It must have cost a fortune!
That must have cost you a pretty penny.
It would cost you a fortune.
I am simply curious at what cost you are willing to pursue your goal.
It would cost more than seven dollars to have them dry cleaned and pressed.
My ticket cost a whole lot less dough.
Do you have any idea how much this gym cost to set up?
Ultimately it had cost them a child and her ability to have more.
A good book would sometimes cost as much as a good house.
It had 4K of memory and cost my parents about $200.
That would necessitate raising the cost of the tours for guests.
Pierre did not know why, but since Karataev had begun to grow weaker it had cost him an effort to go near him.
It will cost you something.
This pan will cost a dollar.
I didn't have much of an idea about the cost of raising children then, either.
I hope it didn't cost you too much.
But those things cost big bucks.
It would only cost her Xander.
The clever cost savings idea of sleeping in the car didn't sound so safe right now.
Even his lingering doubt about the real cost of her deals with Darkyn didn't extend to the question of whether or not he was meant to be with the woman in his arms.
Assistance might come from their direction, but any favor from the Council would cost him dearly in another way.
This people must cease to hold slaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them their existence as a people.
The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
It appears from the above estimate, that my food alone cost me in money about twenty-seven cents a week.
On the 13th of July 1447 he was consecrated in Eton church, when the warden and fellows and others of his old college gave him a horse at a cost of £6, 13s.
For the most part the farmer gives to his cattle and hogs the grain of his own producing, and buys flour, which is at least no more wholesome, at a greater cost, at the store.
I mean, there would be the cost of drapes, rugs, pictures and other things.
You know it has cost money!
Did it matter, if doing as they said cost her Gabriel?
Andre was dressed in cashmere and wool, his hair kept short and neat, his loafers more expensive than Kris's conference room had cost to build.
The other will cost one of you.
Cynthia raised her eyebrows as he asked, "Guess how much they cost me?"
A tradesman's wife was showing a rent in her shawl and telling how much the shawl had cost; another was saying that all silk goods had now got dear.
What would it have cost him to hold out for another two days?
"That's for recruiting me without telling me it'd cost my soul," Harmony said, crouching beside her.
But what if that energy cost fell to zero?
Besides, I have been told that "sociables" cost more than other kinds of bicycles.
And cost what it may, I will arrange poor Amelie's happiness, she loves him so passionately, and so passionately repents.
The cotton gin cut the cost of removing seeds from cotton.
"It is dreadful, dreadful!" she was saying, "but cost me what it may I shall do my duty.
"That thing cost a fortune," Tamer replied.
Her stupidity had cost a life this time – the life of a dear friend.
The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
However, the company likely won't choose this outcome because the $10 cost of cleanup is not paid by the company but by society.
But the cost is so negligible that no one thinks much of it.
In point #7, war would cost you your foreign customers.
They cost a great deal to publish and they have not a large enough sale to make them profitable to the publisher; but there are several institutions with special funds to pay for embossed books.
And I don't intend that the lesson she has learned at the cost of so much pain and trouble shall be unlearned.
A little golf, but that just frustrates me and cost money.
Everything comes at a cost, Gabriel, which you know.
The excitement at the coop had cost Alex his chance to watch a birth, but he accepted the loss in good humor.
It would cost the price of a car payment for the early evening special, if the posh place had such a thing!
The building of a new church, previously begun, had cost about 10,000 in each of the last two years, and he did not know how the rest, about 100,000 rubles, was spent, and almost every year he was obliged to borrow.
The second would be to argue that the cost of materials to build the Mercedes won't fall by a thousandfold.
Again, the materials to build the car are abundant; their cost is high because of technology deficiencies around retrieving and refining them, not an underlying rarity.
And we all know about those that optimize for cost and nutrition but the resulting food tastes awful; I have consumed enough wheatgrass to attest to this.
My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
It was insignificant and unnecessary, and cost more than it came to.
"Yes," said Rostov as if it cost him a great deal to utter the word; and he sat down at the nearest table.
He continually hurt Princess Mary's feelings and tormented her, but it cost her no effort to forgive him.
It was said that Mamonov's regiment would cost him eight hundred thousand rubles, and that Bezukhov had spent even more on his, but that the best thing about Bezukhov's action was that he himself was going to don a uniform and ride at the head of his regiment without charging anything for the show.
He was armed but hadn't yet replaced the trench coat she cost him soon after they met.
No matter what the cost to her.
If he did switch them and his little gag came to light, it wouldn't only cost him the election; it would cost him his whole career.
Deidre's boyfriend, Logan, cost Darkyn two of the valuable shape-shifting demons.
Suddenly, a blank check – even from Death – didn't seem like enough for what his one kiss might cost her.
"You need only say my name, and I'll come to you," he grated at last, as if the words cost him a hefty bet.
Katie's eyes widened in surprise as she recognized a brand of moisturizer that cost a few hundred dollars.
She was dressed in a long, white fur coat that Katie had no doubt cost more than a small house.
He began to think his own actions had cost him the choice he'd yet to give her: to stay forever or return to her planet.
It wasn't designed to absorb perspiration and probably cost twice the price of a David Dean suit, at least the last time he'd purchased one.
But the high cost of lift tickets and rentals made downhill skiing look like an infrequent outing.
Easing her pain cost him nothing, but he wasn't about to go hungry.
She wanted to know more, but what would it cost her?
Guicciardini reckoned the cost of the war to Leo at the prodigious sum of 800,000 ducats.
Four years later he captured Caryae, ravaged the territory of the Parrhasii and defeated the Arcadians, Argives and Messenians in the "tearless battle," so called because the victory did not cost the Spartans a single life.
It is estimated that this cardinalate cost France about eight million francs.
The State Capitol, built of native granite and marble (1887-1895, cost $2,500,000), is an imposing building.
She creates premium services on her site that cost just $9.95 a year that include a number of additional features and virtual goods.
What will change is the amount of data that will be recorded, the speed of the processors, and the cost of storage and computation.
