If that's all they give you, count yourself lucky.
It wasn't necessary to count sheep.
I can always count on you.
That had to count for something.
"You have until the count of five to put down your weapons!" he bellowed.
"Take the bag and count the money that is in it," he said.
A little memory work might be required, but anyone could count from nineteen to twenty.
Thanks, I know we can count on you, Katie, but I think she'll be more comfortable staying at our house.
I'll count to five?
So playing by the rules doesn't count any more?
The count jumped up and, swaying from side to side, spread his arms wide and threw them round the little girl who had run in.
Jackson had lost count of the times she found 'The One', only to have her heart broken months or years later.
Count out the money and don't cheat like the last time.
Not sure why you'd count at this point.
He was able to count the number of people beyond his ability to manipulate on one hand: the Gods.
I'll count to three, girl.
"Count and collect," Gabriel ordered.
Count Dracula I presume?
That ought to count for something, give us a little leeway.
"Count me in," Gerald said.
Vara, the only man he might count as a friend if he dared count any, whirled, and moonlight caught his pale green eyes.
Miss Sullivan tried to teach me to count by stringing beads in groups, and by arranging kintergarten straws I learned to add and subtract.
"Sure you are, here you go Count Dracula," and she turned her head to expose her neck.
Can we count you in?
The story told about him at Count Rostov's was true.
On the count of three.
The count met the guests and saw them off, inviting them all to dinner.
You've got to the count of five to have you both out of my sight.
It can't be helped! said the count, shrugging his shoulders and speaking playfully of a matter that evidently distressed him.
I wished her to make the groups of threes and supposed she would then have to count them in order to know what number fifteen threes would make.
I cannot count one.
My only hope now is in Count Cyril Vladimirovich Bezukhov.
By the time you count the hills, hollows and turns, it's closer to ten.
He'd probably lost count of the foals he had delivered.
I.ll count to three.
Now let's hang up on the count of three, okay?
"I am so sorry for the poor count," said the visitor.
"The fact of the matter is," said she significantly, and also in a half whisper, "everyone knows Count Cyril's reputation....
The fact is he has come to see Count Cyril Vladimirovich, hearing how ill he is.
Isn't that friendship? remarked the count in an inquiring tone.
A quick count indicated they were still one goat short.
All that night Count Rostopchin issued orders, for which people came to him from all parts of Moscow.
Nothing, unless you count a tire patch kit and a half a receipt for $59.95, neither of which probably even belonged to Byrne.
The drive to Maid Marian Lane was becoming more familiar with each passing trip—no more need to count the blocks.
"They don't count heads at this place," Fred answered glumly.
She'd survived another time, but she couldn't count on fate favoring her much longer, not when madness had begun to take its hold of her.
"Ah yes, my dear," said the count, addressing the visitor and pointing to Nicholas, "his friend Boris has become an officer, and so for friendship's sake he is leaving the university and me, his old father, and entering the military service, my dear.
When he finishes clean-up in Ohio, he's been instructed to count the stalks of wheat in the field outside Speck's farmhouse and not return until he's done, Dusty growled.
"But do you know, my dear, that was a capital joke," said the count; and seeing that the elder visitor was not listening, he turned to the young ladies.
Fitzgerald stared at it for a ten count.
Last night was different in too many ways for him to count.
Jackson longed to make their last few hours of innocence count.
More than I can count.
Even if I took yours, that's one. Or do demons not know how to count?
Maybe it takes that long to count it!
Behind the teen were too many vamps for Jessi to count.
count of Habsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich count of Kyburg, was born at Limburg on the 1st of May 1218.
count of Hohenberg.
count of Kyburg, in 1264, he seized his valuable estates.
count palatine of the Rhine and duke of upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters; so that Ottakar II.
Dupin de Francueil, a farmer-general of the revenue, who married the widow of Count Horn, a natural son of Louis XV., she in her turn being the natural daughter of Maurice de Saxe, the most famous of the many illegitimate children of Augustus the Strong, by the lovely countess of Konigsmarck.
Shortly after he came into possession of large estates left by Catherine de' Medici, from one of which he took his title of count of Auvergne.
This difficult task was accomplished by Count Peter Tolstoi, the most subtle and unscrupulous of Peter's servants; but terrorized though he was, Alexius would only consent to return on his father solemnly swearing, "before God and His judgment seat," that if he came back he should not be punished in the least, but cherished as a son and allowed to live quietly on his estates and marry Afrosina.
PELLEGRINO LUIGI EDOARDO ROSSI, Count (1787-1848), Italian economist and statesman, was born at Carrara on the z3th of July 1787.
After that day he underwent great personal risk in saving fugitives; in particular, he saved the life of the count of Champcenetz, the governor of the Tuileries, who was his personal enemy, at the request of Mrs Elliott.
The vidame was originally, like the avoue (advocatus), an official chosen by the bishop of the diocese, with the consent of the count.
Their daughter marries Eustache, count of Boulogne, and had three sons, the eldest of whom, Godefroid (Godfrey), is the future king of Jerusalem.
Arnulf's younger son, Arnulf II., continued the struggle against Otto I., and sometime before his death in 954 was made count palatine in Bavaria.
recognized Count Otto V.
as count palatine in Bavaria.
(1174-1231), but the dignity of count palatine in Bavaria passed to his brother Otto, whose son Otto, succeeding in 1189, murdered the German king Philip at Bamberg on the 21st of June 1208.
Louis appears to have been previously promised this succession, and to strengthen his claim married his son, Otto, to Agnes, the sister of Henry, the count palatine, who died without heirs in 1214.
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
In 1273 he was a candidate for the German crown, but was induced to support Rudolph, count of Habsburg, whose eldest daughter, Matilda, he married in this year.
In return Apollinaris composed a panegyric in his honour (as he had previously done for Avitus), which won for him a statue at Rome and the title of count.
VINCENZO DANDOLO, Count (1758-1819), Italian chemist and agriculturist, was born at Venice, of good family, though not of the same house as the famous doges, and began his career as a physician.
The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."
They sat is silence through one whole Count Basie take before Dean finally spoke.
An honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest.
