There is coral along the coasts everywhere, and the Sentinel Islands are composed of the newer rocks with a superstructure of coral.
The people are employed in fishing for coral and sponges, as well as for bream, mullet and other fish.
Around the coast there is a raised shelf of limestone which was undoubtedly a coral reef.
They contain corals, but are not coral reefs.
Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
Her eyes" (Nicholas looked at his partner) "are blue, her mouth coral and ivory; her figure" (he glanced at her shoulders) "like Diana's...."
The islands are of coral formation and low-lying.
They are coral islands of comparatively recent elevation, and in no place rise more than 250 ft.
The coral reefs are of especial interest from their bearing on the general question of the formation of coral reefs.
Close to the coast the soil is for the most part a coral sand.
As it flows it takes the forms of sappy leaves or vines, making heaps of pulpy sprays a foot or more in depth, and resembling, as you look down on them, the laciniated, lobed, and imbricated thalluses of some lichens; or you are reminded of coral, of leopard's paws or birds' feet, of brains or lungs or bowels, and excrements of all kinds.
Most of the fishing boats, properly so called, start from the Adriatic coast, the coral boats from the western Mediterranean coast, and the sponge boats from the western Mediterranean and Sicilian coasts.
The town occupies the whole of a small coral island at the mouth of Mossoril Bay.
A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.
After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
To the west lie the small groups of coral islets - Mopiha (Lord Howe), Ura (Scilly) and Bellingshausen (discovered by Otto von Kotzebue, 1824).
They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
She was dressed much more normally than Ingrid in dark jeans and a simple, fitted blue t-shirt with bright coral nail polish.
The Vavau group consists entirely of coral limestone, which is occasionally crystalline, and contains stalactitic caves of great beauty.
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
Coral reefs remove calcium from solution in the sea on a vast scale.
Interesting speculations as to the periods of origin of great coral reefs have been made by Wayland Vaughan, Andrews and Daly and Humphreys.
Tetuaroa and Tubai, besides the three western Leeward Isles, are coral atolls.
The coral and fishing industries are the most important in Alghero, but agriculture has made some progress in the district, which produces good wine.
There are raised coral beds high up the mountains, and lava occurs in a variety of forms, even in solid flows; but all active volcanic agency has so long ceased that the craters have.
60), where the interspaces between the coenosarcal tubes are filled up with calcareous matter, or coenosteum, replacing the chitinous perisarc. The result is a stony, solid mass, which contributes to the building up of coral reefs.
high, with hills rising to 600 ft.; their sides are generally steep. The surface is covered with a rich mould unusual in coral islands, mixed towards the sea with sand, and having a substratum of red or blue clay.
It is not at all certain that the masses on which coral reefs are built consist entirely of the remains of the skeletons of reef-forming organisms and it is probable that chemically precipitated carbonate of lime predominates.
Neither the tunny nor the coral fishery is carried on by the Sardinians themselves, who are not sailors by nature; the former is in the hands of Genoese and the latter of Neapolitans.
The Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs.
The only stone building in southern Babylonia is the town wall of Eridu (Abu Shahrein), which is built of rude lumps of a local coral rag.
Round most of the islands there is a luxuriant coral growth; but, as the reefs lie at no great distance, and follow the line of the coast, the inter-island channels are comparatively safe.
The coral fishery - mainly on the west coast - has lost its former importance.
With the exception of Rose Island, which is an uninhabited coral islet 70 m.
All these stones were of course imported, as the Babylonian had no stone (except a rough coral rag) at hand as the Egyptian had.
It is surrounded by coral reefs, and is richly wooded.
In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.
The scenery is everywhere strikingly beautiful and varied, and the coral beds of the more secluded bays in its harbours are conspicuous for their exquisite colouring.
From this point a zone of upheaved coral rocks skirts the shore for some distance.
But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
that the continent was first inhabited by a Papuan type of man who made his way thither from Flores and Timor, New Guinea and the Coral Sea.
The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.
It is covered with a layer of thin, dry soil, through the slow weathering of the coral rocks.
On the foothills and in the less rugged mountain districts there is a thin but rich clay soil derived from coral limestone.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
Bermudas) and coral reefs.
The general structure of this coral leaves no doubt that it is closely allied to the Astraeidae, but in the young calicles a tetrameral symmetry is indicated by the presence of four large septa placed at right angles to one another.
The general practice for many years past among naturalists has been to restrict the terms "Insecta" and "insect" to the class of Arthropods with three pairs of legs in the adult condition: bees, flies, moths, bugs, grasshoppers, springtails are "insects," but not spiders, centipedes nor crabs, far less earthworms, and still less slugs, starfishes or coral polyps.
About the beginning of the Christian era a great trade was carried on in coral between the Mediterranean and India, where it was highly esteemed as a substance endowed with mysterious sacred properties.
Among the Romans branches of coral were hung around children's necks to preserve them from danger, and the substance had many medicinal virtues attributed to it.
The precious coral is found widespread on the borders and around the islands of the Mediterranean Sea.
The black coral (Antipathes abies), formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf, and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
From the middle ages downwards the securing of the right to the coral fisheries on the African coasts was an object of considerable rivalry among the Mediterranean communities of Europe.
The Algerian reefs are divided into ten portions, of which only one is fished annually - ten years being considered sufficient for the proper growth of the coral.
The range of value of the various qualities of coral, according to colour and size, is exceedingly wide, and notwithstanding the steady Oriental demand its price is considerably affected by the fluctuations of fashion.
