deep, excavated in the rock, was flanked by counterscarp galleries.
deep, was defended by counterscarp galleries.
They had incurred an additional loss of 13,000 men without substantial gain, except a lodgment on the counterscarp of Sung-Shu.
On the 17th of November seven mines were exploded at Sung-Shu, which blew in the back of the counterscarp galleries.
At Chi-Kuan, the counterscarp gallery had been breached by an ill-managed Russian mine on the 23rd of October and the Japanese got in through the breach and made a lodgment.
They did not, however, get possession of the whole of the counterscarp galleries before about the middle of November.
counterscarp gallery which was built between 1813 and 1814 and goes round the moat of the castle.
To facilitate sorties in great force he did away with a counterscarp wall, providing instead a long gentle slope from the bottom of the ditch to the crest of the glacis.