of the royal domain, came to the counts of Touraine and from them to the counts of Anjou.
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  • The title of earl, applied by the English to the foreign counts established in England by William the Conqueror, is dealt with elsewhere (see Earl).
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  • Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
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  • In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
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  • From the 16th '"Count of the Lateran Palace" (Comes Sacri Lateranensis Palatii) was later the title usually bestowed by the popes in creating counts palatine.
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  • The emperors, too, continued to make counts palatine under this title long after the Lateran had ceased to be an imperial palace.
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  • In Germany the change from the official to the territorial and hereditary counts followed at the outset much the same course as in France, though the later development of the title and its meaning was different.
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  • In the 10th century the counts were permitted by the kings to divide their benefices and rights among their sons, the rule being established that countships (Grafschaften) were hereditary, that they might be held by boys, that they were heritable by females and might even be administered by females.
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  • At first all counts were reckoned as princes of the Empire (Reichsfiirsten); but since the end of the 12th century this rank was restricted to those who were immediate tenants of the crown,' the other counts of the Empire (Reichsgrafen) being placed among the free lords (harones, liberi domini).
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  • Counts of princely rank (gefiirstete Grafen) voted among the princes in the imperial diet; the others (Reichsgrafen) were grouped in the Grafenbanke - originally two, to which two more were added in the 17th century - each of which had one vote.
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  • The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
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  • The result ' Of these there were four who, as counts of the Empire par excellence, were sometimes styled "simple counts" (Schlechtgrafen), i.e.
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  • These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
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  • Of all European countries Italy has been most prolific of counts.
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  • The Spanish counts of old creation, some of whom are grandees and members of the Upper House, naturally take the highest rank; but the title, still bestowed for eminent public services or other reasons, is of value.
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  • In the British empire the only recognized counts are those of Malta, who are given precedence with baronets of the United Kingdom.
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  • The registers at St David's make no mention of his consecration, but this counts for nothing.
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  • Unfortunately we know nothing of his vote or of the reasons he gave for it, and outside of the Roman pale the unanimous decision of a committee of cardinals counts for very little.
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  • On October 6, 1849, thirteen generals who had taken part in the war, including Damjanics and Counts Vecsey and Leiningen, were hanged or shot at Arad.
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  • Versifiers and adapters from the French appeared also in Counts Adam and Joseph Teleki, Alexander Baroczi and Joseph Peczeli, known also as the translator of Young's " Night Thoughts."
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  • It fell later to the counts of Henneberg; but, receiving civic rights in the 13th century, it maintained its independence as a free imperial city with few interruptions until 1803, when it passed to Bavaria.
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  • Though probably of ancient origin, the town was unimportant till the 10th century when it became the residence of the counts.
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  • In the IIth century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side.
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  • The male line of the Dalbergs is now represented only by the family of Hessloch, descended from Gerhard of Dalberg (c. 1239), which in 1809 succeeded to the title and estates in Moravia and Bohemia of the extinct counts of Ostein.
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  • From the 9th to the 12th century Artois belonged to the counts of Flanders.
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  • His descendants, the counts of Eu, continued to style themselves counts of Artois.
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  • The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).
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  • Its early lords were the bishops of Metz, the counts of the lower Saargau, and the counts of the Ardennes.
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  • From 1381 to 1793 it belonged to the counts of Nassau-Saarbriicken, and then, after having been in the possession of France from 1801 to 1815, it passed to Prussia.
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  • Some ruins on a hill exist of the old castle of the counts of Louvain whose title was merged in the higher style of the dukes of Brabant.
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  • The emperor Lothair when in Italy forced Florence to submit to his authority, but at his death in 1137 things returned to their former state and the Florentines fought successfully against the powerful counts Guidi.
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  • On the neighbouring Schlossberg is the ancestral castle of the counts of La Marck, ancestors, on the female side, of the Prussian royal house.
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  • Under the English rule the counts of Armagnac were turbulent and untrustworthy vassals; and the administration of the Black Prince, tending to favour the towns of Aquitaine at the expense of the nobles, drove them to the side of France.
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  • The fief passed later into the possession of the counts of Berg.
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  • This controversy ended in his being court-martialled in 1864 and being found guilty on several counts and sentenced to public reprimand and suspension for three years.
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  • On the extinction (1218) of that dynasty both castle and town passed to the counts of Kyburg, and from them, with the rest of their possessions, in 1272 by marriage to the cadet line of the Habsburgs.
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  • Within ten years she had created 17 counts, 46 barons and 428 lesser nobles; and, to provide these new peers with adequate appanages, she had sold or mortgaged crown property representing an annual income of 1,200,000 rix-dollars.
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  • C. von Hahn as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, which counts among its representatives such heroes as Perseus, Cyrus, Romulus and Remus, Siegfried, and, as Alfred Nutt has pointed out, Arthur himself.
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  • During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.
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  • In the time of the counts the wealth of Gouda was mainly derived from brewing and cloth-weaving; but at a later date the making of clay tobacco pipes became the staple trade, and, although this industry has somewhat declined, the churchwarden pipes of Gouda are still well known and largely manufactured.
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  • When the family became extinct in 1673 this office of king of the pipers (Pfeiferkonig) passed to the counts palatine of Zweibriicken-Birkenfeld.
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  • The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, Frederick and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, dividing the land between them.
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  • The next year six deputies, two appointed by each of the three allied counts of Flanders, Champagne and Blois, were despatched to Venice to negotiate for ships.
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  • When this began in 1267 to be the residence of the early Brunswick or Wolfenbuttel line of counts, a town gradually grew up around it.