The excrement from this large colony has changed the carbonate of lime in the soil and the coral nodules on the surface into phosphates, to the extent in some cases of 60-70%, thus forming a valuable deposit, beneficial to the vegetation of the island itself and promising commercial value.
See C. Darwin, Journal of the Voyage of the "Beagle," and Geological Observations on Coral Reefs; also Henry O.
The coasts are in some parts precipitous; in others the mountains recede inland, and the coast is flat and bordered by coral reefs.
There are boiling springs in Vanua beautiful; their hills rise often above 3000, and, in the case of a few summits, above 4000 ft., and they contrast strongly with the low coral formation of the smaller members of the group. There is not much level country, except in the coral islets, and certain rich tracts along the coasts of the two large islands, especially near the mouths of the rivers.
Most of the high peaks on the larger islands are basaltic, and the rocks generally are igneous, with occasional upheaved coral found sometimes over 1000 ft.
Agassiz, The Islands and Coral Reefs of Fiji (Cambridge, Mass., U.S., 1899); H.
For a tropical destination, smoky eyes can be worn with a variety of coral and bright colors, all while serving as a stand alone eye makeup style.
Desis lives invariably between tide-marks upon the rocks and coral reefs, and may be found at low tide either crawling about upon them or swimming in tidal pools and feeding upon small fish or crustaceans.
Next to these come the coral islands Nomuka and Lifuka in the Hapai group; Tofua, 2846 ft., Late or Lette, 1800 ft.
The Laccadives and Maldives are groups of small coral islands, situated along the 73rd meridian, at no great distance from the Indian peninsula, on which they have a political dependency.
The Squamipennes, or scaly-finned fishes, are principally found in the seas of southern Asia, and especially near coral reefs.
side of the island there are long chains of islets and reefs and coral keys (of which it is estimated there are 1300), which limit access to probably half of the coast, and on the N.
See Geographical Journal, passim; and Atoll of Funafuti: Borings into a Coral Reef (Report of Coral Reef Committee of Royal Society, London, 1904).
Coral reefs protect the coasts in many parts; they are frequently interrupted, but the passages through them are often difficult of navigation.
Two other United States warships, "Trenton" and "Vandalia," were beaten to pieces on the coral reef; and the German warships "Olga" and "Eber" were wrecked with great loss of life.
The vessels contained a dark dust, apparently disintegrated ashes, small pieces of bone, and a number of small pieces of jewelry in gold, silver, white and red cornelian, amethyst, topaz, garnet, coral and crystal.
A few species, however, like the common British forms Chelifer cancroides and Chiridium museorum, frequent human dwellings and are found in books, old chests, furniture, &c.; others like Ganypus littoralis and allied species may be found under stones or pieces of coral between tide-marks; while others, which are for the most part blind, live permanently in dark caves.
Fishing and trawling are carried on chiefly off the Italian (especially Ligurian, Austrian and Tunisian coasts; coral is found principally near Sardinia and Sicily, and sponges almost exclusively off Sicily arid Tunisia in tile neighborhood of Sfax.
The fishing is largely carried on by boats from Tone del Greco, in the Gulf of Naples, where the best coral beds are now exhausted.
pores may be confluent with the cyclosystem presents itself as a radiating partitions, thus having a superficial resemblance to a madreporarian coral with its radiating septa (figs.
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.
Corals would now grow luxuriantly in these shallow coastal waters of increasing temperature, forming reefs and extensive coral flats.
These new structures would rest uncomfortably upon eroded formations and this, Wayland Vaughan points out, is what we actually observe in the case of living and fossil coral reefs.
In so far as it depends on solution of calcareous rock the Semper-Murray theory of coral reefs is unsatisfactory.
Recent papers on coral reefs are published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1917; and F.
Related to this substance are " neuro-keratin," found in the medullary sheath of nerves, and " gorgonin," the matrix of the axial skeleton of the coral Gorgonia Cavolinii.
There are five principal islands: Tamara, Factory, Crawford, White (or Ruma) and Coral.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
These islands are of considerable elevation (the highest point of Ponape approaches 3000 ft.), but the rest are generally low coral islets.
above the sea, and consist of rugged coral rock and limestone, there being very little soil.
Dupont states that at Aldabra the coral foundation is totally above water.
The coral limestone of the atoll has a peculiar vitrified appearance and gives out a ringing sound when struck or simply walked on.
The coral is generally reddish, but the colouring ranges from light yellow to chocolate-brown.
They are quite distinct in their formation from the coral reefs of the same coast.
The coral polyp is also found in Venezuelan waters.
In Germany very similar filters have also been used, pearl-quartz gravel taking the place of coral sand, which it closely resembles.
Its coasts are encircled with coral reefs, extending in some places 3 m.
The Oceanic series is generally overlaid directly, and unconformably, by coral limestones; but at Bissex Hill, at the base of the coral limestones, and resting unconformably upon the Oceanic series, there is a Globigerina marl.
The Coral Limestone series lies indifferently upon the older beds.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.
The principal formation is coralline limestone; the eastern coast is defended by coral reefs, and the neighbouring sea (extending as far as New Guinea, and thus demonstrating a physical connexion with that land) is shallow, and abounds in coral in full growth.
long, with its port, Nuevitas (pop. in 1907, 4386), which is on the north side of the island and has a spacious land-locked bay of good depth, approached through a break in the off-lying coral keys and a narrow canyon entrance.