"What is that?" asked the countess as if she did not know what the visitor alluded to, though she had already heard about the cause of Count Bezukhov's distress some fifteen times.
"What a nice figure the policeman must have cut, my dear!" shouted the count, dying with laughter.
The ranchers around here say they can always count on him to help when they're in a bind.
I'm not jealous or something; besides, it's her life, but I know she's really messed up right now and she needs someone she can count on—and trust.
He allied himself to the Mongols against the advance of the Egyptian sultan; but in 1268 he lost Antioch to Bibars, and when he died in 1275 he was only count of Tripoli.
She could count his ribs easily where they showed through the skin of his body, and his head was long and seemed altogether too big for him, as if it did not fit.
And that doesn't even count the many other charitable organizations that have not filed for this tax-exempt status with the federal government.
I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb-nail.
"Yes, they are splendid, splendid youngsters," chimed in the count, who always solved questions that seemed to him perplexing by deciding that everything was splendid.
In his extremity Charles trusted himself to Herbert, count of Vermandois, who deceived him, and threw him into confinement at Château-Thierry and afterwards at Peronne.
In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
Near the cathedral is the episcopal palace, and in the same part of the town is the Batthyaneum, founded by Bishop Count Batthyany in 1794.
He was born in 1225 or 1227, at Roccasecca, the castle of his father Landulf, count of Aquino, in the territories of Naples.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
The leader has to place the mat, to throw the jack, to count the game, and to call the result of each end or head to the skip who is at the other end of the green.
Even if it run into the ditch or be driven in by another bowl, it will yet count as alive.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
In 1669 he published his Physica subterranea, and the same year was engaged with the count of Hanau in a scheme for settling a large territory between the Orinoco and the Amazon.
In the 13th century it became the seat of Count Gerhard of Wesemael, who surrounded it with walls and built a castle.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.
In 1 3 42 it was purchased by the count of Wurttemberg, whose descendants afterwards acquired the title of duke.
In 1 246 it received a charter from Count William II.
ALESSANDRO CAGLIOSTRO, Count (1743-1795), Italian alchemist and impostor, was born at Palermo on the 8th of June 1 743.
Giuseppe Balsamo - for such was the "count's" real name - gave early indications of those talents which afterwards gained for him so wide a notoriety.
There he presented himself to the grand master of the Maltese order as Count Cagliostro, and curried favour with him as a fellow alchemist, for the grand master's tastes lay in the same direction.
THIETMAR (DIETMAR or Dithmar) of Merseburg (975 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great.
On the death of the usurper Rudolph (Raoul), Ralph of Burgundy, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and the other nobles between whom France was divided, chose Louis for their king, and the lad was brought over from England and consecrated at Laon on the 19th of June 936.
On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.
Prince Alexander, who was born on the 5th of April 1857, was nephew of the tsar Alexander II., who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the tsaritsa.
A few years later he married Fraulein Loisinger, an actress, and assumed the style of Count Hartenau (February 6, 1889).
The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support.; (2) Modern.
His great-grandson, Charles, son of Philip of Artois, count of Eu, and Marie of Berry, played a conspicuous part in the Hundred Years' War.
His sister's son, John of Burgundy, count of Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of Lorraine-Guise.
The second son of the duke of Maine, Louis Charles de Bourbon (1701-1775), bore the title of count of Eu.
The title of count of Eu was revived in the 19th century in favour of the eldest son of the duke of Nemours, second son of King Louis Philippe.
ALOYS KAROLYI, Count (1825-1889), Austro-Hungarian diplomatist, was born in Vienna on the 8th of August 1825.
His uncle was ennobled by King Louis XVI., and his father was made a count by Napoleon I.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the expedition and the first king of Jerusalem, was duke of Lower Lorraine, and the names of his brothers Baldwin of Edessa and Eustace of Boulogne, and of Count Robert II.
At the siege and capture of Damietta (1218) it was the contingent of NorthNetherlanders (Hollanders and Frisians under Count William I.
Chiefly through the valour of Lamoral, count of Egmont, two great victories were won over the French IL at St Quentin (August Io, 1557) and at Gravelines (July 1 3, 1 55 8).
The most serious difficulty with which Margaret had to deal arose from the attitude of the great nobles, and among these especially of William (the " Silent ") of Nassau, prince of Orange, Lamoral, count of Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, count of Hoorn.
A few weeks later his eldest son, Philip William, count of Buren, a student at the university of Louvain, was kidnapped and carried off to Madrid.
He gained a victory at Heiligerlee (May 23) over a Spanish force under Count Aremberg.
This triumph was however far more than counterbalanced by the complete defeat of the army, led by Count Louis of Nassau, at Mookerheide near Nijmwegen (14th March).
the Bald, whose daughter Judith he had abducted, on receiving the hereditary title of count of Flanders.
It did not long remain French, for in 1521 the count of Nassau, Charles V.'s general, took it and added it to the Spanish provinces.
A few cases have been recorded, however, of tribes who can count in their own tongue up to four and five.
Of the three sons of Count Franz, the eldest, Friedrich (1810-1881), entered the diplomatic service; after holding other posts he was in 1850 appointed president of the restored German Diet at Frankfort, where he represented the anti-Prussian policy of Schwarzenberg, and often came into conflict with Bismarck, who was Prussian envoy.
The third son of Count Franz, Leopold or LEO (1811-1888), was one of the leading Austrian statesmen.
Loran Magnus, Count Sprengtporten >>
The Terre d'Auvergne was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duch y -pairie) by King John II.
Leopoldo, Count Cicognara >>
LOUIS OF NASSAU (1538-1574), son of William, count of Nassau, and Juliana von Stolberg, and younger brother of William the Silent, took an active part in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish domination.
On the arrival of Alva at Brussels, Count Louis, with his brother William, withdrew from the Netherlands and raised a body of troops in defence of the patriot cause.
In the spring of 1568 Louis invaded Friesland, and at Heiligerlee, on the 23rd of May, completely defeated a Spanish force under Count Aremberg, who was killed.
The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.
(Renaud), count of Dammartin (d.
After Newton's time the first vigorous effort to restore the universality of the doctrine of energy was made by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, and was published in the Phil.
In Africa the Moorish prince, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Count Romanus, the military governor.
