Counties sentence example

counties
  • In 1908 the output of limestone was valued at $20,731; there are limestone quarries in Washington and Orange counties and on Isle La Motte.
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  • It includes the counties Donegal, Londonderry, Antrim, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Ca van, Monaghan, Armagh and Down.
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  • The legislative department consists of a senate of 30 members, apportioned among the counties according to population, but with the proviso that each county must have at least one senator, and a House of Representatives of 245 members, one from each township. Since 1870 elections and legislative sessions have been biennial.
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  • In 1868 Denver became the capital, but feeling in the southern counties was then so strong against Denver that provision was made for a popular vote on the situation of the capital five years after Colorado should become a state.
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  • Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, in 1863, with the consent of the " Reorganized " government of Virginia voted in favour of annexation to West Virginia.
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  • The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
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  • They assembled in their counties, and by the time Dozsa had drilled them into some sort of discipline and self-confidence, they began to air the grievances of their class.
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  • The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
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  • Grindstones have been quarried in Wood and Jackson counties.
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  • There are mineral springs, mostly medicinal waters, in Greenbrier, Summers, Webster, Ohio and Preston counties.
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  • The same term is applied to the acts passed by the state legislatures for correcting and redistributing the representation of the counties.
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  • Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.
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  • On returning home he was crowned with the holy crown on the 29th of March 1464, and, after driving the Czechs out of his northern counties, turned southwards again, this time recovering all the parts of Bosnia which still remained in Turkish hands.
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  • It prevents the king from increasing by their agency the amount of money annually due to him from the various counties and hundreds.
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  • He died on Tower Hill in 1572 for an example to the disloyal counties, protesting innocence and repentance, warning his children in a last letter to discredit all "false bruits" that he was a papist.
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  • For administrative purposes the country is divided into four counties, Montserrado, Basa, Sino and Maryland, but Cape Mount in the far west and the district round it has almost the status of a fifth county.
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  • The survey for the Truckee-Carson system was begun in 1902, with the object of utilizing the waters flowing to waste in western Nevada for the irrigation and reclamation of the adjacent arid regions in Churchill, Lyon and Storey counties.
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  • The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
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  • The production in Rutherford and Burke counties and their vicinity was so great, and transportation to the United States Mint at Philadelphia so difficult, that from 1831 to 1857 gold was privately coined in I, 22 and 5 dollar pieces bearing the mark of the coiner " C. Bechtler, Rutherford county, N.C."
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  • The most valuable immediate product of the state's mines and quarries for nearly every year from 1890 to 1908 was building stones of granite and gneiss, which are found in all parts of the state west of the " Fall Line "; the best grades of granite are quarried chiefly in Gaston, Iredell, Rowan, Surry and Wilkes counties.
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  • Talc also is widely distributed in the state; the most extensive beds are in the south-western counties, Swain and Cherokee.
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  • Nearly onefourth of the Indians are Cherokees, who occupy, for the most part, the Qualla Reservation in Swain and Jackson counties, not far from the south-western extremity of the state.
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  • The Senate is composed of fifty members elected biennially by senatorial districts as nearly as possible equal to one another in population, and the House of Representatives (in the Constitution of 1776 called the House of Commons) of one hundred and twenty, elected biennially and chosen by counties' according to their population, each county having at least one representative, no matter how small its population.
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  • Until 1905 the only grounds for an absolute divorce were 1 Under the Constitution of 1776 senators were elected by counties, one for each county, and representatives also by counties, two for each county - in addition, the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax each elected one representative; and a property qualification - a freehold of 50 acres held for six months before an election - was imposed on electors of senators.
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  • In the counties there is a board of education and there is also a local school committee of three in each township. The compulsory attendance at school of children between the ages of eight and fourteen for sixteen weeks each year by a state law is optional with each county.
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  • To this end John Locke drafted for them in 1669 the famous Fundamental Constitutions providing for the division of the province into eight counties and each county into seigniories, baronies, precincts and colonies, and the division of the land among hereditary nobles who were to grant three-fifths of it to their freemen and govern through an elaborate system of feudal courts.
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  • In the " back country " extortionate fees, excessive taxes, and the oppressive manner of collecting them brought about a popular uprising, known as the Regulation, which centred in Orange and Anson counties, but was strong also in Brown, Edgecombe, Johnson, Granville and Halifax counties.
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  • On the first day of this convention the opponents to the constitution, among whom were most of the delegates from the western counties, were ready to reject it without debate, but yielded to a proposal for discussing it clause by clause.
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  • The period from 1790 to 1835 was marked by a prolonged contest between the eastern and the western counties.
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  • When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation.
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  • In 1823 the West called an extra-legal convention to meet at Raleigh, and delegates from 24 of the 28 western counties responded, but those from the far West, in which there were practically no slaves, wished free white population to be made the basis of representation, while those from the Middle West demanded the adoption of the basis for the national House of Representatives and the convention made only a divided appeal to the people.
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  • Ten years later, however, at the election of assemblymen, 33 of the western counties polled an extra-legal vote on the question of calling a constitutional convention, and 30,000 votes were cast for it to only l000 against it.
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  • On the south this kingdom bordered on the territories of the Niduari Picts of Galloway, including the modern counties of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, a region which from the middle of the 7th century seems to have been in the possession of the Northumbrians.
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  • Hugh, who was probably one of William the Conqueror's companions, was made earl of Chester in 1071; he had special privileges in his earldom, and he held land in twenty counties.
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  • From the elevation which it attains in its northern division the county is colder and is rainier than other midland counties.
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  • Besides lead, gypsum and zinc are raised, to a small extent; and for the quarrying of limestone Derbyshire is one of the principal English counties.
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  • Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of ZEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local customs affecting the two counties alike.
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  • The two shire-courts sat together for the Domesday Inquest, and the counties were united under one sheriff until the time of Elizabeth.
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  • Enclosures must have been numerous in some counties; and there is a very good comparison between " champion (open fields) country and several," which Blith afterwards transcribed into his Improver Improved.
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  • The south-eastern counties were the earliest improved, and yet in 1660 their condition seems to have been very wretched.
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  • The spread of these principles in Norfolk made it, according to Arthur Young (writing in 1770), one of the best cultivated counties in England.
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  • Bakewell's fame as a breeder was for a time enhanced by the improvement which he effected on the Long-horned cattle, then the prevailing breed of the midland counties of England.
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  • The improvements introduced by these energetic and skilful farmers spread rapidly, and exerted a most beneficial influence upon the border counties.
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  • In that year there were 47 outbreaks distributed over five counties and involving 263 head of cattle.
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  • The counties of Great Britain over which the annual outbreaks have been distributed have ranged between 24 in 1890 and 52 in 1879.
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  • The Rabies order was passed in 1886, and the number of counties in Great Britain in which cases of rabies in dogs were reported in each subsequent year is shown in Table XXIII.
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  • The largest number of counties over which the outbreaks were distributed was 72 in 1873.
