Cooling Sentence Examples

cooling
  • That's just like you young men, said the regimental commander cooling down a little.

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  • Equally is he a stranger to methods of artificial cooling.

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  • The evaporation from this large basin exercises a certain influence on the climate of the surrounding country, while the absorption of heat for the thawing of the ice has a notable cooling effect in early summer.

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  • When caoutchouc is heated slightly above the temperature of boiling water it becomes softer and loses much of its elasticity, which, however, it recoveres on cooling.

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  • A 10-12% solution of sodium chloride is caused to flow upwards through the apparatus and to overflow into troughs, by which it is conveyed (if necessary through a cooling apparatus) back to the circulating pump. Such a plant has been reported as giving 0.229 gallon of a liquor containing I% of available chlorine per kilowatt hour, or 0.171 gallon per e.h.p. hour.

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  • This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.

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  • Consequently the temperature does not change and there is another well-marked halt in the cooling, and this halt lasts until the mixture has become wholly solid.

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  • It is evident that every mixture except the eutectic mixture C will have two halts in its cooling, and that its solidification will take place in two stages.

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  • The analogy between the breaking up of a solid solution on cooling and the formation of a eutectic is obvious.

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  • She scooted her chair back without responding and went to the laundry room where the pie was cooling.

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  • In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.

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  • The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.

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  • As an auxiliary to air cooling the stack may be cooled by a slow stream of water trickling down the outside of the pipes, or, in certain cases, cold water may be injected into the condenser in the form of a spray, w here it meets the ascending vapours.

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  • There may be other halts in the cooling, both before and after complete solidification, due to evolution of heat in the mixture.

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  • These halts in temperature that occur during the cooling of a mixture should be carefully noted, as they give valuable information concerning the physical and chemical changes that are taking place.

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  • Iron and phosphorus unite to form a solid solution which breaks up on cooling into a pearlite.

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  • On heating it assumes a finer colour, but then turns violet and finally black; regaining, however, its original colour on cooling.

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  • If the sulphuric acid solution be evaporated to dryness the residue, after cooling, dissolves in cold water.

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  • Titanium oxide when fused with microcosmic salt in the oxidizing flame yields a bead which is yellowish in the heat but colourless after cooling.

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  • Air cooling is adopted whenever possible.

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  • We then extract one ingot after another at successively lower temperatures and chill each ingot by dropping it into water or by some other method of very rapid cooling.

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  • The value of the angular coefficient d(pv)/dp is evidently (b - c), which expresses the defect of the actual volume v from the ideal volume Re/p. Differentiating equation (17) at constant pressure to find dv/do, and observing that dcldO= - nc/O, we find by substitution in (is) the following simple expression for the cooling effect do/dp in terms of c and b, Sdo/dp= (n+I)c - b..

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  • Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.

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  • The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.

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  • It melts to a reddish-brown liquid, which solidifies to a yellow crystalline mass on cooling.

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  • The succulent fruits are not only edible but agreeable, and in fevers are freely administered as a cooling drink.

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  • Tuna are much eaten under the name of prickly pears, and are greatly esteemed for their cooling properties.

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  • After cooling it is weighed.

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  • The flask is now partially exhausted, transferred to the cooling bath, and after standing the pressure of the residual gas is taken by a manometer.

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  • Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.

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  • The filtrate on cooling deposits crystals of potassium zirconofluoride, K 2 ZrF 6, which are purified by crystallization from hot water.

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  • At sunset, too, after a warm day, if the air is still, the cooling of the earth by radiation cools the lower layers, and sound carries excellently over a level surface.

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  • By boiling the livers at a somewhat high temperature, "unracked" cod oil is obtained, containing a considerable quantity of "stearine"; this fat, which separates on cooling, is sold as "fish stearine" for soapmaking, or as "fish-tallow" for currying.

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  • The salt volatilizes (mostly in the form of a mixed vapour of the two components, which reunite on cooling), and condenses in the dome in the form of a characteristically fibrous and tough crust.

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  • At ordinary temperatures the metal has the consistency of wax and can be readily cut; on cooling it hardens.

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  • Hitherto it had been felt as a great difficulty in casting specula that the solidification did not begin at one surface and proceed gradually to the other, the common sand mould allowing the edges to cool first, so that the central parts were subject to great straining when their time of cooling came, and in large castings this generally caused cracking.

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  • By forming the bottom of the mould of hoop iron placed on edge and closely packed, and the sides of sand, while the top was left open, Lord Rosse overcame this difficulty, and the hoop iron had the further advantage of allowing the gas developed during the cooling to escape, thus preventing the speculum from being full of pores and cavities.

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  • Brunner's process consisted in forming an intimate mixture of potassium carbonate and carbon by igniting crude tartar in covered iron crucibles, cooling the mass, and then distilling it at a white heat from iron bottles, the vaporized metal being condensed beneath the surface of paraffin or naphtha contained in a copper vessel.

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  • It was found, however, that if the cooling be not sufficiently rapid explosions occurred owing to the combination of the metal with carbon monoxide (produced in the oxidation of the charcoal) to form the potassium salt of hexaoxybenzene.

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  • When the distillation is finished the iron box, after cooling, is unclamped and the product turned out beneath the surface of paraffin.

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  • When the oxide-free metal is heated gently in dry ammonia it is gradually transformed into a blue liquid, which on cooling freezes into a yellowish-brown or flesh-coloured solid, potassamide, KNH 2.

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  • It is a dark yellow powder, which fuses at a high temperature, the liquid on cooling depositing shining tabular crystals; at a white heat it loses oxygen and yields the monoxide.

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  • The carnallite principally dissolves and crystallizes out relatively pure on cooling.

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  • The fused product solidifies on cooling into a colourless glass.

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  • Iodine can be readily detected by the characteristic blue coloration that it immediately gives with starch paste; the colour is destroyed on heating, but returns on cooling provided the heating has not been too prolonged.

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  • As the earth of light has five tokens (the mild zephyr, cooling wind, bright light, quickening fire, and clear water), so has the earth of darkness also five (mist, heat, the sirocco, darkness and vapour).