When the cost of recording all the data is zero, the cost of processing it is zero, and the cost of accessing it zero, then the many sciences, especially human health, will be democratized.
And say the net cost to society of having a gallon of polluted water dumped into the river—the cleanup cost, or the economic impact of the gallon of dirty water—is $10.
If the company pollutes, it should bear the cost of that pollution.
The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.
The memory for that computer cost me $40 per MB, just under $200.
To sequence corn's genome took four years and cost US$30 million.
Remember my earlier statement that a farmer treats a thousand acres of corn as a single entity because it is not cost effective to deal with each corn stalk separately?
It is this combined with the fact that their targets, too, are worth more; the cost of rebuilding a modern city today dwarfs the cost of rebuilding that city fifty years ago.
You still can buy it from the government's bookstore; a recent one ran about two thousand pages and cost about $200.
And it will come at no cost to our humanity.
Those conveniences which the student requires at Cambridge or elsewhere cost him or somebody else ten times as great a sacrifice of life as they would with proper management on both sides.
Looking at his cold face, as he sat like a stern schoolmaster who was prepared to wait awhile for an answer, Pierre felt that every instant of delay might cost him his life; but he did not know what to say.
But in January Savelich came from Moscow and gave him an account of the state of things there, and spoke of the estimate an architect had made of the cost of rebuilding the town and country houses, speaking of this as of a settled matter.
The cost –" "I'll pay it.
There are emerging procedures that will help people who need it, but the cost is beyond what any hospital will spend, knowing no one can pay for it.
That castle cost a fortune to build.
He turned away, not wanting to care about the cost of getting his mate back.
He worked all day, climbed the hills looking for her – not to mention the worry she had cost him today.
That internal focus had ultimately cost her the ultimate relationship.
Then, there would be the cost of the wedding - and what about finals?
If I didn't know you better, I'd swear you didn't think your mother was worth the cost.
It's rule number one: protect humans at all cost.
He began to think more and more that raising Andre was worth breaking the thousands of Immortal Laws it cost.
No idea what it'll cost, though.
He always did, no matter what the personal cost.
Megan, how much do these cost?
He seemed to be the only one on the Council who truly cared about upholding the balance between good and evil, no matter what the cost.
Most of Sarah's boyfriends gave him a wide berth and avoided contact at all cost.
She couldn't imagine how much a place here cost.
These natural advantages make possible the production of pig iron at an unusually low cost.
The lack of coal in Argentina greatly increases the difficulty and cost of maintaining these industries, and high prices of the products result.
The two Protestant bodies used to cost the state about 60,000 a year and the Jewish Church about 6000.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
Next year a large programme of railway expansion was adopted, at an estimated cost to the state of 14o,000,000, and from 1880 to 1882 nearly 40,000,000 was expended and some 18cc m.
The chief item of expenditure (which totalled 148 million pounds in 1905) is the service of the public debt, which in 1905 cost 483/4 million pounds sterling.
In 1875 the Invalides numbered 642, and the hOtel cost the state 1,123,053 francs.
Cost of tuition (simply) ranges from f2 to ff6 a year.
The lyces also take boardersthe cost of boarding ranging from f22 to f52 a year.
The municipality has to pay the Cost of building, furnishing and upkeep. At the head of the lyce is the principal (proviseur), an official nominated by the minister, and assisted by a teaching staff of professors and charges de cours or teachers of somewhat lower standing.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
Instruction at state schools is either free or at merely nominal cost, and high schools, technical colleges and agricultural colleges are maintained by appropriations from the general revenues of the states.
The cost of public instruction ih Australia averages about I Is.
per inhabitant, and the cost per scholar in average attendance at state schools is £4 :13: 9.
The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.
Tuition in the institute is free; board and living cost $8.50 a month; day students are allowed to "work-out" $1.50-$3.00 a month of this amount, and night students may thus pay all their expenses.
The famous defence of Haarlem, lasting through the winter of 1572 to July 1573, cost the besiegers 12,000 lives, and gave of the insurgent provinces time to breathe.
Before the World War about i 2 million skins were obtained annually at a cost of 6 to 8 roubles each.
Death was the penalty for the least offence, and no past services - as Koes Mahommed was to find to his cost - were admitted in extenuation.
From 1850 onwards it was again repaired and strengthened at great cost, and was considered impregnable; but in the war of 1864 the Prussians turned it by crossing the Schlei, .and it was abandoned by the Danes on the 6th of February without a blow.
This university was founded to furnish a practical education at a low cost, and in 1910 had 187 instructors and a total enrolment of 5367 students.
Berhampur was fixed upon after the battle of Plassey as the site of the chief military station for Bengal; and a huge square of brick barracks was erected in 1767, at a cost of 30o,000.
great; also where speed is not important, and first cost is an essential consideration.
The hydraulic crane is rapid in action, very smooth and silent in working, easy to handle, and not excessive in cost or upkeep, - advantages which have secured its adoption in every part of the world.
In first cost the hydraulic crane has the advantage, but the power mains are much less expensive and more convenient to arrange in the electric crane.
have constructed branch railways at their own cost, the first of which was extended in 1901 to Hyderabad in Sind.
If the irrigator neglected to repair his dyke, or left his runnel open and caused a flood, he had to make good the damage done to his neighbours' crops, or be sold with his family to pay the cost.
The cost of the cable before laying depends on the dimensions of its core, the gutta-percha, which still forms the only trustworthy insulator known, constituting the principal item of the expense; for an Atlantic cable of the most approved construction the cost may be taken at f250 to £300 per nautical mile.
Owing to the experience gained with many thousands of miles of cable in all depths and under varying conditions of weather and climate, the risk, and consequently the cost, of laying has been greatly reduced.
But the cost of effecting a repair still remains a very uncertain quantity, success being dependent on quiet conditions of sea and weather.
As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.