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  • The county councils also expend sums varying at their own discretion on instruction in dairy-work, poultry-keeping, farriery and veterinary science, horticulture, agricultural experiments, agricultural lectures at various centres, scholarships at, and grants to, agricultural colleges and schools; the whole amount in 1904-1905 reaching £87,472.1 The sum spent by individual counties varies considerably.
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  • In some instances colleges are supported entirely by one county, as is the Holmes Chapel College, Cheshire; in others a college is supported by several affiliated counties, as in the case of the agricultural department of the University College, Reading, which acts in connexion with the counties of Berks, Oxon, Hants and Buckingham.
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  • This charge he resigned in the next year, and, after making arrangements for the protection of his northern diocese from an expected inroad of the Scots, he proceeded in July 1336 to France to attempt a settlement of the claims in dispute between Edward and Philip. In the next year he served on three commissions for the defence of the northern counties.
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  • Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000.
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  • Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the S.W.
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  • There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81.4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties.
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  • For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the southeast district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties.
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  • Some of the best sandstone in the United States is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally pure in texture (about 97% being pure silica), durable and evenly coloured light buff, grey or blue grey.
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  • Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes.` It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime.
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  • Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are elected for terms of two years; they must be residents of their respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, unless absent on public business of the state or of the United States.
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  • The first question which arises is that of the relation of the kingdom of Jerusalem to the three counties or principalities of Antioch, Tripoli and Edessa, which acknowledged their dependence upon it.
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  • The centre of the quarries is Dunnellon in Marion county, and pebble phosphate is found in Hillsboro, Polk, De Soto, Osceola, Citrus and Hernando counties.
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  • Nearly three-fourths of the farms, in 1900, were cultivated by their owners, but the cash tenantry system showed an increase of 100% since 1890, being most extensively used in the cotton counties.
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  • Orange culture has recovered much of its importance, but it is carried on in the more southern counties of the state.
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  • The value of farm property in the southern counties, which have been developed very recently, shows a steady increase, that of Hillsboro county surpassing the other counties of the state.
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  • He effectively checked the excitement, and when a month later an overwhelming Federal force began moving upon the western counties, the insurrection collapsed without bloodshed.
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  • It falls within the north-western counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire (Furness district), about one-half being within the first ' of these.
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  • As early as1652-1654there is evidence of some slight organization for dealing with marriages, poor relief, " disorderly walkers," matters of arbitration, &c. The Quarterly or " General " meetings of the different counties seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations.
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  • Arriving in Dublin at the end of October he received information to the effect that seventeen counties were ready to take up arms if a successful effort were made in Dublin.
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  • An elaborate plan of operations, which he described in detail in a letter to his brother after his arrest, had been prepared by Emmet, the leading feature of which was a simultaneous attack on the castle, the Pigeon House and the artillery barracks at Island bridge; while bodies of insurgents from the neighbouring counties were to march on the capital.
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  • John Sigismund was recognized as independent prince of Transylvania and of sixteen adjacent Hungarian counties, Queen Isabella to act as regent during his minority.
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  • The state supports three parks - Itasca state park (22,000 acres, established in 1891), about the sources of the Mississippi, in Clearwater, Becker and Hubbard counties; the St Croix (established in 1895), in Chicago county, across the St Croix from the Wisconsin state park of the same name, and including the beautiful Dalles of the St Croix; and the Minneopa state park (established in 1905), containing Minneopa Falls, near Mankato.
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  • This soil prevails throughout the southern counties and the Minnesota and Red River valleys, in which sections cereal crops predominate.
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  • It was formerly thought to be only an autumnal or wintervisitor to Britain, but later experience has proved that, though there may very likely be an immigration in the fall of the year, it breeds in nearly all the English counties to Yorkshire, and abundantly in those nearest to London.
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  • It was long abandoned, but owing to the exertions of a joint committee of the counties and other interests concerned in 1895, powers were obtained from parliament for its restoration, and the works needful for its reopening were carried out.
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  • From the convenient and accessible position of the town, the gaol and lunatic asylum serving for the three south-western counties of Wales - Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen - have been fixed here.
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  • With the rise of Llanelly the industrial importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen.
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  • Frederick, who was surnamed the Peaceful, died in 1323 and was followed as margrave by his son Frederick II., called the Grave, who added several counties to his inheritance.
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  • He enjoyed a triple wergeld, but had no definite salary, being remunerated by the receipt of certain revenues, a system which contained the germs of discord, on account of the confusion of his public and private 1 The changing language of this epoch speaks of civitates, subsequently of pagi, and later of comitatus (counties).
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  • The counties were, it appears, farmed out; but in the 7th century the royal choice became restricted to the larger landed proprietors, who gradually emancipated themselves from royal control, and in.
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  • The Grafschaft became thus merely a bundle of rights inherent in the soil; and, the count's office having become his property, the old counties of Gauen rapidly disappeared as administrative units, being either amalgamated or subdivided.
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  • The fortress of Tokaj and the counties of Bereg, Szatmar and Ugocsa were at the same time ceded to Bocskay, with reversion to Austria if he should die childless.
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  • The name of the town was Idsall when in 1591 a fund was raised by royal favour in Shropshire and neighbouring counties in order to rebuild it after a serious fire.
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  • For local government purposes the province is divided into counties or magisterial divisions; Zululand being under special jurisdiction.
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  • The districts around Luton in Bedfordshire and the neighbouring counties have, since the beginning of the 17th century, been the British home of the straw-plait industry.
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  • The FertÅ‘ lake lies in the counties of Moson and Sopron, not far from the town of Sopron, and is about 23 m.
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  • Besides the Hansag, the other principal marshes are the Sari-et, which covers a considerable portion of the counties of Jasz-Kun-Szolnok, Bekes and Bihar; the Escedi Lap in the county of Szatmar; the Szernye near Munkacs, and the Alibunar in the county of Torontal.
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  • The excess of females over males is great in the western and northern counties, while in the eastern parts and in Croatia-Slavonia there is a slight preponderance of males.
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  • From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
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  • The Magyars occupy almost exclusively the great central plain intersected by the Danube and the Theiss, being in an overwhelming majority in 19 counties (99'7% in Hajdu, east of the Theiss).
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  • With these may be grouped the kindred population of the three Szekel counties of Transylvania.
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  • In 14 other counties, on the linguistic frontier, they are either in a small majority or a considerable minority (61.6% in Szatmar, 18.9% in Torontal).
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  • The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
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  • Of these the Slovaks are the most important,, having an overwhelming majority in seven counties (94'7% in Arva, 66.1% in Saros), a bare ma j ority in three (Szepes, Bars and Poszody) and a considerable minority in five (40.6% in Gomor, 22.9% in Abauj-Torna).
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  • Next to the Slav races in importance are the Rumanians (Vlachs), who are in an immense majority in ten of the eastern and south-eastern counties (90.2% in Fogaras), in eight others form from 30 to 60% of the population, and in two (Maramaros and Torontal) a respectable minority.'
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  • Coal is extensively mined in the region of Budapest-Oravicza, Nagybanya, Zalatna, at Brennberg near Sopron, at Salgo-Tarjan, Pecs, in the counties of Krasso-Szoreny, and of Esztergom, and in the valley of the river Zsil.