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  • Conversely, nocturnal cooling produces well-defined descending breezes which issue from the valley mouths, sometimes attaining an unpleasant strength toward midnight.

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  • On exposure to a high temperature, the sapphire usually loses colour, but, unlike ruby, it does not regain it on cooling.

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  • Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.

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  • Borchers also used an externally heated metal vessel as the cathode; it is provided with a supporting collar or flange a little below the top, so that the upper part of the vessel is exposed to the cooling influence of the air, in order that a crust of solidified salt may there be formed, and so prevent the creeping of the electrolyte over the top. The carbon anode passes through the cover of a porcelain cylinder, open at the bottom, and provided with a side-tube at the top to remove the chlorine formed during electrolysis.

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  • It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.

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  • Soon afterwards he constructed a machine from which the liquefied gas could be drawn off through a valve for use as a cooling agent, and he showed its employment for this purpose'in connexion with some researches on meteorites; about the same time he also obtained oxygen in the solid state.

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  • First a small quantity of one of the pure components begins to crystallize out, and the rate of cooling is thereby diminished owing to the latent heat liberated by the change of state.

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  • The process of cooling is thus represented by a path which runs vertically downwards till it cuts the 0 Molecular Percentage of Na t S04 Siluer Copper FIG.

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  • But, if no solid be present initially, or if the cooling be rapid, the liquid of composition x becomes supersaturated and may cool till the supersaturation curve is reached at b, and a cloud of A crystals comes down.

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  • By cooling the resultant solution through the range dT we recover the original state of the system.

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  • One way in which this has been secured is by obtaining the under cooling by temporary cooling of the air space by a spiral tube in which ether may be evaporated, the outer vessel being filled with ice in contact with a solution of equivalent concentration to that within.

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  • Materials like tar and pitch are sometimes employed as a matrix; they are used hot and without water, the solidifying action being due to cooling and to evaporation of the mineral oils contained in them.

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  • This powder, provided that it has not been too' strongly ignited, is soluble in strong acids; by ignition it becomes denser and nearly as hard as corundum; it fuses in the oxyhydrogen flame or electric arc, and on cooling it assumes a crystalline form closely resembling the mineral species.

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  • The effort to admit the cooling sea breezes by cutting through the mountains a passage called the Abra de San Nicolas had some beneficial effect.

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  • In these circumstances " syringing " and " damping down " are of value in cooling the temperature of the air in hothouses and greenhouses and increasing its humidity, thereby checking excessive transpiration.

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  • The amount of light admitted being very great, these houses answer well for general purposes and for the main crop. The large amount of glass or cooling surface, however, makes it more difficult to keep up a high and regular temperature in them, and from this cause they are not so well adapted for very early or very late crops.

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  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

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  • Steel is iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and also is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (b) is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.

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  • However this may be, very soon after man began to practise hot-forging he would inevitably learn that sudden cooling, by quenching in water, made a large proportion of his metal, his steel, extremely hard and brittle, because he would certainly try by this very quenching to avoid the inconvenience of having the hot metal about.

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  • If, ignoring temporarily and for simplicity the fact that part of the carbon may exist in the state of graphite, we consider the behaviour of iron in cooling from the molten state, AB and BC give the temperature at which, for any given percentage of carbon, solidification begins, and Aa, aB, and Bc that at which it ends.

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  • On cooling into region 6 or 8 austenite should normally split up into ferrite and cementite, after passing through the successive stages of martensite, troostite and sorbite, Fe 0 C= Fe 3 C +Fe(i 3).

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  • As we pass to cases with higher and higher carbon-content, the primary austenite which freezes in cooling across region 2 forms a FIG.

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  • Both the primary and eutectic austenite have changed in cooling into a mixture of pearlite and pro-eutectoid cementite, too fine to be distinguished here.

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  • Slow cooling, slow solidification, the presence of an abundance of carbon, and the presence of silicon, all favour the formation of graphite; rapid cooling, the presence of sulphur, and in most cases that of manganese, favour the formation of cementite.

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  • The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.

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  • Thus, though sudden cooling has very little effect on steel of o io% of carbon, it changes that of 1.50% from a somewhat ductile body to one harder and more brittle than glass.

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  • The Tempering and Annealing of Steel.-But this sudden cooling goes too far, preserving so much 0-iron as to make the steel too brittle for most purposes.

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  • The molecular freedom which this high temperature gives enables the cementite to change gradually into a mixture of graphite and austenite with the result that, after the castings have been cooled and their austenite has in cooling past Aci changed into pearlite and ferrite, the mixture of cementite and pearlite of which they originally consisted has now given place to one of fine or " temper " graphite and ferrite, with more or less pearlite according to the completeness of the transfer of the carbon to the state of graphite.

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  • The reason is that the particles of temper graphite which are thus formed within the solid casting in its long annealing are so finely divided that they do not break up the continuity of the mass in a very harmful way; whereas in grey cast iron both the eutectic graphite formed in solidifying, and also the primary graphite which, in case the metal is hypereutectic, forms in cooling through region 3 of fig.

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  • Steel castings have initially the extremely coarse structure due to cooling without mechanical distortion from their very high temperature of solidification; they are " annealed," i.e.

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  • Its ductility, to which it owes its value, is profoundly affected by the rate of cooling.

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  • Sudden cooling makes the metal extremely ductile, and slow cooling makes it brittle.

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  • But its great hardness is not materially affected by the rate of cooling.

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  • These are made of alternate layers of soft wrought iron and chrome steel hardened by sudden cooling.

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  • James Gayley's method of cooling, shown in fig.

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  • The mould-train now carries its empty moulds to a cooling yard, and, as soon as they are cool enough to be used again, carries them back to the neighbourhood of the converters to receive a new lot of steel.

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  • Indeed, this local cooling aggravates the frothing.

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  • Moreover, since local cooling, with its consequent viscosity and tendency to froth, are avoided, the frothing is not excessive in spite of the rapidity of the reaction.