The houses being mostly built of a white conglomerate stone of shells and coral which forms the peninsula, gives the city when viewed from a distance a clean and handsome appearance, but on closer inspection the streets are found to be very narrow, irregular, ill-paved and filthy.
MALDIVE ISLANDS, an archipelago of coral islets in the Indian Ocean, forming a chain between 7° 6' N.
A coral reef lies across the entrance.
Copper, too, by patina-producing treatment, is made to show not merely a rich golden sheen with pleasing limpidity, but also red of various hues, from deep coral to light vermilion, several shades of grey, and browns of numerous tones from dead-leaf to chocolate.
The coral banks, which were once important, are now exhausted.
The entire island is an old coral reef upheaved 200 ft., honeycombed with caves and seamed with fissures.
It exported wine and carried on coral fisheries.
In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
Pure calcareous sand and calcareous mud are formed by wave action on the shores of coral islands where the only material available is coral and the accompanying calcareous algae, crustacea, molluscs and other organisms secreting carbonate of lime.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
Among venomous snakes the harlequin, or coral snake (Elaps fulvius) is common along the coast; the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) along the wooded banks of creeks and rivers; the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), in all parts of the state except the more arid districts; the "sidewiper," or massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus consors, sometimes called Crotalophorus tergeminus) and the ground rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), in all sections.
The coast of German East Africa (often spoken of as the Swahili coast, after the inhabitants of the seaboard) is chiefly composed of coral, is little indented, and is generally low, partly sandy, partly rich alluvial soil covered with dense bush or mangroves.
The islands on the southern margin of the Louisiade Archipelago are raised coral reefs, but the majority are mountainous, rarely, however, exceeding 3000 ft.; all of them are richly forested, but of little agricultural value.
The volcanic d'Entrecasteaux Islands are mostly larger, more elevated (the highest being 8000 ft.), and stand in deeper water than the Louisiade group. To the east of Kiriwina (Trobriand) lies a small group of uniquely formed islets, each of which is completely surrounded by a steep forest-clad marginal rampart of coral 300 to 400 ft.
The Kevori grits, and the raised coral reefs are upper Cainozoic, and perhaps Pleistocene; but the reefs occur inland up to a height of 2000 ft.
Even the reefs are not wholly formed of coral.
It is generally mixed with vegetable matter and coral sand.
They are apparently volcanic. Coral reefs lie off the coasts and render them difficult of access.
Many of the oceanic islets are composed of coral limestone, which in this way becomes phosphatized; others are igneous, consisting of trachyte or basalt, and these rocks are also phosphatized on their surfaces but are not so valuable, inasmuch as the presence of iron or alumina in any quantity renders them unsuited for the preppration of artificial manures.
Rarotonga and Mangaia, in the Cook group, and Niue or Savage Island are the largest of these; Penrhyn and Suwarrow, though but small coral atolls, contain excellent harbours.
Its north-east portion consists of Upper Silurian coral limestones (Llandovery division), containing a rich fossil fauna and representing a series of folds running north-northwest.
They are of coral and sand formation, their combined area being 169 sq.
Coral fisheries exist along the coast from Bona to Tunis.
The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea, the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.
the Pacific has few islands; the oceanic islands are volcanic, and coral formations are of course scanty.
The average depth varies from 1500 to 2500 fathoms, and from this level innumerable volcanic ridges and peaks rise almost or quite to the surface, their summits for the most part occupied by atolls and reefs of coral formation, while interspersed with these are depressions, mostly of small area, among which the deepest soundings recorded have been obtained.
kilometres - about two-thirds of that in the Atlantic. Pteropod ooze occurs only in the neighbourhood of Fiji and other islands of the western Pacific, passing up into fine coral sands and mud.
The islands may be divided broadly into volcanic and coral islands, though the physiography of many islands is imperfectly known.
Here the broad distinction has been drawn between volcanic and coral islands; but this requires amplification, both because the coral islands follow more than one type, and because the work of corals is in many cases associated with the volcanic islands in the form of fringing or barrier reefs.
As to the distribution of coral reefs within the Pacific area, in Micronesia the northern Marianas (volcanic) are without reefs, which, however, are well developed in the south.
The Pelew islands have extensive reefs, and the Caroline, Marshall and Gilbert islands are almost entirely coral.
Coral reefs occur round many of the islands (e.g.
Of the Polynesian Islands, the Hawaiian chain presents the type of a volcanic group through which coral reefs are not equally distributed.
Round the volcanic Marquesas Islands, again, coral is scanty, but the Society Islands, Samoa and Tonga have extensive reefs.
Christmas, one of the last-named, is reputed to be the largest lagoon island in the Pacific. The Paumotu Archipelago is the most extensive of the coral groups.
The coral islands are generally of the form well known under the name of atoll, rising but slightly above sea-level, flat, and generally of annular form, enclosing a lagoon.
Besides the atolls there is a type of island which has been called the elevated coral island.
For the much debated question as to the conditions under which atolls and reefs are formed, see Coral Reefs.
In considering the flora of the islands it is necessary to distinguish between the rich vegetation of the fertile volcanic islands and the poor vegetation of the coral islands.
The low coral islands suffer frequently from drought; their soil is sandy and unproductive, and in some cases the natives attempt cultivation by excavating trenches and fertilizing them with vegetable and other refuse.