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  • Iron is extracted in the counties of Zsepes, Giimor and Abauj-Torna.
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  • Other precious stones found are chalcedony, garnet, jacinth, amethyst, carnelian, agate, rock-crystals, &c. Amber is found at Magura in Zsepes, while fine marble quarries are found in the counties of Esztergom, Komarom, Veszprem and Szepes.
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  • As regards local government, the country is divided into municipalities or counties, which possess a certain amount of self-government.
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  • These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
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  • In 1876 a general system of counties was introduced.
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  • Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary has twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights.
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  • The title of count (grof) was assumed later (15th century) by those nobles who had succeeded, in spite of the Golden Bull, in making their authority over whole counties independent and hereditary.
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  • This is especially clear from clause xvi., which decrees that the title and estates of the lords-lieutenant of counties should not be hereditary, thus attacking feudalism at its very roots, while clause xiv.
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  • Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
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  • Thus the Magyars were saddled with two rival kings with equally valid titles, which proved an even worse disaster than the Mohacs catastrophe; for in most of the counties of the unhappy kingdom desperadoes of every description plundered the estates of the gentry, and oppressed the common people, under the pretext that they were fighting the battles of the contending monarchs.
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  • By this treaty Ferdinand retained Croatia-Slavonia and the five western counties with Pressburg and Esztergom (Gran), while Zapolya kept the remaining two-thirds with the royal title.
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  • During the six following years the sultan still further improved his position, capturing, amongst many other places, Pecs, and the primatial city of Esztergom; but, in 1547, the exigencies of the Persian war induced him to sell a truce of five years to Ferdinand for £100,000, on a uti possidetis basis, Ferdinand holding thirty-five counties (including Croatia and Slavonia) for which he was to pay an annual tribute of £60,000; John Sigismund retaining Transylvania and sixteen adjacent counties with the title of prince, while the rest of the land, comprising most of the central counties, was annexed to the Turkish empire.
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  • It owed its ascendancy in to restore nearly a hundred churches to the sects and to acknowledge the sway of Rakoczy over the north Hungarian counties.
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  • Three times he waged war on the emperor, twice he was proclaimed king of Hungary, and by the peace of Nikolsburg (Dec. 31, 1621) he obtained for the Protestants a confirmation of the treaty of Vienna, and for himself seven additional counties in northern Hungary besides other substantial advantages.
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  • Progress was necessarily retarded by the influence of the independent Protestant princes of Transylvania in the northern counties of Hungary.
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  • The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
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  • Refusing to be crowned, or even to take the usual oaths of observance, he simply announced his accession to the Hungarian counties, and then deliberately proceeded to break down all the ancient Magyar institutions.
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  • The Austrian commander-in-chief, Count Haynau, was to attack Hungary from the west, the Russian, Prince Paskevich, from the north, gradually environing the kingdom, and then advancing to end the business by one decisive blow in the mid-Theissian counties.
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  • The counties were administered by imperial officials, Germans, Czechs and Galicians, who did not understand the Magyar tongue.
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  • The two main items in the published programme of the new government were the introduction of universal suffrage and - even more revolutionary from the Magyar point of view - the substitution of state-appointed for elected officials in the counties.
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  • With the death of Wat Tyler the rising in London and the home counties quickly subsided, though in East Anglia it flickered a short time longer under the leadership of John Wraw and Geoffrey Litster until suppressed by the energy of Henry Despenser, bishop of Norwich.
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  • He is generally credited with having fostered the splendid vision of a restored empire that now began to fill the imagination of the young emperor, who is said to have confirmed the papal claims to eight counties in the Ancona march.
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  • During the time of the alliance between Scotland and Holland, which was closer in Fifeshire than in other counties, Dysart became known as Little Holland.
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  • The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire.
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  • In this aspect the principal extension of London has been into the counties of Kent and Surrey, to the pleasant hilly districts about Sydenham, Norwood and Croydon, Chislehurst and Orpington, Caterham, Redhill and Reigate, Epsom, Dorking and Leatherhead; and up the valley of the Thames through Richmond to Kingston and Surbiton, Esher and Weybridge, and the many townships on both the Surrey and the Middlesex shores of the river.
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  • The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
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  • Before proceeding with the history of London during the Norman period it is necessary to say something of the counties more especially connected with London.
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  • The origin of the two counties in which London is chiefly situated opens up an interesting question.
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  • It is necessary to remember that London is older than these counties, whose names, Middlesex and Surrey, indicate their relative positions to the city and the surrounding county.
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  • In 1839 it became the centre of the "Anti-Rent War," which was precipitated by the death of Stephen van Rensselaer (1764-1839), the last of the patroons; the attempt of his heirs to collect overdue rents resulting in disturbances which necessitated the calling out of the militia, spread into several counties where there were large landed estates, and were not entirely settled until 1847.
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  • The governing charter in 1835 was that of Charles II., incorporating it under the title of the bailiffs and commonalty of the borough of Tamworth in the counties of Stafford and Warwick.
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  • The seaward slope of Croaghaun is abrupt and in parts precipitous, and its jagged flanks, together with the serrated ridge of the Head and the view over the broken coast-line and islands of the counties Mayo and Galway, attract many visitors to the island during summer.
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  • In addition to this "statute" or "imperial acre," other "acres" are still, though rarely, used in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and certain English counties.
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  • In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England.
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  • It grows well, and ripens its fruit in the southern and midland counties of England; but large trees may be seen as far north as Ross-shire in sheltered places.
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  • On the 23rd of October 1837 a meeting of delegates from the six counties of Lower Canada was held at St Charles, at which resistance to the government by force of arms was decided upon, and in which Papineau took part.
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  • The Tatra Mountains extend through the Hungarian counties of Lipt6 and Szepes, and with their northern extremities also through the Austrian crownland of Galicia, and have a length of 4 o m.
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  • When counties were first organized in New York, in 1683, Nantucket and the neighbouring islands were erected into Dukes county, but in 1695, after annexation to Massachusetts, Nantucket Island, having been set apart from Dukes county, constituted Nantucket county, and in 1713 Tuckernuck Island was annexed to it.
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  • There are five counties and thirty-eight towns.
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  • There were in 1910 nine members of the board, three from Providence county, one from each of the other counties, and one from the state at large; five were appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate, and four were elected by the Senate.
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  • From him Louise received the county of Angouleme, which was erected into a duchy, the duchy of Anjou, and the counties of Maine and Beaufort.
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  • Armagh, nor were the Irish swordsmen or soldiers transplanted into Connaught and Munster from this and some other counties.
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  • By his conduct in many stubborn fights with these foes, Robert thoroughly earned his surname and gained the confidence of the king, who gave him the counties of Nevers and Auxerre.
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  • It is still found in the northern counties of England and North Wales, but in decreasing numbers.
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  • North of the Tees, Sadberg in Durham is the only district which was called a wapentake, and the rest of the ancient administrative divisions of the three northern counties were called wards.
