How to use Corporations in a sentence
The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
The efforts (1712-1721) to foster colonization and commerce through trading corporations established by Antoine Crozat and John Law failed, and the colony soon came again under the direct control of the king.
The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."Advertisement
In 1832 he was knighted, and after serving as one of the municipal corporations commissioners, became deputykeeper of the public records in 1838, holding this office until his death at Hampstead on the 6th of July 1861.
Later we find the worship of Isis and of Cybele,the latter being especially flourishing, with large corporations of dendrophori (priests who carried branches of trees in procession) and cannofori (basketcarriers); the worship of Mithras, too, had a large number of followers.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
Whether the intelligence and efficiency of the officials charged by the state with the handling of its railway system will be sufficient to make them act in the interest of the public as fully as do the managers of private corporations, is a question whose answer can only be determined by actual experience in each case.Advertisement
These special acts gradually gave way to general statutes under which railway corporations could be created without application to the legislature.
As a rule, the making of rates was left to the corporations.
In the period before 1850 there was but little realization of the public nature of the railway industry and of the possibilities of injury to the public if railway corporations were left uncontrolled.
In addition to the ordinary general property tax, licences and polls, there are a tax on corporations and an income tax.
The two principal railway corporations, the Southern and the Seaboard Air Line, contended that the act was clearly contrary to the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids the imposition of excessive fines.Advertisement
Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.
The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.
The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705.
Powers of granting building and other leases have been conferred by modern legislation on municipal corporations and other local authorites.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.Advertisement
These obligations existed also in the case of freedmen of the state, of cities, temples and corporations.
English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
By an unscrupulous use of the dispensing power he introduced Dissenters and Catholics into all departments of state and into the municipal corporations, which were remodelled in their interests.Advertisement
During these years Venezuela had been pursuing the dangerous policy of granting interest guarantees on the construction of railways by foreign corporations, which not only brought the government into conflict with them on account of defaulted payments, but also through disputed interpretations of contracts and alleged arbitrary acts on the part of government officials.
By the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 a mayor, aldermen and a council replaced the capital burgesses, the older governing body.
One of the first motions put to the House was that a special Committee should be appointed to consider the violations of the liberties and franchises of all the corporations of the kingdom " and particularly of the City of London."
The committee's opinion on these two points (among others) was endorsed by the House and on the 16th of March it ordered a Bill to be brought in to restore all corporations to the state and condition they were in on the 29th of May 1660, and to confirm the liberties and franchises which at that time they respectively held and enjoyed.'
When the Act for the reform of Municipal Corporations was passed in 1835 London was specially excepted from its provisions.
The active encouragement of King Edward VIL., at whose instance in 1902 he was invited officially to be present at the coronation ceremony, marked the completeness of the change; and when, in 1905, the "general" went on a progress through England, he was received in state by the mayors and corporations of many towns.
About the same time he published a pamphlet advocating the reform of the Prayer Book, while a tract issued on the 15th of July, Sundry reasons against the new intended Bill for governing and reforming Corporations, was declared illegal, false, scandalous and seditious; Prynne being censured, and only escaping punishment by submission.
Of more interest are the letters, nearly four hundred in number, and addressed to kings, popes, cardinals, bishops, conventual bodies, political corporations and private individuals.
The Republican machine finds it easy with the support of the millionaire summer colony at Newport and the street railway corporations to corrupt the French-Canadians and a portion of the native element in the rural towns and maintain absolute control of the state government.
The TennesseeVirginia boundary line runs through the principal street, dividing the place into two separate corporations, the Virginia part, which before 1890 (when it was chartered as a city) was known as Goodson, being administratively independent of the county in which it is situated.
He became attorney for the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Morris Canal and Banking Company, and other corporations, and from 1861 to 1867 was attorney-general of New Jersey.
It was governed by a mayor and twelve aldermen, but by 1864 their privileges had become merely nominal, and the corporation was dissolved in 1885 under the Municipal Corporations Act.
In conformity with the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1840 the constitution of the corporation was made to consist of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, under the style and title of " The Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Belfast."
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
Corporations cannot be created by a special act of the legislature, and no corporation may issue stock except for an equivalent value of money, labour or property.
In order to attract capital to the state, the legislature has reduced the taxes on corporations, has forbidden the repeal of charters, and has given permission for the organization of corporations with both the power and name of trust companies.
The constitution now in force was adopted in 1857, the constitution of 1846 having been superseded chiefly on account of its prohibition of banking corporations.
All taxable property of the state, that of corporations for the most part excepted, is assessed by the township assessor.
The municipal corporations are civil divisions quite independent of the county and township system.
Cities of the first class are those having a population of 15,000 or over; cities of the second class are those having a population of 2000 but less than 15,000; all other municipal corporations, except cities with special charters, are known as incorporated towns.
Nevertheless there has always been a strong sentiment in the state urging, that corporations be held more in check, and its industries are not such as to receive a large benefit directly from tariff legislation.
In the case of all quasi-public corporations rigid laws exist prohibiting the issue of stock or bonds unless the par value is first paid in; prohibiting the declaration of any stock or scrip dividend, and requiring that new stock shall be offered to stockholders at not less than its market value, to be determined by the proper state officials, any shares not so subscribed for to be sold by public auction.