As an ordinary instance, it has been stated that the cost of repairing the Direct United States cable up to 1900 from its submergence in 1874 averaged £8000 per annum.
public convenience, with the loss of revenue and cost of repairs, must together decide the question of either making very extensive renewals or even abandoning the whole cable.
In that year the Swiss government reduced the rate for inland telegrams by one-half, and the traffic immediately doubled, but the cost of carrying on the service increased in a larger ratio.
paid to the railway companies for their reversionary rights, the cost of which had been estimated at £700,000.
Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.
The report of the committee, which is dated January 1897, was presented to parliament in April 1899, and dealt with the practicability of the project, the route, the cost and the revenue.
Statistical Society (September 1872, March 1881); Report of a Committee appointed by the Treasury to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the Telegraphic Service, &c. (1875); Reports of the Postmaster-General for 1895, &c.; Journ.
The Postmaster-General on the other hand agreed to provide underground wires for the company on a rental, and agreed to buy in 1911 the company's plant in London at the cost of construction less allowance for repairs and depreciation.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
The tariff for unlimited use has to be made very high to cover the cost of the additional burdens thrown upon the service, and it only works economically to the individual subscriber who has an exceptionally large number of calls originating from his instrument.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
They consist of long leases, under which the landlord shares the costs of improvements and builds farm-houses; also leases of orange and lemon gardens, two-thirds of the prot~uce of which go to the landlord, while the farmer contributes half the cost of farming besides the labor.
Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.
Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
By the act of 1903 the state contributes half and the province a quarter of the cost of roads connecting communes with the nearest railway stations or landing places.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
The cost of fire brigades, infant asylums, evening and holiday schools, is classed as optional expenditure.
Optional expenditure includes the cost of.
The popes had been successful; but they hac purchased their bloody victory at a great cost.
Article 12 provided for the transmission free of cost in Italy of all papal telegrams and correspondence both with bishops and foreign governments, and sanctioned the establishment, at the expense of the Italian state, of a papal telegraph office served b~ papal officials in communication with the Italian postal and telegraph system.
Railways, roads and harbours which contractors had undertaken to construct for reasonable amounts were frequently made to cost thrice the original estimates.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
The net annual cost of the settlement to the government is about £6 per convict.
By common consent he was deified and all those who could afford the cost obtained his statue or bust; for a long time his statues held a place among the penates of the Romans.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
The British Medical Association published in 1907 a work on Secret Remedies; what they cost and what they contain.
Only a few of the principal ones can be mentioned: - the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, Marlborough House, Buckingham House, and the Hall of the College of Physicians - now destroyed; others which exist are - at Oxford, the Sheldonian theatre, the Ashmolean museum, the Tom Tower of Christ Church, and Queen's College chapel; at Cambridge, the library of Trinity College and the chapel of Pembroke, the latter at the cost of Bishop Matthew Wren, his uncle.
The Atrato at one time attracted considerable attention as a feasible route for a trans-isthmian canal, which, it was estimated, could be excavated at a cost of ii,000,000.
This the Latin drama first received from Livius Andronicus; but it did so at the cost of its originality.
The Capitol was built in 1905-1907 at a cost of more than $2,000,000; in it are.
He had the satisfaction of seeing the lost portion of Bessarabia restored to his country by the Berlin treaty, but at the cost of greater sacrifices than he anticipated.
It covers 2 acres of ground and cost $2,000,000.
The Marion county court-house cost $1,750,000.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Federal building (containing post-office, custom-house and Federal court-rooms; erected at a cost of $3,000,000); Tomlinson Hall, capable of seating 3000 persons, given to the city by Daniel Tomlinson; the Propylaeum, a club-house for women; the Commercial club; Das Deutsche Haus, belonging to a German social club; the Maennerchor club-house; the Union railway station; the traction terminal building; the city hall, and the public library.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
can be made third class at a cost of only about 17 shillings, while for less than twice as much 1990 m.
Her hatred of Germans showed itself likewise in her persistent struggle with Frederick the Great, which cost Russia 300,000 men and 30 millions of roubles - an enormous sum for those days - but in the choice of a successor she could not follow her natural inclinations, for among the few descendants of Michael Romanov there was no one, even in the female line, who could be called a genuine Russian.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
Yet the mileage of sidings in the United Kingdom amounted to 14,353 in 1908, and the cost of constructing them was probably not far from £60,000,000.
In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.
But there are long stretches of pine loam in the South where branch lines can be, and are, built and equipped for £2400 or less per mile, while the construction of new main line in the prairie region of the West ought not to cost more than £4000 per single-track-mile, under present conditions.
A system of charges which compels each piece of traffic to pay its share of the charges for track and for stations overlooks the fundamental fact that a very large part of the expenses of a railway - more than half - is not connected either with the cost of moving traffic or of handling traffic at stations, but with the cost of maintaining the property as a whole.
The cost of such ventures and the detailed methods by which they are financed are of relatively small importance, because they are not required to earn a money return on the investment.
500 132 632 29 17 46 1 55 421 theory that the bonds represented the cost of the enterprise, and the stock the prospective profits.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
In the second place, except in the unlikely event of all the places on the selected route lying at the same elevation, a line that is perfectly level is a physical impossibility; and from engineering considerations, even one with uniform gradients will be impracticable on the score of cost, unless the surface of the country is extraordinarily even.
If, however, cost within reasonable limits is a secondary consideration and the intention is to build a line adapted for express trains and for the carriage of the largest volume of traffic with speed and economy, he will lean towards the second.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
Other engineers, however, such as Joseph Locke, cheapened the cost of construction by admitting long slopes of i in 80 or 70.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
away from the edges of the platforms. On the other hand, wide spans are more expensive both in first cost and in maintenance, and there is the possibility of a failure such as caused the collapse in December 1905 of the roof of Charing Cross (S.E.R.) station, London, which then consisted of a single span.
In the second case, however, there are all the losses due to transmission from the central station to the train to be considered, as well as the cost of the transmitting apparatus itself.
It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.
But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.