In 1453 he was created count of Bistercze, and was knighted at the siege of Belgrade in 1454.
She escaped to the castle of Canossa, where the great count of Tuscany espoused her cause, and appealed in her behalf to Otto the Saxon.
Twelve years later we find the Normans settled at Aversa under their Count Rainuif.
From this station as a centre the little band of adventurers, playing the Greeks off against the Lombards, and the Lombards against the Greeks, spread their power in all directions, until they made themselves the most considerable force in southern Italy William of Hauteville was proclaimed count of Apulia.
ratified this grant, and confirmed the title of count.
Having consolidated their possessions on the mainland, the Normans, under Robert Guiscards brother, the great Count Roger, undertook the conquest of Sicily in 1060.
The names of some of these earliest captains of adventure, Fra Moriale, Count Lando and Duke Werner, who styled himself the Enemy of God and Mercy, have been preserved to us.
Seven years before his death Gian Galeazzo bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at the sovereignty of Italy.
This, if we do not count the proclamation of James I.
The troops sent against them commanded by General Guglielmo Pepe, himself a Carbonaro, hesitated to act, and the king, finding that he could not count on the army, granted the constitution (July 13, 1820), and appointed his son Francis regent.
In March 1821, Count Santorre di Santarosa and other conspirators informed Charles Albert of a constitutional and anti-Austrian plot, and asked for his help. After a momentary hesitation he informed the king; but at his request no arrests were made, and no precautions were taken.
introduced into Lombardy by two Romagnols, Count Laderchi and Pietro Maroncelli, but the leader of the movement was Count F.
Another work of a similar kind was Le Speranze dItalia (1844) by the Piedmontese Count Cesare Balbo.
C. Farini and Count G.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
Count Serristori, the grand-ducal comiiissioner, arrived in Florence on the 4th of May 1849; the -iational guard was disbanded; and on the 25th, the Austrians inder dAspre entered Florence.
by Count Ponza di San Martino in September 1870.
Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.
Cairoli succeeded in forming an administration, in which his friend Count Corti, Italian ambassador at Constantinople, accepted the portfolio of foreign affairs, Zanardelli the ministry of the interior, and Seismit Doda the ministry of finance.
The treaty of San Stefano had led to the convocation of the Berlin Congress, and though Count Corti was by no means ignorant of the rumours concerning secret agreements between Germany, Austria Con~ss.
Count Corti had no suspicion that France had adopted a less disinterested attitude towards similar suggestions from Bismarck and Lord Salisbury.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
The AustroGerman alliance of 1879 formally guaranteed the territory of the contracting parties, but Austria could not count upon effectual help from Germany in case of war, since Russian attack upon Austria would certainly have been followed by French attack upon Germany.
Count di Robilant, anxious that Italy should not seem to beg a smile from the central Powers, advised Mancini to receive with caution the suggestions of the Austrian press.
The visit was marked by the greatest cordiality, Count Robilants fears of inopportune pressure with regard to Irredentism proving groundless.
Count Hatzfeldt, on behalf of the German Foreign Office, informed the Italian ambassador in Berlin that whatever was done at Vienna would be regarded as having been done in the German capital.
Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
They hastened Mancinis downfall (17th June 1885), and prepared the advent of count di Robilant, who three months later succeeded Mancini at the Italian Foreign Office.
Angered by this step, Ras Alula took prisoners the members of an Italian exploring party commanded by Count Salimbeni, and held them as hostages for the evacuation of Wa.
Menelek, by means of Count Antonelli, resident in the Shoa country, requested Italy to execute a di version in his favor by occupying Asmar and other points on the high plateau.
On the 28th of October 1890 Count Antonelli, negotiator of the treaty, was despatched to settle the controversy, but on arriving at Adis Ababa, the new residence of the negus, found agreement impossible either with regard to the frontier or the protectorate.
Within four months the death of Depretis (29th July 1887) opened for Crispi the way to the premiership. Besides assuming the presidency of the council of ministers and retaining the ministry of the interior, Crispi took over the portfolio of foreign affairs which Depretis had held since the resignation of Count di Robilant.
Shortly before the fall of the Depretis-Robilant cabinet Count Robilant had announced the intention of Italy to denounce the commercial treaties with France and Austria, which would lapse en the 31st of December 1887, and had intimated his readiness to negotiate new treaties.
From the sultan he received large estates and the title of count of Widdin.
and Ungarn's Befreiung von de Turkenherrschaft (Freiburg, 1902); Memoirs of Emeric Count Teckely (London, 1693); Correspondence of Michael Teleki (Hung.), ed.
The new palace; erected in 1711 by Count Erdmann II.
The last Count of Promnitz, whose ancestor had purchased both baronies from Frederick of Bohemia in 1556, sold them in 1765 to the elector of Saxony for an annuity of 12,000 thalers (rSoo).
Cesare, who could still count on the Spanish cardinals, wished to prevent the election of Giuliano della Rovere, the enemy of his house, but the latter's chances were so greatly improved that it was necessary to come to terms with him.
While besieging the castle of Viana, held by the rebellious count of Lerin, he was killed (March 12, 1507).
a " count ") is present at the synod, as an assessor to maintain order and advise upon points of procedure.
At Ephesus the Count Candidian was commissioned to maintain order, but took little part in the proceedings.
It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.
Of these risings the most notable was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis de Crecy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Artevelde (q.v.).
The earliest charter to the citizens of Ghent was that granted by Count Philip of Flanders between 1169 and 1191.
It did little more than arrange for the administration of justice by nominated jurats (scabini) under the count's bailli.
This charter was confirmed and extended by Count Baldwin VIII.
when he took over the city from Mathilda, an important new provision being that general rules for the government of the city were only to be made by arrangement between the count or his officials and the common council of the citizens.
Still more famous was Albert, count of Mansfeld (1480-1560), an intimate friend of Luther and one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of the Reformation.
In this capacity he was present in 1569 at the battle of Moncontour, where another member of his family, Count Wolrad of Mansfeld (d.
"ALBIN CSAKY, COUNT (1841-1912), Hungarian statesman, was born on April 18 1841 at Krompach, in the county of Szepes, and studied law at Kassa (Kaschau) and Budapest.