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  • The impact face of these plates is given the intense hardness needed by being converted into high-carbon steel, and then hardened by sudden cooling.

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  • Of these several qualities which cast iron may have, fluidity is given by keeping the sulphur-content low and phosphoruscontent high; and this latter element must be kept low if shock is to be resisted; but strength, hardness, endurance of shock, density and expansion in solidifying are controlled essentially by the distribution of the carbon between the states of graphite and cementite, and this in turn is controlled chiefly by the proportion of silicon, manganese and sulphur present, and in many cases by the rate of cooling.

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  • If this carbon is all present as graphite, so that in cooling the graphite-austenite diagram has been followed strictly (§ 26), the constitution is extremely simple; clearly the mass consists first of a metallic matrix, the carbonless iron itself with whatever silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur happen to be present, in short an impure ferrite, encased in which as a wholly distinct foreign body is the graphite.

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  • Beyond this, rapid cooling and the presence of sulphur both oppose the formation of graphite, and hence in cast iron rich in sulphur, and in thin and therefore rapidly cooling castings, the silicon-content must be greater than in thick ones and in those freer from sulphur.

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  • The permissible phosphorus-content is lessened by the presence of either much sulphur or much manganese, and by rapid cooling, as for instance in case of thin castings, because each of these three things, by leading to the formation of the brittle cementite, in itself creates brittleness which aggravates that caused by phosphorus.

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  • At this instant the outer layers, because of their contact with the cold mould, are cooling much faster than the inner ones, and hence tend to contract faster.

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  • Later on the cooling of the inner layers becomes more rapid than that of the outer ones, and on this account their contraction tends to become .greater than that of the outer ones.

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  • Because this pipe is due to the difference in the rates of contraction of interior and exterior, it may be lessened by retarding the cooling of the mass as a whole, and it may be prevented from stretching down deep by retarding the solidification of the upper part of the ingot, as, for instance, by preheating the top of the mould, or by covering the ingot with a mass of burning fuel or of molten slag.

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  • The cooling of the thinner, the outer, and in general the more exposed parts of the casting outruns that of the thicker and less exposed parts, with the consequence that, at any given instant, the different parts are contracting at very different rates, i.e.

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  • In order to economize power in these operations, the metal should in general be as soft and hence as hot as is consistent with its reachingalow temperature before the rolling or forging is finished, because, as explained in § 32, undisturbed cooling from a high temperature injures the metal.

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  • No trace of animal life is to be found in this zone; for the greater part of the year it is covered with snow, but by the end of summer this has almost all melted, except for that preserved in the covered pits in which it is stored for use for cooling liquids, &c., in Catania and elsewhere.

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  • Now these modifications show hardly any tendency to persist, the one stable at high temperatures being formed at elevated temperatures, but changing in the reverse sense on cooling.

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  • The colour can sometimes be removed or changed at a high temperature, but generally returns on cooling.

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  • Taking Newton's law of cooling that the rate of loss of heat is simply proportional to the excess of temperature, the emissivity would be independent of the temperature.

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  • The emissivity really depends on every variety of condition, such as the size, shape and position of the surface, as well as on its nature; it varies with the rate of cooling, as well as with the temperature excess, and it is generally so difficult to calculate, or to treat in any simple manner, that it forms the greatest source of uncertainty in all experimental investigations in which it occurs.

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  • The, chief uncertainty in applying this method appears to have arisen from variations of temperature at different parts of the surface, due to inequalities in the heating or cooling effect of the stream of water flowing over the surfaces.

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  • C. Mitchell, under Tait's direction, repeated the experiments with the same bar nickel-plated, correcting the thermometers for stem-exposure, and also varying the conditions by cooling one end, so as to obtain a steeper gradient.

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  • The discrepancies are chiefly due to the error of the fundamental assumption that the rate of cooling is the same at the same temperature under the very different conditions existing in the two parts of the experiment.

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  • The external heat-loss was eliminated by comparing observations taken at the same mean temperatures during heating and during cooling, assuming that the rate of loss of heat f(S) would be the same in the two cases.

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  • The mineral is fused with potassium carbonate, and, on cooling, the product is treated with sulphuric acid, the excess of which is removed by evaporation; water is then added and the silica is filtered off.

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  • There are other forms of shaft kiln, such as the Schneider, in which there is a burning zone, a heating and cooling zone as in the Dietzsch, but no horizontal stage, the whole shaft being in the same vertical plane.

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  • Rotatory kilns of various other makes are now in use, but the same principles are embodied, namely, the employment of a rotating inclined cylinder for burning the raw materials, a burner fed with powdered coal and a blast of air, and some device such as a cooling cylinder or cooling tower by which the clinker may be cooled and the air correspondingly heated on its way to the burner.

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  • After slowly cooling, the outer mould was broken away from outside the statue and the inner core as much as possible broken up and raked out through a hole in the foot or some other part of the statue.

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  • Casting also is complicated by the shrinkage which occurs in cooling down from the molten state, and in some alloys by the formation of eutectics, and the liquation of some constituents.

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  • Here it is further boiled down until the greater part or nearly all of the water has been removed, and until the salts on cooling would set to a solid mass.

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  • This takes place with considerable evolution of heat which is removed by internal and external cooling with water.

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  • On the other hand the cooling must not be carried too far, for in this case the crystals of sodium bicarbonate become so fine that the muddy mass is very difficult to filter.

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  • The kilns are closed at the top, and the gases are drawn out by powerful air-pumps, washers being interposed be,, veen the kilns and the pumps for the purpose of purifying and cooling the gas.

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  • Just below the top there is a cooling arrangement, so that nearly all the water is condensed and runs back into the column, while the ammonia, with the carbon dioxide formerly combined with part of it, passes on first through an outside cooler where the remaining water is condensed, and afterwards into the vessels, already described, where the ammonia is absorbed by a solution of salt and thus again introduced into the process.

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  • For this reason they may be used for taking casts of anatomical specimens or making cliches from wood-blocks, the expansion on cooling securing sharp impressions.