Finally, many private charitable corporations (about 500 in 1905) report to the state board of charity, and town and city almshouses (205 in 1904) are subject to visitation.
From 1874 - methods are used for the taxation of banks, insurance companies, railways, tramways, trust companies and corporations, some of them noteworthy.
In the case of corporations realty and machinery are taxed generally by the local authorities, and stock values by the commonwealth.
They appear suddenly as fully developed organized corporations, able to impose their will upon bishop and aristocracy.
Townships governed by close corporations, and all embedded in the despotic power of the crown, presented none of the elements out of which a commonwealth could be formed.
The law has allowed the Federal census office in its discretion to compile and publish the birth statistics of divisions in which they are accurately kept; one Federal report on the statistics of marriages and divorces throughout the country from 1867 to 1886 inclusive was published in 1889, and a second for the succeeding twenty-year period was published in part in 1908; an annual volume gives the statistics of deaths for about half the population of the country, including all the states and cities which have approximately complete records of deaths; Federal agencies like the bureau of labour and the bureau of corporations have been created for the purpose of gathering certain social and industrial statistics, and the bureau of the census has been made a permanent statistical office.
Since the middle of the 19th century an attempt has been made to meet the problems arising from a rapid industrial and social development by creating bureaus or commissions to exercise a central control over local officials, corporations and even private individuals, and as most of the heads of these bureaus and the commissions are appointed by the governor the importance of that officer has increased.
The regulation and control of such public service corporations as own or operate steam, electric or street railways, gas or electric plants, and express companies were, in 1907, vested in two public service commissions (the first for New York City and the second for all other parts of the state), each of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the Senate; in 1910 the regulation of telephone and telegraph companies throughout the state was vested in the second commission.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
The tax on corporations, originating as a capital stock tax in 1880 and extended through succeeding years, is administered by the state comptroller.
He was a director in numerous corporations, and was a conservative Republican, opposing the League of Nations.
In carrying out this policy of government regulation and supervision of corporations he became involved in a great struggle with the powerful financial interests whose profits were threatened, and with those legislators who sincerely believed that government should solely concern itself with protecting life and property, and should leave questions of individual and social relations in trade and finance to be settled by the operation of so-called natural economic laws.
The industrial and financial corporations had grown so powerful as to venture to contend for the first place with the authority of the government itself.
He established the Federal Department of Commerce and Labor, the secretary of which has a seat in the cabinet, and in which there exists a bureau of corporations possessing the specific function of inspecting and supervising interstate corporations - an entirely new feature in American government.
In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).
As provost of the "chapter" in that city he directly felt the pressure of events; for on the suppression of religious orders and corporations, he was constrained to retire into private life.
For the administration of local government the state is divided into counties (64 in 1910) and these in turn are subdivided into townships and municipal corporations.
Corporations are reached through the general property tax, but there is a small levy on fire insurance companies for the support of the local fire departments.
A realization that the continuation of independent and rival corporations retarded growth eventually led to a compromise by which the two were united as two wards of the same village in 1839, the autonomy of each being still recognized by an odd arrangement whereby each maintained practically independent management of its finances and affairs.
This remained in force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
The " Scout " movement, too, both for boys and girls, has since 1918 developed with much success, especially in collaboration with the other original Czech gymnastic and sport corporations.
There is no provision for a general periodic assessment, but a state tax commissioner appointed by the governor, treasurer and comptroller assesses the corporations, and the county commissioners (in the counties) and the appeal tax court (in the city of Baltimore) revise valuations of real property every two years.
Corporations are forbidden to contribute money for campaign purposes on penalty of forfeiting their charters, or, if not chartered in the state, their right to carry on business in the state.
The board is specially directed to prescribe the manner in which the railway corporations shall keep their accounts, to examine these accounts from time to time, to examine the railways at least once a year, to investigate the cause of all accidents and upon the petition of an interested party to fix rates for the transportation of persons and freight.
The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies.
The state also derives an income from fees charged for chartering banks, railways, insurance companies and other corporations.
The borough was placed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and until then the town of Llywel, which is io m.
Legislation has reduced these evils in recent years; and efforts have been made to prevent the excessive expenditure of money at elections, and the making of contributions to party campaign funds by wealthy corporations who desire to secure some benefit for themselves.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
Although there usually exist general laws under which corporations or companies (including railway and electric car companies) can be formed, laws which in some states and for some purposes confer a greater freedom of incorporation than the general law allows in the United Kingdom, there is nevertheless a noticeable tendency to come to the legislature for special purposes of this kind.
The great public service corporations have, in particular, frequentiy succeeded in obtaining franchises of large pecuniary value without making any adequate payment therefor.
These American corporations had the usual English system of borough government, consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councilmen, who carried out the simple administrative and judicial functions needed br the then small communities.
Quite as much must be ascribed to the want of faith in the legislatures of states and cities, which are deemed tao liable to be influenced by selfish corporations.
The taxation of corporations is recent and rapidly increasing.
In modern times these charters were not acted `upon, the town being deemed a borough by prescription, but in 1861 it was incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act.
This visit was followed by a return visit to Paris and a similar exchange of visits between the London City Corporation and the Paris Municipal Council, exchange visits Of the city corporations of Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh and Lyons, and a visit of the Manchester Corporation to Dusseldorf, Barmen and Cologne.
