Cortés sentence example
He proclaimed for the constitution drawn up by the Cortes in 1812, which was unworkable, and which the chiefs of the conspiracy did not propose to restore.
When the new Cortes was elected in 1822, he was chosen deputy for his native city Oviedo, and the radicals selected him as president of the chamber on the 17th of February 1823.
Montezuma presented Cortes with a map, painted on Nequen cloth, of the Gulf coast.
The Cortes at Lisbon chose Bahia as a centre for resisting the independence, and large forces were sent thither.
Directly the Cortes met they elected Espartero regent by 179 votes to 103 in favour of Arguelles, who was appointed guardian of the young queen.Advertisement
Catalonia, in 1714, was deprived of its cortes and liberties.
From Cuba went the expeditions that discovered Yucatan (1517), and explored the shores of Mexico, Hernando Cortes's expedition for the invasion of Mexico, and de Soto's for the exploration of Florida.
The national museum, which occupies the east side of the national palace, is rich in Mexican antiquities, among which are the famous " calendar stone," supposed to be of Toltec origin, and the " sacrificial stone " found in the ruins of the great teocalli destroyed by Cortes.
On the expulsion of Queen Isabella, he returned to Spain, represented Manresa in the Cortes, and in1871-1872was successively minister of the colonies and of finance.
On the shore of the lake is the stalactite cave of Jobitsinal, of great local celebrity; and in its depths, according to the popular legend, may still be discerned the stone image of a horse that belonged to Cortes.Advertisement
His surname "of Antequera" was given him because he was besieging that town, then in the hands of the Moors, when he was told that the cortes of Aragon had elected him king in succession to his uncle Martin, the last male of the old line of Wilfred the Hairy.
These acts, which the vices of Alphonso had rendered necessary, were sanctioned by the Cortes in 1668.
Other Spanish orders are the Maria Louisa, 1792, for noble ladies; the military and naval orders of merit of St Ferdinand, founded by the Cortes in 1811.
When restored in March 1814, on the fall of Napoleon, he had just cause to repudiate the impracticable constitution made by the cortes without his consent.
From Santiago in1518-1519departed the historic expeditions of Juan de Grijalva, Hernan Cortes and Pamfilo de Narvaez - the last of 18 vessels and 110o men of arms, excluding sailors.Advertisement
The king of Granada did homage to Ferdinand, and undertook to attend the cortes when summoned.
It is believed that Diego de Ordaz was the first European to reach the summit of Popocatepetl, though no proof of this remains further than that Cortes sent a party of ten men in 1519 to ascend a burning mountain.
Veintemilla was proclaimed president, and in 1877 was duly elected by the cortes.
He assembled the Cortes of the kingdom at Lamego, where he received the crown from the archbishop of Braganza; the assembly also declaring that Portugal was no longer a dependency of Leon.
The meeting of the Cortes summoned by him at Madrid in 1394 marked a great epoch in the establishment of a practically despotic royal authority, based on the consent of the commons, who looked to the crown to protect them against the excesses of the nobles.Advertisement
In 1813 the Spanish Cortes ordered the secularization of all missions in America that were ten years old, but this decree was not published in California until 1821.
The kings therefore extended special privileges (fueros) to the inhabitants, and they were even at an early date admitted to representation in the Cortes (parliament).
The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci of to America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated the modern age more decisively than any other series of events has done.
It is the natural outlet for the commerce of some of the richest parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador; and during the 19th century it exported large quantities of gold, silver and other ores, although its progress was retarded by the delay in constructing a transcontinental railway from Puerto Cortes.
In 1523 Cortes received instructions from the Spanish court to procure it in as large quantities as possible.Advertisement
There he lived two years until the successful revolution of 1868 allowed him to return and enter the Cortes for the first time - as deputy for Saragossa.
Castelar soon became famous by his rhetorical speeches in the Constituent Cortes of 1869, where he led the republican minority in advocating a federal republic as the logical outcome of the recent revolution.
He would have placed at the head of his commonwealth a president and Cortes freely elected by the people, ruling the country in,a liberal spirit and with due respect for conservative principles, religious traditions and national unity.