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  • Another remarkable fact is that these substances yield coloured solutions in organic solvents; triphenylmethyl gives a yellow solution, whilst ditolylphenyl and tritolylmethyls give orange solutions which on warming turn to a violet and to a magenta, the changes being reversed on cooling.

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  • The most familiar of these are the method of mixture and the method of cooling.

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  • The coefficient of heating of a calorimeter when it is below the temperature of its surroundings is seldom, if ever, the same as the coefficient of cooling at the higher temperature, since the convection currents, which do most of the heating or cooling, are rarely symmetrical in the two cases, and moreover, the duration of the two stages is seldom the same.

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  • This is another objection to Rumford's method of cooling the calorimeter below the surrounding temperature before starting.

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  • The same calorimeter is afterwards filled with a known liquid, such as water, and the time of cooling is observed through the same range of temperature, in the same enclosure, under the same conditions.

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  • The ratio of the times of cooling is equal to the ratio of the thermal capacities of the calorimeter and its contents in the two cases.

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  • It is better to use a fairly large calorimeter to diminish the rate of cooling and the uncertainty of the correction for the water equivalent.

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  • The piston (B) descends, and the air, now in contact with the cooling pipes (C), gives up heat to them.

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  • The object of this device is not, primarily, to produce work from heat, but to escape the inconveniences that would otherwise arise through extreme cooling of the air during its expansion.

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  • In 1747 he published an account of experiments undertaken with the definite view of obtaining true sugar from indigenous plants, and found that for this purpose the first place is taken by beetroot and carrot, that in those plants sugar like that of cane exists ready formed, and that it may be extracted by boiling the dried roots in alcohol, from which it is deposited on cooling.

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  • It is a canary-yellow powder, which becomes a dark orange on heating; the original colour is regained on cooling.

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  • Thus in parts of California, where high temperatures are liable to prevail during the vintage, the system - first employed in Algeria - of cooling the must during fermentation to the proper temperature by means of a series of pipes in which iced water circulates is now largely employed.

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  • In it the cooling is effected by water pipes, interposed horizontally between the layers of bricks.

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  • A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH) 2.8H 2 0, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.

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  • It is practically insoluble in water, and is only very slightly soluble in dilute acids; it is soluble to some extent, when freshly prepared, in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, and on cooling the solution, crystals of composition BaSO 4 H 2 SO 4 are deposited.

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  • The supply of borax is, however, mainly derived from the boric acid of Tuscany, which is fused in a reverberatory furnace with half its weight of sodium carbonate, and the mass after cooling is extracted with warm water.

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  • After cooling a little, water is added, and then a few grammes of aluminium foil free from copper.

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  • When molten, silver occludes the oxygen of the atmosphere, absorbing 20 times its own volume of the gas; the oxygen, however, is not permanently retained, for on cooling it is expelled with great violence; this phenomenon is known as the "spitting" of silver.

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  • A few months after his return, through Germany, to London in 1815, he was induced to take up the question of constructing a miner's safety lamp. Experiments with samples of fire-damp sent from Newcastle soon taught him that "explosive mixtures of mine-damp will not pass through small apertures or tubes"; and in a paper read before the Royal Society on the 9th of November he showed that metallic tubes, being better conductors of heat, were superior to glass ones, and explained that the heat lost by contact with a large cooling surface brought the temperature of the first portions of gas exploded below that required for the firing of the other portions.

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  • The natural effect of the heating of the air in summer and the cooling of the air in winter by contact with the land is largely masked in England on account of the strength of the prevailing south-westerly wind carrying oceanic influence into the heart of the country.

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  • Pfliiger suggests that such compounds arose when the surface of the earth was incandescent, and that in the long process of cooling, compounds of cyanogen and hydrocarbons passed into living protoplasm by such processes of transformation and polymerization as are familiar in the chemical groups in question, and by the acquisition of water and oxygen.

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  • The sulphate of cinchonidine is more soluble than that of quinine; and, when 1 part of quinine sulphate suspected to contain it is nearly dissolved in 24 parts of boiling water, the sulphate of quinine crystallizes out on' cooling, and the cinchonidine is found in the clear mother liquor, from which it can be precipitated by a solution of potassium and sodium tartrate.

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  • Steel plates and shapes, when delivered from the rolls which form them to the cooling beds, are largely covered with scales, which, adhering only partially to the surface, offer the intervening cracks or joints as vulnerable points for rust.

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  • The greatest care is taken that no steel is left in a brittle condition by heating and cooling without proper annealing.

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  • On cooling the salt separates as white six-sided tablets.

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  • The pure acid, however, may be obtained by strongly cooling this hydrate.

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  • This theory at once explains, among other things, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambers always contains an excess of water (the second of the above-quoted reactions requiring the "mass action" of this excess), and why the external cooling produced by the contact of the chamber sides with the air is of great importance (liquid water in the shape of a mist of dilute sulphuric acid being necessary for the process).

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  • I, Steam engine and stone E, Cooling pipes for Gloverbreaker for breaking up tower acid.

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  • Real "monohydrate" or acid approaching loo% can be made by Lunge's process of cooling strong O.V.

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  • As the Badische process effects this prevention by cooling the contact apparatus by means of the gaseous mixture to be later submitted to the catalytic action, the mixture is at the time heated up to the requisite temperature, and a considerable saving of fuel is the consequence.

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  • Pulleys are usually cast in one piece, and the proportions of the various parts are designed to resist the unknown stresses due to contraction of the casting in cooling, in addition to the stresses to which pulleys are subjected in use.

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  • The number of the arms is arbitrary, and they may be curved to diminish the liability to fracture from contraction in the cooling of the cast iron, but in other respects are preferably straight, since they are then lighter and stronger.

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  • These assumptions are probably not nearly correct and, as the stresses caused by the cooling of the casting are unknown, it is necessary to choose a low working stress of about one ton per square inch.