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  • They varied in size in different counties; those of Yorkshire, for instance, being very much larger than those of Lincolnshire.
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  • As a general rule each wapentake had its own court, which had the same jurisdiction as the hundred courts of the southern counties.
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  • The Scottish counties bordering the firth are Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbright and Dumfriesshire; the English coast belongs to Cumberland.
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  • It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.
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  • He also obtained the counties of Savoy, Belley, part of the Tarantaise, and the Chablais.
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  • In the meanwhile his son Oddone married Adelaide, eldest daughter and heiress of Odelrico Manfredi, marquess of Susa, a descendant of Arduino of Ivrea, king of Italy, who ruled over the counties of Turin, Auriate, Asti, Bredulo, Vercelli, &c., corresponding roughly to modern Piedmont and part of Liguria (1045).
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  • It is an important railway centre, with terminal stations of the Great Northern, Northern Counties (Midland of England), and Belfast & County Down railways, and has regular passenger communication by sea with Liverpool, Fleetwood, Heysham, Glasgow, and other ports of Great Britain.
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  • He was then sent into the north-western counties, and besieged and took Carlisle.
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  • In Indian River Hundred, Sussex county, there formerly lived a community of people, - many of whom are of the fair Caucasian type, - called " Indians " or " Moors "; they are now quite generally dispersed throughout the state, especially in Kent and Sussex counties.
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  • Six judges - a chancellor, a chief justice, and four associate justices - of whom there shall be at least one resident in each of the three counties, and not more than three shall belong to the same political party, are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for a term of twelve years.
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  • For a brief interval, in 1673-1674, the Dutch were again in control, but in the latter year, by the treaty of Westminster, the " three counties on the Delaware " again became part of the English possessions in America held by the duke of York, later James II.
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  • Previously, however, in August 1680, the duke of York had leased this territory for ro,000 years to William Penn, to whom he conveyed it by a deed of feoffment in August 1682; but differences in race and religion, economic rivalry between New Castle and the Pennsylvania towns, and petty political quarrels over representation and office holding, similar to those in the other American colonies, were so intense that Penn in 1691 appointed a special deputy governor for the " lower counties."
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  • Although reunited with the " province " of Pennsylvania in 1693, the so-called " territories " or " lower counties " secured a separate legislature in 1704, and a separate executive council in 1710; the governor of Pennsylvania, however, was the chief executive until 1776.
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  • This is partly eradicated by the new constitution of 1897, which reapportioned representation according to electoral districts, so that New Castle has seven senators and fifteen representatives, while each of the other counties has seven senators and ten representatives.
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  • In 761 he accompanied his father on a campaign in Aquitaine, and in 763 undertook the government of several counties.
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  • The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
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  • White-tailed, Sonora, and grey mule-deer (Odocoileus) are found in the south-western counties; and there are a few antelope (Antilocapra Americana) in the west.
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  • There are several varieties of grasshopper mice (Orychomys), white-footed mice (Peromyscus), harvest mice (Reithrodontomys), rice-rats (Oryzomys), wood-rats (Neotoma), voles (Microtus), &c. Bats inhabit caves in Burnet, Williamson, Lampasas, Gillespie and other counties.
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  • The green rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus) inhabits the valley of the Rio Grande; the plains rattlesnake (Crotalus confluentus), the north-western counties; the diamond rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), the wooded river bottoms; the Texas rattlesnake, western Texas and the southern coast counties; the banded rattlesnake, a few widely separated woodland districts.
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  • The crop of Indian corn is especially large in a belt of counties beginning near the north-eastern corner of the state and extending in a south-westerly direction.
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  • The largest crops of cotton are grown in the cerealgrowing counties.
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  • State-wide prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors was voted down in 1887 and a local option law went into effect; in 1907, when there was no licence in 145 (out of 243) counties and licence only in parts of 51 other counties, a law was passed giving local option to parts of cities and towns.
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  • Educational matters are supervised by a state board, composed of the governor, comptroller and secretary of state, by a superintendent of public instruction, who is ex officio secretary of the board, by county superintendents (in counties having a school population of 3000 or more), by superintendents.
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  • The nominal amount of the public debt on the 1st of September 1908 was $3,989,400, but the figures are misleading, because, with the exception of $22,000 (held partly by counties), all of these obligations were in the permanent school fund or in funds for the University, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the various charitable institutions.
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  • For purposes of administration and local government the state is divided into ninety-nine counties, each of which is itself divided into townships that are usually 6 m.
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  • Alexandria is a distributing and jobbing centre for the north-east counties of Virginia.
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  • In counties where the Federalists had a majority very few removals were made.
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  • The kingdom of Buganda, which has a thoroughly efficient and recognized native government, is subdivided into no fewer than nineteen " counties " or districts, but the other provinces have as a rule only three or four subdivisions.
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  • His reward in England was a mighty fief scattered over twelve counties.
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  • A second rising was caused when, on the death of Ulrich II., count of Weimar and OrlamUnde, without issue in 1112, Henry seized these counties as vacant fiefs of the empire, while Lothair supported the claim of Siegfried, count of Ballenstadt, whose mother was a relative of Ulrich.
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  • The rebels were defeated, and Siegfried was killed at Warnstadt in 1113, but his son secured possession of the disputed counties.
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  • The Berkshire country - Berkshire, Hampden, Hampshire and Franklin counties - is among the most beautiful regions of the United States.
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  • Parallel to this shrinkage was the decrease in ranging sheep (82.0% from 1850-1900; 34.2% from 1890-1900), and cattle, once numerous in the hill counties of the west, and in the Connecticut Valley; Boston, then ranking after London as the second wool market of the world, and being at one time the chief packing centre of the country.
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  • Worcester and Middlesex counties are agriculturally foremost.
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  • There are many mineral springs in the state, more than half being in Essex and Middlesex counties.
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  • Gold has been found in small quantities in Middlesex, Norfolk and Plymouth counties.
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  • Encouraged by these and other conventions in order to obstruct the collection of debts and taxes, a mob prevented a session of the Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace at Northampton on the 29th of August, and in September other mobs prevented the same court from sitting in Worcester, Middlesex and Berkshire counties.
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  • Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties.
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  • Three counties - Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorca, to the east - are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy.
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  • The earldom in the 10th century apparently included several other counties, and its most famous holder was the ealdorman Brihtnoth, who fell at the battle of Maldon in 991.
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  • The most pronounced of these upfolded strata in New York form the low Shawangunk mountains, which descend, toward the S.E., to a lowland region of folded strata of limestone, slate and other rocks in Orange and Dutchess counties.
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  • In the lower counties are some " Virginia " opossums.
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  • The principal forest area is in the Adirondack region where the state has a forest preserve (in Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, Oneida, St Lawrence, Saratoga, Warren and Washington counties) containing (1909) 1, 53 0, 559 acres, and there is as much or more in private preserves and in tracts owned by lumbermen.
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  • The state has a forest preserve also in the Catskill region (in Delaware, Greene, Sullivan and Ulster counties) of 110,964 acres, and there are wood-lots on many farms throughout the state that produce commercial timber.