This line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard (1393), who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the count palatine of the Rhine, and held the other half as his feudatory.
1489), son of Stephen, count palatine of Zimmern-Veldenz, founded the line of the dukes of Zweibriicken, which became extinct in 1731, when the duchy passed to the Birkenfeld branch, whence it came under the sway of Bavaria in 1799.
He was elected through the intervention of a representative of the emperor, Count Sicco, who drove out the intruded Franco (afterwards Pope Boniface VII.).
Sicily was won by a duke of Apulia and a count of Sicily.'
Duke William was undisputed master of England at the end of five years; it took Count Roger thirty years to make himself undisputed master of Sicily.
When Count Roger at last found himself lord of the whole island, he found himself lord of men of various creeds and tongues, of whom his own Norman followers were but one class out of several.
He could not profess to be, as the count of Sicily could honestly profess to be, a deliverer to a large part of the people of the land.
Adam Gottlob, Count Moltke >>
JACOPO FRANCESCO RICCATI, Count (1676-1754), Italian mathematician, was born at Venice on the 8th of May 1676, and died at Treviso on the 15th of April 17 54.
On leaving the lyceum Gorchakov entered the foreign office under Count Nesselrode.
At the same time, although he attended the Paris conference of 1856, he purposely abstained from affixing his signature to the treaty of peace after that of Count Orlov, Russia's chief representative.
For the time, however, he made a virtue of necessity, and Alexander II., recognizing the wisdom and courage which Gorchakov had exhibited, appointed him minister of foreign affairs in place of Count Nesselrode.
For the Italian nobility see the eight magnificent folio volumes of Count Pompeo Litta, Celebri famiglie italiane, continued by various editors (Milan, 1819-1907); for Spanish, Fernandez de Bethencourt, Hist.
See also the articles Titles Of Honour, Peerage, Feudalism, Gentleman, Duke, Count, &C.
The controversy as to the nature of his religious opinions, arising as it did chiefly out of his connexion with the Encyclopaedia, has no longer any living interest now that the Encyclopaedists generally have ceased to be regarded with unqualified suspicion by those who count themselves orthodox.
With Christian David, a carpenter, at their head, they crossed the border into Saxony, settled down near Count Zinzendorf's estate at Berthelsdorf, and, with his permission, built the town of Herrnhut (17 22-1 7 27).
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
Before long persecution broke out against Herrnhut; the count sent a band of emigrants to Georgia; and as these emigrants would require their own ministers, he had David Nitschmann consecrated a bishop by Jablonsky (1735).
After Prince Lobanov's death and the appointment of Count Muraviev as his successor in January 1897, this tendency of Russian policy became less marked.
In January 1881 Count Loris-Melikov, minister of the interior, proposed to convene a " general commission " to examine legislative proposals before these were laid before the Imperial Council; this commission was to consist of members elected by the zemstvos and the larger towns, and others nominated in the provinces having no zemstvos.
The emperor, however, whatever his own views, was surrounded by reactionary influences, of which the most powerful were the empress-mother, Pobedonostsev the procurator of the Holy Synod, Count Muraviev and the Grandduke Sergius.
The enormous programme of constitutional reform foreshadowed in the manifesto had to be elaborated in haste by Count Witte, the minister of the interior, under circumstances by no means promising.
Count Agenor de Gasparin, in his Tables tournantes (Paris, 1854), gives an account of what seem to have been careful experiments, though they are hardly described in sufficient detail to enable us to form an independent judgment.
Count Henry of Schwerin, and conveyed with his son and many other valuable hostages to the inaccessible castle of Dannenberg.
Berkhampstead rose to importance with its castle, which is said to have been built by Robert, count of Mortain, and when the castle fell into ruin after 1496 the town also began to decay.
He was created count of Poitiers in 1356, and was made the king's lieutenant in southern France, though the real power rested chiefly with John of Armagnac, whose daughter Jeanne he married in 1360.
(1226-1285), king of Naples and Sicily and count of Anjou, was the seventh child of Louis VIII.
(St Louis), and on the death in 1232 of the third son John, count of Anjou and Maine, those fiefs were conferred on Charles.
In 1246 he married Beatrice, daughter and heiress of Raymond Berenger V., the last count of Provence, and after defeating James I.
Kurt Christoph, Count Von Schwerin >>
He at once became the recognized leader of the Liberal opposition to the reactionary government, but must be distinguished from Count Bennigsen, a member of the same family, and son of the distinguished Russian general, who was also one of the parliamentary leaders at the time.
It was occupied by the Russians in 1770, and twenty years later its capture was one of the brilliant achievements of the Russian general, Count A.
NIKITA IVANOVICH PANIN, Count (1718-1783), Russian statesman, was born at Danzig on the 18th of September 1718.
See anonymous Life of Count N.
Bruckner, Materials for the Biography of Count Panin (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1888).
It was first seen, from a distance, by the missionary Ludwig Krapf in 1849; approached from the west by Joseph Thomson in 1883; partially ascended by Count S.
Davy, Count Rumford, all concerned themselves with thermochemical investigations of such processes.
COUNT OF MONTFERRAT, a title derived from a territory south of the Po and east of Turin, and held by a family who were in the 12th century one of the most considerable in Lombardy.
In 1147 a count of Montferrat took part in the Second Crusade; but the connexion with the Holy Land begins to be intimate in 1176.
In that year William Longsword, eldest of the five sons of Count William III., came to the kingdom of Jerusalem, on the invitation of Baldwin IV.
Count William III.
Shortly after the battle of Hittin there appeared in Palestine the ablest and most famous of the family, Count William's second son, Conrad.
Still another son of Count William III.
It is a natural assumption that Damascus could still count upon Israel as an ally in 842; not until the withdrawal of Assyria and the accession of Jehu did the situation change.
COUNT MARIANO DEL TINDARO RAMPOLLA (1843-), Italian cardinal, was born on the, 7th of August 1843, at Polizzi, in the Sicilian diocese of Cefalu.
Leonhard, Count Von Blumenthal >>
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
Stolypin was for some time in sympathy with that programme, and even contemplated the formation of a Ministry strengthened by leaders of public opinion, of whom Guchkov, Count Heyden and N.