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  • In 1038 this countship was purchased by the dukes of Aquitaine and counts of Poitiers.
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  • After the collapse of that monarchy its territories passed to the German kings, and Savoy was divided between the counts of Provence, of Albon, of Gex, of Bresse, of the Genevois, of Maurienne, the lords of Habsburg, of Zahringen, &c., and several prelates.
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  • He fought in many campaigns against the dauphins of Viennois, the counts of Genevois, the people of Sion and Geneva, the marquesses of Saluzzo and Montferrat, and the barons of Faucigny.
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  • The Tour Hautefeuille (a keep of the 11th century) is the principal relic of a château of the counts of Champagne; the rest of the site is occupied by the law courts.
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  • In 1190 it received a charter from the counts of Champagne.
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  • In 1500, by inheritance from the counts of Gdrz, the Pusterthal and upper Drave valley (east) were added; in 1505 the lower portion of the Zillerthal, with the Inn 1 To speak, as is commonly done, of "the Tirol" is as absurd as speaking of "the England."
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  • The seigneurs of Bethune, avoues (advocati) of the great abbey of Saint-Vaast at Arras from the I 1 th century, were the ancestors of a great French house whence sprang the dukes of Sully, Charost, Orval, and Ancenis; the marquises of Rosny, Courville and Chabris; the counts of Selles and the princes of Boisbelle and Henrichemont.
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  • Kulmbach and Plassenburg belonged to the dukes of Meran, and then to the counts of Orlamunde, from whom they passed in the 14th century to the Hohenzollerns, burgraves of Nuremberg, and thus to the margraves of Bayreuth.
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  • Among its principal buildings are the church of St Andrew (Andreaskirche), which contains numerous monuments of the counts of Mansfeld; the church of St Peter and St Paul (Peter-Paulkirche), containing the font in which Luther was baptized; the royal gymnasium (classical school), founded by Luther shortly before his death in 1546; and the hospital.
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  • In 1045, at which time it belonged to the counts of Mansfeld, it received the right to hold markets, coin money, and levy tolls.
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  • From 1531 to 1710 it was the seat of the cadet line of the counts of Mansfeld-Eisleben.
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  • After the extinction of the main line of the counts of Mansfeld, Eisleben fell to Saxony, and, in the partition of Saxony by the congress of Vienna in 1815, was assigned to Prussia.
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  • Charles now sought to increase his authority in Italy, where Frankish counts were set over various districts, and where Hildebrand, duke of Spoleto, appears to have recognized his overlordship. In 780 he was again in the peninsula, and at Mantua issued an important capitulary which increased the authority of the Lombard bishops, relieved freemen who under stress of famine had sold themselves into servitude, and condemned abuses of the system of vassalage.
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  • In secular affairs Charles abolished the office of duke, placed counts over districts smaller than the former duchies, and supervised their government by means of missi dominici, officials responsible to himself alone.
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  • In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.
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  • In the middle ages Aire belonged to the counts of Flanders, from whom in 1188 it received a charter, which is still extant.
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  • It was bought in 1306 by the counts of Schwarzburg, who lived here till 1716.
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  • Grisegonelle (Greytunic) (c. 960-21st of July 987), who inaugurated a policy of expansion, having as its objects the extension of the boundaries of the ancient countship and the reconquest of those parts of it which had been annexed by the neighbouring states; for, though western Anjou had been recovered from the dukes of Brittany since the beginning of the 10th century, in the east all the district of Saumur had already by that time fallen into the hands of the counts of Blois and Tours.
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  • The latter having seized upon Nantes, of which the counts of Anjou held themselves to be suzerains, Fulk Nerra came and laid siege to it, routing Conan's army at Conquereuil (27th of June 992) and re-establishing Nantes under his own suzerainty.
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  • Lastly, the work of Celestin Port, Dictionnaire historique, geographique et biographique de Maine-etLoire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of Preliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass of information concerning everything connected with Angevin history.
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  • A vague tradition connects the house with the Colonna family of Rome, or the Colalto family of Lombardy; but one more definite unites the Hohenzollerns with the Burkhardingers, who were counts in Raetia during the early part of the 10th century, and two of whom became dukes of Swabia.
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  • These men appear to have been counts of Zollern, and to have met their death in 1061.
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  • Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (Castrum Duacense) as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477 with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain.
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  • The counts of Armagnac possessed a castle in the city, which was the capital of Armagnac in the middle ages.
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  • Till 1140 it belonged to the counts of Orlamunde; it then fell to Albert the Bear and the descendants of his second son.
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  • The town hall was originally a palace of the counts of Holland, begun in the 12th century, and some old 13th-century beams still remain; but the building was remodelled in the beginning of the 17th century.
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  • Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
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  • It first appears as a town in 942 and until 1108 was the seat of the counts of Rothenburg-Komburg; when this line became extinct it passed to the family of Hohenstaufen, one member of which took the title of duke of Rothenburg.
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  • Gera (in ancient chronicles Geraha) was raised to the rank of a town in the IIth century, at which time it belonged to the counts of Groitch.
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  • Of the powerful literary executive which gathered about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, Pellico was the able secretary - the management of the Conciliatore, which appeared in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him.
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  • But her armaments were not then adequate to give effect to a strong-handed policy, so that for some years thereafter the government had both to impose heavy burdens on the people and to pursue a foreign policy of marking time, and endured the fiercest criticism on both counts, for the idea of war with Russia was as popular as the taxes necessary to that object were detested.