Stonehewer Cooper, The Islands of the Pacific (London, 1888; earlier editions, 1880, &c., were under the title Coral Lands); F.
from the nearest member of this group. Unlike the majority of the islands in this region, it is without coral reefs, but rises abruptly with steep and rugged cliffs of dark basaltic lava.
Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
At the southern end of the peninsula is a series of coral islands, known as keys; they appear to be due to the forward growth of corals and other lime-secreting organisms towards the strong current of the Gulf Stream, by which their food is supplied:
the part of the peninsula composed of coral reefs is less than has been formerly supposed.
The Niagara limestone contains the oldest known coral reefs of the continent.
There are some tanneries, and the fishing industry is important, but the coral production of Sicily has entirely destroyed that of Bosa since 1887.
The following table of the area and population of the four largest islands gives one of the sets of figures offered by various authorities: - There are besides a large number of islets of coral formation..
broad, is surrounded by an extensive and dangerous coral reef.
The imports consist principally of machinery, coal, grain, dried fish, tobacco and hides, and the exports of hemp, hides, olive oil, soap, coral, candied fruit, wine, straw hats, boracic acid, mercury, and marble and alabaster.
Ongtong Java, a coral reef of many islets, lies considerably north of the main group to which, geographically, it can hardly be said to belong.'
All the large and some of the small islands appear to be composed of ancient volcanic rock, with an incrustation of coral limestone showing here and there along the coast.
With the exception of the coral and a small amount of calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely volcanic and range from basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt.
Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of the archipelago, has few coral reefs.
The greater part of the coast is surrounded by a coral reef, often half a mile wide; in several localities an old reef upheaved, sometimes 100 ft.
The western two-thirds consists of a low plain, composed of an uplifted coral reef and matter washed down from the mountains; but on the E.
In some places along the coast there is a narrow strip of decomposed coral limestone; often, too, a coral reef has served to catch the sediment washed down the mountain side until a deep sedimentary soil has been deposited.
From Mongolia come leather, saddlery, sheep and horses, with coral, amber and small diamonds from European sources; from Kham perfumes, fruits, furs and inlaid metal saddlery; from Sikkim and Bhutan rice, musk, sugar-balls and tobacco; from Nepal broadcloth, indigo, brasswork, coral, pearls, sugar, spices, drugs and Indian manufactures; from Ladak saffron, dried fruits and articles from India.
The customhouse and government offices present an imposing frontage to the sea, and the principal houses are of white coral stone three storeys high.
The mainland part of the town is surrounded by a high coral wall, built in 1884 to resist dervish attacks.
There is also a sponge trade, but the former coral trade is depressed.
The badges of the other four classes are round plaques, the first three with indented edges, the last plain; in the second class the dragons are in silver on a yellow and gold ground, the jewel is a cut coral; the grades differ in the colour, shape, &c., of the borders and indentations; in the third class the dragons are gold, the ground green, the jewel a sapphire; in the fourth the silver dragons are on a blue ground, the jewel a lapis lazuli; in the fifth green dragons on a silver ground, the jewel a pearl.
Lace is made, while the men go in May to the coral fisheries off the Sardinian coast.
Curacao consists of eruptive rocks, chiefly diorite and diabase, and is surrounded by coral reefs.
During 1904 the coral fisheries employed 98 vessels with 1138 men: the profits were about £75,264, the expenses being £64,664.
Coral formations on heights in the interior would indicate oscillations of the land in several periods, but a detailed geology of the island is wanting.
The Middle Oolite consists mostly of sandstones with bands of shale and limestones, and includes fossils which indicate the English horizons from the Kellaways Rock up to the Coral Rag.
shores are fringed with coral reefs, anct living coral fields are found in many parts of the straits.
They lie within a coral barrier reef, and in the south the islands are of coral, but in the north of volcanic rocks.
The inhabitants take part in the coral and sponge fishing off the African and Sicilian coasts, and coral is worked in the town.
It may, however, be that, moving among small coral islands for scores of generations and thus without materials, they lost the art.
It is not a coral reef, as is sometimes stated, but is a consolidated ancient beach, now as hard and firm as stone.'
The Reptilia include countless numbers of alligators in the Guayas and its tributaries and in the tide-water channels of many of the smaller rivers; many species of lizards, of which Mr Whymper found three in the Quito basin; snakes of every description from the huge anaconda of the Amazon region down to the beautifully marked coral snake; and a great variety of frogs and toads.
Few seas are more prolific in fish than the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; the great proportion of known species are edible and many have a commercial value for the isinglass or oil Shelly conglomerates and dead coral reefs of the littoral; red sandhills of the coast of Trucial Oman; alluvium of Turkish Iraq; river and lake deposits of Oman and the interior of Persia.
The island is of coral formation; its highest point is about 1700 ft.
In the coral rock of the coast sea-baths are excavated, so that bathers may run no risk from sharks.
It is the largest and most easterly member of a group of islands rising from adjacent coral banks, the others being Abd el Kuri, The Brothers (Semha and Darzi), and Kal Farun.
The coral banks which surround Sokotra and The Brothers are united and are not more than 30 fathoms below sea-level; a valley some loo fathoms deep divides them from the bank around Abd-el-Kuri, while between Abd-el-Kuri and Cape Guardafui are depths of over 500 fathoms.
The native jewellers make excellent ornaments in silver, coral and enamel.
What I seek from thy country is gold, silver, coral, and scarlet."
map see Madagascar.) The island is surrounded by coral reefs, so that the ports are difficult of access.