He even went so far as to side with his colleagues, when serious difficulties arose between the new government and the president of the Cortes, Senor Martos, who was backed by a very imposing commission composed of the most influential conservative members of the last parliament of the Savoyard king, which had suspended its sittings shortly after proclaiming the federal republic. A sharp struggle was carried on for weeks between the executive and this commission, at first presided over by Martos, and, when he resigned, by Salmeron.
The Cortes were dissolved, and the federal and constituent Cortes of the republic convened, but they only sat during the summer of 1873, long enough to show their absolute incapacity, and to convince the executive that the safest policy was to suspend the session for several months.
In less than five weeks a few thousand men properly handled sufficed to quell the cantonal risings in Cordoba, Sevilla, Cadiz and Malaga, and the whole of the south might have been soon pacified, if the federal republican ministers had not once more given way to the pressure of the majority of the Cortes, composed of "Intransigentes" and radical republicans.
This resignation was not an unfortunate event for the country, as the federal Cortes not only made Castelar chief of the executive, though his partisans were in a minority in the Parliament, but they gave him much liberty to act, as they decided to suspend the sittings of the house until 2nd January 1874.
On the other hand, on the eve of the meeting of the federal Cortes, he could indulge in no illusions as to what he had to expect from the bulk of the republicans, who openly dissented from his conservative and conciliatory policy, and announced that they would reverse it on the very day the Cortes met.
Warnings came in plenty, and no less a personage than the man he had made captain-general of Madrid, General Pavia, suggested that, if a conflict arose between Castelar and the majority of the Cortes, not only the garrison of Madrid and its chief, but all the armies in the field and their generals, were disposed to stand by the president.
The Cortes met on the 2nd of January 1874.
The Cortes went on wrangling for a day and night until, at daybreak on the 3rd of January 1874, General Pavia forcibly ejected the deputies, closed and dissolved the Cortes, and called up Marshal Serrano to form a provisional government.
As soon as Castelar saw universal suffrage reestablished he solemnly declared in the Cortes that his task was accomplished, his political mission at an end, and that he proposed to devote the remainder of his life to those literary, historical, philosophical, and economic studies which he had never neglected even in the busiest days of his political career.
The chief sources of revenue were customs duties, taxes on land and industries, duties on tobacco and breadstuffs, the Lisbon octroi, receipts from national property, registration and stamps, &c. The heaviest expenditure (nearly £ 5,000,000) was incurred for the service of the consolidated debt; payments for the civil list, cortes, pensions, &c., amounted to more than £2,000,000, and the cost of public works to nearly as large a sum.
The sovereign exercised his executive power through a cabinet which was responsible to the cortes, and consisted of seven members, representing the ministries of (I) the interior, (2) foreign affairs, (3) finance, (4) justice and worship, (5) war, (6) marine and colonies, (7) public works, industry and commerce.
The annals of his reign have been encum Alphonso 1., bered with a mass of legends, among which must be g g included the account of a cortes held at Lamego in 1143; probably also the description of the Valdevez tournament, in which the Portuguese knights are said to have vanquished the champions of Leon and Castile.
At the cortes of Coimbra (1261), he further strengthened his position by conciliating the representatives of the cities, who denounced the issue of a debased coinage, and by recognizing that taxation could not be imposed without consent of the cortes.
In 1361, at the cortes of Elvas, it was enacted that the privileges of the clergy should only be deemed valid in so far as they did not conflict with the royal prerogative.
The choice of the grand-master of Aviz ratified the old alliance between the Crown and the military orders; his election by the whole cortes not only ratified the alliance between the Crown and the commons, but also included the nobles and the Church.
At the cortes of Evora (1433) King Edward had obtained the enactment of a law' declaring that the estates granted by John I.
A cortes held at Evora (1481) empowered judges nominated by the Crown to administer justice in all feudal domains.
In 1449 the Lisbon Juderias were stormed and sacked, and between 1450 and 1481 the cortes four times petitioned the Crown to enforce the anti-Jewish provisions of the canon law.