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  • There are also deposits of clay suitable for making bricks, terra-cotta and tiles in nearly every county outside of this valley, and there are some pottery clays in Albany and Onondaga counties.
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  • Several choice marbles are obtained in the eastern counties.
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  • From Tuckahoe, Westchester county, has been taken white marble, used in some of the finest buildings in New York City, and a similar marble is obtained ih Putnam and Dutchess counties.
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  • From 1880 to 1885 the first brines were obtained in Wyoming and Genesee counties by boring deep wells into beds of rock salt, and in 1885 the mining of the extensive deposits of rock salt in Livingston county was begun.
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  • Salt is also produced in Tompkins and Schuyler counties.
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  • The Appalachian oil field extends northward from West Virginia and Pennsylvania into Cattaraugus, Allegany and Steuben counties.
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  • The village of Fredonia, in Chautauqua county, was illuminated by natural gas as early as 1825, and gas has since been discovered in several of the western counties.
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  • Graphite is widely distributed in the Adirondack region, but the mining of it is confined for the most part to Essex and Warren counties; in 1908 the output was 1,932,000 lb.
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  • Since 1846 both senators and assemblymen have been elected by single districts, and ever since the state government was established they have been apportioned according to population, but the present constitution limits the representation of New York City in the Senate by declaring that no county shall have more than one-third of all the senators nor any two adjoining counties more than one-half of them.
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  • At the close of the colonial era there were a court of chancery, a supreme court, circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer which were held in the several counties by the justices of the supreme court, a court of common pleas and a court of sessions in each county, and courts held by justices of the peace in the several towns.
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  • The state is divided into sixty-one counties, each (unless wholly included in a city) having a county board of supervisors elected for two years, one from every town or city ward.
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  • Many other charitable institutions receive public money, mostly from counties, cities and towns.
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  • In some counties there is no distinction between town and county poor, but in 1910 only one county had not a county superintendent for the general supervision and care of the poor; towns and cities not subject to special provisions intrusted public relief to one or more overseers of the poor or to commissioners of charities.
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  • In counties lacking adequate hospital accommodation a poor person requiring medical or surgical treatment may be sent to the nearest hospital approved by the state board of charities.
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  • Other acts divided the province into counties, established courts of justice, and provided for a revenue.
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  • It was during the first administration of Governor Seward that the anti-rent agitation in the Hudson river counties began.
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  • The legislature appointed an arbitration commission, but this was unsuccessful, and the trouble, spreading to other counties, culminated (1845) in the murder of the deputy-sheriff of Delaware county.
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  • In some parts, especially (in Douglas and Grant counties) within the Big Bend of the Columbia, the plain is frequently cut by coulees, or abandoned river channels, some of them 500 to 600 ft.
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  • In the south-eastern counties the winters are mild, with the exception of an occasional cold period, and the summers are hot.
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  • Serpentine marble with seamed markings has been found in Adams and Stevens counties.
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  • The largest output of each of these ores in 1908 was in Stevens county; Ferry, King and Okanogan counties ranked next in the output of gold; Okanogan and Ferry counties in the output of silver; Okanogan in the output of copper; and King in the output of lead.
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  • Judges of the superior courts (one or more for each county, or one for two or more counties jointly) are elected for a term of four years.
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  • By a law enacted in 1909 the licensing of the sale of intoxicating liquors, other than for medical purposes by druggists and pharmacists, is left to the option of counties and cities.
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  • The counties where dry farming had been carried on on the largest scale were Missoula, Ravalli, Flathead, Cascade, Fergus and Gallatin, where cereal yields, though not nearly so large as from irrigated lands, were high compared with the average for the country.
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  • The principal sheep-raising counties are Custer, Yellowstone, whither many sheep are brought to be fattened, Rosebud, Beaverhead, Valley, and Meagher.
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  • The most important copper mines are in Silverbow, Broadwater, Jefferson and Beaverhead counties.
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  • For purposes of local government the state is divided into counties; each county into townships, school districts and road districts; and there are incorporated cities and towns.
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  • In 1908 fifteen of the counties had a county high school, and there were also 10 accredited city high schools in 1908.
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  • The assessment rolls of the county assessor are subject to alteration by the board of county commissioners sitting as a county board of equalization and the assessments as between counties are subject to alteration by the state board of equalization.
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    0
  • The land was divided into counties, which, however, were given to Saxon chiefs to administer, and it was probably on this occasion that the capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae was issued.
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  • Henry sought for peace, and the conditions were settled at Erfurt in November 1181, when he was granted the counties of Luneburg and Brunswick, but was banished under oath not to return without the emperor's permission.
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  • Wheat grows chiefly in the east and north-east parts of the state, especially in Brown, Spink, Roberts, Day and Grant counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Brown county, 3,3 20, 57 0 bush., or about one-twelfth of the state's product.
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  • Corn grows throughout the western half of the state, and especially in the south-western parts, in Lincoln, Clay, Union, Yankton and Bonhommie counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Lincoln county, 3,914,840 bush., nearly one-eleventh of the state crop. Oats has a distribution similar to that of corn, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 1,666,110 bush., about one-nineteenth of the state crop. Barley grows principally in the eastern and southern parts of the state - Minnehaha, Moody, Lake and Brookings counties - the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 932,860 bush., more than one-seventh of the state.
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  • For the administration of local government the state is divided into counties (64 in 1910) and these in turn are subdivided into townships and municipal corporations.
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  • Poll taxes are levied by the counties and townships for school and local purposes.
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  • On the 2nd of July she reviewed at Buckingham Palace some 28,000 volunteers of London and the home counties.
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  • The boundary between the counties of Perth and Stirling runs from Glengyle, at the head of the lake, down the centre to a point opposite Stronachlachar from which it strikes to the south-western shore towards Loch Arklet.
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  • For the rearing of sheep Kent is one of the chief counties in England.
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  • The discovery of coal in the northern counties dealt the final blow to its prosperity.
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  • About this time a new dominion was founded by Louis the Bearded, who by purchase, gift or marriage obtained several counties in Thuringia.
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  • This court has exclusive original jurisdiction in probate matters, and in counties with over 2000 inhabitants its jurisdiction may be extended by popular vote to include concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts in civil matters involving amounts less than $2000, and in criminal actions below the grade of felony.
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  • They may also try misdemeanours in counties without other criminal jurisdiction.
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  • For the administration of local government, the state is divided into counties (46 in 2920).
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  • In those counties that have not adopted a township organization county affairs are administered by a board of county commissioners; where the township organization has been adopted the county government is administered by the chairmen of the several township boards.
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  • The chief source of revenue for the state, counties and municipalities is the general property tax.
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  • No poll tax is levied for state purposes, but counties are authorized to levy such a tax for school purposes.
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  • There are boards of equalization and review for the state, counties and municipalities.
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  • He evolved the theory, among other things, that the boundaries of the old counties or pagi (Gaue) were identical with those of the dioceses.
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  • Unlike most Irish counties, Antrim owes its principal features to rocks of Mesozoic and Cainozoic age.