All the rocks are of basalt and greyishtinted lavas, excepting some beds of upraised coral.
Evidence of recent elevation of the island is furnished by masses of coral reef and beach coral rock standing at heights of 40 ft.
The surrounding seas contain great numbers of fish; the coral reefs abound with a great variety of molluscs; and there are numerous land-shells.
KEY WEST (from the Spanish Cayo Hueso, " Bone Reef"), a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Monroe county, Florida, U.S.A., situated on a small coral island (41m.
The coast-line is of coral formation and is, in the neighbourhood of Massawa, thickly studded with small islands.
in length, is fringed with coral reefs and broken by numerous gulfs and bays.
Coral limestones, probably of Middle Tertiary age, are also found, sometimes 4000 ft.
The coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.
The soil, usually of a reddish-brown colour, is for the most part disintegrated lava mixed with decayed vegetation; occasionally there is also a mixture of disintegrated coral limestone.
Temples are very rare, though these blocks of coral are sometimes surrounded by a roofless enclosure opening to the west.
The houses in the Gilberts and Marshalls (much less elaborate than in the Carolines) consist merely of a thatched roof resting on posts or on blocks of coral about 3 ft.
Birgus dispenses with a covering; Coenobita can make shift with half the shell of a coco-nut; Chlaenopagurus wraps itself up in a blanket of colonial polyps; Cancellus tanneri, Faxon, was found in a piece of dead coral rock; Xylopagurus rectus, A.
to the banks of Suakin and Farsan in 20° N., the loo-fathom line keeps to a belt of coral reef close inshore, but in lower latitudes the shallow coral region, 300 m.
The margin of the Red Sea itself consists, on the Arabian side, of a strip of low plain backed by ranges of barren hills of coral and sand formation, and here and there by mountains of considerable height.
The greater elevations are for the most part formed of limestones, except in the south, where they are largely volcanic. The coasts of the Gulf of Akaba are steep, with numerous coral reefs on both sides.
Coral formations are abundant; immense reefs, both barrier and fringing, skirt both coasts, often enclosing wide channels between the reef and the land.
Elsewhere the surface movements at least are controlled by the prevailing winds, which give rise in places to complex "transverse" currents, and near the coast are modified by the channels enclosed by the coral reefs.
It is the centre of the Algerian and Tunisian coral fisheries and has an extensive industry in the curing of sardines; but .the harbour is small and exposed to the N.E.
La Calle from the times of its earliest records in the 10th century has been the residence of coral merchants.
A profusion of jewellery is worn of the most solid description, none hollow; silver is worn only by the very poor, coral only by negresses.
This tableland is formed by a huge cap of coral limestone, estimated by Griesbach at from 4000 to 5000 ft.
Immediately on the west of the Kaisargarh there towers the Shingarh Mountain, a geological repetition of the Kaisargarh ridge, black with pines towards the summit and crowned with crags of coral limestone.
The entrance is contracted by Tiran and other islands, so that the passage is rendered somewhat difficult; and its navigation is dangerous on account of the numerous coral reefs, and the sudden squalls which sweep down from the adjacent mountains, many of which rise perpendicularly to a height of 2000 ft.
The typical Silurian rocks are richly fossiliferous, the shales containing trilobites, the sandstones many brachiopods, and the limestones a rich coral and bryozoan fauna.
The rest of the group are of coral formation.
As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
Coral, alluvium, sand.
The specialities of Naples are the manufacture of coral, tortoise-shell, kid gloves and macaroni, but it has been growing also as an industrial centre.
of coral banks within the bounds of the colony.
It is approached by a deep channel through the coral reef which fringes the entire eastern side of the island.
Except Bird and Denis islands, which are of coralline limestone, the Seychelles are of granite, with in places fringing reefs of coral based on granite foundations.
The forests of the coast belt resembled those of the coral islands of the neighbouring parts of the Indian Ocean.
The archipelago consists of a number of coral islets and atolls comprising the African Islands (4), the St Joseph group (8), the Poivre Islands (9) and the Alphonso group (3).
Like the Amirantes all the other islands named are of coral formation.
Among the ophidians, which include many harmless species, are the boa-constrictor, rattlesnake, the dreaded Lachesis and the coral snake.
This comparison, though far-fetched, is certainly more reasonable than the common name "coral-insects" applied to the polyps which form coral.
" flower-animals"), the zoological name for a class of marine polyps forming "coral".
Although corals have been familiar objects since the days of antiquity, and the variety known as the precious red coral has been for a long time an article of commerce in the Mediterranean, it was only in the 18th century that their true nature and structure came to be understood.
The discovery of the animal nature of red coral is due to J.
de Peyssonel, a native of Marseilles, who obtained living specimens from the coral fishers on the coast of Barbary and kept them alive in aquaria.
He was thus able to see that the so-called "flowers of coral" were in fact nothing else than minute polyps resembling seaanemones.
The hard calcareous substance to which the name coral is applied is the supporting skeleton of certain members of the Anthozoa, one of the classes of the phylum Coelentera.
To the first-named belong the precious red coral and its allies, the sea-fans or Gorgoniae; to the second belong the white or Madreporarian corals.
., cavities of adjacent coral `'` lites communicate by means of numerous perforations, which appear to represent solenia, and numerous transverse tab, ?
In the lower part of arian coral.
The precious red coral of commerce, Corallium rubrum (fig.