As regards municipal elections, the Corrupt Practices (Municipal Elections) Act 1872 has been repealed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882 for England, and by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 for Ireland.
The governing enactments for England are now the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, part iv., and the Municipal Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act 1884, the latter annually renewable.
The Board of Immigration, using funds contributed by planters, was very active in its efforts to encourage the immigration of suitable labourers, but the general immigration law of 1907 prohibited the securing of such immigration through contributions from corporations.
Lamont was a member of the academies of Brussels, Upsala and Prague, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and of many other learned corporations.
The Roman power was also increased by the formation of the universities - privileged corporations of masters and students, which escaped the local power of the bishop and his chancellor only to place themselves under the direction and supervision of the Holy See.
In 1845 the state began to sell its canals and railways to private corporations and the sale was completed in 1859.
Thus Stockport was not a true municipal borough until formally incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
A clean sweep was made of the medieval polity surviving in the somnolent local diets and corporations.
Belawan is connected with Medan by a railway, constructed before 1890 by a private company, almost entirely dependent for its earnings upon the numerous tobacco plantations, several of which belong to British corporations.
The greater part of these lands was irrigated by canals or ditches built by individuals acting singly or in co-operation with their neighbours, or by corporations.
Some of the corporations constructing works for the sale of water built structures of notable size, such, for example, as the Sweet-water and Hemet dams of southern California, the Bear river canal of Utah, and the Arizona canal, taking water from Salt river, Arizona.
The large canals and reservoirs built by corporations had rarely been successful from a financial standpoint, and irrigation construction during the latter part of the decade1890-1899was relatively small.
Of these areas the provinces, circles and communes are for the purposes both of the central administration and of local self-government, and the bodies by which they are governedare corporations.
In Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover the railways were almost entirely the property of the state, but in all other parts public and private lines existed side by side, an arrangement which seemed to combine the disadvantages of both systems. In 1871 threequarters of the railway lines belonged to private companies, and the existence of these powerful private corporations, while they were defended by many of the Liberals, was, according to the national type of thought, something of an anomaly.
Municipal ownership does not prevail to any extent, and in the larger cities the powers of certain great corporations have tended to cause friction, but such matters as the provision of electric power and light are gradually being taken in hand both by the municipalities and by the province, and a railway and municipal board appointed by the local legislature has certain powers over the railways and electric tramlines.
Municipal corporations or other local government bodies have no express power to expel a member, except in such cases where the law declares the member to have vacated his seat, or where power is given by statute to declare the member's seat vacant.
Several confirmations of this charter were granted; the last, dated 1665, continued in force (with a short interval in the reign of James II.) until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
This corporation continued to administer the affairs of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act in 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity commissioners.
It explains how the Gallo-Roman villa gave place to the village, with its fortified castle, the residence of the lord; how new towns were formed by the side of old, some of which disappeared; how the townspeople united in corporations; and how the communal bond proved to be a powerful instrument of cohesion.
In the building of railway cars by manufacturing corporations, Illinois also led the states in 1900 and in 1905, the product being valued at $24,845,606 in 1900 and at $30,926,464 (an increase of nearly one-fourth) in 1905; and in construction by railway companies was second in 1900, with a product valued at $16,580,424, which had increased 53.7% in 1905, when the product was valued at $25,491,209.
The relation of the state to corporations and industrial problems has been a subject of important legislation.
In 1903 the legislature authorized the municipal ownership of public service corporations, and in 1906 the city of Chicago took steps to acquire ownership of its street railways - a movement which seemed to have spent its force in 1907, when the municipal ownership candidates were defeated in the city's elections - and in 1902 the right of that city to regulate the price of gas was recognized by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals.
The first universities of Europe consisted of corporations of teachers and of students analogous to the trade gilds and merchant gilds of the time.
Formerly, and especially in England, many churches were appropriated to monasteries or colleges of canons, whose custom it was to appoint one of their own body to perform divine service in such churches, but in the 13th century such corporations were obliged to appoint permanent paid vicars who were called perpetual vicars.
Those under small jurisdictions in the boroughs and under the petty corporate bodies continued open to the strongest reprobation, and thus remained until they were swept away by the measure which brought about the reform of the municipal corporations in 1835.
Therefore, Jackson's personality and name became a power on the side opposed to banks, corporations and other forms of the new growing power of capital.
Municipal corporations rest upon a general state law, not upon individual charters.
The tendency towards the concentration of capital in great industrial corporations had been active to an extent previously undreamt of, with incidental consequences that had aroused much apprehension; and the Democrats accused President McKinley and the Republican party of having fostered the "trusts."
The large tract of land owned by the Luray Caverns Corporations covers all possible modes of entrance.
Municipal corporations with a population of 3000 and over are cities, and are governed through a mayor and board of aldermen; those with a population of between 1500 and 3000 are towns, and are governed through a mayor and trustees.
There are also special corporation taxes on car companies, express companies and foreign corporations producing, refining or selling petroleum or coal oil; and a system of licence-charges or business taxes.
We may mention, as distinct from the above, the flamen curialis, who assisted the curio, the priest who attended to the religious affairs of each curia; the flamens of various sacerdotal corporations, such as the Arval Brothers; the flamen Augustalis, who superintended the worship of the emperor in the provinces.