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  • The main difficulty which the condenser ought to overcome and upon which its efficiency should depend is the removal of naphthalene; this compound, which is present in the gas, condenses on cooling to a solid which crystallizes out in the form of white flakes, and the trouble caused by pipe stoppages in the works as well as in the district supplied is very considerable.

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  • Water is a more efficient cooling medium than air, owing to its high specific heat, and the degree of cooling may be more easily regulated by its use.

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  • But sometimes no such cooling is effected, in which case the cinders run away in the liquid form.

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  • He fed them on the blood taken from their own veins daily, depriving them of all other food, and he found that the fatal cooling incident to starvation was thus postponed, and existence prolonged.

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  • White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.

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  • Ice forms over fresh water if the temperature of the air has been for a sufficient time at or below the freezing-point; but not until the whole mass of water has been cooled down to its point of maximum density, so that the subsequent cooling of the surface can give rise to no convection currents, is freezing possible.

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  • Exposed overnight to a cool dry gentle wind from the north-west, the water evaporates at the expense of its own heat, and the consequent cooling takes place with sufficient rapidity to overbalance the slow influx of heat from above through the cooled dense air or from below through the badly conducting straw.

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  • The change from one state to the other takes place at a higher temperature on heating than on cooling.

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  • Three or four Swedish turnips or an equivalent of carrots is an excellent cooling food for a horse at hard work.

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  • On a long journey a horse should have occasional short drinks, and near the end a long drink with a slower rate of progression with the object of cooling off.

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  • It melts readily, and on cooling resolidifies to a brown mass, which at moderately high temperatures gives off oxygen and leaves a residue of a basic lead salt; for this reason fused lead chromate is sometimes made use of in the analysis of organic compounds.

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  • The solution of the extracted oil or fat is then transferred to a steam-heated still, where the solvent is driven off and recovered by condensing the vapours in a cooling coil, to be used again.

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  • The liquid waxes occur in the blubber of the sperm whale, and in the head cavities of those whales which yield spermaceti; this latter is obtained by cooling the crude oil obtained from the head cavities.

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  • There are, however, an increasingly large number of cases in which temperatures below that of any available natural cooling agent are required, and in these it is necessary to resort to machines which are capable of producing the required cooling effect by taking in heat at low temperatures and rejecting it at temperatures somewhat above that of the natural cooling agent, which for obvious reasons is generally water.

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  • The relation then between the work expended and the actual cooling work performed denotes the efficiency of the process, and this is expressed by Qt/(Q2-Q1); but as in a perfect refrigerating machine it is understood that the whole of the heat Q i is taken in at the absolute temperature T 11 and the whole of the heat Q2, is rejected at the absolute temperature T2, the heat quantities are proportional to the temperatures, and the expression T,/(T 2 -T,) gives the ideal coefficient of performance for any stated temperature range, whatever working substance is used.

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  • No actual refrigerating machine does, in fact, take in heat at the exact temperature of the body to be cooled, and reject it at the exact temperature of the cooling water, but, for economy in working, it is of great importance that the differences should be as small as possible.

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  • The rise in temperature of the air is, in fact, the measure of the cooling effect produced.

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  • It is stated that these machines were first made in New South Wales in 1859, but the first Harrison machine adopted successfully for industrial purposes in England was applied in the year 1861 for cooling oil in order to extract the paraffin.

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  • Outside the refrigerator coils is the air, brine or other substance to be cooled, and outside the condenser is the cooling medium, which, as previously stated, is generally water.

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  • The vapours thus generated are drawn into the pump, compressed, and discharged into the condenser at the temperature T2, which is somewhat above that of the cooling water.

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  • Heat is transferred from the compressed vapour to the cooling water and the vapour is converted into a liquid, which collects at the bottom and returns by the regulating valve into the refrigerator.

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  • The expanded vapour enters the refrigerator at a temperature below that of the substance to be cooled, and whatever cooling effect is produced is brought about by the superheating of the vapour, the result being that above the critical point of carbonic acid the difference T2-T2 is increased and the efficiency of the machine is reduced.

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  • Evaporation then continues at the constant temperature T, abstracting heat from the substance outside the refrigerator as shown by the line BC. The vapour is then compressed along the line CD to the temperature T2, when, by the action of the cooling water in the condenser, heat is abstracted at constant temperature and the vapour condensed along the line DA.

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  • The condenser is constructed of coils like the refrigerator, the cooling water being contained in a tank; frequently, however, a series of open coils is employed, the cooling water falling over the coils into a collecting tray below, and this form is perhaps the most convenient for ordinary use as it affords great facilities for inspection and painting.

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  • The pressure in the condenser varies according to the temperature of the cooling water, and that in the refrigerator is dependent upon the temperature to which the outside substance is cooled.

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  • The compressed vapour is discharged at a temperature but little above that of the cooling water.

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  • In the latter the vapour passes direct from the refrigerator to the pump, and power has to be expended merely in raising the temperature to a sufficient degree to enable condensation to occur at the temperature of the cooling water.

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  • In the absorption machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being twice liquefied - namely, once in the absorber and once in the condenser.

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  • It is usual to pass the cooling water first through the condenser and then through the absorber.

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  • In some coolers the cooling surfaces consist of direct-expansion pipes placed in clusters of convenient form; in others brine pipes are used; in others there is a shower of cold brine, and in some cases combinations of cold pipes and brine showers.

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  • Whichever system be adopted, it is important for economical reasons that ample cooling surface be allowed, and that all surfaces be kept clean and active, to make the difference between the temperature of the evaporating liquid and the rooms as small as possible.

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  • Large passenger vessels and yachts are now generally fitted with refrigerating machinery for preserving provisions, cooling water and wine, and making ice.

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  • On battleships and cruisers the British Admiralty use small compressedair machines for ice-making, and larger machines, generally on the carbonic-acid system, for cooling the magazines.

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  • The cooling of residential and public buildings in hot countries, though attempted in a few cases in the United States and elsewhere, is yet practically untouched, the manufacture of ice and the preservation of perishable foods (apart from the frozen and chilled meat trades) have in many countries hardly received serious consideration, but in breweries, dairies, margarine works and many other industries there is a large and increasing field for refrigerating and ice-making machinery.