The decadence of the monarchy as a national institution was reflected in the decadence of the cortes, which was rarely summoned between 1521 and 1580.
The advocates of union with Spain, however, were numerous, influential, and ably led by their spokesmen in the cortes, Christovao de Moura and Antonio Pinheiro, bishop of Leiria.
His constitutional position was defined at the Cortes of Thomar (1581).
Pedro imprisoned the king and assumed the regency; on the 1st of January 1668 his authority was recognized by the cortes; on the 24th of March the annulment of the queen's marriage was pronounced and confirmed by the pope; on the 2nd of April she married the regent.
The goldfields of Minas Geraes in Brazil, discovered about 1693, brought a vast revenue in royalties to the Crown, which was thus enabled to govern without summoning the cortes to vote supply.
In 1697 the cortes met for the last time before the era of constitutional government.
Nor was the virtual abolition of the cortes seriously felt at first, owing to the excellent internal administration of Pedro II.
The cortes had grown obsolete; the feudal aristocracy were become courtiers.
Miguel summoned a cortes of the ancient type, which offered him the Crown; and on the 7th of July 1828 he took the oath as king.
On the 10th of August an Anglo-Portuguese agreement was negotiated in London, but the cortes refused to ratify it.
The suppression of this rising so far enhanced the prestige of the cabinet that the cortes forthwith approved the convention with Great Britain; and the definitive treaty, by which Portugal abandoned all claim to a trans-African dominion, was ratified by the cortes on the 28th of May.
Its real strength was masked by the system which enabled any ministry in power to control the election of candidates to the cortes.
Such incidents, unimportant in themselves, were symptoms of a dangerous state of public opinion, which was debarred from expression in the cortes.
The constitution empowered the sovereign to veto any bill, to dissolve or prorogue the cortes, and to govern by means of ministerial decrees.
An experiment in government by decree had been made in May - October 1894; it was repeated in September 1905, when the king consented to prorogue the cortes until January 1906 in order to postpone discussion of the terms upon which the tobacco monopoly was to be allocated.
When the cortes met, on the 29th of September, the opposition accused King Carlos of complicity in grave financial scandals.
Franco organized a coalition in defence of the Crown, but in January 1907 business in the cortes was brought to a standstill and many sittings ended in uproar.
All parties believed that the ministry would fall, and the rotativos prepared once more to divide the spoils of office, when, on the 2nd of May 1907, Joao Franco reconstructed his cabinet, secured the dissolution of the cortes and announced that certain bills still under discussion would receive the force of law.
Manoel swore to uphold the constitution and was acclaimed king by the cortes.
By orders of Cortes the coast of Lower California was explored in 1539 by Francisco de Ulloa, but no settlement resulted.
The brother of Ferdinand, Don Carlos, the first pretender, fought seven years, during the minority of Isabella, to dispute her title, and her rights were only maintained through the gallant support of the army, the Cortes and the Liberals and Progressists, who at the same time established constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders, confiscated the property of the orders and of the Jesuits, disestablished the Church property, and attempted to restore order in finances.
He was turned out in 1843 by a military and political pronunciamiento, led by Generals O'Donnell and Narvaez, who formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquin Maria Lopez, and this government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at thirteen.
Cortes met them in 1525, but they preserved their independence till 1697, when the Spaniards destroyed the city and temples, and a library of sacred books, written in hieroglyphics on bark fibre.
In 1837 he became a captain in the national militia, in 1852 Conservative deputy in the Cortes for Alcoy, in 1853 secretary of congress, and was afterwards elected ten times deputy, twice senator and life senator in 1877.
When the restoration took place, Camacho sat in the Cortes among the dynastic Liberals with Sagasta as leader, and became finance minister in 1881 at a critical moment when Spain had to convert, reduce, and consolidate her treasury and other debts with a view to resuming payment of coupons.
The Cortes of Navarre began with the king's council of churchmen and nobles.
When fully constituted, the Cortes consisted of the churchmen, the nobles and the representatives of twenty-seven "good towns" - that is to say, towns which had no feudal lord, and, therefore, held directly of the king.