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  • Tillage is therefore, relatively to other counties, well advanced, and oats and potatoes are largely, though decreasingly, cultivated.
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  • Except that the Great Northern railway line from Belfast to the south and west runs for a short distance close to the southern boundary of the county, with a branch from Lisburn to the town of Antrim, the principal lines of communication are those of the Northern Counties system, under the control of the Midland railway of England.
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  • Of the total about 50% are Presbyterians, about 20% each Protestant Episcopalians and Roman Catholics; Antrim being one of the most decidedly Protestant counties in Ireland.
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  • The legislatures of Connecticut and Rhode Island, and town meetings in Cheshire and Grafton counties (New Hampshire) and in Windham county (Vermont) accepted the invitation, and the convention, composed of 12 delegates from Massachusetts, 7 from Connecticut, 4 from Rhode Island, 2 from New Hampshire and 1 from Vermont, all Federalists, met on the 15th of December 1814, chose George Cabot of Massachusetts president and Theodore Dwight of Connecticut secretary, and remained in secret session until the 5th of January 1815, when it adjourned sine die.
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  • Garrett county in the extreme northwest, however, raises the largest number of sheep. Most of the tobacco is grown in the south counties of the West Shore.
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  • The great centre for vegetables and small fruits is in the counties bordering on the north-west shore of the Chesapeake, and in Howard, Frederick and Washington counties, directly west, Anne Arundel county producing the second largest quantity of strawberries of all the counties in the Union in 1899.
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  • Peaches and pears grow in large quantities in Kent and neighbouring counties on the East Shore and in Washington and Frederick counties; apples grow in abundance in all parts of the Piedmont Plateau.
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  • Crabs are next in value and are caught chiefly along the East Shore and in Anne Arundel and Calvert counties on the West Shore.
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  • In Somerset and Worcester counties clams are a source of considerable value.
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  • From 1722 until the War of Independence the iron-ore product of North and West Maryland was greater than that of any of the other colonies, but since then ores of superior quality have been discovered in other states and the output in Maryland, taken chiefly from the west border of the Coastal Plain in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, has become comparatively of little importance-24,367 long tons in 1902 and only 8269 tons in 1905.
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  • Materials for porcelain, including flint, feldspar and kaolin, abound in the east portion of the Piedmont, the kaolin chiefly in Cecil county, and material for mineral paint in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, as well as farther north-west.
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  • In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
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  • In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.
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  • Senators are elected, one from each of the twentythree counties and one from each of the four legislative districts of the city of Baltimore, for a term of four years, the terms of one-half expiring every two years.
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  • This system of apportionment gives to the rural counties a considerable pplitical advantage over the city of Baltimore, which, with 42.8% of the total population according to the census of 1900, has only 4 out of 27 members of the Senate and only 24 out of tot members of the House of Delegates.
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  • The three judges elected in each circuit constitute the circuit court of each of the several counties in such circuit.
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  • In 1908 the average school year was nine and seven-tenths months - ten in the cities and nine and four-tenths in the counties; the aim is ten months throughout, and a law of 1904 provides that if a school is taught less than nine months a portion of the funds set apart for it shall be withheld.
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  • There is no provision for a general periodic assessment, but a state tax commissioner appointed by the governor, treasurer and comptroller assesses the corporations, and the county commissioners (in the counties) and the appeal tax court (in the city of Baltimore) revise valuations of real property every two years.
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  • The first bank of the state was established in 1790, and by 1817 there was one in each of twelve counties and several in Baltimore; in1818-1820and in1837-1839there were several serious bank failures, but there have been no serious failures since.
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  • The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties.
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  • The result was the new constitution of 1851, which fully established representation in the counties on the basis of population and further increased that of Baltimore.
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  • The second volume, published in 1810, gives an account of the seven southeastern counties of Scotland - Roxburgh, Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Peebles and Selkirk - each of them being treated of as regards name, situation and extent, natural objects, antiquities, establishment as shires, civil history, agriculture, manufactures and trade, and ecclesiastical history.
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  • In 1824, after an interval of fourteen years, the third volume appeared, giving, under the same headings, a description of the seven south-western counties - Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew and Dumbarton.
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  • In the preface to this volume the author states that the materials for the history of the central and northern counties were collected, and that he.
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  • The thoroughbred Kentucky horse has long had a world-wide reputation for speed; and the Blue Grass Region, especially Fayette, Bourbon and Woodford counties, is probably the finest horse-breeding region in America and has large breeding farms. In Fayette county, in 1900, the average value of colts between the ages of one and two years was $377.78.
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  • The principal sheep-raising counties in 1905 were Bourbon, Scott and Harrison, and the principal hog-raising counties were Graves, Hardin, Ohio, Union and Hickman.
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  • The largest coal-producing counties in 1907 were Hopkins (2,064,154 short tons) and Muhlenberg (1,882,913 short tons) in the western coalfield, and Bell (1,437,886 short tons) and Whitley (762,923 short tons) in the south-western part of the eastern coalfield.
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  • But with the exception of that mined in Hopkins and Bell counties, very little is fit for making coke; in 1880 the product was 4250 tons of coke (value $12,250), in 1890, 12,343 tons ($22,191); in 1900, 95,532 tons ($235,505); in 1902, 126,879 tons ($3 1 7, 8 75), the maximum product up to 1906; and in 1907, 67,068 tons ($157,288).
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  • The principal fields are in the " southern tier," from Wayne to Allen county, including Barren county; farther east, Knox county, and Floyd and Knott counties; to the north-east the Ragland field in Bath and Rowan counties on the Licking river.
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  • In 1902 it was mined only in Bath, Lyon and Trigg counties, of which the total product was 71,006 long tons, valued at only $86,169; in 1904 only 35,000 tons were mined, valued at the mines at $35,000.
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  • In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar, and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902, 29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499), amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the output of Illinois.
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  • Jefferson, Jessamine, Warren, Grayson and Caldwell counties have valuable quarries of an excellent light-coloured Oolitic limestone, resembling the Bedford limestone of Indiana, and best known under the name of the finest variety, the " Bowling Green stone " of Warren county; and sandstones good for structural purposes are found in both coal regions, and especially in Rowan county.
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  • The constitution provides for local option elections on the liquor question in counties, cities, towns and precincts; in 1907, out of 119 counties 87 had voted for prohibition.
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    0
  • The counties are grouped into judicial circuits, those containing a population of more than 150,000 constituting separate districts; each district has a judge and a commonwealth's attorney.
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  • Kentucky county, practically coterminous with the present state of Kentucky and embracing all the territory claimed by Virginia south of the Ohio river and west of Big Sandy Creek and the ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, was one of three counties which was formed out of Fincastle county in 1776.
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  • Four years later, this in turn was divided into three counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette, but the name Kentucky was revived in 1782 and was given to the judicial district which was then organized for these three counties.
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  • Xylosteum are naturalized in a few counties in the south and east of England.
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  • In the western counties of England, and generally by agriculturists, the name honeysuckle is applied to the meadow clover, Trifolium pratense.