Although of great interest the Pennatulacea do not form an enduring skeleton or" coral,"and need not be considered in detail in this place.
Heliopora coerulea is found between tide-marks on the shore platforms of coral islands.
In this coral the calicle is divided into quadrants by four principal septa, the main septum, counter septum, and two alar septa.
The connexion between the Cyathophyllidae and modern Astraeidae is shown by Moseleya latistellata, a living reef-building coral from Torres Strait.
(For an account of coral formations see Coral-Reefs.) In the present state of our knowledge the Zoantharia in which a primary cycle of six couples of mesenteries is (or may be inferred to be) completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight Edwardsian mesenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in the exocoeles of the pre-existing mesenterial cycles, may be classed in an order Actinjidea, and this may be divided into the suborders Malacactiniae, comprising the soft-bodied Actinians, such as Actinia, Sagartia, Bunodes, &c., and the Scleractiniae, comprising the corals.
Bearing this in mind, the following arrangement may be taken to represent the most recent knowledge of coral structure: Group A.
- Diagram of the arrangement of the septa in a Zaphrentid coral.
- The following list contains only the names of the more important and more general works on the structure and classification of corals and on coral reefs.
Towards the centre, the Maldive, Chagos and Cocos groups are of characteristic coral formation, and coral reefs occur on most parts of the tropical coasts.
Off the African coasts there are large deposits of Glauconitic sands and muds at depths down to moo fathoms, and on banks where coral formation occurs there are large deposits of coral muds and sands.
The button which distinguishes the first grade is a transparent red stone; the second grade, a red coral button; the third, a sapphire; the fourth, a blue opaque stone; the fifth, a crystal button; the sixth, an opaque white shell button; the seventh, a plain gold button; the eighth, a worked gold button; and the ninth, a worked silver button.
Among the articles prized by the Beni is coral, of which the chiefs wear great quantities as ornaments.
The skeletons of many other organisms, such as Polyzoa and Mollusca, contribute to coral masses but cannot be included in the term "coral."
The structure of coral animals (sometimes erroneously termed "coral insects") is dealt with in the articles cited above; for the distribution and formation of reefs see Coral-Reefs.
Beyond their general utility and value as sources of lime, few of the corals present any special feature of industrial importance, excepting the red or precious coral (Corallium rubrum) of the Mediterranean Sea.
The most important fisheries extend along the coasts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; but red coral is also obtained in the vicinity of Naples, near Leghorn and Genoa, and on the coasts of Sardinia, Corsica, Catalonia and Provence.
Previous to the French Revolution much of the coral trade centred in Marseilles; but since that period, both the procuring of the raw material and the working of it up into the various forms in which it is used have become peculiarly Italian industries, centring largely in Naples, Rome and Genoa.
The large boats, dredging from March to October, collect from 650 to 850 lb of coral, and the small, working throughout the year, collect from 390 to Soo lb.
In China large spheres of good coloured coral command high prices, being in great requisition for the button of office worn by the mandarins.
KEELING ISLANDS (often called Cocos and Cocos-Keeling Islands), a group of coral islands in the Indian Ocean, between 12° 4' and 1 2° 13' S., and 9 6 ° 49'-57' E., but including a smaller island in 11° 50' N.
The object of their visits was the investigation of the fauna and flora of the atoll, more especially of the formation of the coral reefs.
Most are of coral formation, but the hills of Manus are believed to be extinct volcanoes.
Grand Cayman, a rock-bound island protected by coral reefs, is 17 m.
With few exceptions the islands are surrounded by barriers of coral, broken by openings opposite the mouths of streams. Viti Levu is the most important island not only from its size, but from its fertility, variety of surface, and population, which is over one-third of that of the whole group. The town of Suva lies on an excellent harbour at the south-east of the island, and has been the capital of the colony since 1882, containing the government buildings and other offices.
Along two-thirds of its eastern side the coast is almost a straight line, without any inlet, Tamatave, the chief port on this side of the island, being only protected by coral reefs.
Except the Minnow group, north of Nossi-be, the rest are merely rocky islets, chiefly of coral.
The Asiatic and Malayan affinities of many of its animals, as well as the physical conditions of the bed of the Indian Ocean, make it highly probable that Madagascar, while once forming part of Africa, is the chief relic of a considerable archipelago formerly connecting that continent with Asia, its other portions being shown by groups of small islands, and by coral atolls and shoals, which are gradually disappearing beneath the waves.
Alluvium; travertine; coral; sand dunes; continental dunes.
The coral reefs fringing the coast are here broken by a straight channel with deep water giving access to the harbour, which consists of a series of natural channels and basins.
Near volcanoes they contain many volcanic minerals, and around coral islands they are often in large part calcareous.
Agios Georgios The tiny fishing harbor of agios Georgios The tiny fishing harbor of Agios Georgios with great fish restaurant overlooking the sea and just 5 minutes from Coral Bay.
alabaster skin, Her coral lips, her snow-white dimpled chin.
The Florida Keys are known for their spectacular coral reefs, excellent marina facilities and quiet restful anchorages.
The drop off is over 40m but the walls are covered in sponges, anemones, soft corals and black coral.
This colorful wall is stunning for its coral and is cut with gullies which are meeting places for groups of queen angelfish.
Some species have skin appendages that make them resemble kelp, or carry encrusting organisms that make them resemble coral or rocks.