In the later stages of its history the Cortes of Navarre included the representatives of thirty-eight towns.
The independence of the burgesses was better secured in Navarre than in other parliaments of Spain by the constitutional rule which required the consent of a majority of each order to every act of the Cortes.
In 1 502 she and her husband received the homage of the cortes of Castile and of Aragon as heirs.
All three schemes were ratified in 1904 by the Cortes and the French Chambers.
Consequently, the Spanish government had once more to attempt to make both ends meet by asking its creditors to assent to the suppression of all the amortization of imperial and colonial debts, and to a tax of 20% on the coupons of all the debts, whilst at the same time the Cortes were asked to authorize a consolidation and liquidation of the floating and war debts and an annual increase of 3,200,000 in already heavy taxation.
Constitution and Government .S pain is an hereditary monarchy the constitution of which was voted by the Cortes and became the fundamental law of the 3oth of June 1876.
The legislative authority is exercised by the sovereign in conjunction with the Cortes, a body composed of two houses a senate and a chamber of deputies.
The lower house of the Cortes was elected by a very limited franchise from 1877 to 1890, when the Cortes passed a reform bill which became law on the 29th of June 1890.
Neither the executive nor the Cortes may interfere with provincial and communal administration, except when the local authorities exceed their legal power to the detriment of public interests.
Charters began to be given to the towns, and a class of burghers, endowed with rights and armed to defend them, was formed; while the council of the magnates was beginning to develop into a Cortes.
In 1236 Cordova was conquered, and Seville fell in 1248 with the help of a fleet from the Basque coast and of the Moorish king of Granada, who was Fernandos vassal, paying tribute and attending Cortes when summoned.
It is characteristic of the loose construction of the kingdom that the Cortes of Leon and of Castile continued, after the final union, to meet apart on some occasions until 1301.
He left his kingdom to the daughters she bore him, and their quasi legitimacy was recognized not only by the Cortes during King Peters life, but abroad.
It was never so treated till it was promulgated at the Cortes of Alcal in 1338, in the reign of his great grandson, Alphonso XI.
The Cortes might have been expected to forward the work of unification.
The crown of Castile and Leon had indeed a common Cortes after 1301.
It, Catalonia and Valencia had each their Cortes, which never united.
Then the Spaniards, in their carelessness of form and regularity, never fixed any rule as to the constitution of a Cortes.
The third estate secured representation in the Cortes of Leon (1188), and then in Castile and the Common Cortes.
But no rule was ever made as to whom the king was bound to summon, nor even that the presence of the clergy and the nobles was necessary to constitute a true Cortes.
There was no knight of the shire in any Spanish Cortes.
In his reign and those of his immediate successors the Cortes flourished, although it failed to establish checks on the absolute power of the king.
When he won he took indeed a brutal vengeance on individuals, and he extorted the surrender of the charter and destroyed it with his dagger in the presence of the Cortes at Saragossa.
The cession in Cortes was able to administer in peace, and the Aragon.
The same course was followed with the Cortes.
The nobles and the clergy, who as exempt from taxation had no vote, became purely ornamental parts of the Cortes.
Moreover, they received pay from the Crown while the Cortes sat.
For the work of legislation the Cortes was not needed, and never had been.
Throughout his reign he respected the claim of the Cortes that no new taxation should be raised without its consent, but as he had to deal only with the representatives of eighteen cities, who could generally be bribed, he rarely failed to secure what he demanded.
The conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes and of Peru by Francisco Spain and Pizarro (q.v.) belong to this reign, but were imme- the Eurodiately due to the adventurers in America.
In his internal Philips government Philip was fully despotic. He made no aovernment.pretence of consulting the Cortes on legislation, and though he summoned them to vote new taxes he established the rule that the old were to be considered as granted for ever, and as constituting the fixed revenue of the Crown.
The outcry of the Cortes, whether of Castile or of the other states, for relief from taxation was loud.
The Spanish Cortes had never been so entirely suspended as the states-general of France.
