How to use Copula in a sentence
Thirdly we have the limiting cases of this in the inductive syllogism 5ui 7riu'mw, 7 a syllogism in the third figure concluding universally, and yet valid because the copula expresses equivalence, and in analogy 8 in which, it has been well said, instances are weighed and not counted.
One of these, Summa de assumpto homine, is of a theological character, dealing with the humanity of Christ; the other, Summa de matrimonio, is a legal argument, to the effect that the essential fact in marriage is neither, as Gratian maintains, the copula, nor, as Peter Lombard, consent by verba de praesenti, but mutual traditio.
Moreover, it is very probable that conjugation occurs soon after the arrival of the parasites in their specific invertebrate host; and this act may perhaps give rise to an aflagellar copula, which is gregariniform and comparable to an ookinete.
Afterwards (chap. so) proceeding to the opposition of propositions, he adds the form called tertii adjacentis, in a passage which is the first appearance, or rather adumbration, of the verb of being as a copula.
The words introducing this form (6Tav bE TO '&TL Tptrov irpoo-KaTnyopijTac, chap. so, s 9 b s 9), which are the origin of the phrase tertii adjacentis, disengage the verb of being (g un) partially but not entirely, because they still treat it as an extra part of the predicate, and not as a distinct copula.Advertisement
In the syllogism " Every man is mortal and Socrates is a man," if in the minor premiss the copula " is " were not disengaged from the predicate " man," there would not be one middle term " man " in the two premisses.
It is not necessary in every proposition, but it is necessary in the arrangement of a syllogism, to extricate the terms of its propositions from the copula; e.g.
Each proposition consists of two terms, the subject and its predicate, united by the copula.
In point of fact, he analysed it into premises, but then analysed a premise into terms, which he divided into subject and predicate, with the addition of the copula " is " or " is not."
In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.Advertisement
Without realizing their debt to tradition, Herbart, Mill and recently Sigwart, have repeated Aristotle's separation of the copula from the verb of existence, as if it were a modern discovery that " is " is not the same as " exists."
But, in the first place, primary judgments signify this existence never by the copula, but sometimes by the predicate, and sometimes by the subject; and, secondly, it does not follow that all judgments whatever signify existence.
They resemble them in that they are beliefs in being signified by the copula.
All categorical judgment is an unconditional belief in the fact, signified by the copula, that a thing of some sort is (or is not) determined; but some categorical judgments are also beliefs that the thing is an existing thing, signified either by the subject or by the predicate, while others are not beliefs that the thing exists at all, but are only beliefs in something conceivable, or nameable, or in something or other, without particularizing what.
But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.Advertisement
The symbol of equality (=) is not the same as the copula (is); it means " is equal to," where " equal to " is part of the predicate, leaving " is " as the copula.
The symbolic logic, which confuses " is " with " is equal to," having introduced a particular kind of predicate into the copula, falls into the mistake of reducing all predication to the one category of the quantitative; whereas it is more often in the substantial, e.g.
The meaning of the copula and the relation of thoughts to the objects of which they are the thoughts are as much involved as the nature of being.
However in the new case of double copula preceding predicate adjective, the tendency would possibly be to create an inseparable reduplicated form.
A primary cannot be assigned a referent by a copula.Advertisement
It consists of (1) the basihyal variously called copula, or corpus linguae, or unpaired middle portion.
The errors of common opinion arise to a great extent from the ambiguous use of the verb "to be," which may imply existence or be merely the copula which connects subject and predicate.
Such speculative views are associated with the revival of another traditional piece of mysticism - the Holy Spirit the Copula or bond of union in the Godhead.