A similar system could be used in SCUBA diving, coral reef conservation, salvage and marine archeology.
The Maldives is a group of low-lying coral islands, forming an archipelago of 26 major atolls, situated south west of Sri Lanka.
Surrounded by the largest raised coral atoll on earth, this is a lagoon to remember.
The Marshall Islands consist of two chains of coral atolls, together with more than 1,000 islets, just north of the Equator.
Coral atolls Belize boasts three offshore atolls: Turneffe, Glover's Reef and Lighthouse Reef.
One&Only Kanuhura is a coral island hideaway on a remote atoll in the Indian Ocean.
Maldives Scattered across the Indian Ocean, due west of southern India, is a group of tiny coral atolls.
atoll growth formation, explaining how ring-shaped coral islands developed.
atoll's coral have decimated spawning.
Aubergine, army green, muted coral and cornflower blue are most prevalent with accents of white here and there.
But coral calcium contains high levels of alkaline minerals which help to promote a more alkaline state.
calcium carbonate saturated with carbon dioxide creates an acidic medium in which the coral sand is dissolved as calcium hydrogen carbonate.
castaway island, complete with coral sand beach and jungle interior, just off the coast of St. Vincent.
There are approximately 300 coral cays, including 213 unvegetated cays, 43 vegetated cays and 44 low wooded islands.
North West Island - the largest coral cay on the Great Barrier Reef, covering an area of 91 hectares.
Opportunity this afternoon to visit the tiny coral cay of Two Isles.
Coming on like The Coral jamming with The Who, Cohesion do terrace chant choruses to die for.
With more than admiration he admired Her azure veins, her alabaster skin, Her coral lips, her snow-white dimpled chin.
A fascinating coral ridge at about 55 feet, absolutely chock-full of sea fans, tube sponges and gorgonians.
A choke was pushed at the south end of Coral Chamber, to a 50 foot pot which was choked at the bottom.
cold-water coral reefs west of Norway and Britain.
Structurally different from Pitcairn, which towered from the sea, Henderson is a flat atoll made of fossilized coral.
Crystal clear waters, colorful coral and tropical fish abound and combine to make for an interesting day at the beach.
coral reefs, vast swathes of the ocean appeared to be devoid of life.
coral cay on the Great Barrier Reef, covering an area of 91 hectares.
The hard skeleton of coral is built by a community of animals related to jellyfish, coral polyps.
coral calcium contains high levels of alkaline minerals which help to promote a more alkaline state.
coral bommies, with plenty of fish life around the cleaning station.
They are often seen in and around the deep, cold-water coral reefs west of Norway and Britain.
Current status The sunset cup coral Leptopsammia pruvoti occurs in groups of a few tens to several hundred individuals.
A little deeper there is a forest of whip coral covering 30 or more square meters of the hard coral bed.
By 1997 27% of the world's coral reefs had been lost.
The Island has a fringing coral reef with the best snorkeling and diving at Catseye Beach.
Additionally, most of the islands are made up of surrounding coral reefs and lagoons, just superb for snorkeling and diving activities.
A proposed Lord Howe Island Marine Reserve: protecting the southernmost coral reef in the World.
There is some good diving on the somewhat damaged coral reef of the Mombasa Marine National Park, off the Nyali headland.
You can also see the coral reef just out from the beach which saves going on organized ' cruises ' .
Renowned for having the most exquisite coral reefs in the world and a refuge to rare marine life.
The island is surrounded by colorful coral reefs, hence the name Coral Island.
Beach A long stretch of soft white sand protected by an offshore coral reef, which disappears at high tide.
A new unspoiled destination with pristine coral reefs close to the shore, perfect for a relaxing break.
The centerpiece of the aquarium is the spectacular coral reef housed within a giant ocean display.
Kids will love the blaze of color of the tropical coral reef or watching otters slide in and out of the water.
My guide - Itay - escorted me around stunning coral reefs teeming with tropical fish that glimmered brightly in the clear blue water.
coral reef in the world.
coral reefs in every major tropical region of the world bleached white from pollution during the 1980's.
More commonly, coconut crabs are harvested as well as coral and shells.
The fragment of coral, a tiny crinkle of pink like a sugar rosebud from a cake, rolled across the mat.
Tourists like to scuba dive in the sea looking at all of the coral.
dramatic vertical coral cliffs of more than 800 meters are the defining feature of many dive sites along the west coast.
encircleas become a marine reserve, protected from the open ocean by an encircling coral reef.
One hot morning, feeling unusually energetic, we caught the number 10 bus to Coral Bay.
A tiger patterned fish among clusters of brightly colored coral reef or the flowing shapes of seaweed may look more exciting.
Day 7 The next day we waved a sad farewell to the crew of the Coral II at Puerto Ayora in Santa Cruz.
festooned in purple soft coral.
finned sharks, sea turtles as well as coral and sea anemones.
Observe the abundance of marine life that inhabit these tropical waters and marvel at the brilliant display of colorful coral formations.
Honey fungus and coral spot may affect the plant, but occasional leaf gall is not a major problem.
gobyecies include gobies, blennies, wrasse, Sea horses, reef sharks, Leopard shark, red coral trout and snappers.
LARGE TANGS I Have a Large Sailfin Tang 8"+ and a La... yellow coral goby Description Seller assumes all responsibili.. .
Large grouper and snapper tend to hang out in the crack among black coral and deep water gorgonian.