It sat in one house, and was composed of the nobles and churchmen who formed the great majority of procurators chosen by the town councils of a limited though varying number of towns, and of representatives of kingdoms. The Cortes of 1810 was constructed on these lines, but with a very important difference in the proportion of its elements.
Ministers were excluded from the chamber, thus rendering impossible any effective co-operation between the legislature and the executive; and, worst of all, a provision was introduced making members of the Cortes ineligible for re-election, an effective bar to the creation.
The Spaniards were so broken to obedience, and the manlier part of them so intent on fighting the French, that the Cortes was not at the time resisted.
But even before the new constitution was published and sworn, on the I9th of March 1812, large numbers of Spaniards had made up their minds that after the invaders were driven out the Cortes must be suppressed.
The Cortes, carrying the king with it, fled to Cadiz, and after a siege, surrendered with no conditions save that of an amnesty, to which Ferdinand solemnly swore before he was sent over into the French lines.
But his law had been revoked in the Cortes summoned in 1789 by Charles IV.
First the historic Cortes was summoned.
Then in April 1834, under the intluence of the minister Martinez de La Rosa, a charter (Estatudo Real) was issued establishing a Cortes in two Estamentos or E5tates.
A constituent Cortes was assembled in 1869, and decided in favor of a monarchy.
A new Cortes was collected and proved a mere collection of hysterical ranters.
When the Cortes met again in January 1874, the extreme parties voted against Castelar on the 3rd of the month.
Hereupon General Pavia, the governor of Madrid, turned the Cortes into the streets, to the relief of all sane men in the country.
Universal suffrage alone was respected for a while and used as the means to call into existence the first Cortes of the Restoration in 1876.
From the moment that such former revolutionists as Sagasta, Ulloa, Leon y Castillo, Camacho, Alcnzo Martinez and the marquis de la Vega de Armijo declared that they adhered to the Restoration, Canovas did not object to their saying in the same breath that they would enter the Cortes to defend as much as possible what they had achieved during the Revolution, and to protest and agitate, legally and pacifically, until they succeeded in re-establishing some day all that the first cabinet of Alphonso XII.
After a while Sagasta resigned in order to let theking show the Dynastic Left that he had no objection to their attempting a mildly democratic policy, on condition that the Cortes should not be dissolved and that Sagasta and his Liberal majorities in both houses should grant their support to the cabinet presided over by Seor Posada Herrera, a former Conservative, of which the principal members were General Lopez-Dominguez and Seores Moret, Montero Rios and Becerra.
In the Cortes the tension in tkc relations between the government and the opposition was growing daily more serious.
The new cabinet convoked the Cortes elected under the administration of Canovas in 1884, and the Conservative majorities of both houses, at the request of Canovas, behaved very loyally, voting supplies and other bills necessary to enable the government to be carried on until another parliament could be elected in the following year, 1886.
The first Cortes of the regency in five sessions did really good and substantial work.
For no other reason did the minister for the colonies, Seor Maura, in 1894 fail to convince the Cortes, and even the Liberal party, that his very moderate Cuban Home Rule Bill was an indispensable and wise, though tardy, attempt to avert a conflict which many plain symptoms showed to be imminent in the West Indies.
Canovas so fully comprehended the necessity of averting American intervention that he listened to the pressing demands of secretary Olney and of the American minister in Madrid, Hannis Taylor, an.d laid before the Cortes a bill introducing home rule in Cuba on a more liberal scale than Maura, Abarzuza and Sagasta had dared to suggest two years before.
The Cortes authorized the government to negotiate with the foreign bondholders with a view to cancelling that agreement.
The methods by which this result had been achieved were the subject of violent attacks on the government in the Cortes, and on the i3th of March Sagasta resigned, but only to resume office five days later.
The result of the new elections to the Cortes, declared on the 26th of April, revealed tendencies unfavourable to the government and even to the dynasty; the large towns returned 34 Republicans.
Violent scenes greeted the attempt of the government to procure the suspension of the parliamentary immunities of 140 deputies, accused or suspected of more or less treasonable practices, and when, on the 4th of October, the Cortes reopened after the summer recess, Seor Romero Robledo, the president of the lower house, opened an attack on the ministry for their attempted breach of its privileges.