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  • In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
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  • The chapel of the counts attached to the church dates from 1373, and contained mural paintings of the counts and countesses of Flanders down to the merging of the title in the house of Burgundy.
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  • Pop. (1901) town, 19,180; commune, 33373 The modern town (22 9 ft.) was a mere village belonging to the Caetani family of Sermoneta, who were counts of Caserta, until its purchase from them by Charles IV.
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  • They were again reduced to dependence on the Franks by Charles Martel, who abolished the office of duke and divided the country among Frankish counts.
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  • It appears to have been united with Meissen for some time, and this was certainly the case from 1046 to 1067, when both countries were ruled by William and Otto, counts of Weimar.
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  • The town lies at the foot of a wooded hill on which stand the ruins of the castle of the counts of Bar, and is composed chiefly of one long street, bordered in places by houses of the 16th century.
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  • The first foe without was the family of the counts of the Genevois (the region south of the city and in the neighbourhood of Annecy), who were also "protectors" (advocati) of the church of Geneva, and are first heard of in the 11th and 12th centuries.
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  • In 1250 the counts of Savoy first appear in connexion with Geneva, being mortgagees of the Genevois family, and, in 1263, practically their heirs as "protectors" of the city.
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  • Valdemar was brought up at the court of the German emperor, Louis of Bavaria, during those miserable years when the realm of Denmark was partitioned among Holstein counts and German Ritter, while Scania, "the bread-basket" of the monarchy, sought deliverance from anarchy under the protection of Magnus of Sweden.
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  • At a Hansetag held at Cologne on the 11th of November 1367, three groups of the towns, seventy in number, concerted to attack Denmark, and in January 1368 Valdemar's numerous domestic enemies, especially the Jutlanders and the Holstein counts, acceded to the league, with the object of partitioning the realm among them.
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  • In the 7th to 8th centuries Botzen was held by a dynasty of Bavarian counts.
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  • From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.
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  • Luther limited the meaning of the word to mean a definite command accompanied by threats, which counts on terror to produce obedience.
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  • Gallo-Roman remains have been discovered in the vicinity of Belfort, but the place is first heard of in the early part of the 13th century, when it was in the possession of the counts of Montbeliard.
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  • From them it passed by marriage to the counts of Ferrette and afterwards to the archdukes of Austria.
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  • Its industries include the manufacture of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from about 110o and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it was the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.
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  • During this period De la Gardie was the ruling spirit of the government and represented the party of warlike adventure as opposed to the party of peace and economy led by Counts Bonde and Brahe (qq.v.).
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  • The lordship of Horn was a fief of the counts of Loon, and after 1361 of the bishop of Liege; but in 1450 it was raised to a countship by the Emperor Frederick II.
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  • In Biscay the counts of Haro were lords of Biscay from 1093 to 1350.
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  • Catalonia was subsequently ruled by French counts, who soon, however, made themselves independent of France.
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  • Close by, on an eminence, lie the ruins of the castle of Birkenfeld, dating from the 14th century, once the residence of the counts palatine of Zweibrucken.
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  • It is overlooked by a former castle of the counts of Nassau-Dillenburg, now a prison.
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  • Albi (Albiga) was, in the Gallo-Roman period, capital of the Albigenses, and later of the viscounty of Albigeois, which was a fief of the counts of Toulouse.
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  • Niebuhr's Roman History counts among epoch-making histories both as marking an era in the study of its special subject and for its momentous influence on the general conception of history.
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  • Two months later Eric was crowned at Upsala, on which occasion he first introduced the titles of baron and count into Sweden, by way of attaching to the crown the higher nobility, these new counts and barons receiving lucrative fiefs adequate to the maintenance of their new dignities.
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  • The chief towns are Arnstadt (pop. 16,275 in 1905), which at one time gave name to a line of counts, in the southern, and Sondershausen (7425), the capital, in the northern (or upper) barony.
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  • Its historical ancestors were the counts of Kafernburg, from whom the counts of Schwarzburg sprang about the beginning of the 13th century.
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  • In comparing the figures of 1890 with those of 1906 these cautions are not of force, since both census counts were taken by the same methods.
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  • It has a fine southern Romanesque cathedral of the end of the 11th century, with a modernized interior, and a castle which from 1456 belonged to the Acquaviva family, dukes of Atri and counts of Conversano.
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  • In 1245 the castle became the seat of the elder branch of the counts of Henneberg (Coburg-Schmalkalden).
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  • In him the male line of the counts of Champagne and kings of Navarre, became extinct.
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  • In the nth century it became the seat of the Eppenstein family, who frequently bore the title of counts of Gorizia; and in the beginning of the 12th century the countship passed from them to the Lurngau family which continued to exist till the year 1500, and acquired possessions in Tirol, Carinthia, Friuli and Styria.
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  • Gardelegen was founded in the 10th century, and was for a long time the seat of a line of counts.
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  • The metric system of weights and measures has been adopted so widely that it forms the most suitable basis for the titrage or counts of yarns.
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  • The permanent committee of the Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided - (a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the unit being one metre to one gramme.
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  • As the old systems of counts have some technical conveniences they will no doubt be retained for some time.
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  • The English cotton yarn and spun silk counts are reckoned upon the number of hanks of 840 yds.
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  • All continental conditioning establishments now formulate their tests for counts on the agreement arrived at by the International Congress of 1900.
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  • The district of Eger was in 870 included in the new margraviate of East Franconia, which belonged at first to the Babenbergs, but from 906 to the counts of Vohburg, who took the title of margraves of Eger.