Similarly in Europe they are often the property of the International Sleeping Car Company (Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits), and the supplementary fares required from those who travel in them add materially to the cost of a journey.
This high carrying capacity has worked in several ways to reduce the cost of transportation.
In addition the increased size of the American freight car has diminished the interest on the first cost and the expenses of maintenance relatively to the work done; it has diminished to some extent the amount.
the cost of carriage.
Intra-urban railways, as compared with ordinary railways, are characterized by shortness of length, great cost per mile, and by a traffic almost exclusively passenger, the burden of which is enormously heavy.
This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
The cost of building an ordinary two-track elevated railway according to American practice varies from $300,000 to $400,000 a mile, exclusive of equipment, terminals or land damages.
The cost of constructing the deep tubular tunnels in London, whose diameter is about 15 ft.
The cost of the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways of London varied greatly on account of the variations in construction.
of four-track line, cost $15,000,000.
The saving of cost is effected in two ways: (I) Instead of having to incur the expenses of a protracted inquiry before parliament, the promoters of a light railway under the act of 1896 make an application to the light railway commissioners, who then hold a local inquiry, to obtain evidence of the usefulness of the proposed railway, and to hear objections to it, and, if they are satisfied, settle the draft order and hand it over to the Board of Trade for confirmation.
(2) The second source of economy is to be sought in the reduced cost of actually making the line and cf working it when made.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
Over an average of years it appears that 27% of the capital cost was found by the state, 28% by the province, 40.9% by the communes and 4 .
The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.
Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a ton.
If Jerusalem has been chosen as His sanctuary and Israel as His own people, it is only that Israel may diffuse God's blessings in the world even at the cost of Israel's own humiliation, exile and dispersion.
His repugnance to public life had been strongly expressed to his father in a letter of a very early date, in which he begged that the money which a seat in the House of Commons would cost might be expended in a mode more agreeable to him.
long, diverting the waters of the Truckee river into the Carson river, was completed in 2905 at a cost of $1,250,000.
It was estimated that the works would require nine years for their completion, at a total cost of $9,000,000, although the first 200,000 acres could be reclaimed at a cost of $2,700,000.
The works were to be operated by the government foi ten years, and the cost assessed against the holders of the land.1 At the conclusion of this period the system was to pass into the control of the landholders, with no further charge by the government.
A captain of landsknechts, Fabian by name, holding his long pike crosswise, brought it down with all his force upon the opposing spears, and at the cost of his life made a narrow gap through which the French broke into the mass of the enemy.
The cost of operations amounted to an initial expenditure of 6.25 francs, and an annual expenditure of about 2.3 francs per head of the population.
On that occasion the garrison was 40,000 strong, and the assault cost the assailants 10,000 and the defenders 30,000 men.
16; presages recovery or death of patients); (4) the pelican (recalls its young to life by its own blood); (5) the owl (or nyktikorax; loves darkness and solitude); (6) the eagle (renews its youth by sunlight and bathing in a fountain); (7) the phoenix (revives from fire); (8) the hoopoe (redeems its parents from the ills of old age); (9) the wild ass (suffers no male besides itself); (1 o) the viper (born at the cost of both its parents' death); (I I) the serpent (sheds its skin; puts aside its venom before drinking; is afraid of man in a state of nudity; hides its head and abandons the rest of its body); (12) the ant (orderly and laborious; prevents stored grain from germinating; distinguishes wheat from barley on the stalk); (13) the sirens and onocentaurs (Isa.
This policy cost Mr. Henderson his seat in Parliament at the General Election of Dec. 1918.
and its cost was $5,407,000.
The cost of instruction in 1919 was $4,3 8 3,- 924.
Under its auspices were conducted in 1916 an educational survey at a cost of $50,000, a survey for a community recreation programme in 1920, and a survey of the administration of justice in 1921.
Passenger steamship service was transferred to a new 5 ac. pier on the lake front, built at a cost of $500,000.
This was restored in 1867-1878 at the cost of the Prussian government, and was adorned with frescoes portraying events in German history.
The result was a whole series of wars with the Teutonic Order, which now acknowledged Swidrygiello, another brother of Jagiello, as grand-duke of Lithuania; and though Swidrygiello was defeated and driven out by Witowt, the Order retained possession of Samogitia, and their barbarous methods of "converting" the wretched inhabitants finally induced Witowt to rescue his fellow-countrymen at any cost from the tender mercies of the knights.
This cost him his seat in Congress after the 4th of March 1817, and for the next six Years he was engaged chiefly in the practice of law in the courts of Massachusetts and before the U.S. Supreme Court.
He spared neither men, money, nor himself in attempting to carry out his gigantic scheme for the colonization of the south Russian steppes; but he never calculated the cost, and more than three-quarters of the design had to be abandoned when but half finished.
Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.
Among other public buildings are the assembly rooms, St George's hall, the volunteer drill hall, and the Crichton Institution chapel, completed at a cost of 30,000.
Nevertheless the mountain tribes who inhabited the higher parts of the Caucasus were still independent, and their subjugation cost Russia a sustained effort of thirty years, during the course of which her military commanders were more than once brought almost to the point of despair by the tenacity, the devotion and the adroitness and daring which the mountaineers displayed in a harassing guerilla warfare.
Additional facilities were granted by the act passed in 1848 for disentailing estates, and for burdening such as are entailed with the share of the cost of certain specified improvements.
The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.
It is a proof of the dominating force of his father's character that it cost the younger Mill such an effort to shake off his stern creed about poetry and personal emotion.
In some years three or four sowings have to be made before a "plant" is produced, enormous loss in labour and cost of seed alone being thus involved.
It was he who at a cost of over X500,000 made the harbour at Granton, near Edinburgh.
The magnificent bridge here spanning the Elbe, one mile in length, was built in 1851 at a cost of £237,500.
To this demand (the real commencement of the "Continental System") the Berlin government had to accede, though at the cost of a naval war with England, and the ruin of its maritime trade.