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  • A recent application is in the cooling and drying of the air blast for blast furnaces.

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  • Her own death stared at her through golden eyes, and she had cared for nothing but feeling his hot skin against hers, sating the ache of the sacred hollow between her thighs, and cooling the lightning burning in her blood!

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  • These telescopes study the afterglow of the burst produced by the cooling material that remain from the original explosion.

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  • You should provide a small dump hose, to maintain airflow for cooling the vacuum motor.

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  • Filled with organic amaranth - gently cooling and with acupressure effect.

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  • Daily variable demands on electricity and cooling can be balanced to achieve a relatively constant demand for power and thermal output around-the-clock.

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  • Some CPU cooling fans can cost as much at 7.00 is they have ball bearings and thermal sensors.

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  • A range of unusual minerals are present together with notable lava cooling features such as columnar basalts, chisel marks and blister surfaces.

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  • Thursday was spent cleaning some oily bilges, and re-instating the engine cooling system that I stripped down a week or so ago.

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  • The cooling breezes across the decks are a blessing.

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  • The 365 day a year course is comfortable to play, even in the middle of the day due to the constant cooling breeze.

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  • On cooling this calcium oxide will take up water to form calcium hydroxide.

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  • The rapid cooling associated with continuous casting means that it is possible to retain lead as finely divided globules giving good bearing properties.

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  • At 200 Watts per square centimeter, we can't use mechanical means like a heat sink for cooling.

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  • An Air Handler will provide a cost-effective method of cooling the structure and are to be used along-side chillers.

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  • Some stars simply fade like cooling cinders when they have exhausted all the thermonuclear reactions which had made them shine through their lifetime.

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  • This movement can influence climate by changing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation and by altering the distribution of radiative heating and cooling.

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  • Often the magnet is a superconducting solenoid coil which requires cooling to the temperature of liquid helium.

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  • Heating was by electric heaters and cooling was by flowing the air over evaporator coils of the refrigerator.

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  • The ammonium salts do not sublime, really; they thermally dissociate into substances that recombine to the ammonium compound on cooling.

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  • Registering a cooling tower A form is available on request to notify the council of a cooling tower or evaporative condenser.

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  • Each bedroom has its own individual style, ambiance, ceiling fans or cooling free-standing fans.

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  • Then the thermostat opens, allowing the coolant to pass through the exhaust manifold and hence back to the cooling tanks.

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  • Cooling is provided by a three-stage thermo-electric cooler (TEC ).

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  • This advanced power unit features water cooling, balancing countershaft, exhaust control valve and reed intake for riding pleasure and constant power.

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  • The company now has 25 trading subsidiaries, producing a range of engineering products from cement cooling machines to dockside cranes.

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  • The control points on the cooling passage may be edited through the pop-up dialog or dragging the points using left mouse button.

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  • Quite clearly the cooling unit is lacking the capacity to absorb enough heat to allow for effective heat dissipation.

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  • Even at higher temperatures, there may be problems of having enough time for the solid to fully equilibrate as the system is cooling.

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  • The global climate restores the equilibrium by either heating up or cooling down.

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  • Also the temperature range within which austenite decomposes to form ferrite and carbide on cooling.

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  • Try opening up the case and checking to make sure there's no build-up of dust on the CPU cooling fins.

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  • The engine included the Villiers flywheel magneto, with the engine cooling fan mounted on the outside of the flywheel magneto, with the engine cooling fan mounted on the outside of the flywheel.

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  • It provides a cooling effect in tablets and panned products and can be used to produce fondants.

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  • The benefits include reduced friction, cooling, impact resistance at higher chain speeds.

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  • If a warm front passed overhead when you were standing outside, then you would feel the air cooling down.

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  • Also in the chamber is a fume filter that traps the solder fumes that can harden on cooling and block the pumps.

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  • The patches incorporate a special technology which uses a water-based gel giving instant cooling relief that lasts for hours.

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  • The Bay of Golkoy faces north and thus offers gentle cooling breezes throughout the summer.

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  • The heat which is generated is used to heat the glasshouses, rather than being wasted through cooling towers.

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  • This cooling breeze, these strips of bitter gourd filled with fish paste, this ice-cold soy milk - they are real all right.

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  • Fresh water cooling, using a heat exchanger cooled by sea water.

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  • Chu has devised an atom interferometer based on this cooling process.

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  • Initially, it is placed in cooling ponds to allow short-lived radioactive isotopes to decay.

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  • On cooling, it crystallized into the pink crystalline litharge which was found near the Belfry site.

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  • If BSkyB decides that the public's love affair with professional football is cooling down then the results would bring down the whole structure.

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  • The engine included the Villiers flywheel magneto, with the engine cooling fan mounted on the outside of the flywheel.

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  • We have found mammoths quick frozen which suggests that there was an instant cooling period.

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  • Natural healing ingredients such as tea tree oil and cooling menthol further help to reduce shaving irritation.

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  • At cooling rates in excess of one million degrees per second, it is possible to produce predictable microstructure in alloys.

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  • The size at which this happens is strongly dependent upon the cooling rate and lattice mismatch of the alloy.

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  • Pouring a molten metal into a metal mold with enhanced cooling produces finer grains.

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  • Allow a " cooling off " period before you start moving your things into the closet or wearing nighties to bed.

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  • Next door in the bedroom there's special cooling equipment which means the room never overheats.

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  • They are cooling and moisturizing, as well as nourishing, and make no great demands on an already overtaxed system.

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  • The liquid sodium potassium alloy has been drained from the cooling system and is awaiting decontamination.

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  • The grease applicator support prongs should both be in line with the ends of the cooling block.

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  • The AC203 is readily identifiable by its external cooling fan to cool the rectifier; the AC8 does not have this fan.

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  • The six silicon rectifiers face inwards to ensure efficient cooling without risk of terminal contamination.