So are private conveyances, charters of private corporations and statutory and other grants by a state.
On the other hand, marriage and divorce, and arrangements which are political in their nature, such as charters of municipal corporations, licences to carry on particular trades or regulations of police are not within the provision.
Under the reform of 1865 full religious freedom is practically accorded, and it is provided that the services of religious organizations other than the Roman Catholic may be held in private residences or in edifices owned by private individuals or corporations.
Almost absolute power was now given these corporations to manage their own concerns, and the organization of the police was placed in their hands; at a later period, however, it was found necessary to modify this latter condition.
The trading fraternities assumed generally the character of corporations in the reign of Edward III.
Brentano (On Gilds) holds that it is wrong to represent such regulations as monopolistic, inasmuch as there was no question whatever of a monopoly in that time nor until the degeneration of the craftgilds into limited corporations of capitalists.
The prevailing European fashion of literary academies was not long in reaching Portugal, and 1647 saw the foundation of the Academia dos Generosos which included in its ranks the men most illustrious by learning and social position, and in 1663 the Academia dos Singulares came into being; but with all their pedantry, extravagances and bad taste, it must be confessed that these and similar corporations tended to promote the pursuit of good literature.
Probably no English minister ever received in so short a time so many proofs of the confidence and admiration of the public, the capital and all the chief towns voting him addresses and the freedom of their corporations.
The constitution forbids the chartering of corporations except according to general laws.
The right of eminent domain over all corporations is reserved to the state; and no corporation may issue stock except for labour, service rendered, or money paid in.
The direct tax, other than that on the property of corporations, is assessed by the township supervisors, or, in cities and incorporated villages by the officer named in the charter for that service, on what is supposed to be the full cash value of the property.
But the legal maxim that corporations never die is well illustrated by the survival of the fine series, not complete, indeed, but very full, of the matrices of English corporations, beginning with the close of the 12th century.
The constitution as amended in 1875 forbids the legislature to pass any private or special laws regulating the affairs of towns or counties, or to vote state grants to any municipal or industrial corporations or societies, and prescribes that in imposing taxes the assessment of taxable property shall be according to general laws and by uniform rules; and anti-race-track agitation in1891-1897led to a further amendment prohibiting the legalizing of lotteries, of pool-selling 1 The constitution of 1844 limited the suffrage to white males, and although this limitation was annulled by the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, it was not until 1875 that the state by an amendment (adopted on the 7th of September) struck the word " white " from its suffrage clause.
The expenses of the state government are met chiefly by special taxes on railway and canal corporations, a franchise tax on the capital stock of other corporations, a collateral inheritance tax and leases of riparian lands.
Other domestic corporations are taxed on the amount of their capital stock.
The rate of this tax decreases as the amount of capital stock increases, thus favouring large corporations.
The fees received for issuing charters to corporations are another source of revenue to the state.
Toward corporations the policy of New Jersey has always been liberal; there is no limit fixed either to capitalization or to bonded indebtedness; the tax rate, as already indicated, is lower for large than for small corporations; and so many large combinations of capital have been incorporated under the laws of the state that it is sometimes called " ` the home of the trusts."
For the fiscal year 1907 the fees collected from corporations by the secretary of state amounted to $204,454, the receipts from the tax on corporations other than railways amounted to $2,584,363.60, and the receipts from the tax on railway corporations were $807,780.4 It is the revenue from these sources that has enabled New Jersey to dispense almost entirely with the general property tax for state purposes.
The legal requirement that every corporation chartered by the state must maintain its principal office there has given rise to the peculiar institution called the " corporation agency," a single office which serves as the " principal office " of numbers of corporations.
In 1884 the state gained the victory by securing the passage of a law taxing the franchises of railway corporations.
Contradictions are often copied down without the writer noticing them; and since the middle ages forged and falsified so many documents, - monasteries, towns and corporations gaining privileges or titles of possession by the bold use of them, - the narrative of medieval writers cannot be relied upon unless we can verify it by collateral evidence.
It is a conglomeration of corporations.
The Municipal Corporations Act followed in 1835, giving all ratepayers the local franchise.
Subject to a few special provisions in the Local Government Act of 1888, the business of the county council is regulated by the provisions laid down in the Municipal Corporations Act Business.
In such boroughs the borough council have, in addition to their powers under the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, all the powers of a county council under the Local Government Act.
In the year 1835 the Municipal Corporations Act was passed, which made The provision for the constitution and government of municipal certain boroughs which were enumerated in a schedule.
A few ancient corporations which were not enumerated in the schedule to the act of 1835 continued to exist after that year, but by an act of 1883 all of these, save such as should obtain charters before 1886, were abolished, the result being that all boroughs are now subject to the act of 1882.
The powers and duties of a borough council in the Municipal Corporations Act do not arise or exist to any great extent under that act.
The election takes place subject to rules made by the Local Government Board, these rules being largely founded upon adaptations of the Municipal Corporations Act 1882.
The chief sources of the state's revenue are a general property tax and taxes on the franchises of corporations, especially those of railway and insurance companies and savings banks; among the smaller sources are licences or fees, a poll tax, and a collateral inheritance tax.
The general property tax for state and local purposes is assessed by local assessors, but their work is reviewed for the purpose of equalization among the several towns and counties by a board of state assessors, which also assesses the corporations.