On his return, he outlined to Parliament a scheme by which the cost might be greatly reduced, mainly through the transference of authority to Arab chiefs.
Its duration was from the 3rd of July 1778 to the assembly of the congress of Teschen on the 10th of March 1779,and its total cost £4,350,000 and 20,000 men to all parties.
The campaign of 1703 was remarkable for Charles's victory at Pultusk (April 21) and the long siege of Thorn, which occupied him eight months but cost him only 50 men.
The present bridge, the work of Antonio or Giovanni Contino, whose nickname was da Ponte, dates from 1588-91, and cost 250,000 ducats.
Contemporaneously with the restoration of the southern facade of St Mark's, the restoration of the colonnade of the ducal palace towards the Piazzetta and the Mole was undertaken at a cost of £23,000.
The new state house, the oldest portion of which (designed by Charles Bulfinch) was erected in 1795-1798, was enlarged in 1853-1856, and again by a huge addition in 1889-1898 (total cost abou($6,800,000 to 1900).
Other buildings of local importance are the city hall (1865); the United tates government building (1871-1878, cost about $6,000,00); the county court-house (1887-1893, $2,250,000); the custom house (1837-1848); and the chamber of commerce (1892).
Trinity (1877, cost $800,000), in yellowish granite with dark sandstone trimmings, the masterpiece of H.
The library (1888-1895; cost $2,486,000, exclusive of the site, given by the state) is a dignified, finely proportioned building of pinkish-grey stone, built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, suggesting a Florentine palace.
long, in part with four tracks and in part with two, constructed since 1895 at a cost of about $7,500,000 up to 1905.
The subway was built by the city, but leased and operated by a private company on such terms as to repay its cost in forty years.
Schools, police, charities, water, streets and parks are the items of heaviest cost.
The cost of the public schools for the five years from 1901-1902 to 1906-1907 was $27,883,937, of which $7,057,895.42 was for new buildings; the cost of the police department was $11,387,314.66 for the six years 1902-1907; and of the water department $4,941,343.37 for the six years 1902-1907; of charities and social work a much larger sum.
The creation of the city water-system has also been excessively costly, and the total cost up to the 31st of January 1908 of the works remaining to the city after the creation of the metropolitan board in 1898 was about $17,000,000.
The city park system proper had cost $16,627,033 up to 1899 inclusive; and the metropolitan parks $13,679,456 up to 1907 inclusive.
The debt per capita is as high as the cost of current administration relatively to other cities.
Many thousands of cattle are fattened annually in this way at remarkably low cost.
Moveable gins were tried for a time in some places; they were dragged by traction engines from farm to farm, like threshing machines in parts of England, but the plan proved uneconomical because, among other reasons, farmers were not prepared to meet the cost of providing facilities for storing their cotton.
The bales are usually square, but cylindrical bales are becoming more common, though their cost is greater.
As the cost of dealing in " futures " is only one shilling on each transaction for a member of the Cotton Exchange (the outsider is charged in addition a commission by his broker), it is not surprising that the transactions taking place in " futures " number legion.
Contractors will often undertake to drill wells of moderate depth at 90 cents to $1 per foot, but the cost of a deep well may amount to as much as $7000.
A government grant is made towards the cost of upkeep. A government industrial school (opened in 1906) is maintained at Maseru, and the Paris Society has an industrial school at Leloaleng.
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
to more than cost) greatly impeded the development of the industry.
Commercial warfare was to be avoided because of the cost.
2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.
The cost of transfer was about £I,000,000.
Separate school districts were abolished; a new city superintendent, with associate superintendents, was appointed; the scattered and unrelated school agencies were consolidated; new high schools and junior high schools established and buildings erected, such as the Schenley high school, built in 1916 at a cost of $1,500,000 and accommodating 2,000 students.
At a cost of $7,200,000, the city completed in 1917 a municipal bridge of massive steel construction, double track and double deck, across the Mississippi.
long, completed in 1912 at a cost of $500,000, crosses the railway tracks and unites western sections of the city.
A municipal court building, a city jail and a children's detention house, all of stone, were erected, the first in 1912, the others in succeeding years, at a cost of $1,855,000.
At a cost of $5,000,000 a new medical school, hospital and children's hospital, occupying several city blocks fronting on Forest Park, have been completed since 1911.
The more important new buildings of the period 1910-20 with the amounts they cost were: the Statler hotel, $3,000,000; the Warwick hotel, $400,000; the cathedral of St.
The cost of new buildings in 1919 was $20,538,450.
The expenditure on relief alone was about a million sterling; and the total cost of the famine, including loss of revenue, amounted to nearly twice that amount.
The signing of the peace of Teschen, which averted a great war with Prussia, on the 13th of May 1779, was the last great act of her reign, and so Maria Theresa judged it to be in a letter to Prince Kaunitz; she said that she had now finished her life's journey and could sing a for she had secured the repose of her people at whatever cost to herself.
In October, on his return to Roye, he founded the Correspondant Picard, the violent character of which cost him another arrest.
account of their cost, bulk and weight, but their great use in teaching geography is undeniable.
The work is either engraved upon the stone (which yields the most satisfactory result at half the cost of copper-engraving), or it is drawn upon the stone by pen, brush M.
Owing to the great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates, have largely taken the place of stone.
The saving in time and cost by adopting this process is considerable, for a plan, the engraving of which takes two years, can now be produced in two days.
It only cost X169 as compared with £360 had the old method been pursued.
The chief public building is the state capitol (built in1868-1888at a cost of about $4,50o,000), in the form of a Greek cross, with porticoes of granite and a dome 361 ft.
To meet the cost of this Captain Fox suggested that each member should give a penny per week.
The first Ptolemy began it, and the second completed it, at a total cost of Boo talents.
The cost of living has doubled and the price of land has risen enormously."
First, since the great and growing modern city stands right over the ancient one, it is almost impossible to find any considerable space in which to dig, except at enormous cost.