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  • After meeting with some success in his efforts to take possession, he was driven from Saxony, and also from his mark by Henry, and compelled to take refuge in South Germany, and when peace was made in 1142 he renounced the Saxon dukedom and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamiinde.
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  • Local affairs are administered by counties, towns (townships) village districts and cities.
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  • The superintendent of public instruction is appointed by the governor and council for a term of two years, and it is his duty to prescribe the form of register to be kept in the schools, to investigate the condition of the schools, to make suggestions and recommendations for improving them, to lecture upon educational subjects in the towns and cities, to hold at least one teachers' institute each year in each of the counties, and to designate the times and places for holding examinations of those who wish to teach.
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  • Here, too, many of the insane of the state were formerly confined; but by an act of 1903 the counties were entirely relieved of this care, and the insane were removed to the state hospital.
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  • The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies.
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  • In the northern and midland counties the stuff is invariably sold by weight.
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  • The Richmond lunatic asylum, erected near the House of Industry, and placed under the care of officers appointed by government, receives patients from a district consisting of the counties of Dublin, Louth, Meath and Wicklow, each of these contributing towards its expenses in proportion to the number of patients sent in.
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  • Waterford, whence he marched through the counties of Kilkenny and Wicklow, and subsequently arrived in Dublin, where he remained a fortnight, sumptuously entertained by the provost, as the chief magistrate of the city was then called, till intelligence of the invasion of his kingdom by Bolingbroke recalled him to England.
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  • Sheep-raising, especially for wool, is an industry of considerable importance, and Dukes county is one of the three most important counties of the state in this industry.
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  • Thus the former duchy of Westphalia and the bishoprics of Munster and Paderborn which remained in ecclesiastical hands are almost entirely Roman Catholic, while the secularized bishopric of Minden and the former counties of Ravensberg and Mark, which fell or had fallen to Brandenburg, and the Siegen district, which belonged to Nassau, are predominantly Protestant.
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  • Brandenburg laid the foundations of her dominion in Westphalia by obtaining the counties of Mark and Ravensberg in 1614 (confirmed 1666), to which the bishopric of Minden was added by the peace of Westphalia.
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  • Wyatt; the Guildhall; the barracks, which are the headquarters of two battalions of the South Wales Borderers; the county infirmary founded in 1832; and the prison (in Llanfaes) for the counties of Brecon and Radnor.
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  • A chancery and exchequer for the counties of Brecknock and Radnor were also established at Brecon Castle, and from 1542 till 1830 the great sessions, and since then the assizes, and at all times the quarter sessions for the county, have been held at Brecon.
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  • Dairying is the most important industry, and in 1899 the county ranked first among the counties of the state in the value of its dairy products - $1,373,957, from 3465 farms, the value of the product for the entire state being $7,090,188.
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  • The islands unite with the counties to which they belong in returning members to parliament (one for each shire).
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  • Cattle-farming is carried on in the high pasturelands and the plains of Peten; but the whole number of sheep (77, 000 in 1900) and pigs (30,000) in the republic is inferior to the number kept in many single English counties.
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  • A study of the family names appearing on the census rolls of two prosperous and typical American counties, one distinctively urban and the other rural, in 1790 and I900, has confirmed the popular impression that the British element is growing little, and that the fastest reproducers to-day are the foreign elements that have become large in the immigration current in very recent decades.
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  • In some Southern states some counties have been subdivided into school districts, each of which elects a school committee, and from this nucleus there may possibly develop something resembling the New England town.
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  • The revenues of all the states, counties, cities and other local governments, plus those of the national government, aggregated in 1879 only $584,980,614.
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  • After some years of desultory fighting de Courci established his power over that part of Ulster comprised in the modern counties of Antrim and Down, throughout which he built a number of castles, where his vassals, known as "the barons of Ulster," held sway over the native tribes.
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  • The development of the Michigan salt deposits and (after 1880) of the deposits in Wyoming, Genesee and Livingston counties in New York caused a rapid decline in the Onondaga product.
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  • This name is modern and is a collective appellation for the various counties or lordships in the region which the Habsburgs (after they secured Tirol in 1363) succeeded in purchasing or acquiring - Feldkirch (1375, but Hohenems in 1765 only), Bludenz with the Montafon valley (1394), Bregenz (in two parts, 1451 and 1523) and Sonnenberg (14s5).
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  • For purely local matters municipal institutions are organized to cover counties and townships, cities and towns, all based.
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  • North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.
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  • Nearly 85% of the coal is produced in three counties (Jefferson, Walker and Bibb), though the coal-bearing formations cover about 40% of the northern half of the state.
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  • Up to 1907 the state licensed the sale of liquor, and liquor licence fees were partly turned over to the public school fund; there was a dispensary system in some counties; and in 1907 one-third of the counties of the state (22 out of 67) were "dry."
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  • In 1832 the national government provided for the removal of the Creeks; but before the terms of the contract were effected, the state legislature formed the Indian lands into counties, and settlers flocked in.
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  • Until 1832 there was only one party in the state, the Democratic, but the question of nullification caused a division that year into the (Jackson) Democratic party and the State's Rights (Calhoun Democratic) party; about the same time, also, there arose, chiefly in those counties where the proportion of slaves to freemen was greater and the freemen were most aristocratic, the Whig party.
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  • In 1894 the Republicans united with the Populists, elected three congressional representatives, secured control of many of the counties, but failed to carry the state, and continued their opposition with less success in the next campaigns.
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  • South of the Cotton Belt is the Lime Sink Region, which includes Miller, Baker, Mitchell, Colquitt and Worth counties, the northern portions of Decatur, Grady, Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes, the eastern parts of Dooly and Lee, and the eastern portions of Berrien, Irwin, Wilcox, Dodge, and some parts of Burke, Screven and Bulloch.
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  • Cotton is raised in all counties of the state except Rabun, Towns and Fannin in the extreme north, and about one-third of the total cultivated land of the state was devoted to it in 1900-1907.
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  • In 1907 a state law was passed prohibiting after the 1st of January 1908 the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors; nine-tenths of the counties of the state, under local option laws, were already " dry " at the passage of this bill.
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  • There are 1 Owing to the custom which holds in Georgia of choosing state senators in rotation from each of the counties making up a senatorial district, it happened in 1907 that few cities were represented directly by senators chosen from municipalities.
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  • In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
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  • The constitution, as amended in 1905, provides that elections on the question ‘ of local school taxes for counties or for school districts may be called upon a petition signed by one-fourth of the qualified voters of the county, or district, in question; under this provision several counties and a large number of school districts are supplementing the general fund.
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  • The plant is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, and is occasionally found in the western counties of England, the Isle of Man, and west Ireland, growing on damp rocks or walls especially near the sea.
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  • The society spread in the eastern counties, in spite of repressive measures; it revived under the Commonwealth, and lingered into the early years of the 18th century; the leading idea of its "service of love" was a reliance on sympathy and tenderness for the moral and spiritual edification of its members.
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  • The decrease of population and the number of emigrants are slightly below the average of the Irish counties.