Even when in the course of time landownership was appropriated by the crown, the ecclesiastical corporations and the nobles, the tillers of the land retained their personal freedom and were considered to be farmers holding their plots under contracts.
By the system known as aforamento the lands were gradually parcelled out into a number of fiefs granted, under the crown of Portugal, to individuals or to religious corporations in return for military service or equivalent quit-rents.
The secondary schools receiving public aid, however, have been placed in charge of religious corporations of the Roman Catholic Church.
For undying corporations paid the king neither reliefs (death duties) nor fees on wardship and marriage, and their property would never escheat to the crown for want of an heir.
The monasteries, with their vast possessions, had become corporations of landlords, instead of associations for prayer and good works.
A previous statute, the Ccrporation kct (1661), ordered that all members of corporations should renounce the Covenant and the doctrine that subjects might as this danger was believed to exist, every effort would be made to keep dissent from spreading.
A large number of the borough members were in those days returned by the corperations, and the corporations were accordingly changed.
But so thoroughly was the spirit of the country roused, that many even of the new corporations were set against Jamess declaration, and he had therefore to abandon for a time the hope of seeing it accepted even by a packed House of Commons.
The county voters were the freeholders; but in the towns, with some important exceptions, the electors were the richer inhabitants who formed the corporations of the boroughs, or a body of select householders more or less under the control of some neighboring landowner.
Reform Bill and its consequences were frankly accepted; further reforms were promi;ed, especially in the matter of the municipal corporations and of the disabilities of the dissenters.
Lord Melbourne once more came into office, and the Municipal Corporations Act of the 7th of September was the work of a Liberal government.
The country which, in half-a-dozen years, had seen a radical reform of parliament, a no less radical reform of municipal corporations, the abolition of slavery, and the reconstruction of the poor laws, was longing for a period of political repose.
The chairmen of the several town boards of supervisors, with the The office of railroad commissioner was created in 1874, became elective in 1881 and was replaced under an act of 1905 by a commission of three members, which received jurisdiction over other public service corporations in 2907.
Revenue for state purposes is derived principally from taxes on corporations, from an inheritance tax and from departmental and institutional fees and charges; that for counties, towns, villages and cities from a general property tax.
The state tax on railways and other public service corporations is 1 The first class comprises cities having a population of 150,000 or more (Milwaukee); the second class those having a population between 40,000 and 150,000; the third class those having a population between Io,000 and 40,000; the fourth class those having a population less than 10,000.
The total income for schools in1907-1908was $1,773,659, of which $1,379,410 was from the seven-tenths-of-a-mill tax, $200,000 was from licence fees and taxes upon corporations (for salaries of rural school inspectors) and $194,249 the income from the common school fund which in that year amounted to $3,845,929.
This charter was confirmed in 1611 and 1689, and held force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, which established six aldermen and eighteen councillors.
A corporation commission of three members, elected for a term of six years, is intrusted with the necessary powers for a rigid control of public service corporations.
The commissioner must inspect once each year all penal, correctional and eleemosynary institutions, including public hospitals, jails, poorhouses and corporations and organizations doing charitable work; and the commissioner appears as next friend in cases affecting the property of orphan minors, and has power to investigate complaints against public and private institutions whose charters may be revoked for cause by the commissioner.
There is a tax on the gross receipts of corporations, a graduated land tax on all holdings exceeding 640 acres, a tax on income exceeding $3500, and a tax on gifts and inheritances.
In 1708 Anne granted four fairs to the earl of Bridgewater, and in 1886 the borough had a new charter of incorporation under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1882.
The corporation included 2 bailiffs, 10 capital and 24 inferior burgesses, until the Municipal Corporations Act 1883.
Six towns-Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Limerick, Londonderry and Waterford-were constituted county boroughs governed by separate county councils; and five boroughs-Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, Drogheda and Wexford-retained their former corporations.
Protestant corporations were dissolved by [From Anglo-Norman Invasion] " quo warrantos "; but James was still Englishman enough to refuse an Irish parliament, which might repeal Poyning's Act and the Act of Settlement.
Individuals are seldom as bad as corporations, and the very men who made the laws against priests practically shielded them.
The Choiseul party, which had gradually been reconstituted, under the influence of the queen, the princes, parlement, the prebendaries, and the trade corporations, worked adroitly to eliminate this reformer of lucrative abuses.
For them the right to work had been asserted, among others by Turgot, as a natural right opposed to the caprices of the arbitrary and selfish aristocracy of the corporations, and a breach had been made in the tyranny of the masters which had endeavoured to set a barrier to the astonishing outburst of industrial force which was destined to characterize the coming age.
He had to proclaim not only such important provinces as Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao, but even the capital of Spain itself, in order to check a widespread agitation which had assumed formidable proportions under the direction of the chambers of commerce, industry, navigation and agriculture, combined with, about 300 middle-class corporations and associations, and supported by the majority of the gilds and syndicates of taxpayers in Madrid and the large towns.
From the early 17th century till 1825, Smyrna was the chief provincial factory of the British Turkey Company, as well as of French, Dutch and other trading corporations.
It provided for compulsory education, and for the taxation of church property; prohibited the grant by counties or cities of financial aid to railway or other corporations, and enjoined that railways should have an easement only in their right of way.