This was shortly followed by the translation of Plotinus into Latin, and by a voluminous commentary, the former finished in 1486, the latter in 1491, and both published at the cost of Lorenzo de' Medici just one month after his death.
This identification can only be p urchased at the cost of a complete renunciation of the Avestan genealogy.
The irrigated rice area increased 92.9% from 1899 to 1902, and the construction cost of irrigation works ($4747,359 in 1902; $12.25 per irrigated acre) 87.7% in the same years.
From 1890 to 1900 the capital invested, the cost of materials used and the value of output (in 1goo, $1 21,181,683) increased respectively 22 5'4, 1 47.3 and 109 6%.
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the fees were greatly reduced.
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
The cost of exploitation is accordingly slight.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
In 1883, however, an observatory, equipped at a cost of f4000 (raised by public subscription), was opened by Mrs Cameron Campbell of Monzie, who provided the site.
Critics have also urged that Kallay; fostered the desire for material welfare at the cost of every other national ideal; that, despite his own popularity, he never secured the goodwill of the people for Austria-Hungary; that he left the agrarian difficulty unsolved, and the hostile religious factions unreconciled.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
Impoverished by these different causes, as well as by prodigal extravagance in interior expenditure, by shameless venality among the ruling classes, and by continual wars, of which the cost, whether they were successful or not, was enormous, the public treasury was frequently empty.
The outside cost of construction of the first section, which lies entirely in the plains of Konia, is estimated to have been £625,000; the company retained, therefore, a profit of at least I' 4 millions sterling on this first part of the enterprise.
for thus weakening the neighbouring Mussulman states such as Persia and Daghestan, thereby facilitating Russia's future expansion at their cost.
So urgent was the need of restoring union at any cost that even prelates who had taken an active part in the work of the council of Pisa, such as Pierre d'Ailly, cardinal bishop of Cambrai, were forced to admit, in view of the fact that the decisions of that council had been and were still contested, that the only possible course was to reconsider the question of the union de novo, entirely disregarding all previous deliberations on the subject, and treating the claims of John and his two competitors with the strictest impartiality.
Fresh troops arriving were sent in to his support, but these also proved insufficient, and darkness alone put an end to the struggle, which cost the French 12,000 killed and wounded.
Napoleon halted a whole day to let the army close up; and then attacked with his old vigour and succeeded in clearing the road, but only at the cost of leaving Ney and the rearguard to its fate.
The river is spanned with bridges, and its valley by two viaducts, the larger of which (completed in 1878 at a cost of more than $ 2,000,000), 3 211 ft.
In 1902 the city arranged for grouping its public buildings - in the so-called "Group Plan" - at a cost of $25,000,000.
The sale of the fertilizer more than pays for the cost of reduction, and the only expense the city has is in collecting it.
The principle upon which the government acts is to give the natives low prices for their produce, but to sell them European articles of necessity at prime cost, and other stores, such as bread, at prices which will scarcely pay for the purchase.
more than 20% over the cost price in Denmark.
The trade of Greenland has on the whole much decreased in modern times, and trading and missions cost the Danish state a comparatively large sum (about £i i,000 every year), although this is partly covered by the income from the royalty of the cryolite mines at Ivigtut.
long laid to Cardiff at a total cost of about £1,250,000.
In 1864 the Bute trustees unsuccessfully sought powers for constructing three additional docks to cost two millions sterling, but under the more limited powers granted in 1866, the Roath basin (12 acres) was opened in 1874, and (under a substituted act of 1882) the Roath dock (33 acres) was opened in 1887.
All these docks were constructed by the Bute family at a cost approaching three millions sterling.
In 1824, after the conquest of Psara by the Turks, he commanded the Greek forces which prevented the further progress of the Sultan's fleet, though at the cost of the loss of many fire ships and men to themselves.
Expeditions of Sibley in 1863, and General Alfred Sully (1821-1879) in 1864, eventually drove the hostile Indians beyond the Missouri and terminated the war, which in two years had cost upwards of a thousand lives of settlers and volunteers.
Wellington then, ostentatiously making preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost him 600 men.
In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks, basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000 (of which the imperial treasury contributed 2,000,000), between the confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away to make room for these accessories of a great port.
The navigation of the Cochecho river has been greatly improved by the Federal government, at a cost between 1829 and 1907 of about $300,000, and in 1909 there was a navigable channel, 60-75 ft.
The cost was over 30,000, and the debt was entirely paid off at the close of the opening services, which lasted over a month.
Although the cost of transport from the remote forest regions of some districts is a serious consideration, this is not likely to be operative in reducing production until there has been a considerable and permanent fall in price, by which time new areas in those countries in which planting is now taking place will probably have come into bearing.
Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.
Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.
The cost of collecting " wild " rubber is less easy to state with any approach to accuracy, since the cost varies in different districts of S.
and Central America, but the average cost is stated not to be less than is.
In Africa the cost of collection is much less, but the rubber is generally of inferior quality.
Having regard to the present cost of producing " plantation " rubber, and to the probability that, apart from a possible increase in the price of labour, this cost is susceptible of further reduction, it may be concluded that rubber production will continue to be profitable even should a considerable fall in market value take place.
This practice, which involves periodical weeding, adds considerably to the cost of maintaining plantations, and, although justified so far by results, possesses several other disadvantages.
The cost of production may be assumed to be about is.
The cost of clearing forest land and planting with rubber in Ceylon is estimated at about 100 Rs.
Its settlement will depend in part on the cost of producing rubber from plants, which from their point of view it is to the interests of planters to reduce as far as possible.
On his return he was wrecked on the holy island of Fosite (Heligoland), where his disregard of the pagan superstition nearly cost him his life.
Many improvements and extra protective works were carried out after 1816, and it was estimated that the total cost of this great engineering undertaking from 1807 to 1902 amounted to about X200,000, the date for the completion of the work being 1911.
The assessment and collection of it were the business of the community; the crown, in principle, had nothing to do with them and did not bear the cost of a local administration for the purpose.