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  • Its two principal branches were those of the siegneurs of Herbault, La Vrilliere and Saint Florentin, and of the counts of Pontchartrain and Maurepas.
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  • The origin of the earls or counts, on the other hand, is to be found in the governors of large districts (Tacitus's principes), who seem at first generally to have been members of the royal family, though later they were drawn from the highest barons.
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  • After Marozia and Alberic and the rest another branch of the same family, the Crescentii, exercised the temporal powers of the Holy See; and after them the same regime was continued by the counts of Tusculum, who were sprung from the same stock, which sometimes provided the Roman Church with the most unlikely and least honourable pontiffs.
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  • The two great centres of production are Oldham, in which American cotton is chiefly, though not exclusively, spun, and Bolton, which spins the finer counts from Egyptian or Sea Island cotton.
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  • The tendency to spin finer counts has been to some extent counteracted by the development of the flannelette trade, for which heavy wefts are used, and there has been again a tendency lately to use "condensor" or waste wefts, which has worked to the disadvantage of the spinners of the regular coarse counts spun at Royton and elsewhere.
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  • Yarns are sold according to their "actual" counts, though when they are woven into cloth they frequently attain nominal or brevet rank.
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  • A considerable business is done with European countries in doubled yarns and in fine counts of Egyptian, including "gassed" yarns, which are also sent intermittently to Japan.
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  • The various Indian markets take largely of 40 8 mule twist and in various proportions of 30 8 mule, water twists, two-folds grey and bleached, fine Egyptian counts and dyed yarns.
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  • The town belonged to the counts of Henneberg until 1 394, when it was sold to the bishop of Wiirzburg.
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  • The shields of arms are for the dukes of f iilich and Berg, counts of Ravensberg, and for the electors of Bavaria.
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  • A very old town and the seat of a former margraviate belonging to the counts of Holland, Vlaardingen is now chiefly important as the centre of the great herring and cod fisheries of the North Sea.
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  • From 874 the counts of Barcelona ruled as independent monarchs.
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  • Against invasion it furnished a permanent provision both in men-at-arms and strongholds; nor was it unsuited for the campaigns of neighbouring counts and barons which lasted for only a few weeks, and extended over only a few leagues.
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  • It was in defiance of this right that Alva refused the claim of Counts Egmont and Horn to be tried by the knights of the Fleece in 1568.
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  • Charles was brought up by his mother and grandfather, Robert the Frisian, on whose death he did great services to his uncle, Robert II., and his cousin, Baldwin VII., counts of Flanders.
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  • In the nth century the town and district passed to the counts of Nassau, fell to the Walram line in 1255, and in 1355 Wiesbaden became with Idstein capital of the county Nassau-Idstein.
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  • The country is divided into gaus or counties, under their counts, who are assisted by judges responsible for declaring the law.
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  • The country was ruled by Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, till his death in a battle with the Avars in 799, when its administration was entrusted to Frankish counts and assimilated with that of the rest of the Carolingian empire, while its condition was improved by the measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm.
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  • But with the collapse of France the old fear and jealousy of Austria had revived in full force, and Bavaria only agreed to these cessions (treaty of Munich, April 16th, 1816) on Austria promising that, in the event of the powers ignoring her claim to the Baden succession in favour of that of the line of the counts of Hochberg, she should receive also the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine.
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  • It belonged at this time to the counts of Ravensberg, who often resided in the Sparenburg.
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  • Edward won over the counts of Bar and of Flanders, but they were defeated and he was obliged to make peace in 1297.
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  • Necessity compelled him indeed (1534-1536) to take part in Grevens fejde (Counts' War) (see Denmark, History), as the ally of Christian III., but his exaggerated distrust of the Danes was invincible.
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  • The total strength of the garde civique in 1905 was 35,10 2, to which have to be added 8532 volunteers belonging to the corps of older formation, service in which counts on a par with the garde civique.
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  • About 330 the city was taken by the Franks but was not permanently occupied by them till the 5th century, becoming in 475 the residence of the Frankish king Childeric. It was the seat of a pagus or gau, and counts of Cologne are mentioned in the 9th century.
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  • Count Bernstorff was twice married, his wives being the two sisters of the writers Counts Christian and Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg.
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  • Incorporated in 1241, it became a flourishing commercial town, and though repeatedly subject to the counts o Cleves, was a member of the Hanseatic League, and as late as 1521 a free imperial city.
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  • The tribal dukes had all disappeared, and their duchies were split up into districts ruled by counts (q.v),whose tendencies to independence the emperor tried to check by the visits of the missi dominici.
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  • It was only in the 11th century, however, that it became the fixed residence of the counts, who had previously occupied the castle of Hornu, leaving Mons to the abbey and the church of St Waudru.
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  • The counts of Wernigerode, who can be traced back to the early 12th century, were successively vassals of the margraves of Brandenburg (1268),(1268), and the archbishops of Magdeburg (1381).
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  • On the extinction of the family in 1429 the county fell to the counts of Stolberg, who founded the StolbergWernigerode branch in 1645.
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  • The counts were raised to princely rank in 1890.
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  • Continuing his acquisitions of territory, he inherited the possessions of the counts of Gorz in 1500, added some districts to Tirol by intervening in a succession war in Bavaria, and acquired Gradisca in 1512 as the result of a struggle with Venice.
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  • In June 1865 the emperor Francis Joseph visited Pest and replaced the chancellors of Transylvania and Hungary, Counts Francis Zichy and Nadasdy, supporters of the February constitution, by Count Majlath, a leader of the old conservative magnates.