The constitution also prohibited state aid to railways and other corporations, leaving this to cities and counties under limitations.
The corporation was remodelled under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, and now consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
The principal source of revenue was an indirect tax on corporations, the tax on railways, savings banks and life insurance companies, yielding 70% of the state's income.
Corporations, individuals and towns made liberal contributions of money.
The ownership of industrial establishments is largely in the hands of individuals, firms, and comparatively small corporations, rather than of large combinations, the average capital per establishment in 1905 being about $32,000.
The clerk of the county court collects all taxes of persons, companies or corporations subject to a privilege tax; the county trustee the taxes of other persons.
Worse, the big corporations really set the agenda.
I set all-time record for number of administration appointees who violated US law by not selling huge investments in corporations bidding for government contracts.
Government institutions are becoming ever more beholden to these corporations than to their citizens.
Even the corporations are coming around to the view that " food biotech is dead "  .
Each state's business Corporation Act gives business corporations carte Blanche to engage in any lawful business activity.
Each state's business Corporation Act gives business corporations carte blanche to engage in any lawful business activity.
Unfortunately, these sorts of searches are presently dominated by big corporations with hefty search budgets.
Firstly, from multinational corporations using their new global mobility to head for low tax regimes.
The WTO has no mandate to regulate the major trading players, the transnational corporations.
Of course trans-national corporations can choose where they pay their taxes.
Some non-profit charitable corporations threaten boycotts and then ask for and get grants from targeted companies.
You receive some of the benefits of Nevada corporation filing without being hit by the double taxation common in S corporation filing without being hit by the double taxation common in S corporations.
But it will help biotech corporations access new markets more easily.
A selection of organizations with WWW servers, including many major computing, electronics and telecoms corporations.
The huge quantity of its population especially attracts the attention of those global media corporations.
These same indigenous peoples are being driven to extinction by the activities of the oil, timber and mining corporations.
Corporations are, rightly, commonly held to be primarily responsible for humanity's accelerating decline into suicidal unsustainability.
A few corporations choose to grease the squeaky wheel to avoid product defamation by imposing management practices on us, their suppliers.
Words denoting any gender shall denote all genders and words denoting persons shall include firms and corporations and vise versa.
We provide a comprehensive service, ranging from advising major corporations on reconstruction to helping financially distressed individuals.
Stock and foreign exchange markets have been plagued by doubts about the health of certain banks and corporations.
Agencies, individuals, and corporations are encouraged to post jobs on a free job board for hurricane evacuees.
When their reputations are all-important, corporations can't carry on as private fiefdoms with no obligations other than to the capital markets.
You receive some of the benefits of Nevada corporation filing without being hit by the double taxation common in S corporations.
Instead, formal invitations to the private corporations to tender for these key services were placed in the official gazette of the European Community.
According to this view a fully globalized economy dominated by transnational corporations is destiny; it is evolution; it is inevitable.
These changes have produced a global market economy dominated by a handful of corporations and a financial system beyond the reach of nation-state governments.
Because corporate law generally regulates corporations but not executives, it leads executives to become inattentive to justice.
Citizens and Corporations must pay income tax on ALL earned money, even if it is earned overseas.
Despite the benefits of informality and flexibility, most incorporators don't want to form close corporations.
Is that because little corporations exploit labor or the consumer less?
For the American multi-national corporations and the elites control- ling them, these policy shifts were good news.
Further, corporations do not have to file state tax returns and share information is held private.
Alongside them have grown the herds owned by wealthy ranchers and multinational corporations.
Allowing big corporations to ride rough shod over internationally recognized workers rights.
In January, the Anonymous Digital Coalition issued a plan for virtual sit-ins on five web sites of Mexico City financial corporations.
The Canadian people, not transnational corporations, should set this country's social, cultural and economic priorities.
It is uncommon for multi-billion-dollar corporations to think about creating a corporate typeface - even for their own logo.
Also, Nevada has a certain attitude about piercing the corporate veil, which is why major corporations domicile in Nevada.
In 1679 the town received a charter from Charles II., and the corporation consisted of a mayor, two aldermen and 12 capital burgesses, until abolished by the Municipal Corporations Act of 1886, under which the property is now vested in seven trustees, one of whom is appointed by the lord of the manor, and there are also two aldermen and four elected members.
The Association of Municipal Corporations passed resolutions on the 28th of April that " the subject of telephonic supply should be treated as an imperial and not as a local one, and that the Postmaster General should have the sole control of the telephone system," and " that in the event of the Postmaster-General not taking over the telephone service it should be competent for municipal and other local authorities to undertake such services within areas composed of their own districts or combination of such districts."
Nominally the people are free and exercise sovereign rights in the choice of their representatives, but the ignorance of the masses, their apathy, poverty and dependence upon the great land proprietors and industrial corporations practically defeat these fundamental constitutional provisions.
At length, after much blood had been shed in the dispute, Philip Bennett, a monk residing in the town, succeeded by his eloquence, on the festival of Corpus Christi, 1412, in persuading the authorities of the two corporations to send to Henry IV.
At the head of a large shop with many assistants, his business was to turn out, generally for a small price, devotional pieces commissioned by mercantile corporations or private persons to decorate their chapels in the churches - the preference being usually for scenes of the Passion, or for tortures and martyrdoms of the saints.
Revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from taxes on real estate, tangible personal property, incomes in excess of $1000, wills and administrations, deeds, seals, lawsuits, banks, trust and security companies, insurance companies, express companies, railway and canal corporations, sleeping-car, parlour-car and dining-car companies, telegraph and telephone companies, franchise taxes, poll taxes, an inheritance tax and taxes on various business and professional licences.
This meant the undisputed hegemony of Holland in the federation, in other words of the burgher oligarchies who controlled the town corporations of the province, and especially of Amsterdam.
For instance, if you think large corporation are greedy and evil, then when you read about how large corporations produce low-nutrition food or are putting family farms out of business, you will believe it.
When you read somewhere else that food produced by large corporations saved millions of lives, you won't believe that.
Now they drop out of college and run off to start corporations.
But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard or observed, the principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched.
Innocent seeming companies are often part of big immoral corporations, bringing more moral quandaries.
We live in an age where the world seems to be increasingly run by large, soulless corporations.
The American Trust for Oxford University can accept tax-deductible gifts from foundations that have been established by business corporations.
Many Nevada corporations are subject to taxes on profits and additional taxes on dividends.
Many transnational corporations operate points systems or loyalty cards.
The Canadian people, not transnational corporations, should set this country 's social, cultural and economic priorities.
Equity investors can take the form of leveraged buyout funds, venture capital funds or corporations.
You'll also accumulate lawsuits against corporations their veracity crofton sums of money.
A human rights group formed in 1990 as a watchdog on surveillance by governments and corporations.
Was there collusion among the major technology corporations to suppress wages for their workers?
If you were to measure innovation on a per person or per dollar basis, it looks pretty bad for large corporations.
Breakthrough innovation requires a certain amount of chaos, and large corporations tend to be orderly places.
As much as the leaders of these corporations might want to foster disruptive innovation, their policies, structure and processes mitigate against it.
Corporations usually have superior supply chains and are adept at distributing products with speed and effectiveness.
Sometimes, corporations provide a short-term respite from the uncertainty and financial struggles of the startup life.
Even the most un-startup-like of corporations can be tolerated for a year or two.
Corporations issue corporate bonds, which usually yield large returns for purchasers.
There are over 1,400 companies from which to choose from, including major Fortune 500 corporations.
This even applies to corporations, many of which have demonstrated poor financial decisions that unfortunately affect the rest of us.
While database breaches do happen occasionally, major corporations invest considerable time and money to protect your personal data, especially during online transactions.
Identity theft can happen to anyone, from the young college student to CEOs of major corporations.
Many of these products are offered through a partnership with other corporations.
If there is any good news from this incident it is the fact that corporations are learning how to protect themselves and their customers from data leaks and online security breaches.
While many corporations are quite familiar with Innovis, consumers may be less familiar with the consumer services offered by this company.
Business customers may have different needs than consumers, and American Express aims to meet these special business concerns by providing an array of services that corporations need to run smoothly.
In fact, there are some institutions that consider American Express the premier card for corporations because of the large variety of services that are offered to complement and improve corporate functioning.
Corporations must choose between the traditional cards or the BusinessExtrAA card, as services from the two programs cannot be combined.
AmEx organizes its cards into personal, travel, small business, and corporations, using tabs.
With the continual rising costs of petroleum products in the new century, major corporations and the United States government have looked to new markets.
Fears about how the carbon footprint of individuals, corporations and organizations are affecting the environment means that action needs to be taken now.
Every step counts, however small, and therefore there are plenty of ways that we as individuals as well as large corporations can reduce our impact on the environment.
That seems pretty cut and dry; however, according to the New York Times, there are claims that some large corporations are trying to stretch the definition to include energy sources that might actually be bad for the environment.
In-house Corporate Designer - Large corporations that sell home products often have a design showroom which commercial and/or residential clients can see their product(s) in a home or office situation.
National corporations provide scholarships to thousands of worthy students every year, and you can often find information on these programs online.
This market is primarily utilized by large banks, huge corporations, and the governments of various nations.
They may have sponsors such as education foundations, corporations, or businesses.
Courtroom Sciences became one of the leading jury consulting firms in the country, working with a number of international corporations.
The training solutions are ideal for corporations wanting to expand their employee skill and talent base.
Along with learning the basics of event planning and organization for businesses and corporations, students will also learn how to manage events for parks and recreation departments, resorts, sports centers, and nonprofits.
Since small cruise ship companies don't need as many employees as larger corporations in the industry, they tend to be a bit more selective when hiring workers.
This argument has held no sway with the music corporations who have acted to remove as many tablature websites from the Internet as possible.
Corporations creating seeds that will not reproduce is not the only argument brought against GMOs.
Since more corporations are throwing their hats into the organic ring, many organic beef cattle are raised in similar conditions to the conventionally raised beef.
Although most large corporations have formal policies for computer security, the average Internet user tends to forget how much valuable information is stored on his/her personal computer.
Many times, small family owned parks may be sold to housing developers or other corporations that opt to abandon the amusement park in favor of potentially more profitable projects.
Over the next few years, the publisher was shuffled beneath various corporations as they quietly worked on new projects.