Josef Radetzky, count of Radetz >>
Alessandro, Count Cagliostro >>
Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rheingrafenstein (12th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins in 1889.
On being released, the young count obtained leave to accompany as a volunteer the French expedition to Corsica.
The Brethren lived in Schwarzenau in peace under the tolerant Count Heinrich Albrecht of Wittgenstein.
Eventually, Count Heinrich was pressured to rid the area of religious dissidents, and the Brethren felt compelled to leave.
It was reluctantly accepted by Lord Sandwich, then First Lord, but before it could take effect France declared war, and a powerful French squadron was sent to America under the count d'Estaing.
Somewhat later he was created a count, and appointed commander-in-chief and governor-general of "New Russia," as the conquered provinces in the Ukraine were then called.
Wingate, Mandism and the Egyptian Sudan (1891), Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by Count Gleichen (1905); A.
Vittorio, Count Fossombroni >>
When, in 1809, Dalmatia was re-annexed to the Illyrian provinces, Dandolo returned to Venice, having received as his reward from the French emperor the title of count and several other distinctions.
He assisted the Franconian family of the Conradines in its feud with the Babenbergs, and was accused of betraying Adalbert, count of Babenberg, to death.
Ludwig Adolf Peter, Count Wittgenstein >>
(1533-1559), but in the course of the " Count's War " he was taken prisoner by Count Christopher, the Catholic candidate for the throne, and forced to do him homage.
He let it be known that he strongly disapproved of their proposal to elect Count Melzi, the Italian statesman most suitable for the post; and a hint given by Talleyrand showed the reason for his disapproval.
Evidently then the Spanish dockyards and warships (when vigorously organized) were to count for much in the schemes for assuring complete supremacy in the Mediterranean and the ultimate overthrow of the British and Turkish empires, which he then had closely at heart.
Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.
In 1553 he became physician to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg.
In the 12th century we find Forli in league with Ravenna, and in the 13th the imperial count of the province of Romagna resided there.
On the 2nd of July 1704, with the assistance of a bribing fund, Charles's ambassador at Warsaw, Count Arvid Bernard Horn, succeeded in forcing through the election of Charles's candidate to the Polish throne, Stanislaus Leszczynski, who could not be crowned however till the 24th of September 1705, by which time the Saxons had again been defeated at Punitz.
As to Italy, we can but name here the Fauna d'Italia, of which the second part, Uccelli (8vo, 1872), by Count Salvadori, contains an excellent bibliography of Italian works on the subject, and the posthumously published Ornitologia italiana of Savi (3 vols.
Another library was left to the public by the munificence of Count QuiriniStampalia, who bequeathed his collections and his house at Santa Maria Formosa to be held in trust for students.
Lake Stefanie was discovered by Count Samuel Teleki in 1881, and has since, with others of the series, been explored by Donaldson Smith, V.
Harrison in 1899 found the lake quite dried up, and two years later Count Wickenburg found water only in the northern part.
in 1148, and was captured by Ramon Berenguer IV., count of Barcelona, assisted by Templars, Pisans and Genoese.
GIOVANNI PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, Count (1463-1494), Italian philosopher and writer, the youngest son of Giovanni Francesco Pico, prince of Mirandola, a small territory about 30 Italian miles west of Ferrara, afterwards absorbed in the duchy of Modena, was born on the 24th of February 1463.
Philip VI., the first of the Valois kings, was a son of Charles I., count of Valois and grandson of King Philip III.
In 1308 Charles Robert of Anjou was elected king of Hungary, his claim being based on the marriage of his grandfather Charles II., king of Naples and count of Anjou, with Maria, daughter of Stephen V., king of Hungary.
This house merged in that of Valois in 1383, by the marriage of Margaret, daughter of Louis, count of Artois, with Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy.
Peter, grandson of King Louis VI., obtained that dignity in 1217 as brother-in-law of the two previous emperors, Baldwin, count of Flanders, and his brother Henry.
He was prince of Antioch and count of Tripoli, like his father; and like him he enjoyed the alliance of the Templars and experienced the hostility of Armenia, which was not appeased till 1251, when the mediation of St Louis, and the marriage of the future Bohemund VI.
His mission was very successful, and soon after his return he was made count of the domestics and received in marriage Serena, the emperor's niece and adopted daughter.
1 The comte de Riant impugned the authenticity of Alexius' letter to the count of Flanders.
Let the truce of God be observed at home; and let the arms of Christians be directed to the winning of Jerusalem in an expedition which should count for full and complete penance.
had given St Peter's banner at Lucca, only arrived - the last of the crusaders - in May 1097 (their original companion in arms, Count Robert of Flanders, having left them to winter at Bari, and crossed to Constantinople before the end of 1096).
It was in the ranks of the Provencals, where the religiosity of Count Raymund seems to have extended to his followers, that these phenomena appeared; and they culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance, which had pierced the side of the Saviour.
Kerbogha in the open (June 28), but not before many of their number, including even Count Stephen of Blois, had deserted and fled.
With the discovery of the Lance, which became as it were a Provençal asset, Count Raymund assumes a new importance.
At the end of the year came Bohemund and Godfrey's brother Baldwin (now count of Edessa) on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
Thousands had joined this new Crusade, which should deal the final blow to Mahommedanism: among the rest came the first of the troubadours, William IX., Count of Poitiers, to gather copy for his muse, and even some, like Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, who had joined the First Crusade, but had failed to reach Jerusalem.
He conquered in 1135 several fortresses in the east of the principality of Antioch, and in this year and the next pressed the count of Tripoli hard; while in 1137 he defeated Fulk at Barin, and forced the king to capitulate and surrender the town.
Finally, when one remembers how, during the First Crusade, the pedites had marched side by side with the principes, and how, from the beginning of 1099, they had practically risen in revolt against the selfish ambitions of princes like Count Raymund, it becomes easy to understand the independent position which the burgesses assumed in the organization of the kingdom.
He was confronted, however, by Raymund, count of Tripoli, the one man of ability among the decadent Franks, who acted as guardian of the kingdom; while he was also occupied in trying to win for himself the Syrian possessions of Nureddin.