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  • He was one of the disputants selected to confute the Romanists at the conference of Westminster after Easter 1J59; he was select preacher at St Paul's cross on the 15th of June; and in the autumn was engaged as one of the royal visitors of the western counties.
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  • The Territory was without the forms of local government common to the United States until 1905, when the Territorial legislature divided it into five counties 1 without, however, giving to them the usual powers of taxation.
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  • He gave away everything, money, villages, domains, whole counties, to the utter impoverishment of the treasury, thereby rendering the crown, for the first time in Hungarian history, dependent upon the great feudatories, who, in Hungary as elsewhere, took all they could get and gave as little as possible in return.
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  • In England it occurs chiefly in the more northern counties.
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  • The former seems to have prevailed everywhere; the latter, however, was much more common in the more northern counties than in the south, though cases are fairly numerous throughout the valley of the Thames.
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  • The principal modern buildings are the town hall, corn exchange, free library, the Eastern Counties' asylum, Essex county hospital and barracks.
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  • In the same year he became judge of the court of common pleas for Essex county, and sole judge of the maritime court for the counties of Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex.
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  • Another range of hills, known as the Trenton Prong, extends from the northern suburbs of Philadelphia both westward and southward through Chester, Delaware, Lancaster and York counties, but these rise only 400-600 ft.
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  • In Bucks and Montgomery counties is a large sandstone area; traversing Chester county is the narrow Chester Valley with a limestone bottom, and in Lancaster county is the most extensive limestone plain.
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  • The Pocono plateau, into which the central province merges at its north-east extremity, is a continuation of the Catskill plateau southward from New York and covers Wayne, Pike and Monroe counties and the east portion of Carbon county.
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  • The state has forest reserves (918,000 acres in 1910) in 26 counties, the largest areas being in Potter, Clinton, Center, Cameron, Lycoming, Huntingdon, Union and Mifflin counties; and there is an efficient department of forestry under a state commissioner of forestry.
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  • The mean annual temperature in the south-east province is about 52° F.; it decreases to 50° in the central province and to 47° or less in some of the north-west counties of the Alleghany plateau, but rises to 49° on the shore of Lake Erie.
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  • Indian corn, wheat and rye, are cultivated most extensively in the south-east counties.
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  • Some of the larger oat-producing counties also are in the south-east, but most of the buckwheat, barley and oats are grown in the north and west counties.
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  • The dairy business is largest in the regions around Philadelphia and Pittsburg, and in Erie and Bradford counties.
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  • Cattle other than dairy cows as well as horses and sheep are most numerous in the western counties, in Bradford county on the north border, and in some of the counties of the south-east.
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  • Swine are most numerous in the south-east and south-west counties.
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  • More than two-thirds of the state's crop of 1899 was produced in Lancaster county, which is one of the largest tobacco-producing counties in the United States, and most of the other third was produced in York, Tioga, Bradford and Clinton counties.
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  • The sale of nursery products, more than one-half of which were grown in Chester and Montgomery counties, amounted in 1899 to $541,032, and although this was less than one-third that of New York it was exceeded in only three other states.
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  • The Pittsburg district, comprising the counties of Allegheny, Washington, Fayette and Westmoreland, is exceptionally productive, and the coal in Allegheny and Washington counties is noted for its gas-producing qualities, while in Fayette and Westmoreland counties is obtained the famous Connellsville coking coal.
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  • Extending from the south-west corner of the state through Greene, Washington, Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Venango, Clarion, Forest, Elk, Warren, McKean and Tioga counties is the Pennsylvania section of the Appalachian oil-field which, with the small section in New York, furnished nearly all of the country's supply of petroleum for some years following the discovery of its value for illuminating purposes.
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  • There are deposits of various kinds of iron ore in the eastern, south-eastern, middle and some of the western counties, and from the middle of the 18th century until near the close of the 19th Pennsylvania.
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  • Pennsylvania has extensive areas of limestone rock suitable for making cement, and in Northampton and Lehigh counties enormous quantities of it are used in this industry.
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  • Limestones and dolomites suitable for building purposes are obtained chiefly in Montgomery, Chester and Lancaster counties, and even these are generally rejected for ornamental work on account of their colour, which is usually bluish, grey or mottled.
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  • There are limestone quarries in nearly two-thirds of the counties and great quantities of the stone are used for flux in the iron furnaces, for making quicklime, for railway ballast and for road making.
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  • Several of the western counties contain Carboniferous or sub-Carboniferous sandstones that are used locally for building and for various other purposes.
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  • Northampton, Lehigh and York counties contain the most productive slate quarries in the country, and in 1908 the value of their output was $3,902,958; the Northampton and Lehigh slate is the only kind in the United States used for school blackboards.
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  • Kaolin abounds in Chester and Delaware counties, and fire-clay in several of the western counties.
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  • Deposits of crystalline graphite are found in Chester and Berks counties.
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  • Soapstone is quarried in Montgomery and Northampton counties, phosphate rock, in Juniata county; rocks from which mineral paints are made, in several counties, and there is some garnet in Delaware county.
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  • There were in 1910 fifty-six district courts of common pleas, one for each county of forty thousand inhabitants and not more than four counties in a district.
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  • The judges of the common pleas are also judges of the courts of oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of the peace and general gaol delivery, and the orphans' courts, although there are separate orphans' courts in the counties (ten in 1909) having a population of more than one hundred and fifty thousand.
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  • Out of a total expenditure of $30,021,774 for the fiscal year 1909, $7, 8 75, 08 3 was for educational purposes, of which $6,810,906 was for common schools, being appropriations to the II counties.
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  • Acting on the recommendation of Governor Robert Lucas (1781-1853), on the 23rd of February 1835 the Ohio legislature passed an Act extending the northern boundaries of what were then Wood, Henry and Williams counties (lying partly within the disputed strip) north to the Harris line, and providing for the organization of new townships within this added territory, and for the appointment of three commissioners to re-mark the line.
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  • This plan was dropped; but Malcolm of Scotland was forced to restore the northern counties which had been ceded to David; North Wales was invaded in 1157; and in 1159 Henry made an attempt, which was foiled by the intervention of Louis VII., to assert his wife's claims upon Toulouse.
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  • Under William III., Governors Sloughter and Fletcher worked for a law (passed in 1693 and approved in 1697) for the settling of a ministry in New York, Richmond, Westchester and Queen's counties; but the Assembly foiled Fletcher's purpose of establishing a Church of England clergy, although he attempted to construe the act as applying only to the English Church.
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  • When the Lombard kingdom fell before the Franks under Charlemagne in 774, the archbishops of Milan were still further strengthened by the close alliance between Charles and the Church, which gave a sort of confirmation to their temporal authority, and also by Charles's policy of breaking up the great Lombard fiefs and dukedoms, for which he substituted the smaller counties.
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  • The country is divided into gaus or counties, under their counts, who are assisted by judges responsible for declaring the law.
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  • Besides the considerable exposed area of Carboniferous rocks in Great Britain, there is as much or more that is covered by younger formations; this is true particularly of the eastern side of England and the south-eastern counties, where the coal-measures have already been found at Dover.
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