You also have one main enemy-or one main nemesis group-called Crimson Lance who is hired by one of the planet's corporations to uphold a possible martial law on Pandora.
We want to be millionaires running giant corporations.
The market is so lucrative that two giant corporations -- Microsoft and Sony -- couldn't resist tossing in their goods to see how much money could be wrung out.
Much of the bulk wine for large corporations is grown here.
The company has partnered with large corporations to create a plethora of licensed and authorized products.
Consumers are becoming increasingly well educated about how and where major corporations do business.
It is possible to find at home jobs with major corporations?
The company provides consulting, network-integration, and consulting services to other large corporations, as well as local telephone service to consumers in various locations.
The AT&T telecommuting policy is an example of at home jobs with major corporations.
This is most common at large corporations who have streamlined the hiring process and who can afford the costs of this type of testing.
Corporations have personalities, just like individuals do, and different ones value different traits in workers.
These types of jobs can be found in corporations and law enforcement agencies.
The skills that a computer networking graduate develops can be applied to applications of all sizes, from opportunities in large corporations to ones involving small business enterprises with a handful of users.
Graduates from these programs can choose to work for government agencies or large corporations.
Some corporations also offer outdoor recreation positions.
Investors and corporations also need to have an idea regarding the direction of mortgage interest rates when dealing with mortgage loans.
These people will sell their predictions to consumers or corporations to help them determine what their next economic moves should be.
These loans may be made to farmers, family farm corporations, farmer associations, Indian tribes, public agencies, nonprofit organizations and others.
Generous individuals and corporations from around the country donate many thousands of pieces of furniture and supplies to non-profit charities.
The shelter relies on gifts from individuals and corporations to fund the majority of its operating budget.
Some corporations and professional associations offer grant programs, as well as many grass roots organizations.
Large corporations doing business in the area are also often willing to participate in these types of fundraisers.
Foundations and corporations also support the American Diabetes Foundation.
Corporations can buy a thank you token for every employee who runs in the relay, while smaller organizations could choose something personalized to their own group's mission and purpose.
On the flip side, you want to look for examples that are concise and clear about exactly what your organization is about if you are sending them to strangers and corporations.
Many churches and community centers have their own Angel Trees as do many corporations.
Grants are usually offered by state or the federal government, foundations or corporations that want to support nonprofit agencies.
With the wide array of blogs, online news sites and major corporations using the Internet for marketing and promotions, the Internet is becoming the major employer of writers, and the field of writing is finally becoming very lucrative.
In fact, since the late 20th century, women also have been toting these mammoth career testimonials around the office, because as corporations grow and expand, so do the contracts, and thus the paperwork.
I work in universities, hospitals, non-profits, and corporations helping to foster good leadership and team work.
These job offers typically claim you can make between $20 and $50 an hour processing rebate applications and filling in online forms on behalf of various corporations.
Corporations can also get group discounts.
In-House Corporate Agency - Many large corporations have on-site travel agencies within their corporate headquarters to help them control their travel costs.
It is home to a number of large corporations, top-notch colleges and miles of perfectly manicured parks and gardens.
One of the features Skagen offers for corporations is customized watches with the company logo or special engraving.
Though not necessarily personalized yoga instruction, many corporations are bringing in yoga instructors to help meet the challenges of modern day business, de-stress workers, and increase energy and vitality.
Some corporations also include yoga instruction as part of a convention schedule.
Program regulations specify SBICs must ensure 25% of their funding is extended to corporations which are considered smaller businesses.
A network of 1100 service sub centers and satellites are located at community colleges, universities, vocational schools, chambers of commerce and economic development corporations.
Even large corporations have local offices with which you can develop a relationship.
Large corporations regularly replace aging equipment usually in the 4th quarter and find that it's more cost-effective to sell to a reseller than to dispose and incur environmental fees.
Several major corporations are chartered in Delaware because incorporating in Delaware provides an attractive corporate haven, with laws favorable and friendly to corporations.
No income taxes are charged on corporations in Delaware, which makes it attractive.
The state does levy a franchise tax on corporations which incorporate in it, which amount to about 20% o the states revenue, and considered to be just a cost of doing business by most corporations.
More than 50% of all publicly-traded corporations, and 58% of the Fortune 500 are incorporated in Delaware.
Initial charges for incorporating can be as low as $89.00, with most corporations charged $189, with annual franchise tax fees running about $60.00.
Delaware does not charge corporations income tax for all corporations formed in Delaware as long as they do not transact business within the state.
Shares of stock in Delaware corporations are not taxed if the owner lives out of state.
These summaries are necessary to complete required tax filings as directed by the IRS, no matter if you use a simplified Schedule C Form 1040 or more complicated tax reporting as required by larger companies and corporations.
Large businesses and corporations often have customized forms designed specific to their needs, but smaller businesses may not have the manpower to dedicate to the creation of customized forms from scratch.
Numerous large corporations have reported tremendous savings using the Employee Benefits Program.
Nearly $44 billion is lost by businesses and corporations across America each year due to the effects of depression in the workplace (Counseling Today, 1999).
Many corporations provide free services, resources, and tools for small business owners and managers.
By taking advantage of many of the business tools provided by government agencies, corporations, online resources, and business media, it can be easy to gather the information you need to make informed decisions about your business.