Like the First Crusade, the Fourth Crusade also - in its personnel, but not its direction - was a French enterprise; and its leading members were French feudatories like Theobald of Champagne (who was chosen leader of the Crusade), Baldwin of Flanders (the future emperor of Constantinople), and the count of Blois.
On the one hand, the death of the count of Champagne (May 1201) had induced the crusaders to elect as their leader Boniface of Montferrat, the brother of Conrad; and Boniface was the cousin of Philip, and interested in Constantinople, where not only Conrad, but another brother as well, had served, and suffered for their service at the hands of their masters.
In 1074 the Cid was wedded to Ximena, daughter of the count of Oviedo, and granddaughter, by the mother's side, of Aiphonso V.
At the head of a band of 300 free lances he offered his services first to the count of Barcelona; then, failing him, to Moktadir, the Arab king of Saragossa, of the race of the Beni Houd.
According to the new count thus ordered, the Democratic state ticket was elected.
Joseph, Count Souham >>
It is therefore inexact to count him among the regicides, as was done by the royalists after 1815.
The town is dominated by the castle (now used as barracks), which was reconstructed in 1492 by the Venetians, after it had been burnt in 1487 by the count of Tirol.
In 1416 it was taken by the Venetians, who in 1487 successfully resisted, at Calliano, an attempt to take it made by the count of Tirol and the bishop of Trent.
By family she was entitled to the name of Marguerite de Valois; as the daughter of Charles d'Orleans, count d'Angouleme, she is more properly, and by careful writers almost invariably, called Marguerite d'Angouleme.
She proceeded alone to Parma, where she fell more and more under the influence of the count von Neipperg, and had to acquiesce in the title "duke of Reichstadt" accorded to her son.
HEINRICH BRUHL, COUNT VON (1700-1763), German statesman at the court of Saxony, was born on the 13th of August 1700.
In 1736 he had been made a count of the Empire and had married the countess Franziska von KolowratKradowska, a favourite of the wife of Frederick Augustus.
EUSTACE I., a son of Count Baldwin II., held the county from 1046 until his death in 1049.
1093), count of Boulogne, was the husband of Goda, daughter of the English king 'Ethelred the Unready, and aunt of Edward the Confessor.
On his death the county of Boulogne came to his daughter, Matilda, and her husband Stephen, count of Blois, afterwards king of England, and in 1150 it was given to their son, Eustace IV.
In May 1912 he was appointed to succeed Count Wolff-Metternich as ambassador to Great Britain, but he had only been in London a short time when his health finally broke down.
She had thirteen children - Frederick Henry, drgwned at sea in 1629; Charles Louis, elector palatine, whose daughter married Philip, duke of Orleans, and became the ancestress of the elder and Roman Catholic branch of the royal family of England; Elizabeth, abbess and friend of Descartes; Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, who died unmarried; Louisa, abbess; Edward, who married Anne de Gonzaga, "princesse palatine," and had children; Henrietta Maria, who married Count Sigismund Ragotzki but died childless; Philip and Charlotte, who died childless; Sophia, who married Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and was mother of George I.
Matted Maria, Count Boiardo >>
BENJAMIN THOMPSON RUMFORD, Count (1753-1814), British-American man of science, philanthropist and administrator, was born at Woburn, in Massachusetts, on the 26th of March 1753.
In 1791 he was created a count of the Holy Roman Empire, and chose his title of Rumford from the name as it then was of the American township to which his wife's family belonged.
Among the many interesting monuments is the imposing tomb of the stadtholder Count Engelbert of Nassau and his wife.
Breda obtained municipal rights in 1252, but was first surrounded with walls in 1534 by Count Henry of Nassau, who also restored the old castle, originally built by John of Polanen in 1350.
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
In 794 or 795 he married Irmengarde, daughter of Ingram, count of Haspen.
In 819 he married Judith, daughter of Welf I., count of Bavaria, who in 823 bore him a son Charles, afterwards called the Bald.
Discontent at this arrangement increased to the point of rebellion, which broke out the following year, provoked by Judith's intrigues with Bernard, count of Barcelona, whom she had installed as her favourite at court.
The Orsini still remained very powerful, and Alexander could count on none but his 3000 Spaniards.
In that case we need simply cover the map with a network of squares - the area of each of which has been determined with reference to the scale of the map - count the squares, and estimate the contents of those only partially enclosed within the boundary, and the result will give the area desired.
Associated with Ancona are Grazioso Benincasa and his son Andreas, whose numerous charts were produced between 1461 and 1508, and Count Ortomano Freducci (1497-1538).
Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's Carte de la France (1777).
in diameter was set up by Dr Roger Long at Cambridge; the terrestrial globe which Count Ch.
Johann Bernhard, Count Rechberg-Rothenlowen >>
Count Stanislas Russell, a naval officer, was sent on a mission to the Red Sea in 1857, and he reported strongly on the necessity of a French establishment in that region in view of the approaching completion of the Suez Canal.
Marion Crawford, Count Edoardo Soderini and Professor Giuseppe Clementi.
CATHERINA ROMANOVNA VORONTSOV, DASHKOV Princess (1744-1810), Russian litterateur, was the third daughter of Count Roman Vorontsov, a member of the Russian senate, distinguished for his intellectual gifts.
Levin August, Count Von Bennigsen >>
Lassalle attached himself to the cause of the countess, whom he believed to have been outrageously wronged, made special study of law, and, after bringing the case before thirty-six tribunals, reduced the powerful count to a compromise on terms most favourable to his client.
The lady was imprisoned in her own room, and soon, apparently under the influence of very questionable pressure, renounced Lassalle in favour of another admirer, a Wallachian, Count von Racowitza.
All the world, including savages who cannot count beyond five, daily "apply" theorems of number.
The Christian aristocracy lost its privileges, but its ancient titles of duke (vojvod) and count (knez) did not disappear.
The tide of success now turned again in favour of the Turks, who recaptured Karansebes and Lippa, and at Lugos exterminated by the weight of overwhelming numbers an Austrian force under Field-marshal Count Friedrich von Veterani (1630-1695), the hero of many victories over the Turks, who was killed in the battle.