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  • A method of biofilm monitoring in the recirculating cooling water system of a petroleum refinery plant.

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  • The cooling is hastened by refrigerators in the room beneath, these refrigerators in the room beneath, these refrigerators being supplied with water which has come from two ice machines.

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  • Try Pitta Massage Oil - the cooling effect of its precious sandalwood will further help you to balance Pitta.

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  • Large glass doors can be opened on all sides to catch the cooling sea breezes.

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  • So I decided to create custom water cooling setup.

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  • Shock Absorber Air Conveyor No plastic cover around rear shocker, designed to increase the amount of cooling for the rear shock.

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  • Reduced melt temperature is another benefit, lowering crystallization and cooling times and thus shortening cycles, and also saving energy costs.

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  • The pump suction line takes oil from the hydraulic oil tank which is sized to provide adequate cooling.

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  • Wonder if anyone's tried replicating the thing using ceramic superconductors and then cooling the thing off with liquid nitrogen to see what happens.

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  • Omron's building uses rainwater and water from a nearby well for cooling.

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  • It is also used as a cooling medium for nuclear reactors, and as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels.

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  • Using a natural witch hazel extract to reduce irritation, the balm then sets to work on cooling and soothing the affected skin.

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  • In production of gold in 1907 Esmeralda county ranked first with $8,533,617 (nearly 70% of the total); Nye county's output was $1,547,408, Lincoln county's $929,775, ' Apart from their commercial uses, the Sutro Tunnel and the shafts of the Comstock Lode have been employed for scientific investigations, with the object of classifying igneous rocks, determining the variations of temperature, and the character of electrical manifestations beneath the earth's surface, and the relation between the structure of rocks and their rate of cooling.

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  • The truth about the sun's heat appears to be that the sun is really an incandescent body losing heat, but that the operation of cooling is immensely retarded owing to a curious circumstance due jointly to the enormous mass of the sun and to a remarkable law of heat.

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  • In 1878, at Bristol, the special awards were all for dairy appliances -milk-can for conveying milk long distances, churn for milk, churn for cream, butter-worker for large dairies, butterworker for small dairies, cheese-tub, curd knife, curd mill, cheese-turning apparatus, automatic means of preventing rising of cream, milk-cooler and cooling vat.

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  • The general characters of a soap are a certain greasiness to the touch, ready solubility in water, with formation of viscid solutions which on agitation yield a tenacious froth or " lather," an indisposition to crystallize, readiness to amalgamate with small proportions of hot water into homogeneous slimes, which on cooling set into jellies or more or less consistent pastes.

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  • If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame; silver gives white metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation.

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  • If the hot colourless bead becomes enamel-white on cooling even when minute quantities of the substances are employed, we may infer the presence of barium or strontium.

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  • The glass, now in its approximate form, is placed in a heated chamber where it is allowed to cool very gradually - the minimum time of cooling from a dull red heat being six days, while for " fine annealing " a much longer period is required (see above).

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  • Such sheet or wire then remains flexible after cooling, the originally only loosely cohering crystals having got intertwisted and forced into absolute contact with one another - an explanation supported by the fact that rolled zinc has a somewhat higher specific gravity (7.2) than the original ingot (6.9).

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  • These are the conditions of Buganda, a country with an annual rainfall of from 60 to 80 in., a regular West African climate, and severe and frequent thunderstorms. Much the same may be said about the Western province, except for the cooling influence of the Ruwenzori snow range, which pleasantly affects Toro and northern Ankole.

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  • These are of pneumatolytic origin (see Pneumatolysis), and have been formed by the action of vapours emanating from cooling bodies of basic eruptive rock.

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  • Cast iron railroad carwheels, the tread or rim of which must be intensely hard so as to endure the grinding action of the brakeshoe while their central parts must have good shock-resisting power, are given such moderate silicon-content, preferably between o 50 and o 80%, as in and by itself leaves the tendencies toward graphite-forming and toward cementite-forming nearly in balance, so that they are easily controlled by the rate of cooling.

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  • The weathering of this desert area is probably faimly rapid, and the agents at work are principally the rapid heating and cooling of the rocks by day and night, and the erOsive action of sand-laden wind on the softer lnyers; these, aided by the occasional rain, are ceaselessly at work, and produce the successive plateaus, dotted with small isolated hills and cut up by valleys (wadis) which occasionally become deep ravines, thus foiming the principal type of scenery of these deserts.

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  • The filtrate or opium solution is concentrated by evaporation at the boiling point, with occasional stirring until of a proper consistence, the time required being from three to four hours; it is then removed from the fire and stirred with great vigour till cold, the cooling being accelerated by coolies with large fans.

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  • If such a machine could be constructed with reasonable mechanical efficiency to compress the air to a temperature but slightly above that of the cooling water, and to expand the air to a temperature but slightly below that required to be maintained in the room, we should of course get a result approximating in efficiency somewhat nearly to the figures given in Table I.

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  • By means of vessels termed the analyser and the rectifier, the bulk of the water was condensed at a comparatively high temperature and run back to the generator, while the ammonia passed into a condenser, and there assumed the liquid form under the pressure produced by the heat in the generator and the cooling action of water circulating outside the condenser tubes.

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  • An absorption apparatus as applied to the cooling of liquids consist s s of a generator containing coils to which steam is supplied at suitable pressure, an analyser, a rectifier, a condenser either of the submerged or open type, a refrigerator in which the nearly anhydrous ammonia obtained in the condenser is allowed to evaporate, an absorber through which the weak liquor from the generator continually flows and absorbs the anhydrous vapour produced in the refrigerator, and a pump for forcing the strong liquor produced in the absorber back through an economizer into the analyser where, meeting with steam from the generator, the ammonia gas is again driven off, the process being thus carried on continuously.

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  • The Real Meat Company stipulates breeds, hanging times, cooling regimes and ingredients for sausages and ready meals.

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  • Further proof that the red-hot market shows no sign of cooling to the growing frustration of young locals.