He was in no hurry to summon the Cortes, partly because the elections to the provincial councils were due in March, and these had to be manipulated so as to ensure the return of a Senate of the right color, partly because the convocation of the Cortes seemed at best a necessary evil.
This was none the less distasteful to the Republicans, who thundered, against personal government, and to the Liberals, who clamoured for the Cortes and the budget.
The Cortes met at last on the i4th of June, and the upshot justified Villaverdes reluctance to meet it.
The prolonged controversies to which this gave rise were settled on the 18th of March by a compromise passed by the Cortes; under this act all cases of press attacks on officers were to be tried by the courts martial, while those against the army generally and the national flag were still to be reserved for the civil courts.
The dissolution of the Cortes produced a certain rearrangement of parties.
The bill met with strenuous opposition, and on the 23rd of December 1907 the Cortes adjourned without its having been advanced.
At the close of the year an Anarchist outrage gave the excuse for the proclamation of martial law in Barcelona, and after the opening of the new session of the Cortes (January 23, 1908) a bill was introduced into the senate giving to the government the most drastic powers for the suppression of Anarchism.
Under his auspices laws were passed reforming and strengthening the police force, instituting industrial tribunals, regulating the work of women and children, introducing Sunday rest, early closing, and other reforms. In short, the government, whatever criticism might be levelled at its methods, had accomplished a notable work, and when on the 6th of June 1909 the Cortes adjourned, its position seemed to be assured.
The necessity for strengthening the Spanish forces in Africa had for some time been apparent; but Seor Maura had not dared to face the Cortes with a demand for the necessary estimates, for which, now that the crisis had become acute, he had to rely on the authorization of the council of state.
The opening of the October session of the Cortes was signalized by a furious attack by Seor Moret on Seores Maura and La Cierva, who were accused of having Fitliof sacrificed Ferrer to the resentment of their clerical Maura.
It was from the first in a position of Moret singular weakness, without a homogeneous majority Ministry, in the Cortes, and depending for its very existence 1909-1910.
It sent General Weyler to keep Barcelona in order, caused the release of most of the prisoners in Monjuich, reduced the forces in Morocco, reopened negotiations with Rome for a modification of the concordat, and on the 31st of December, the end of the financial year, was responsible for the issue of a royal decree stating that the budget would remain in force until the Cortes could pass a new one.
Succeeded by choice of the Cortes.
Canovas entered the Cortes in 1854; he was made governor of Cadiz in 1857, sub-director of the state department in 1858, under-secretary at the home office in 1860, minister of the interior in 1864, minister of the colonies in 1865, minister of finance in 1866, and was exiled by Marshal Narvaez in the same year, afterwards becoming a bitter opponent of all the reactionary cabinets until the revolution of 1868.
He sat in the Cortes Constituyentes of 1869 as a doctrinaire Conservative, combating all Radical and democratic reforms, and defending the exiled Bourbons; but he abstained from voting when the Cortes elected Amadeus king on the 16th of November 1870.
On 11 Jul 1828 Miguel was proclaimed king by the traditional Cortes and the Liberals Wars began in earnest.
The carta de logo (del luogo) or code of laws issued by her was in 1421 extended to the whole island by the cortes under the presidency of Alphonso V., who visited Sardinia in that year.
In 1478 the marquisate of Oristano was suppressed, and henceforth the island was governed by Spanish viceroys with the feudal regime of the great nobles under them, the Cortes being convoked once every ten years.
After remaining abroad three years, he returned to Spain to take his seat in the Cortes of 1869 after the revolution of 1868.
After the abdication of Amadeus of Savoy, Martos played a prominent part in the proclamation of the federal republic, in the struggle between the executive of that republic and the permanent committee of the Cortes, backed by the generals and militia, who nearly put an end to the executive and republic in April 1873.
His "epic canto" on the destruction of his ships by Cortes (Las Naves de Cortes destruidas) failed to win a prize offered by the Academy in 1777, and was published posthumously (1785).