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  • Before the combination of Clericals and Federalists the ministry broke down; they were divided among themselves; Counts Taaffe and Alfred Potocki, the minister of agriculture, wished to conciliate the Slav races - a policy recommended 1 The documents are printed in Baron de Worms, op. cit.
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  • In the 11th century the duchy fell into the hands of the Norman counts of Aversa, afterwards princes of Capua, and in 1135 it was definitively annexed to his kingdom by Roger of Sicily.
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  • In the 5th and 6th centuries the country was overrun by Saxon tribes, and later on was governed by counts under the Frankish and German kings.
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  • Eventually, and long after the imperial army had begun its retreat, the gallant schiltron was ridden down and annihilated by a charge of three thousand men-at-arms. Reginald was taken prisoner in the melee; and the prisoners also included two other counts, Ferdinand and William Longsword, twenty-five barons and over a hundred knights.
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  • Lennep, which was the residence of the counts of Berg from 1226 to 1300, owes the foundation of its prosperity to an influx of Cologne weavers during the 14th century.
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  • They were to execute justice, to enforce respect for the royal rights, to control the administration of the counts, to receive the oath of allegiance, and to supervise the conduct and work of the clergy.
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  • It has a palace, formerly the residence of the counts of East Friesland and now used as government offices, a Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, a gymnasium, and four libraries.
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  • He extended the competence of the ecclesiastical tribunals, suppressed unjust taxes and undertook to select the counts from the districts they had to administer.
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  • Of the more serious, or " ethical " or " theological " mood which counts for so much in the modern estimate of Scottish literature, there is but little evidence in the popular verse of the middle period.
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  • Hildburghausen (in records Hilpershusia and Villa Hilperti) belonged in the 13th century to the counts of Henneberg, from whom it passed to the landgraves of Thuringia and then to the dukes of Saxony.
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  • The authority of the counts was, however,balanced by that of the bishops,and early in the 12th century the citizens, profiting by this rivalry, gained a charter of enfranchisement.
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  • Later the overlordship was claimed by the archbishops of Mainz, on the strength of charters granted by the emperor Otto I., and their authority in Erfurt was maintained by a burgrave and an advocatus, the office of the latter becoming in the 12th century hereditary in the family of the counts of Gleichen.
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  • Of a headstrong temperament, Saisset as abbot energetically sustained the struggle with the counts of Foix, begun two centuries before, for the lordship of the city of Pamiers, which had been shared between the counts and abbots by the feudal contract of pariage.
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  • It formed part of the Caroling kingdom of Austrasia, and was divided into pagi or gauen, ruled by official counts (comites-graven).
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  • There were in the i ith century a number of counts ruling in various parts of what was afterwards known as Gelderland.
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  • The conquest of Cephalonia and Zante followed, and we find five counts of the family of Tocco holding Cephalonia, and probably Zante as well as Santa Maura, as tributary to the republic. But the footing thus gained by the Venetians was not maintained, and through the closing part of the 13th and most of the 14th century the islands were a prey by turns to corsairs and to Greek and Neapolitan claimants.
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  • The emperors of Russia and Austria were present in person, and with them were Counts Nesselrode and Capo d'Istria, Metternich and Baron Vincent; Prussia and France were represented by plenipotentiaries.
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  • The counts of Mansfeld, who, many years before, had started the mining industry, made a practice of building and letting out for hire small furnaces for smelting the ore.
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  • In 1491 he became one of the four elected members of the village council (vier Herren von der Gemeinde); and we are told that the counts of Mansfeld held him in esteem.
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  • The counts of Mansfeld, the magistrates of the city and all the burghers of Eisleben accompanied the coffin to the gates of their town.
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  • A company of fifty light-armed troops commanded by the young counts of Mansfeld headed the procession and went with it all the way to Wittenberg.
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  • According to the legend, Stade was the oldest town of the Saxons and was built in 321 B.C. Historically it cannot be traced farther back than the 10th century, when it was the capital of a line of counts.
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  • From 1105 onward it became the summer residence of the bishops, who in 1190 bought the l'ogtei (advocateship) from the counts of Calw, and the place rapidly developed into a town.
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  • The growth of melons, water-melons and other cucurbitaceous plants is reckoned very important, especially near towns; and this crop counts for a distinct harvest.
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  • Every great noble in France was in the league, except Gaston de Foix - who kept the south of France for the king, - and the counts of Vendome and Eu.
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  • A triangular keep, a chapel, and other remains of a château (13th and 14th centuries) of the counts of Toulouse stand on the rocky pine-clad hill which rises to the north of the town; the chapel, dedicated to St Louis, belongs to the latest period of Romanesque architecture, and contains fine sculptures.
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  • In 1125 Beaucaire came into the possession of the counts of Toulouse, one of whom, Raymund VI., established the importance of its fairs by the grant of privileges.
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  • Numerous counts of the number of stars visible to the naked eye have been made; it is doubtful whether more than 2000 can be seen at one time from any position on the earth.
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  • It belonged to the counts of Mors, and was annexed to Prussia, with the countship, in 1702.
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  • It has a castle (the residence of the old counts of Brieg), a lunatic asylum, a gymnasium with a good library, several churches and hospitals, and a theatre.
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  • Under the Carolingians the functions of the dukes remained substantially the same; but with the decay of the royal power in the 10th century, both dukes and counts gained in local authority; the number of dukes became for the time fixed, and finally title and office were made hereditary, the relation to the crown being reduced to that of more or less shadowy vassalage.
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  • By the 13th and 14th centuries the title had become purely territorial, and implied no necessary overlordship over counts and other nobles, who existed side by side with the dukes as tenants-in-chief of the crown.