From the outset, voting by count of heads had been superseded by voting according to nations, i.e.
It was in fact well supplied with information by means of the spy service directed by an exiled French royalist, the count d'Antraigues, who was established at Dresden as a Russian diplomatic agent.
He had been made a count of the Empire in 1808, and marquis in 1819.
Count Litzow in The Life and Times of Master John Hus (London and New York, 1909), pp. 5-9, gives a good abstract of the Defensor pacis and the relations of Marsilius to other precursors of the Reformation.
In 1762 a quarrel with Miller placed him in a position of some difficulty from which he was delivered by an introduction to Count Rasumovski, who procured his appointment as adjunct to the Academy.
Although the county of Champagne had descended to his wife's infant daughter, Joan, Edmund assumed the title "Count Palatine of Champagne and Brie," and is described in the English patent rolls as earl of Lancaster and Champagne.
But he retained the possession of his wife's dowerlands in Champagne, and is described in an official document of Champagne so late as the year 1287, as "the Count Edmund."
After the death of his first wife, Matilda (1080-1118), he took to wife Adelaide, daughter of Godfrey, count of Louvain (1121), in the hope of male issue.
Bilbao; Count de Belvedere (ii,000) near Burgos; reserves (57,000) were assembling about Segovia, Talavera and Cordova; Catalonia was held by 23,000, and Madrid had been reoccupied.
In i i i o Hamburg, with Holstein, passed into the hands of Adolph I., count of Schauenburg, and it is with the building of the Neustadt (the present parish .of St Nicholas) by his grandson, Adolph III.
In 1201 the city submitted to Valdemar of Schleswig, after his victory over the count of Holstein, but in 1225, owing to the capture of King Valdemar II.
The internal organization of the city, too, was rendered more stable by the new constitution of 1270, and the recognition in 1292 of the complete internal autonomy of the city by the count of Schauenburg.
It is chiefly remarkable for the fine Gothic church of St Caterina, built in 1390 by Raimondello del Balzo Orsini, count of Soleto, with a fine portal and rose-window.
See Count Lutzow, Bohemia; an Historical Sketch (London, 1896); Palacky, Geschichte von Bohmen; Bachmann, Geschichte Bohmens; L.
The efforts of the kings to minimize this evil, and of the old jurisprudence to deal with the matter, resulted in two expedients: (1) the reversion of the appanage to the crown was secured as far as possible, being declared inalienable and transmissible only to male descendants in the male line of the person appanaged; (2) originally the person appanaged had possessed all the rights of a duke or count - that is to say, in the middle ages nearly all the attributes of sovereignty; the more important of these attributes were now gradually reserved to the monarch, including public authority over the inhabitants of the appanage in all essential matters.
However, it is evident from the letters of appanage, dated April 1771, in favour of the count of Provence, how many functions of public authority an appanaged person still held.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
Aurel, Count Dessewffy >>
During the War of Independence his early training at the French military college at Caen enabled him to render effective service to General Benjamin Lincoln in 1778-1779, to Count d'Estaing (1779), to General Lincoln in the defence of Charleston and afterwards to General Horatio Gates.
JOHAN GYLLENSTJERNA, Count (1635-1680), Swedish statesman, completed his studies at Upsala and then visited most of the European states and laid the foundations of that deep insight into international politics which afterwards distinguished him.
It consists of a definite contractile sac or sacs lying on the dorsal side of the alimentary canal near the oesophagus, and in preparations of Terebratulina made by quickly removing the viscera and examining them in sea-water under a microscope, he was able to count the pulsations, which followed one another at intervals of 30-40 seconds.
During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans.
The honorary title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger sons of the Spanish sovereign.
Enguerrand VII., sire de Coucy, count of Soissons and Marle, and chief butler of France, was sent as a hostage to England, where he married Isabel, the eldest daughter of King Edward III.
Aleardo, Count Aleardi >>
In 1649 he accompanied the mission of Henry, count of Nassau, to Denmark, and in 1651 entered the lists of science as an assailant of the unsound system of quadratures adopted by Gregory of St Vincent.
He became one of the best soldiers and trusted counsellors of Charlemagne, and in 790 was made count of Toulouse, when Charles's son Louis the Pious was put under his charge.
William, count of Provence, son of Boso II., again delivered southern France from a Saracen invasion by his victory at Fraxinet in 973, and ended his life in a cloister.
He was Hadhemar, count of Narbonne, who in 809 and 810 was one of the leaders sent by Louis against Tortosa.
At the council of Clermont in 1095 he showed great zeal for the crusade, and having been named apostolic legate by the pope, he accompanied Raymond IV., count of Toulouse, to the east.
the Lame (1013-1054), German scholar and chronicler, was the son of Count Wolferad of Alshausen in Swabia.
(1361-1425), called THE Noble, king of Navarre and count of Evreux, was the eldest son of Charles II.
He became a senator, a count of the empire, a grand officer of the legion of honour, and just before his death received the grand cross of the order of reunion.
Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the 7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and Spain.
In 1804 he became Minister; in 1807 he was named count, and in 1809 he received the title of duc de Bassano, an honour which marked the sense entertained by Napoleon of his strenuous toil, especially in connexion with the diplomatic negotiations and treaties of this period.
In November 1892 Wekerle succeeded Count Szapary as premier, though still retaining the portfolio of finance.
It possesses a castle of Count Esterhazy, a modern Roman Catholic Church in Gothic style and two convents.
died in 1046 it was divided, and Meissen proper was given successively to William and Otto, counts of Weimar, and Egbert II., count of Brunswick.
and died under the imperial ban in 1089, when Meissen was bestowed upon Henry I., count of Wettin, whose mother was a sister of the margrave Ekkard II.
to Hermann II., count of Wintzenburg; but, renewing his claim, Conrad won the support of Lothair, duke of Saxony, afterwards the emperor Lothair II., and obtained possession in 1130.
The present article deals with (I) the office of count in the Roman empire and the Frankish kingdom, (2) the development of the feudal count in France and under the Holy Roman Empire, (3) modern counts.
Two of the generals of the Roman province of Britain were styled the comes Britanniae and the comes littoris Saxonici (count of the Saxon shore).