He took office under Marshal Serrano during 1874, after the pronunciamiento of General Pavia had done away with the Cortes and the Federal Republic. He vainly attempted to crush the Carlists in 1874, and to check the Alphonsist military conspiracy that overthrew the government of Marshal Serrano at the end of December 1874.
But as the colony had no voice in the Cortes, while the " special laws " were never passed (Cuba expected special fundamental laws, reforming her government, and the government regarded the old Laws of the Indies as satisfying the obligation of the constitution) the arbitrary rule of the captains-general remained quite supreme, under the will of the crown, and colonial discontent became stronger and stronger.
The provisional government of Sao Paulo, influenced by the brothers Andrada, began a movement for independence by asking the prince to disobey the Cortes and remain in Brazil, and the council of Rio de Janeiro followed with a similar representation, to which the prince assented.
The two next viceroys were incompetent; further demands from the Spanish authorities in revolt against Joseph Bonaparte increased the disaffection, which was not allayed by the grant of representation in the Spanish Cortes to the colonies; and, on the demands being repeated by a third viceroy, Venegas, Creole conspiracies arose in Queretaro and Guanajato.
Miguel united every reactionary element throughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against constitutional government; (b) From 1834 to 1853 the main problem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 there was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new parties - Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 to 1908 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes.
The cortes, opened on the 6th of June 1906, was dissolved on the 14th; another election took place, preceded by an official announcement that on this occasion all votes would be fairly counted; and the Franquistas or " New Regenerators " obtained a majority.
A general election took place; in April the cortes met and the balance of power between Progressives and Regenerators was restored.
Bernal Diaz, the old " conquistador," has described the hideous aspect of the idols which Cortes destroyed, " idols in the shape of hideous dragons as big as calves," idols half in the form of men, half of dogs, and serpents which were worshipped as divine.
Hernan Cortes overran and conquered Mexico from 1518 to 1521, and the discovery and conquest of Guatemala by Alvarado, the invasion of Florida by De Soto, and of Nueva Granada by Quesada, followed in rapid succession.
In 1525 the inland part of the peninsula was raversed by Cortes during an expedition to Honduras.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
The Liberal party and Sagasta paid the penalty of their lack of success, and directly the Cortes met in March 1899, after the peace treaty of the 1 oth of December 1898 with the United States, they were defeated in the senate.
Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan, and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.
As for the representation accorded Cuba in the Spanish Cortes, as a rule about a quarter of her deputies were Cuban-born, and the choice of only a few autonomists was allowed by those who controlled the elections.
The idea of free government filled the people with enthusiasm, and the principles of a representative legislature were freely adopted, the first care being for the election of deputies to the Cortes of Lisbon to take part in framing the new constitution.
The Brazilian deputies on arriving in Lisbon expressed dissatisfaction with the Cortes for having begun the framing of the constitution before their arrival, for Brazil could not be treated as a secondary part of the monarchy.
An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal.
It dates from the time of Cortes, who built for himself a residence there, and had the town included in the royal grant to himself in 1529.
The palace of Cortes is now occupied by the state legislature and by various public offices, and Maximilian's villa by a school.
The second son of Victor Emmanuel II., Amadeus, duke of Aosta, was offered the crown of Spain by the Cortes in 1870, which he accepted, but, finding that his rule was not popular, he voluntarily abdicated in 1873 rather than cause civil war.
He entrusted the government to the Jesuits; refused either to summon the Cortes or to marry, although the Portuguese crown would otherwise pass to a foreigner, and devoted himself wholly to hunting, martial exercises and the severest forms of asceticism.
Soon after 1540 he entered the household of the famous Cortes, who supplied him with most of the material for his Historia de las Indias (1552), and Cronica de la conquista de Nueva Espana (1552).
He refused to allow his name to be brought forward as a candidate when the Cortes of 1868, after the Revolution, sought for a ruler.
The popular revolutionary tune of Spain, the "himno de Riego," is named after him, and his picture is hung in the Cortes, but he was a poor creature, and a bad example of the light-headed military agitators who have caused Spain much misery.