In both cases ddl and dal are cogredient with xl and x 2; for, in the case of direct substitution, dxi = cost dX i - sin 00-(2, ad2 =sin B dX i +cos O dX 2, and for skew substitution dai = cos B dX i +sin 0d2, c-&-- 2 n d =sin -coseax2.
The last, laid out at a cost of £130,000, include a large conservatory, a fine enclosed promenade, a theatre and an aquarium.
Concurrently with the repair of the canal, the navigation works on the Thames were remodelled at a large cost, and barges drawing 3 ft.
The cost of smelting a ton of ore in Colorado in a single furnace, 42 by 120 in.
In the United States the cost of desilverizing a ton base bullion is about $6.
His part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues.
The Lettish Government decided to stop the advance on Dvinsk and Rezhitsa at any cost, as a danger to Latvia's independence, and succeeded in obtaining British and Esthonian support.
In the same year a thorough scientific exploration was made, at the cost of Sir John Murray, by Mr C. W.
His physician recommended a sojourn in Italy, for the benefit of his health, and Weber and Sartorius von Waltershausen obtained from the government leave of absence and means to defray the cost of the journey.
Such a height bad not been reached without cost.
had been acquired at a cost of £14,605,000 in bonds, the interest on which is £584,200 a year against an aggregate of £831,750 in interest guarantees which the government had been paying.
This is principally due to the cost and difficulties of transporting timbers to the coast.
They named their town by anticipation, Our Lady of the Victory (Victoria); but it cost them some hard fighting with the Goagnazes to justify the title.
The heavy cost involved in the suppression of internal disorders, maladministration,and the hindrances placed in the way of economical development by the semi-independence of the federal Salles.
St Bernard's Well, on the Water of Leith, was embellished and restored (1888) at the cost of Mr William Nelson.
The cost of construction, to the same year, exceeded £14,000,000, the interest earned per cent since 1895 not being less than £3, 12s.
But this triumph cost him his seat in parliament.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
The matter was urgent; for parliament was to meet on the 28th, and it was important that a new cabinet, acceptable to it, should be appointed before that date, or that the Houses should be prorogued pending such appointment; otherwise the delegations would be postponed and no credits would be voted for the cost of the new Austro-Hungarian " Dreadnoughts " and of the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
His table cost him a thousand crowns a day, although he himself lived simply.
left out of Ios.; how much per lb did tea cost?
Therefore 2 lb of tea cost 3s.
Therefore 1 lb of tea cost is.
Thus we say: Cost of 2 lb tea+6s.
Cost of 2 lb tea = ios.
Cost of i lb tea = is.
the cost of 1 lb tea.
Cost of 1 lb tea= Is.
If 4 tons last year cost 1045., how much does a ton cost this year ?
" If we write X for the cost per ton this year, we have 4(X-3s.) =104s.
proposed to the queen to make her a present of the necklace, which cost 1,600,000 livres.
From this is deducted the average annual cost of repairs, insurance and renewals, the balance constituting the rateable value.
The expedition cost Great Britain a million and a half, but the attempt at farther extension westwards was foiled, and a little later treaties with Lobenguela and the grant to Cecil Rhodes and his co-directors of a charter for the British South.
Buller's operations, too, had cost at Colenso r roo men, at Spion Kop r 700, at Vaalkrantz 400, and now in the last long-drawn effort 16 oo more - over s000 in all.
prove successful because of the high cost of salt.
In the year named a special commission was appointed for the regulation of the Moldau and Elbe between Prague and Aussig, at a cost estimated at about I, 000,000, of which sum two-thirds were to be borne by the Austrian empire and one-third by the kingdom of Bohemia.
in length, and constructed at a cost of £1,177,700, of which the state of Lubeck contributed £802,700, and the kingdom of Prussia £375, 000.
After his death (337) a splendid monument, with porticoes and gymnasia surrounding it, known as the Timoleonteum, was raised at the public cost to his honour.
The following table shows the capital expenditure on the more important bridges and their cost of maintenance in 1907-1908: Net Capital Cost of Maintenance Expenditure.
The length of sewers in the main system is about 288 m., and their construction has cost about eight millions.
The annual cost of maintenance of the system exceeds £250,000.
This involved impounding the headwaters of the Wye, the Towey and the Usk, and the total cost was estimated to exceed fifteen millions sterling.
Various acts from 1860 onwards have laid down laws as to the quality and cost of gas.
The cost of maintenance exceeds £200,000 annually; contributions towards this are made by the Treasury and the fire insurance companies.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
Besides the annual expenditure of the various authorities large sums have been borrowed to defray the cost of works of a permanent nature.
was a popular king, but his fighting in the Holy Land cost his subjects much.
The cost of these two marches in the year was very considerable, and, having been suspended in 1528 on account of the prevai 1 " A map of London engraved on copper-plate, dated 1497," which was bought by Ferdinand Columbus during his travels in Europe about 1518-1525, is entered in the catalogue of Ferdinand's books, maps, &c., made by himself and preserved in the Cathedral Library at Seville, but there is no clue to its existence.
The entertainment was prepared by Sir Francis Bacon at a cost of about X2000.
Conditions affecting the cost of opening, developing and working the mine or determining the methods to be adopted.
This will increase the cost of boring and will render the holes more likely to swerve from the true direction.
In extreme cases the results from boring are likely to be untrustworthy and misleading unless the work is done on such a scale that the cost becomes prohibitory.
As the sinking of shafts or the driving of narrow entries or drifts is expensive, and as the mineral extracted rarely pays more than a small fraction of the cost, it is usual to plan this exploratory work so that the openings made shall serve some useful purpose later.
A mine, however, may be over-developed, which results in loss of interest on the capital unnecessarily locked up for years by excessive development, and involves additional cost for the maintenance of such openings until they are needed for active mining operations.
The method, of mining adopted must secure the extraction of the mineral at a minimum cost.