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  • It is soothing, cooling and can help to reduce heat and redness in the skin.

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  • The cooling is hastened by refrigerators in the room beneath, these refrigerators being supplied with water which has come from two ice machines.

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  • The sintered parts shrink on cooling and shapes are only processed which can be removed from the mold on completion of the process.

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  • Try a cooling soak in the bath for about 20 minutes.

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  • The Hex then solidifies inside the cylinder on cooling to room temperature.

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  • Trials of the protocol resulted in considerably improved recovery on thawing of human spermatozoa compared with vapor freezing or conventional linear cooling.

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  • Wonder if anyone 's tried replicating the thing using ceramic superconductors and then cooling the thing off with liquid nitrogen to see what happens.

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  • This source supplies electricity together with heating and cooling.

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  • Children, sweltering in the heat of an Iraqi summer, cannot be prevented from cooling off in its waters.

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  • At around mid-day we headed for a local taverna for lunch and a welcome cooling drink.

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  • Remember that incubator thermometer readings will not be the same as embryo temperatures when cooling or heating occurs.

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  • This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.

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  • Understanding of a jet in cross flow phenomenon is crucial to many applications such as film cooling of turbine blades and V/STOL aircraft.

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  • Finally, swim in the cooling crystalline waters of the Rio On pools, whose waterfalls cascade over granite boulders.

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  • Omron 's building uses rainwater and water from a nearby well for cooling.

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  • And on the covered terrace of the handsome old clubhouse, golfers enjoy cooling libations under the gentle whir of ceiling fans.

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  • Cool the cakes for about ten minutes in the pans before moving them to cooling racks.

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  • Many people suggest cooling the cake, then placing it in the freezer, so that it remains firm for decorating.

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  • Programmable cooling of different sections is now available.

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  • Specialized dog beds have built-in heating and cooling units, while others are designed for puppies, large breeds and older dogs with health problems such as an orthopedic bed.

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  • Keeping heating and cooling at adequate levels reduce the need for humidifiers or dehumidifiers.

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  • The electromagnetic thermostats work with most types of heating and cooling systems.

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  • Hybrid thermostats are useful if you aren't sure what type of heating or cooling system you have.

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  • Follow the suggestions in the cat recipe you are using; if no cooling suggestion is made, cool them for at least a half-hour before feeding them to your pet.

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  • However you choose to make it, the end result is a delightfully cooling and refreshing beverage.

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  • Energy can be saved in cooling and heating bills.

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  • The program expanded to labeling other office equipment as well as residential heating and cooling equipment.

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  • Select the most efficient heating and cooling systems available.

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  • After basic home heating - and possibly cooling depending on your location, water heaters use the bulk of the energy in your home.

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  • Heating and cooling equipment uses about 56 percent of your total home energy usage.

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  • Adding a leafy shade tree on the south or west side of your home can significantly reduce your cooling costs.

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  • Bamboo sheets are also reported to be cooling during the summer and to bring extra warmth during the winter.

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  • You should also invest in a timed thermostat (no point heating or cooling a home when no one is in it) and keep it set at around 65 degrees.

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  • Smaller rooms need less heating, cooling and light, as well as furniture.

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  • The initial cost of a geothermal system is considerably higher than traditional heating and cooling systems.

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  • After that period, you are saving money every year, and as heating and cooling costs continue to rise, these savings will expand exponentially over the lifetime of the system.

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  • Water Furnace - Water Furnace sells all-in-one systems that will replace your traditional heating and cooling system.

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  • Renewable, non-polluting energy sources are useful for electricity generation, transportation fuels, and heating and cooling.

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  • Weatherize your home to reduce heating and cooling costs and associated energy usage.

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  • Geothermal heat is useful for producing electricity and heating and cooling homes and other buildings.

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  • The orientation and design of your home can save hundreds in heating and cooling costs.

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  • Adjustments in temperature to counteract heat or cooling pollution may not achieve proper balance, leading to more loss of aquatic life.

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  • The water released into the environment from nuclear cooling tanks does not come in contact with the radioactive materials it cools.

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  • According to CarbonFootprint.com, you can make the greatest reductions in your carbon footprint by reducing your home energy needs for heating and cooling costs.

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  • Products that are part of the Energy Star program include home appliances, electronics, lighting, and heating and cooling equipment.

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  • Home energy, which also includes heating and cooling energy needs, account for over one-quarter of your environmental impact, estimates Carbon Footprint Ltd., a company that provides services related to carbon management.

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  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs last up to 10 times longer than traditional bulbs, saving you money on lighting and cooling your home.

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  • Home heating and cooling account for similar energy use based on United States Energy Information Administration figures.

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  • In the summer, the thermostat works the same way by cooling the house when you are there and allowing it to be a little warmer when you are away.

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  • Also, make sure the crib is a safe distance from any heating and cooling vent or radiator.

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  • In the summer, the fan spins forward (counter-clockwise), which forces the air downward, giving you the cooling breeze effect.

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  • It's brand new and it has Scope right in the paste, which gives you a cooling and refreshing brushing experience.

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  • Pond's Clean Sweep Micro Dermabrasion towelettes are infused with cooling cucumber.

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  • Its formula is gentle, cooling and light, without any of the oily residue so typical of other brands.

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  • Place this refreshing Decleor gel in the fridge first to increase the cooling sensation it's sure to impart.

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  • The style is meant to be soothing, cooling and refreshing; much like the world after a fresh rainfall, uniquely relaxed and yet invigorated with new life.

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  • In the 1970s, he discovered that space suits, due to the electric heating and cooling lines that run through them, would become crimped when astronauts tried to walk in them.

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  • Cooling vests, helmets and collars keep the students behind the mascots from becoming overheated.

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  • Fans are another popular cooling option.

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  • On a hot day, try eating a spoonful of pomegranate seeds instead of ice cream - you may find that they are more cooling, refreshing and thirst-quenching, to say nothing of being more diet-friendly.

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  • For instance, young coconuts have a clear juice that is good for cooling off the body and is a natural thirst quencher.

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