In 1868 he was created vice-admiral of the Italian navy, but, two years later, left Italy to ascend the Spanish throne, his reluctance to accept the invitation of the Cortes having been overridden by the Italian cabinet.
The great cathedral stands on or near the site of the Aztec temple (teocalli) destroyed by Cortes in 1521.
Unless countersigned by the juntas the decrees of Cortes and Spanish legislation or royal orders had no force in the Provinces.
The principal palace of Mexico consisted of hundreds of rooms ranged round three open squares, of such extent that one of the companions of Cortes records having four times wandered about till he was tired, without seeing the whole.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821.
During the struggle of Spain against Napoleon, the island, in common with the other American dominions, was represented in the Spanish Cortes and had its first legislative assembly.
The portion of the southern plain between the bays of Cortes and Majana is the most famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region.
The pleasing style and novel matter enchanted the Spanish public, but the unmeasured laudation of Cortes at the expense of his lieutenants and companions brought about a violent reaction.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
The growing ambition of General O'Donnell constantly clashed with the views of Espartero, until the latter, in sheer disgust, resigned his premiership and left for Logrono, after warning the queen that a conflict was imminent between O'Donnell and the Cortes, backed by the Progressist militia.
O'Donnell's pronunciamiento in 1856 put an end to the Cortes, and the militia was disarmed, after a sharp struggle in the streets of the capital.
But their representatives, assisted by the senators and deputies of the Basque Provinces in the Cortes, negotiated successive pacts, each lasting several years, securing for the three Provinces their municipal and provincial self-government, and the assessment, distribution and collection of their principal taxes and octroi duties, on the understanding that an agreed sum should be paid annually to the state, subject to an increase whenever the national taxation of other provinces was augmented.
They inhabit the western Sierra Madre region from Sinaloa southward to Chiapas, the higher plateau states, which region was the centre of their empire when Cortes conquered them, and parts of Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Morelos, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi.
They were energetic and warlike and evidently had not reached the zenith of their power when Cortes came.
I 1519 a third expedition, under Hernando Cortes, the conque or of Mexico, came into collision with the natives of the isla d of Cozumel.
The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.
He entered the Cortes in 1854 as a Progressist deputy for Zamora.
After the coup d'Nat of Don Leopold O'Donnell in 1856, Sagasta had to go into exile in France, but promptly returned, to become the manager of the Progressist paper La Iberia, and to sit in the Cortes from 1859 to 1863.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
On the 16th of November 1870 he was proclaimed king of Spain by the Cortes; but, before he could arrive at Madrid, Marshal Prim, chief promoter of his candidature, was assassinated.
The palace occupies the site of the residence of Moctezuma, which was destroyed by the Spaniards, and that of Hernando Cortes, which was also destroyed in 1692.
Allowance should be made for the habit of exaggeration among the Spanish adventurers of that time, and also for the diplomacy of Cortes in magnifying his exploits to win the' favour of his king.
After its almost total destruction in November 1521, Cortes employed some 400,000 natives in rebuilding the city on its former site.
From Cuba it was that Hernan Cortes sailed on the 10th (or 18th) of February 1519 for the conquest of Mexico.
Cortes, the most accomplished and statesmanlike of the Spanish conquerors, raised the subject peoples against them.
In the earlier stages of Spanish colonial history meetings of delegates (procurators) of the town councils, in imitation of the national cortes of Spain, were not uncommon.
The brutality of some Spanish governors on the spot provoked anger The cortes assembled in Cadiz, being under the influence of the merchants and mob, could make no concessions, and all Spanish America flamed into revolt.
In the New World, according to Prescott, King Nezahualcoyotl had zoological gardens at Tezcuco in Mexico in the middle of the 15th century, whilst in the next century Cortes found aviaries and fishponds at Iztapalapan.
He saw some service against the Carlists; was elected deputy to the Cortes of 1836; took part for Espartero, and then against him; was imprisoned in 1843; went into exile and returned; was governor of Barcelona in 1854, and minister of finance in 1855; had a large share in secularizing the Church lands; and after the revolution of 1868 was governor of Madrid.