The principal item in mining cost is that of labour, which is expended chiefly in breaking down the mineral, either by the use of hand tools or with the aid of powder.
Narrow and contracted working-places are to be avoided, as in such places the cost of breaking ground is always large.
While it is always desirable to work the deposit so as to extract the mineral completely, it frequently happens that this can only be done at greatly increased cost.
This system permits the complete extraction of the ore at moderate cost and without danger to the men.
In order to lessen the cost of handling the rock-filling, the excavation sometimes takes the form of inclined working-places, parallel to the slope naturally taken by the rock when dumped from above into the working 7 -,, , --,, ?
These advantages compensate for the greater first cost.
The cost of filling has been greatly reduced by the system of flushing culm, sand, gravel and similar material, through pipes leading from the surface into mine workings.
'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.
The cost of mining by the milling method does not greatly exceed the cost of steam-shovel work.
The cost of underground haulage is lessened by the use of cars of large capacity.
The tail-rope plant is the more expensive, but for similar conditions the cost of working the two systems is nearly the same.
Their first cost is great and they are dangerous for new men, as they require constant alertness, presence of mind, and a certain knack in using them.
To mine ore or coal at minimum cost it is necessary to work the mine plant at nearly or quite its full capacity and to avoid interruption and delays.
Taking into account the risk attending all mining operations, which make necessary large interest and amortization charges on the cost of a tunnel, it will in most cases be advisable to raise the water to the surface by mechanical means.
As the larger part of the water in a mine comes from the surface, the cost of drainage may be reduced by intercepting this surface water, and collecting it at convenient points in the pump shaft from which it may be raised at less cost than if permitted to go to the bottom.
With an efficient engine the cost per gallon of water is often less than for pumping.
Their first cost, however, is high and the cumbersome parts occupy much space in the shaft.
This has a serious effect on the health and efficiency of the workmen employed, and in extreme cases may even result in increased cost of mining operations.
It is apparent that the combined effect of internal heat and rock pressure will greatly increase the cost of mining at depths of 8000 or 10,000 ft., and will probably render mining impracticable in many instances at depths not much greater.
The sampling of a large mine of this character may cost many hundreds of pounds.
In order to determine the probable profit and life of the mine a definite scale of operations must be assumed, the money required for development and plant and for working capital must be estimated, the methods of mining and treating the ore determined, and their probable cost estimated.
This is an expensive operation as it entails the cost of pumping the water out again and repairing the resulting damage.
It is built of white Maine granite, and cost about $25,000,000.
The reason for this high cost is to be found partly in the fact that the yield of optically perfect glass even in large and successful meltings rarely exceeds 20% of the total weight of glass melted.
His visit coincided with a period of unrest both among the white civil servants and among the natives, due to the high cost of living.
- Employ the elliptic coordinates n,, and -=n+Vi, such that z=cch?, cchncos,y=cshnsin-; (1) then the curves for which n and are constant are confocal ellipses and hyperbolas, and -d(n,) =c 2 (ch 2 n - cost) = 2c 2 (ch2n-cos2) = r i r 2 = OD 2, (2) if OD is the semi-diameter conjugate to OP, and ri, r 2 the focal distances, rl,r2 = c (ch n cos 0; r 2 = x2 +y2 = c 2 (ch 2 n - sin20 = 1c 2 (ch 2 7 7 +cos 2?).
The integral of (14) and (15) may be written ciU+E=Fcoso, c 2 V= - Fsino, dx F cost o F sinz o 71 = U cos o - V sin o = cl + c c ic os o, chi = U sine +V coso= (F - F) sin cos o - l sino, (19) c i 2 2 2 sin o cos o - l ?
When once it had taught men that the next world was God's world, though it did so at the cost of relinquishing the present to Satan, it had achieved its real task, and the time had come for it to quit the stage of history, when Christianity appeared as the heir of this true spiritual achievement.
This extraordinary indiscretion might well have cost him his life, but the tsarevich fortunately destroyed the letter.'
the annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6° B.
The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
A further saving of juice was sometimes possible if the market prices of sugar were such as to compensate for the cost of evaporating an increased quantity of added water, but a limit was imposed by the fact that water might be used in excess.
The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known system; but their employment involves the expenditure of much high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is comparatively large.
With open-fire batteries for making the syrup, which was afterwards finished in the vacuum pan, very good sugar was produced, but at a cost that would be ruinous in to-day's markets.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
a ton, and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines workifig the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel.
All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.
The manufacturers who have adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce."
Licht of Magdeburg; and the prices are obtained from statements supplied by importers into the United States of the cost in foreign countries of the sugars which they import.
In practice the proximity to chalk pits or lime kilns, the cost of the lime and cartage, will determine which is most economical.
in 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.
10 a at the cost of his children, who were left without legal claim and compelled to make the best terms they could.'
The cost of the transformation of Vienna, which has been in progress since 1858, cannot be said to have fallen heavily on the population.
A committee, chiefly promoted by the Wurttemberg government and the Stuttgart chamber of commerce, reported in 1901 that it was both desirable and practicable to dredge the river and to canalize it, from Esslingen down to Mannheim, and that the cost would probably be between 2 and 22 millions sterling.
In its best days the empire of the Hafsites extended from Tlemcen to Tripoli, and they received homage from the Merinids of Fez; they held their own against repeated Frankish invasions, of which the most notable were that which cost St Louis of France his life (1270), and that of the duke of Bourbon (1390), when English troops took part in the unsuccessful siege of Mandia.
of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
They connect all the important cities, towns and ports, but cover only a small part of the republic. The cost of erecting and maintaining telegraph lines in the sierra and montana regions is too great to permit their extensive use, and the government is seeking to substitute wireless telegraphy.
New docks, 93 acres in extent, with an entrance from the firth, were opened in 1905 at a cost of more than i,000,000.
Sometimes linings of enamelled iron or other material are employed, which when worn can be replaced at a far lower cost than that of a new still.