KO,unros); the comes sacrarum largitionum (count of the sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople b K6pns TWV aaKpt v XapyLTUJP Wv and the comes rerum privatarum 1 The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a foreign language.
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
Conversely old English writers had no hesitation in translating as "earl" foreign titles which we now render "count."
(count of the private estates) was called Koµfc T('v lrpg3dTwv.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
In the 5th century the "sacred bounties" corresponded to the aerarium of the early Empire, while the res privatae represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis), the count of the residence (comes domorum), and, most important of all, the comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli (graecized as Kowis Tou o-Ta,3Xov).
The count of the stable, originally the imperial master of the horse, developed into the "illustrious" commander-in-chief of the imperial army (Stilicho, e.g., bore the full title as given above), and became the prototype of the medieval constable.
An important official of the second rank (spectabilis, " respectable" as contrasted with those of highest rank who were "illustrious") was the count of the East, who appears to have had the control of a department in which 600 officials were engaged.
It is the more curious that the gerefa should end as a servant ("reeve"), the Graf as a noble (count).
Under the early Carolings the title count did not indicate noble birth.
A comes was generally raised from childhood in the king's palace, and rose to be a count through successive stages.
The count's office was not yet a dignity, nor hereditary; he was not independent nor appointed for life, but exercised the royal power by delegation, as under the Merovingians.
The count was about to pass into the feudatory stage.
The unique dignity of count of the Lateran palace,' bestowed in 1328 by the emperor Louis IV.
A relic of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania, where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is styled count (comes, Graf) of the Saxon Nation.
That of "count" was, as Luchaire points out, "equivocal" even as late as the 12th century; any castellan of moderate rank could style himself comte who in the next century would have been called seigneur (dominus).
Even when, in the 13th century, the ranks of the feudal hierarchy in France came to be more definitely fixed, the style of "count" might imply much, or comparatively little.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Thus, too, in modern times royal princes have been given the title of count (Paris, Flanders, Caserta), the heir of Charles X.
From the 16th '"Count of the Lateran Palace" (Comes Sacri Lateranensis Palatii) was later the title usually bestowed by the popes in creating counts palatine.
The Grafschaft became thus merely a bundle of rights inherent in the soil; and, the count's office having become his property, the old counties of Gauen rapidly disappeared as administrative units, being either amalgamated or subdivided.
By the second half of the 12th century the official character of the count had quite disappeared; he had become a territorial noble, and the foundation had been laid of territorial sovereignty (Landeshoheit).
count of a province).
Even before the end of the Empire (1806) the right of bestowing the title of count was freely exercised by the various German territorial sovereigns.
- Any political significance which the feudal title of count retained in the 18th century vanished with the changes produced by the Revolution.
The difficulty of determining in any case the exact significance of the title of a German count, illustrated by the above, is increased by the fact that the title is generally heritable by all male descendants, the only exception being in Prussia, where, since 1840, the rule of primogeniture has prevailed and the bestowal of the title is dependent on a rent-roll of £3000 a year.
Three of these had become dukes by the 17th century, but the count (now prince) of Schwarzburg still styled himself "Of the four counts of the Holy Roman Empire, count of Schwarzburg" (see Selden, ed.
A German or Austrian count may be a wealthy noble of princely rank, a member of the Prussian or Austrian Upper House, or he may be the penniless cadet of a family of no great rank or antiquity.
The style Altgraf (old count), occasionally found, is of some antiquity, and means that the title of count has been borne by the family from time immemorial.
In medieval France the significance of the title of count varied with the power of those who bore it; in modern France it varies with its historical associations.
As for that of count, it is safe to say that in France its social value is solely dependent on its historical associations.
An Italian contc may or may not be a gentleman; he has long ceased, qua count, to have any social prestige, and his rank is not recognized by the Italian government.
In Russia the title of count (graf, fern.
BERTOLD (1442-1504), elector and archbishop of Mainz, son of George, count of Henneberg, entered the ecclesiastical profession, and after passing through its lower stages, was made archbishop of Mainz in 1484.
The pp g y Dutch were unable, however, to extend their power beyond the limits of the town, until the arrival of Count John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen in 1636.
Count Maurice resigned his post in 1644.
Next year he joined Henry in attacking their common enemy, Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou.
He at once recovered Maine from the Angevins, nominally in the interest of Herbert II., the lawful count, who became his vassal.
of France was a minor under the guardianship of William's father-in-law, the count of Flanders.
Of the king's sons Robert, though titular count of Maine, was kept in leading strings; and even William Rufus, who was in constant attendance on his father, never held a public office.
and Henry and five or six daughters, including Adela, who married Stephen, count of Blois.
Under the Lombards the civil government was in the hands of a gastaldo, under the Carolingians of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the commonwealth.
Siena applied to Manfred, obtained from him a strong body of German horse, under the command of Count Giordano, and likewise sought the aid of its Ghibelline allies.
Siena was next at war for several years with Aldobrandino Orsini, count of Pitigliano, and with Jacopo Piccinini, and suffered many disasters from the treachery of its generals.
Roman theologians generally reckon only seven orders, although, if we count the episcopate an order distinct from the presbyterate, the sum is not seven, but eight.
married Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III., count of Upper Burgundy.
But the author had offended in it several powerful persons who threatened his life, and if Count Danneskjold had not personally interested the king in him, Holberg's career might have had an untimely close.
Dobrovsky introduced him to Count Sternberg and his brother Francis, both of whom took an enthusiastic interest in Bohemian history.
Count Francis was the principal founder of the Society of the Bohemian Museum, devoted to the collection of documents bearing on Bohemian history, with the object of reawakening national sentiment by the study of the national records.
He became book-keeper at Montbeliard ironworks, and subsequently (1745) secretary to Professor Iselin, the editor of a newspaper at Basel, who three years later recommended him as private tutor to the family of Count A.
At the head of each county was placed a count, or lord-lieutenant 3 (Foispan, Lat.
The title of count (grof) was assumed later (15th century) by those nobles who had succeeded, in spite of the Golden Bull, in making their authority over whole counties independent and hereditary.
1 The ban is equivalent to the margrave, or count of the marches.