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  • Notable is the so-called Deutsches Haus, the ancestral home of the counts of DrechselDeufstetten, a fine specimen of the German renaissance style of wooden architecture.
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  • It requires an idea, because every object is conceived as well as recognized or denied; but it is itself an assertion of actual fact, every perception counts for a judgment, and every categorical is changeable into an existential judgment without change of sense (Brentano, who derives his theory from Mill except that he denies the necessity of a combination of ideas, and reduces a categorical to an existential judgment).
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  • Lastly, all the authors of the above-quoted theories err in supposing that all judgment requires conception; for even Mill thinks a combination of ideas necessary, and Brentano, who comes still nearer to the nature of sensory judgment when he says, " Every perception counts for a judgment," yet thinks that an idea is necessary at the same time in order to understand the thing judged.
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  • With Theophrastus, accordingly, in his botanical inquiries, for example, the alternatives of classification, the normal sequence of such and such a character upon such another, the conclusion of rational probability, are what counts.
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  • The explanation of this relation is that each of the n compound molecules counts as a single molecule, and that, if all the molecules were solvent molecules, the vapour-pressure would be p', that of the pure solvent.
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  • In early times Weimar with the surrounding district belonged to the counts of Orlamiinde, and from the end of the 10th century until 1067 it was the seat of the counts of Weimar.
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  • Afterwards the counts of the house of Dampierre fell into financial dependence on the burghers, and therefore allied themselves with the rising artisans, led by the weavers.
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  • Near the town are the ruins of the castle of the counts of Arnsberg, the last of whom, Gottfried, sold his countship, in 1368, to the archbishop of Cologne.
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  • It must be noted too that evidence for his authorship of the third Gospel counts also for Acts.
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  • This sect counts numerous adherents in southern India; the Census Report of 1901 recording nearly a million and a half, including some 70 or 80 different, mostly endogamous, castes.
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  • To this family belonged the lines of the counts of Joigny, the marquises of Royan and counts of Olonne, and the marquises and dukes of Noirmoutier.
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  • Up to the year 1857 the fame of Guicciardini as a writer, and the estimation of him as a man, depended almost entirely upon the History of Italy, and on a few ill-edited extracts from his aphorisms. At that date his representatives, the counts Piero and Luigi Guicciardini, opened their family archives, and cornmitted to Signor Giuseppe Canestrini the publication of his hitherto inedited MSS.
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  • Among the most characteristic of these are the old residence of the counts of Nassau, and the houses of the Tucher, Funk and Peller families.
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  • This office came into the hands of the counts of Hohenzollern at the beginning of the 13th century, and burggrave of Nuremberg is still one of the titles of their descendant, the German emperor.
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  • Darmstadt is mentioned in the 11th century, but in the 14th century it was still a village, held by the counts of Katzenelnbogen.
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  • His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
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  • A long vowel when unaccented counts short, thus peccatorem treated as *peccatorem, gave pechadur.
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  • The sacristy of St Maclou is conjectured to have formed the chapel of the castle of the counts of Bar, of which the square tower flanking the north side of the church formed the entrance.
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  • Under the domination of the counts of Champagne, it became the scene of important fairs which did not cease till 1648.
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  • The counts of the Chatillon line resided at Blois more often than their predecessors, and the oldest parts of the château (13th century) were built by them.
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  • Lippstadt was founded in 1168 by the lords of Lippe, the rights over one half of the town passing subsequently by purchase to the counts of the Mark, which in 1614 was incorporated with Brandenburg.
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  • On an eminence, which dominates the town, is situated the old castle, formerly the seat of the counts of Gerz, now partly used as barracks.
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  • He had also by Margaret von der Saal seven sons, who were called counts of Dietz, and one daughter.
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  • On the left bank are the parish church (15th and 16th centuries), remains of the medieval fortifications, and the keep of a castle of the counts of Toulouse.
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  • Its holders, towards the end of the 12th century, were despoiled of the temporal power in the town by the counts of Toulouse.
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  • Its nucleus was a castle, built in 809 by Egbert, one of Charlemagne's counts, against the Danes.
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  • The middle ages were marked by constant wars between the bishops of Utrecht and the counts of Holland and Gelderland.
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  • It has four churches, two Evangelical and two Roman Catholic. The Protestant abbey church, a fine Gothic edifice dating from the 14th century, contains the tombs of several of the counts palatine of the Rhine.
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  • In 1204 it was assigned to Gaius, prince of Tarentum, who accepted the protection of Venice in 1215; and after 1225 it was held along with Santa Maura and Zante by a succession of five counts of the Tocco family at Naples.
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  • At that time belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards governed by the counts of Ponthieu.
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  • During the 9th century it became the seat of the counts of Anjou.
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  • It soon became a town and the chief residence of the counts palatine.
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  • A conspiracy was organized, some months before it was executed, by Counts Pahlen and Panin, and a half-Spanish, halfNeapblitan adventurer, Admiral Ribas.
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  • In the second half of the 10th century and in the 11th century the counts of Rennes were predominant in Brittany.
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  • The cities which the bishops had made thus independent of the dukes and counts next sought to be free from the bishops; in due time they too gained their charters of privilege and liberty.
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  • The provincial court of the counts of Champagne had long been a distinguished one, and the action of Thibaut the poet, together with the proximity of the district to Paris, made the province less rebellious than most of the great feudal divisions of France to the royal authority.
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  • Before the Norman invasion it was governed by counts.