There are also schools of lionfish, glassy sweepers and plenty of coral grouper lining up to be cleaned.
The wreck is covered with black coral trees, sea whips & stinging hydroids.
irreparable harm to coral reefs.
The Maldives is an enchanted paradise on the equator a necklace of tiny palm studded coral islands, surrounded by sparkling lagoons.
lavender buds open into rich coral flowers amassed in thick clusters.
The frost eroded limestone is littered with coral and sea shell fossils confirming this raised mountain was once below sea level.
Coral reefs are irresistible magnets to many varieties of fish and support a huge amount of marine life.
mangrove wetlands, to natural coral reefs and exotic wildlife, Antigua offers a wealth of attractions.
A shallow dive with a protected coral reef within the bay and a huge granite massif descending to the sandy sea bed.
mermaids purse in a pink coral Photo: Simon Rogerson Why go there?
A coral reef is a teeming metropolis built upon the living skeletons of tiny soft polyps.
Although the walled of pizza minestrone among coral gardens.
Black Coral This site is littered with peppered morays which peer out from soft corals.
On a night dive we saw a coral cat shark and honeycomb moray.
A handmade necklace featuring coral beads, lapis lazuli beads and sterling silver beads and fittings.
nudge out of native of coral.
The East coast is marked by fine coral reefs, whilst the west coast offers dramatic drift diving through granite outcrops.
parrot fish, trigger fish, lovely coral, exciting water entry!
pessimistic about the future of coral reefs in the Caribbean.
They carry generous clusters of gleaming flowers, with sleek scarlet sepals flaring to reveal a slim skirt of purple petals surrounding coral stamens.
The Islands The Islands are a number of shallow reefs and coral pinnacles with deeper sandy gulleys between them.
Made by Eastex from thick coral ribbed crimplene polyester, with overstitched collars and three decorative metal buttons to fasten.
pristine coral reefs close to the shore, perfect for a relaxing break.
pristine coral with no care.
The walls are covered in absolutely pristine coral - the best I have seen anywhere.
puffer fish in the cave with the black coral.
quaint cafÃ©s and tavernas in Coral Bay alongside the usual music bars and cocktail bars.
We even spotted a turtle happily munching away at the coral and a couple of blue spotted reef rays in the sand.
red coralng or Red Rock has equally stunning scenery, but here the reef walls are draped in red soft coral.
Compared with coral reefs, vast swathes of the ocean appeared to be devoid of life.
The reef is alive with a vibrant living coral reef.
Luxury villa holiday rentals in Cyprus Coral Bay, Paphos.
The edible part of the scallop is the pale adductor muscle and orange roe (coral ).
These colorful, beautifully patterned fish are a joy to watch as they emerge from their hiding places in the coral rubble.
High water temperatures and freshwater runoff caused the coral to be bleached.
saddened to see how much coral had been broken off in recent storms.
The bottom of the tank can then be covered with a mixture of silica sand and coral sand to a depth of 2-3 cm.
Made from padded coral pink satin overlaid with hand crocheted green cotton this is an absolute must for your vintage chic kitchen or collection.
Thread 2 wrapped scallops on a skewer, then a coral followed by 2 more wrapped scallops.
Take scuba diving lessons around coral reefs, get your PADI open water scuba diving certification, or take advanced scuba diving classes.
scuba dive in the sea looking at all of the coral.
If you enjoy scuba diving or snorkeling, Fiji travel provides plenty of opportunity to do so and is renowned for its coral reefs.
seafloor mapping, with particular reference to coral reef conservation in developing nations.
The frequent rainfall and many rivers have led to some very dramatic seascapes with beautiful hard and soft coral.
Barrel and tube sponges, sea urchins, spiny lobsters, coral shrimp and crabs are also widely present.
shelferwater pinnacles, swim-throughs, steep walls and arches along with coral gardens and sloping shelves mean that dive sites are full of interest.
The hull is an entire coral reef in its own right, artillery shells now fused into the coral masses.
Glossary: Calyx: hard outer cup of the coral skeleton, within which the polyp lives.
snorkel over colorful coral reefs.
enjoy the splendor of our protected coral reef adorned with tropical marine life.
sponges, anemones, soft corals and black coral.
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There is some dead coral, partly due to high sea temperatures and partly due to crown of thorns starfish.
A series of dramatic granitic pinnacles just break the surface and are the home for giant stingrays, reef sharks and pristine coral formations.
sunset cup coral Leptopsammia pruvoti occurs in groups of a few tens to several hundred individuals.
talcum (powder)u will enjoy the miles of talcum powder sands made of coral which remains cool despite the heat of the sun.
Squid triggerfish tangs passed us on great coral reefs.
The eastern terminus of the Cape Coral Canal was marked by Corbett Mound some ten miles away.
Titan triggerfish may be seen biting and moving dead coral to build nests in which to lay their eggs.
Caitlin and Georgia were very busy with the chocolate tombola too as you can imagine, and Scarlett a willing helper to Guider Coral.
triggerfish tangs passed us on great coral reefs.
squid triggerfish tangs passed us on great coral reefs.
On top of the reef Titan triggerfish may be seen biting and moving dead coral to build nests in which to lay their eggs.
tropical fish found among dense areas of coral reef.
Idyllic palm-fringed coral islands set in the crystal-clear turquoise waters of the Caribbean Sea.
Cages on-site protect turtle nests, and any turtle nests found on nearby Coral bay are transferred to the hatchery on Lara Beach.