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  • Rendsburg came into existence under the shelter of a castle founded by the Danes about the year 1100 on an island of the Eider, and was an object of dispute between the Danish kings and the counts of Holstein.
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  • The Rohillas are chiefly notable for their association with Warren Hastings, which formed one of the main counts in his impeachment.
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  • Of these, 4 societies and 140 members are in Canada, while the German Synod counts for 11 societies and 325 members.
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  • It contains the old summer palace of the counts of Provence, and has an active trade, especially in prunes, known as prunes de Brignoles.
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  • Its old name was Villa Puerorum, as the children of the counts of Provence were often brought up here.
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  • From 1033 to 1043 he was involved in a life and death contest with those nobles whose territory adjoined the royal domains, especially with the great house of Blois, whose count, Odo II., had been the centre of the league of Constance, and with the counts of Champagne.
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  • The city was for some time held by counts of Norman blood, among whom the most noteworthy is Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard.
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  • The lords of the different territories belonged to five orders of nobility, corresponding closely to the dukes, marquises, earls, counts and barons of feudal Europe.
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  • Amboise at the end of the 11th century was a lordship under the counts of Anjou, one of whom, Hugues I., rebuilt the ancient castle.
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  • All three belonged to the counts palatine.
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  • Here are the rock of the siren Lurlei or Lorelei; the old castles of Stahleck and Pfalz, which belonged to the Counts Palatine of the Rhine; and the quaint medieval towns of Caub and St Goarshausen.
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  • Meiningen, which was subject to the bishops of Wiirzburg (1000-1542), came into the possession of the duke of Saxony in 1583, having in the meantime belonged to the counts of Henneberg.
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  • He began the long strife with the counts of Flanders, as to the lordship over Walcheren Iv.
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  • The counts of Guelders and Louvain were among the prisoners that fell into the hands of Floris.
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    0
  • Henceforth the Frisian counts became definitively known as counts of Holland.
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  • The East Frisian districts, Oostergoo and Westergoo, were by Lothaire transferred from the rule of the bishops of Utrecht to that of the counts of Holland (1125).
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  • Floris made himself master of Amstelland and First Gooiland; and Amsterdam, destined to become the Charter to chief commercial town of Holland, counts him the Amster- founder of its greatness.
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  • As a dependency of the Benedictine abbey of Limburg, which was built and endowed by Conrad II., Di rkheim or Thurnigheim came into the possession of the counts of Leiningen, who in the 14th century made it the seat of a fortress, and enclosed it with wall and ditch.
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  • In the three following centuries it had its full share of the military vicissitudes of the Palatinate; but it was rebuilt after the French invasion of 1689, and greatly fostered by its counts in the beginning of next century.
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  • Herbert I., the earliest of its hereditary counts, was descended in direct male line from the emperor Charlemagne, and was killed in 902 by an assassin in the pay of Baldwin II., count of Flanders.
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  • Of the many palaces, the Waldstein, Schwarzenberg - formerly Rosenberg- - palaces, the two palaces of the counts Thun and that of Prince Lobkowitz are the most interesting.
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  • Its privileges have remained intact, because the suzerainty of the district became equally and indivisibly shared in 1278 between the bishops of Urgel and the counts of Foix, the divided suzerainty being now inherited by the French crown and the present bishop of Urgel; and the two powers have mutually checked innovations, while the insignificant territory has not been worth a dispute.
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  • Before 1278 it was under the suzerainty of the neighbouring counts of Castelbo, to whom it had been ceded in 11 7 0 by the counts of Urgel.
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  • A marriage between the heiress of Castelbo and Roger Bernard, count of Foix, carried the rights of the above-named Spanish counts into the house of Foix, and hence subsequently to the crown of France, when the heritage of the feudal system was absorbed by the sovereign; but the bishops of Urgel claimed certain rights, which after long disputes were satisfied by the "Act of Division" executed in 1278.
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  • In the 11th century, with the growth of feudalism, all feudatories holding in chief of the Crown ranked as " princes," from dukes to simple counts, together with archbishops, bishops and the abbots of monasteries held directly of the emperor.
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  • The house is supposed to have formed part of the residence of the counts of Flanders.
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  • Before the year i 180 Bruges was the recognized capital of Flanders, and the formality of proclaiming the new counts was always performed on the marche du vendredi, where the railway station is to-day.
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  • The estate counts among its former owners such famous names as the Botelers; George Neville, archbishop of York; John de Vere, earl of Oxford in Henry VII.'s time; Wolsey in the next reign; Robert Carey, earl of Monmouth, and the duke of Monmouth.
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  • The counts of Autun in 880 became dukes of Burgundy, and the town was the residence of the latter till 1276.
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  • After passing into the possession of the German kings and then of the rulers of Orlamiinde and of Weimar, it came into the hands of the counts of Schwarzburg in 1335.
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  • Severely harassed during the barbarian invasions and by the Saracens, it was, in later times, attached successively to the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles and to the domains of the counts of Provence and of Toulouse and of Forcalquier.
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  • Refounded in 1231 by Raymond Berenger IV., count of Provence (he was of the family of the counts of Barcelona, whence the name of the town he rebuilt), Barcelonnette passed to Savoy in 1388 (formal cession in 1 4 19), and in 1713 by the treaty of Utrecht was ceded to France in exchange for the valleys of Exilles, Fenestrelles, and Château Dauphin (Casteldelfino).
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  • He also made alliances with several of the dukes and counts of the Netherlands, and with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, obviously with the intention of raising trouble for France on her northern and eastern frontiers.
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  • But it can be shown, analytically or geometrically, that if the given curve has a node, the first polar passes through this node, which therefore counts as two intersections, and that if the curve has a cusp, the first polar passes through the cusp, touching the curve there, and hence the cusp counts as three intersections.
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  • But if the given curve has a node, then not only the Hessian passes through the node, but it has there a node the two branches at which touch respectively the two branches of the curve; and the node thus counts as six intersections; so if the curve has a cusp, then the Hessian not only passes through the cusp, but it has there a cusp through which it again passes, that is, there is a cuspidal branch touching the cuspidal branch of the curve, and besides a simple branch passing through the cusp, and hence the cusp counts as eight intersections.
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  • The château was originally a huntingbox of the counts of Blois, the rebuilding of which was begun by Francis I.
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  • He sought the courts of Tuscany and Naples and tried to enlist Frank sympathies, inventing (probably) the curious myth, so often credited since, that the Druses are of crusading origin and owe their name to the counts of Dreux.1 1 Sophisticated Druses still sometimes claim connexion with Rosicrucians, and a special relation to Scottish freemasons.
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  • Many of the counts of northern France did homage to him as their overlord, and Richard I., duke of Normandy, was both his vassal and his brother-in-law.
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  • The land was divided into counties, or gauen, which were ruled by counts, prominent among whom were members of the families of Conradine and Babenberg, by whose feuds it was frequently devastated.
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  • For about four hundred years the district was part of the Frankish empire, being administered by counts, but in the 9th century it was incorporated with the German duchy of Swabia.
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  • Among the principal buildings are the ancient castle, formerly the residence of the counts of Hanau; the church of St John, dating from the 17th century, with a handsome tower; the old church of St Mary, containing the burial vault of the counts of Hanau; the church in the new town, built by the Walloons in the beginning of the 17th century in the form of two intersecting circles; the Roman Catholic church, the synagogue, the theatre, the barracks, the arsenal and the hospital.
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  • After the Reformation the castle passed to the counts of Wernigerode, who restored it and made it their residence until 1710.
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  • The first account of it is in connexion with a tournament given there by Reinald I., count of Gelderland, in the beginning of the 14th century, and it ever after remained the favourite residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.
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  • Their most powerful leaders were the counts of Zrin and Bribir (or Brebir), whose surname was Subic. This family played an important part in local politics from the 13th century to 1670, when Peter Subic was its last member to hold the office of ban.
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  • She had already given proofs of her superior statesmanship by recovering possession of Schleswig from the Holstein counts, who had held it absolutely for a generation, and who now received it back indeed as a fief (by the compact of Nyborg 1386), but under such stringent conditions that the Danish crown got all the advantage of the arrangement.
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  • The young Lessing produced his first play in the Leipzig theatre, and the university counts Goethe, Klopstock, Jean Paul Richter, Fichte and Schelling among its alumni.
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  • It was held in feudal tenure from the patriarch of Aquileia by the bishop of Pola, and afterwards, in 1139, by the counts of Duino, who retained it till the end of the 14th century.
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  • It next passed into the hands of the counts of Wallsee, by whom it was surrendered in 1471 to the emperor Frederick III., who incorporated it with the dominions of the house of Austria.
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  • In the 7th century the Merovingian kings adopted the custom of summoning them all, and not merely the officials of their Palatium, to discuss political affairs; they began, moreover, to choose their counts or administrators from among the great landholders.
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  • By degrees, the high officials of the - Pal atium, whether secular or ecclesiastical, The and also the provincial counts, had rallied round mayorS of the palace.
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  • The Church, too, never failed to oppose itat first not so much on account of her own ambitions as in a more Christian spiritand proceeded to weaken the royal jurisdiction by repeated interventions on behalf of those under sentence, afterwards depriving it of authority over the clergy, and then setting up ecclesiastical tribunals in opposition to those held by the dukes and counts.
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  • At last, just as the kingdom had become the personal property of the king, so the officialsdukes, counts, royal vicars, tribunes, centenariiwho had for the most part bought their unpaid offices by means of presents to the monarch, came to look upon the public service rather as a mine of official wealth than as an administrative organization for furthering the interests, material or moral, of the whole nation.
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  • Pippin it was, in short, who governed, who set in order the social confusions of Neustria, who, after long wars, put a stop to the malpractices of the dukes and counts, and summoned councils of bishops to make good regulations.
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  • In 771 Carloman, with whom Charles had had disputes, died, leaving sons; but bishops, abbots and counts all declared for Charles, save a few who took refuge in Italy with Desiderius, king of the Lombards.
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  • The monarchical principle no longer sufficed to ensure social discipline; the fear of lorfeiting the grant became the only powerful guarantee of obedience, and as this only applied to his personal vassals, Charlemagne gave up his claim to direct obedience from the test of the people, accepting the mediation of the counts, lords and bishops, who levied taxes, adjudicated and administered in virtue of the privileges of patronage, not of the right of the state.
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  • There were no provincial assemblies, no municipal bodies, no merchant-gilds, no autonomous churches; the people had no means of making themselves heard; they had no place in an administration which was completely in the hands of a central hierarchy of officials of all ranks, from dukes to scabini, with counts, viscounts and centenarii in between.
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  • The death-struggle of the Carolingians lasted for a century of uncertainty and anarchy, during which time the bishops, counts and lords might well have suppressed the Deathmonarchy had they been hostile to it.
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  • In five years (1180-1186) he rid himself Augustus of the overshadowing power of Philip of Alsace, count (1180 of Flanders, and his own uncles, the counts of 1223).
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